RECORD: Pennant, Thomas. 1793. History of quadrupeds. 3rd edn. 2 vols. London: B. & J. White. Vol. 1.

REVISION HISTORY: Transcribed by AEL Data 04.2014. RN1

NOTE: This work formed part of the Beagle library. The Beagle Library project has been generously supported by a Singapore Ministry of Education Academic Research Fund Tier 1 grant and Charles Darwin University and the Charles Darwin University Foundation, Northern Territory, Australia.


[page 1]

HISTORY

of

QUADRUPEDS,

The Third Edition.

Vol. I.

LONDON:

Printed for B.& J. WHITE, Fleet Street,

MDCCXCIII..

[page 2]

[page i]

PREFACE.

THE following work was originally intended for private amusement, and as an Index, for the more ready turning to any particular animal in the voluminous history of quadrupeds by the late Comte DE BUFFON: But as it swelled by degrees to a size beyond my first expectation, in the end I was determined to fling it into its present form, and to usher it into the world.

THE present edition has presumed to alter its title of SYNOPSIS to that of HISTORY; not only on account of the vast additions it has received, by favour of my friends, but likewise to prevent confusion among such who may think them worthy of the honor of quotation.

THE Synopsis of our illustrious countryman, Mr. RAY, has been long out of print; and though, from his enlarged knowledge and great industry one might well suppose his Work would for some time discourage all further attempts of the same fort, yet a republication of that Synopsis would not have answered our present design: For, living at a period when the study of Natural History was but beginning to dawn in these Kingdoms, and when our contracted Commerce deprived him of many lights we now enjoy, he was obliged to content himself with giving descriptions of the few Animals brought over here,

VOL. I. a

[page] ii

and collecting the rest of his materials from other Writers. Yet so correct was his genius, that we view a systematic arrangement arise even from the Chaos of Aldrovandus and Gesner. Under his hand the indigested matter of these able and copious Writers assumes a new form, and the whole is made clear and perspicuous.

FROM this period every Writer on these subjects proposed his own method as an example; some openly, but others more covertly, aiming at the honor of originality, and attempting to seek for same in the path chalked out by Mr. RAY; but too often without acknowleging the merit of the Guide.

MR. KLEIN, in 1751, made his appearance as a Systematic Writer on Quadrupeds, and in his first order follows the general arrangement of Mr. RAY; but the change he has made of separating certain animals, which the last had consolidated, are executed with great judgment. He seems less fortunate in his second order; for, by a servile regard to a method taken from the number of toes, he has jumbled together most opposite animals; the Camel and the Sloth, the Mole and the Bat, the Glutton and Apes; happy only in throwing back the Walrus, the Seal, and the Manati, to the extremity of his system: I suppose, as animals nearly bordering on another class.

M. BRISSON, in 1756, favored the world with another system, arranging his animals by the number or defect of their teeth; beginning with those that were toothless, such as the Ant-eater, and ending with those that had the greatest number, such as the Opossum. By this method, laudable as it is in many respects, it must happen unavoidably that some quadrupeds, very distant from each other in their manners, are too closely connected in

[page] iii

his System; a defect which, however common, should be carefully avoided by every Naturalist.

IN point of time, LINNÆUS ought to have the precedence; for he published his first System in 1735. This was followed by several others, varying constantly in the arrangement of the animal kingdom, even to the edition of 1766. It is, therefore, difficult to defend, and still more ungrateful to drop any reflections on a Naturalist, to whom we are 1b greatly indebted. The variations in his different Systems may have arisen from the new and continual discoveries that are made in the animal kingdom; from his sincere intention of giving his Systems additional improvements; and perhaps from a failing, (unknown indeed to many of his accusers) a diffidence in the abilities he had exerted in his prior performances. But it must be allowed, that the Naturalist ran too great a hazard in imitating his present guise; for in another year he might put on a new form, and have left the complying Philosopher amazed at the metamorphosis.

BUT this is not my only reason for rejecting the system of this otherwise able Naturalist: There are faults in his arrangement of Mammalia*, that oblige me to separate myself, in this one instance, from his crowd of votaries; but that my secession may not appear the effect of whim or envy, it is to be hoped that the following objections will have their weight.

I REJECT his first division, which he calls Primates, or Chiefs of the Creation; because my vanity will not suffer me to rank man-

* Or animals which have paps and suckle their young; in which class are comprehended not only all the genuine quadrupeds, but even the Cetaceous tribe.

a 2

[page] iv

kind with Apes, Monkies, Maucancos, and Bats, the companions LINNÆUS has allotted us even in his lad System.

THE second order of Bruta I avoid for much the same reason: The most intelligent of Quadrupeds, the half reasoning Elephant, is made to associate with the most discordant and stupid of the creation, with Slotbs, Ant-eaters, and Armadillos, or with Manaries and Walruses, inhabitants of another element.

THE third order of Feræ is not more admissible in all its articles; for it will be impossible to allow the Mole, the Sbrew, and the harmless Hedge-bog, to be the companions of Lions, Wolves, and Bears: We may err in our arrangement.

Sed non ut placidis coeant immitia, non ut
Serpentes avibus geminentnr, tigribus agni
.

IN his arrangement of his fourth and fifth orders we quite agree, except in the single article Noctilio, a species of Bat, which happening to have only two cutting teeth in each jaw, is separated from its companions, and placed with Squirrels, and others of that class.

The sixth order is made up of animals of the hoofed tribe; but of genera so different in their nature, that notwithstanding we admit them into the same division, we place them at such distances from each other, with so many intervening links and softening gradations, as will, it may be hoped, lessen the shock of feeing the Horse and the Hippopotame in the same piece. To avoid this as much as possible, we have slung the last into the back ground, where it will appear more tolerable to the Critic, than if they were left in a manner conjoined.

7

[page] v

THE last order is that of Whales: which, it must be confessed, have, in many respects, the structure of land animals; but their want of hair and feet, their fish-like form, and their constant residence in the water, are arguments for separating them from this class, and forming them into another, independent of the rest.

BUT while I thus freely offer my objections against embracing this System of Quadrupeds, let me not be supposed insensible of the other merits of this great and extraordinary person: His arrangement of fishes, of insects, and of shells, are original and excellent; he hath, in all his classes, given philosophy a new language; hath invented apt names, and taught the world a brevity, yet a fulness of description, unknown to past ages: he hath with great industry brought numbers of synonyms of every animal into one point of view; and hath given a concise account of the uses and manners of each, as far as his observation extended, or the information of a numerous train of travelling disciples could contribute: His Country may triumph in producing so vast a Genius, whose spirit invigorates science in all that chilly region, and diffuses it from thence to climates more favorable, which gratefully acknowledge the advantage of its influences.

LET US now turn our eyes to a Genius of another kind, to whom the History of Quadrupeds owes very considerable lights: I mean the Comte de Buffon, who, in the most beautiful language, and in the most agreeable manner, hath given the amplest descriptions of the œconomy of the whole four-footed creation*: Such is his eloquence, that we forget the exuberant manner in which he treats each subject, and the reflections he often casts on other

* For the anatomical part is the province of M. D'Aubenton.

[page] vi

Writers; the creation of his own gay fancy. Having in his own mind a comprehensive view of every animal, he unfortunately seems to think it beneath him to shackle his lively spirit with systematic arrangement; so that the Reader is forced to wander through numbers of volumes in search of any wished-for subject. The misunderstanding between these two able Naturalists is most injurious to science. The French Philosopher scarcely mentions the Swede, but to treat him with contempt; Limiæus, in return, never deigns even to quote M. de Buffon, notwithstanding he must know what ample lights he might have drawn from him.

I SHALL in a few words mention the plan that is followed in the present distribution of quadrupeds, and at the same time shall clame but a small share of originality.

I COPY Mr. RAY, in his greater divisions of animals into hoofed, and digitated; but, after the manner of Mr. KLEIN, form separate genera of the Rhinoceros, Hippopotame, Tapiir, and Musk. The Camel being a ruminating animal, wanting the upper fore-teeth, and having the rudiments of hoofs, is placed in the first order, after the Musk, a hornless cloven-hoofed quadruped.

THE Apes are continued in the same rar k Mr. RAY has placed them, and are followed by the Maucaucos.

The carnivorous animals deviate but little from his system, and are arranged according to that of LINNÆUS, after omitting the Seal, Mole, Shrew, and Hedge-bog.

THE herbivorous or srugivorous quadrupeds keep here the same station that our countryman assigned them; but this class comprehends besides, the Sbrew, the Mole, and the Hedge-bog. The Mole is an exception to the character of this order, in respect to the number of its cutting teeth; but its way of life, and its

[page] vii

food, place it here more naturally than with the Feræ, as LINNÆUS has done. These exceptions are to be met with even in the method* of that able Naturalist; nor can it be otherwise in all human systems; we are so ignorant of many of the links of the chains of beings, that to expect perfection in the arrangement of them, would be the most weak presumption. We ought,, therefore, to drop all thoughts of forming a system of quadrupeds from the character of a single part: but if we take combined characters, of parts, manners, and food, we bid much fairer for producing an intelligible system, which ought to be the sum of our aim.

THE fourth section of digitated quadrupeds, consists of those which are absolutely destitute of cutting teeth, such as the Sloth and Armadillo.

THE fifth section is formed of those which are destitute of teeth of every kind, such as the Manis and Ant-eater.

THE third and fourth orders, or divisions, are the Pinnated and the Winged Quadrupeds; the first takes in the Walrus and the Seals, and (in conformity to preceding Writers) the Manati. But those that compose this order are very imperfect: Their limbs serve rather the use of fins than legs; and their element being for the greatest part the water, they seem as the links between the quadrupeds and the cetaceous animals.

THE Bats again are winged quadrupeds, and form the next

* Such as the Trichecus Rosmarus, which has four distinct grinders in every jaw, the Phoca Ursina and Leonina, the Mustela Lutris, and the Sus Hydrochæris; and particularly in the genus of Vespertilio, which consists of numbers of species,. many of which vary greatly in the number of their fore teeth.

8

[page] viii

gradation from this to the class of Birds; and these two orders are the only additions I can boast of adding in this Work.

So far of System; the rest of my plan comprehends numerous Synonyms of each Animal, a brief description, and as full an account of their place, manners, or uses, as could be collected from my own observations, or the information of others; from preceding Writers on the subject; from printed Voyages of the best authorities, or from living Voyagers, foreign and English, from different Museums, especially the public MUSEUM in our capital, from the Directors of which I have received every communication that their politeness and love of science could suggest.

I AM unwilling to weary my friends with a repetition of acknowlegements; but must renew my thanks to Sir JOSEPH BANKS, Bart, for variety of information collected from his papers, and from his magnificent Collection of Drawings; many of which are considerable ornaments to this Work, and to the GENERA OF BIRDS.

FROM the matchless collection of Animals, collected by the indesatigable industry of that public-spirited Gentleman, the late Sir ASHTON LEVER, I had every opportunity, not only of correcting the descriptions of the last edition, but of adding several Animals hitherto imperfectly known. His Museum was a liberal fund of inexhaustible knowlege in most branches of Natural History; which still remains an honor to his spirit, as well as a permanent credit and advantage to our country. It is now the property of Mr. PARKINSON, into whom no small portion of the zeal of the late enthusiastic and worthy owner for its improvement, seems to have transmigrated.

I am highly indebted to Doctor Shaw, of the British Museum, a rising Naturalist, for several valuable communications.

[page] ix

To JOHN GIDEON LOTEN, Esq; late Governor in the Dutch settlements in India, this book is under the greatest obligation for variety of remarks, relative to the Animals of the Islands. To alleviate the cares of government, he amused himself with cultivating our beloved studies, and brought home a most numerous collection of Drawings, as elegant as faith ful. These have proved the basis of two works: Mr. Peter Brown etched chiefly the contents of his Illustration of Zoology from them; and the Indian Zoology, lately republished with considerable improvements.

MR. ZIMMERMAN, Professor of Mathematics at Brunswick, has by his correspondence, and his admirable book of Zoologic Geography, enabled me to speak with great precision on the Animals of different climates, and to ascertain their different abodes and final limits.

I RESERVE for the last acknowlegement, that learned Traveller and Naturalist Doctor PALLAS, who, under the patronage of a munificent Empress, hath pervaded almost all parts of her extensive dominion, and rendered familiar to us countries unvisited for centuries, and scarcely known till elucidated by his labors. His liberal mind, far from thinking they should be damnati tenebris, has not only given the most ample account of the regions he has visited, but by a rare facility of communication, continues to inform and instruct by correspondence, in every matter in which his friends are desirous of information. In this light is owing, more than I can express, increase and accuracy to my present labors, and a vast fund for future,

This work had once a chance of having been executed by his most masterly hand. I had the good fortune to meet with him at the Hague in 1766, when our friendship commenced. I there pro-

VOL. I. b

[page] x

posed to him the undertaking, and he accepted it with zeal. This preface will shew his plan; but he was called away to greater and more glorious labors: the world need not be told how fully they have been accomplished.

I WILL now only add, that if this book has the fortune to be any ways useful to my countrymen, in promoting the knowledge of Natural History, my principal object will be answered: let it be treated with candor till something better appears; and when that time comes, the Writer will chearfully resign it to oblivion, the common fate of antiquated Systems.

Thomas Pennant,

DOWNING,

DECEMBER, 1792.

[page] i

METHOD.

Div. I. HOOFED QUADRUPEDS.
II. DIGITATED.
III. PINNATED.
IV. WINGED.

Div. I. Sect. I.

Whole-hoofed.

Genus,

I. Horse.

Sect. II. Cloven-hoofed,

II. Ox

III. Sheep

IV. Goat

V. Giraffe

VI. Antelope

VII. Deer

VIII. Musk

IX. Camel

X. Hog

XI. Rhinoceros

XII. Hippopotame

XIII. Tapiir

XIV. Elephant.

Div. II. DIGITATED.

Sect. I. Anthropomorphous, srugivorous.

XV. Ape

XVI. Maucauco.

Sect. II. With large canine teeth separated from the cutting teeth. Six or more cutting teeth in each jaw. Rapacious, carnivorous.

XVII. Dog

XVIII. Hyæna

XIX. Cat

XX. Bear

XXI. Badger

XXII. Opossum

b 2

[page] xii

XXIII. Weesel

XXIV. Otter.

Sect. III. Without canine teeth, and with two cutting teeth in each jaw. Generally herbivorous, or frugivorous.

XXV. Cavy

XXVI. Hare

XXVII. Beaver

XXVIII. Porcupine

XXIX. Marmot

XXX. Squirrel

XXXI. Dormouse.

XXXII. Jerboa

XXXIII. Rat

XXXIV. Shrew

XXXV. Mole

XXXVI. Hedge-hog.

Sect. IV. Without cutting teeth. Frugivorous, herbivorous.

XXXVII. Sloth

XXXVIII. Armadillo.

Sect. V. Without teeth. Insectivorous.

XXXIX. Manis

XL. Ant-eater.

Div. III. PINNATED. Piscivorous, or herbivorous*.

XLI. Walrus

XLII. Seal

XLIII. Manati.

Div. IV. Winged. Insectivorous.

XLIV. Bats.

* Their Element chiefly the Water.

[page] xiii

SYSTEMATIC INDEX*.

VOL. I.

DIV. I. HOOFED QUADRUPEDS.

Genus. No Species. Page.
I. HORSE. 1 GEnerous 1
2 Dshikketei 4
3 Ass 8
4 Zebra 13
5 Quagga 14
6 Huemel* 15
II. OX. 7 Bull 16
A. Great Indian 20
B. Small Indian 21
C. Abyssinian 21
D. Boury 21
E. Tinian 21
F. Lant 21
G. Holstein 21
7 American 23
8 Grunting 24
9 Buffalo 28
10 Musk 31
11 Cape 32
12 Dwars 36
III. SHEEP. 13 A. Common 37
B. Cretan 38
C. Hornless 39
D. Many-horned 39
E. Long-haired 39
F. Guinea 40
G. African 40
H. Broad-tailed 41
Fat-rumped 42
H. Wild 44
1 Siberian 44
2 Sardinian 45
14 Bearded 52
IV. GOAT. 15 Ibex 55
16 Caucasan 57
α. Domestic 60
β. Angora 61
γ. Syrian 63
δ. African 63
ε. Whidaw 63
ζ. Capricorn 64
17 Pudu* 64
V. GIRAFFE. 18 Camelopard 65
VI. ANTELOPE. 19 Gnou 70
20 Chamois 72
21 Blue 74
22 Ægyptian 75
23 Leucoryx 76
24 Algazel 77
25 Indian 78
26 Ourebi* 79
27 Klip-springer* 79
28 Harnessed 81
29 Guinea 81
30 Royal 82

* All those marked with an afterisk are added to this edition.

[page] xiv

31 Indostan 83
32 White-footed 83
33 Swift 85
34 Red 86
35 Cinereous* 86
36 Forest* 86
37 Ritbok* 87
38 Striped 88
39 Common 89
α. Brown 91
β. Smooth-horned 91
40 Barbary 92
41 Flat-horned 92
42 White-faced 93
43 Springer 94
44 Chinese 96
45 Guildenstedt's* 97
46 Scythian 98
47 Corine 101
48 Cervine 102
49 Senegal 103
50 Gambian 104
VII. DEER. 51 Elk 105
52 Rein 111
53 Fallow 113
54 Stag 114
55 Virginian 116
56 Spotted Axis 117
57 Middle-sized Axis 118
58 Great Axis 118
59 Porcine 119
60 Rib-faced 119
61 Roe 120
62 Tail-less 121
63 Mexican 122
64 Grey 123
VIII. MUSK. 65 Tibet 124
66 Brasilian 126
67 Indian 127
68 Guinea 127
IX. CAMEL. 69 Arabian 129
β. Bactrian 132
70 Llama 133
71 Vicunna* 136
72 Pacos 137
73 Guanaco* 138
74 Chilihucque* 138
X. HOG. 75 Common 140
α. Guinea 142
β. Siam 142
γ. Chinese 142
76 δ. Æthiopian 144
77 Cape-Verd 146
78 Mexican 147
79 Baby-roussa 148
XI. RHINOCEROS. 80 Two-horned 150
81 One-horned 154
XII. HIPPOPOTAME. 82 Hippopotame 157
XIII. TAPIIR. 83 Long-nosed 163
XIV. ELEPHANT. 84 Great 165
85 American 174

5

[page] xv

DIV. II. DIGITATED QUADRUPEDS.

SECT. I. Anthropomorphos*.

Genus. No Species. Page.
XV. APE. 86 GREAT 180
87 Pygmy 183
88 Long-armed 184
α. Lesser 184
β. Malacca* 184
89 Golok* 185
90 Lar* 185
91 Barbary 186
92 Hog-faced* 187
BABOONS. 93 Great 188
94 Ribbed-nose 190
95 Wood 191
96 Yellow 191
97 Cinereous 191
98 Broad-toothed* 192
99 Brown 192
100 Little 192
101 Crested 193
102 Pigtail 193
103 Dog-faced 194
104 β. Ursine 196
105 Mottled 197
β. Little 198
106 Lion-tailed 198
δ. Bearded Men 199
MONKIES. 107 Purple-faced 199
108 Palatine 200
109 Hare-lipped 200
110 Spotted 201
111 Long-nosed 202
112 Yellowish 203
113 Green 203
114 White-eyelid 204
115 Mustache 203
116 White-nose 205
117 Talapoin 206
118 Negro 206
119 Egret 207
120 Monea 207
121 Red 208
122 Chinese 209
123 Bonnetted 210
124 Varied 210
125 Cochin China 211
126 Tawny 211
127 Goat 212
128 Full-bottom 212
129 Bay 213
130 Annulated 213
131 Philippine 213

AMERICAN.

α. Royal 215
133 Four-singered 216
134 Fearful 217
135 Capucin 218
136 Weeper 219
137 Orange 220
138 Horned 221

[page] xvi

139 Antigua 221
140 Fox-tailed 222
141 Great-eared 223
142 Striated 224
143 Silky 225
144 Red-tailed 225
145 Fair 226
XVI. MAUCAUCO. 146 Tail-less 227
147 Indri* 228
148 Loris 228
149 Woolly 229
150 Ringtail 230
151 Russed 231
152 Tarsier 231
153 Bicolor* 232
154 Murine* 232
155 Little 233
156 Flying 234

DIV. II. SECT. II. SIMPLY DIGITATED.

XVII. Dog. 157 Faithful 235
158 New Holland 247
159 Wolf 248
160 Mexican 250
161 α Fox 251
β. Cross Fox 251
γ. Black Fox 252
δ. Brant Fox 252
ε. Karagan Fox 252
ζ. Corsak Fox 253
162 Arctic 255
163 Sooty* 257
164 Greenland* 257
165 Antarctic 257
166 Culpeu* 258
167 Schreberian* 259
168 Grey 259
169 Silvery 260
170 Bengal* 260
171 Barbary 260
172 Schakal 261
173 Capesch 265
174 Ceylonese* 266
175 Surinam 267
176 Zerda 267
XVIII. HVÆNA. 177 Striped 270
178 Spotted 272
XIX. CAT. 179 Lion 274
180 Tiger 277
181 Panther 280
182 Leopard 282
183 Lesser Leopard 284
184 Hunting 284
185 Once 285
186 Brasilian 286
187 Mexican 287
188 Cinereous* 288
189 Puma 289
190 Jaguar 290
191 Cape 291

[page] xvii

192 Cayenne 292
193 Bengal 292
194 Manul 294
195 Common 295
α. Angora 296
β. Tortoise-shell 296
γ. Blue 296
δ. Long-headed 296
196 Japan* 297
197 Blotched* 298
198 Guigna* 299
199 Colorolo* 299
200 New Spain 299
LYNX. 201 Mountain 300
202 Serval 30l
203 Lynx 301
204 Bay 303
205 Caspian 304
206 Persian 305
β. Lybian 306

VOL. I. c VOL. II

[page] xviii

VOL. II.

DIV. II. SECT. II. SIMPLY DIGITATED.

XX. BEAR. 208 BROWN* 1
209 Black 4
210 Polar 5
211 Wolverene 8
212 Glutton 10
213 Raccoon 12
214 New Holland* 13
XXI. BADGER. 215 Common 14
β. American 15
216 Indian 16
XXII. OPOSSUM. 217 Virginian 18
218 Molucca 20
α. Greater* 21
219 Javan 22
220 Murine 23
221 Mexican 24
222 Cayenne 24
223 New Holland 25
224 Vulpine* 26
225 Short-tailed 26
226 Phalanger 27
227 Merian 27
228 Flying* 28
229 Kangaru 29
230 Lesser* 32
231 Spotted* 32
XXIII. WEESEL. 232 Common 33
233 Touan* 34
234 Stoat, or Ermine 35
235 Quiqui* 36
236 Cuja* 36
237 S. Am. Fitchet 37
238 Fitchet 37
239 Sarmatian 38
240 Siberian 39
241 Ferret 40
242 Martin 41
243 Grey-headed* 42
244 Pine 42
245 Sable 43
246 Fisher 50
247 Madagascar 50
248 Pekan 51
249 Vison 51
250 White-cheeked 52
251 Grison 52
252 Guinea 53
253 Guiana 53
254 Woolly 54
255 Ichneumon 54
256 Casre* 57
257 Four-toed 57
258 Yellow 59
259 Mexican 60
260 Brasilian 60
261 Stisling 62
262 Striated 64
263 Skunk 65
264 Cinghe* 65

3

[page] xix

265 Zorrina 66
266 Ratel 66
267 Mariputo* 68
268 Ceylon* 68
269 Hermaphrodite* 69
270 Quoll 69
271 Tapoa Tafa* 69
272 Spotted 70
273 Musky* 70
274 Civet 70
275 β. Zibet 72
276 Musk* 72
277 Malacca Civet* 73
278 Genet 74
279 Pilosello* 74
280 Fossane 75
XXIV. OTTER. 281 Greater 77
282 Brasilian 79
283 Lesser 80
284 Chinchimen* 82
285 Saricovienne 82
286 Sea 83
287 Slender* 85

DIV. II. SECT. III. WITHOUT CANINE TEETH.

XXV. CAVY. 288 CApibara 88
289 Restless 89
290 Rock 90
291 Patagonian 91
292 Spotted 91
293 Bristly* 92
294 Long-nose 94
295 Olive 95
296 Javan 95
297 Cape 96
298 Musk 97
XXVI. HARE. 299 Common 98
300 Varying 100
301 American 102
302 Rabbet 103
β. Angora 104
γ. Hooded 104
303 Baikal 104
304 Cape 105
305 Viscaccia* 106
306 Cuy* 106
307 Brasilian 107
308 Alpine 107
309 Ogotona 109
310 Calling 111
XXVII. BEAVER. 311 Castor 114
312 Musk 119
313 Guillino* 120
XXVIII. PORCUPINE. 314 Crested 122
315 Malacca* 123
316 Long-tailed 123
317 Brasilian 124
318 Mexican 125
319 Canada 126
XXIX. MARMOT. 320 Alpine 128
321 Quebec 129
322 Maryland 130
323 Hoary 130
324 Bobak 131
325 Mauline* 135

c 2

[page] xx

Genus. No Species. Page.
316 Earless 135
327 Gundi 137
328 Tail-less 137
XXX. SQUIRREL. 329 Common 138
α White legged 139
330 Ceylon 140
331 Abyssinian 140
332 Malabar* 141
333 Gingi* 141
334 Aye Aye* 142
335 Javan 142
336 Bombay 143
337 Ruddy 143
338 Grey 144
339 Black 145
340 Madagascar* 146
341 Hudson's Bay 147
342 Varied 147
343 Fair 148
344 Brasilian 148
345 Mexican. 149
346 Palm 149
347 White Striped Barbary 150
348 Plantane 151
349 Sailing 151
350 Severn-river 153
351 Flying 153
352 Norfolk Isle* 154
353 Hooded 155
354 European FI. Sq*. 155
XXXI. DORHOUSE. 355 Striped 157
356 Fat 158
357 Garden 159
358 Degus* 160
359 Common 160
360 Earless 161
361 Gilt-tail* 162
362 Guerlinguets, greater*
363 —lesser* 163
XXXII. JERBOA. 364 Ægyptian 164
365 Siberian, α Great 166
β. Middle 166
γ. Pygmy 167
366 Arrow* 169
367 Cape 170
368 Torrid 171
XXXIII. RAT. 369 Canada* 172
370 Labrador 173
371 Circadian 174
372 Tamarisk 174
373 Black* 176
374 Coypu* 177
375 Brown 178
376 Perchal* 179
377 Bandicote* 180
378 American 180
β. Curaco 181
379 Scherman* 182
380 Water 182
381 Sky-colored* 183
382 Mouse 184
383 Field 84
384 Harvest 185
385 Oriental 186
386 Barbary 187
387 Mexican 187
388 Virginian 187
389 Wandering 188
390 Birch 189

[page] xxi

Genus. No Species. Page.
391 Rustic 189
392 Soricine 190
393 Lineated* 191
394 Little* 191
395 Rock 192
396 Indian* 193
397 Zenik* 193
398 Œconomic 194
399 Woolley* 196
400 Red 196
401 Garlic 197
402 Soricine 197
403 Lemmus 198
404 Ringed 201
405 Hudson's 201
406 Hare-tailed 202
407 Social 203
408 Baikal* 204
409 Meadow 205
410 Gregarious 206
411 Hamster 206
412 Vormela 210
413 Yaik 210
414 Zarizyn 211
415 Sand 211
416 Songa 212
417 Baraba 213
418 Blind 214
419 Dauurian 216
420 African 217
421 Cape 218
422 Talpine 219
XXXIV. SHREW. 423 Musky 221
424 Persuming 222
425 Mexican 223
426 Brasilian 223
427 Murine 224
428 Foetid 224
429 Water 225
430 Elephant* 226
431 Marine* 226
432 Surinam* 226
433 Persian* 227
434 Minute 227
435 Pygmy 227
436 White-toothed 228
437 Square-tailed 228
438 Carinated 228
439 Unicolor 228
XXXV. MOLE. 440 European 229
β. Yellow 230
441 Sibirian* 231
442 Radiated 232
443 Long tailed 232
444 Brown 232
445 Red 233
XXXVI. HEDCE-HOG. 446 Common 234
447 Sibirian 235
448 Asiatic 236
449 Guiana 237

[page] xxii

DIV. II. SECT. IV. WITHOUT FORE TEETH.

Genus. No Species. Page.
XXXVII. SLOTH. 450 THree-toed 240
451 Two-toed 242
452 Ursiform* 243
XXXVIII. ARMADILLO. 453 Three-banded 246
454 Six-banded 247
455 Eight-banded 248
456 Nine-banded 248
457 Twelve banded 249
458 Eighteen-banded 250

DIV. II. SECT. V. WITHOUT TEETH.

XXXIX. MANIS. 459 Long-tailed* 252
460 Short-tailed 253
461 Broad-tailed* 254
XL. ANTEATER. 462 Great 256
463 Middle 258
464 Striped 259
465 Left 260
466 Cape* 261
467 Aculeated 263

DIV. III. PINNATED QUADRUPEDS.

XLI. WALRUS. 468 A Rctic 266
469 Indian 269
XLII. SEAL. 470 Common 370
471 Pied* 273
472 Mediterranean 273
473 Long-necked 274
474 Falkland 275
475 Tortoise-headed 276
476 Rubbon 276
477 Leporine 277
478 Great 277
479 Rough 278
480 Porcine* 278
481 Eared* 278
482 Hooded 279
483 Harp 279
484 Little 280
485 Ursine 281
486 Bottle-nose 286
487 Leonine 288
488 Urigne* 290
XLIII. MANATI. 489 Whale tailed 292
490 Round-tailed 296
491 Guiana* 297
492 Manati Cluhi* 298
493 Oronoko* 298
494 Sea-ape 301

[page] xxiii

DIV. IV. WINGED.

Genus. No Species. Page.
XLIV. BAT. 495 TErnate 304
Roussette 304
Rougette 305
496 Spectre 308
497 Javelin 309
498 Leaf 309
499 Cordated 310
500 Peruvian 310
501 Bull-dog 311
502 Senegal 312
503 Pouch 312
504 Slouch-eared* 313
505 Bearded 313
506 New York 313
507 Striped 314
508 Molucca 315
509 Slender-tailed* 315
510 Rough-tailed* 315
511 Lascopteras 316
512 Horse-shoe 316
513 Noctule 317
514 Serotine 317
515 Greater Serotine* 318
516 Pipistrelle 318
517 Barbestelle 319
518 Common 319
519 Long-eared 320

ADDITIONS.

Proboscis Monkey 322
Profile of the same 322
Heart-marked Maucauco 323

[page xxiv]

A LIST of Mr. PENNANT'S WORKS,

PRINTED FOR BENJAMIN AND JOHN WHITE.

£. s. d.
TOUR in SCOTLAND and VOYAGE to the HEBRIDES, 3 vol. 4to, with 132 beautiful copper-plates, boards 3 13 6
JOURNEY from CHESTER to LONDON, 4to, with 23 elegant copper-plates, boards 1 5 0
TOUR in WALES, 2 vol. 4to, with 57 copper-plates, and MOSES GRIFFITH'S Ten Supplemental Plates to the TOUR in WALES, 4to, boards 2 9 6
BRITISH ZOOLOGY, 4 vol. 8vo, an elegant edition, with 284 plates of Quadrupeds, Birds, Fishes, and Shells, boards 2 8 0
GENERA of BIRDS, 4to with 16 plates; and Indexes to the Ornithologie of the Comte de Buffon, and Planches Enlumiées, systematically disposed, boards 0 15 0
Index to the Ornithologie of the Comte de Buffon, and the Planches Enluminées, systematically disposed, sewed 0 7 6

[page] xxv

CATALOGUE of PLATES.

In the TITLE PAGE of Vol. I. the head of the Barbary Antelope, No. 40. The Motto is Welch, and signifies, WITHOUT GOD IS NOTHING: WITH GOD ENOUGH.

Number. to face page
I. DSHIKKETAEI, or Wild Mule. No. 2. * 4
II. Indian Ox. A. 20
I suspect this to be a native of Madagascar, remarkable for its vast Oxen.
III. Lesser Indian Ox. B. 21
IV. American Bison. No. 7. 23
V. Grunting Ox. No. 8. 24
VI. Naked Buffalo. A. 30
VII. Four-horned Ram. E. Horns of the Iceland Sheep. D. Horns of the Cretan Sheep. B. 40
VIII. Cape Sheep 42
IX. Bearded Sheep. No. 14. 52
X. Syrian Goats 63
XI. Giraffa or Camelopard. No. 18. 65
XII. Leucoryx Antelope. No. 23. 76
This and the CERVINE ANTELOPE are copied from beautiful old drawings, probably done in Conga or Angola by some of the early missionaries. One of the drawings is of the head, of full size. The space between the horns at the base is one inch: at the tips seven. The length near two feet.
XIII. White-footed Antelope. No. 32. 83

* These numbers refer to the Systematic Index.

VOL. 1. d

[page] xxvi

Number. to face page
XIV. Striped Antelope. No. 38. 88
These animals seem to vary in the disposition of the stripes.
XV. Common Antelope and the Lyre Cbelys. No. 39. 89
XVI. Cervine Antelope. No. 48. 102
VIGNETTE, Head of Cervine and Gambian antelopes 104
XVII. Elk, or Moose Deer. No. 51. 105
XVIII. Rein Deer. No. 52. 111
XIX. Porcine Deer. No. 59. 119
XX. Fossil Horns. P. 109. Horns of the Virginian Deer. P. 116. Horns of the Mexican Deer. 122
XXI. Tibet Musk. No. 65. 124
XXII. Indian Musk. No. 67. 127
XXIII. Arabian Camel No. 69. 129
XXIV. Bactrian Camel. 132
XXV. Llama. No. 70. 133
XXVI. The Vicunna. No. 71. 136
XXVII. Variety of common Hog. No. 75. 140
XXVIII. Baby-roussa. No. 79. 148
XXIX. Two-homed Rhinoceros. No. 80. 150
XXXI. Male Hippopotame. No. 82. 157
XXXII. Female Hippopotame. 160
XXXIII. Tapiir. No. 83. 163
XXXIV. Male Elephant. No. 84. 165
XXXV. Female Elephant 168
XXXVI. Orang Outang, or Great Ape. No. 86. 180
XXXVIII. Long-armed Ape. No. 88. 184
XXXIX. 1. Hog-faced Baboon. No. 92. 2. Brown Baboon. No. 99. 187

5

[page] xxvii

Number. to face page
XL. Great Baboon. No. 93. 188
XLI. Great Baboon. No. 93. 188
XLII. Wood Baboon. No. 95. 191
XLIII. 1. Dog-faced Baboon. No. 103. 2. Purple-faced Monkey. No. 107. 194
XLIV. 1. Lion-tailed Baboon. No. 106. 2. Tawny Monkey. No. 126. 198
XLV. 1. Long-nosed Monkey. No. 111. 2. Prude Monkey. No. 111. 202
XLVI. Full-bottom Monkey. No. 128 212
XLVII. Silky Monkey. No. 143. 225
XLVIII. Tail-less Maucauco. No. 146. 227
XLIX. Tail-less Maucauco. No. 146. 227
From Mr. Vosmaer, done in a groveling attitude.
L. Flying Maucauco. No. 156. 234
LI. Arctic Fox. No. 162. 255
LII. Ceylonese Dog. No. 174. 266
LIII. Zerda. No. 176. 267
LIV. Spotted Hyæna. No. 178. 272
LV. Black Leopard. 283
LVI. Hunting Leopard. No. 184. 284
LIVII. Brasilian Tiger. No. 186. 286
LVII. A* Mexican Tiger. No. 187. 288
LVIII. Jaguar, or Black Tiger. No. 190. 291
LIX. Japan Cat. No. 196. 297
LX. Bay Lynx. No. 204. 303
LX. A* Persian Lynx. No. 207. 305

d 2

[page] xxviii

VOL. II.

FRONTISPIECE, Sea Otter. No. 286.

Number. to face page
LXI. Polar Bear. No. 210. 5
LXII. Wolverene. No. 211. 8
LXIII. Virginian Opossum. No. 217. 18
LXIV. Kanguru. No. 229. 29
LXV. Yellow Weesel. No. 258. 59
LXVI. Brasilian Weesel. No. 260. 61
LXVI. A* Fossane. No. 280. 75
LXVII. Lesser Otter. No. 283. 80
LXVIII. Patagonian Cavy. No. 291. 91
LXVIII. A* Bristly Cavy. No. 293. 92
LXIX. 1. Varying Hare. No. 300. 2. Hooded Rabbet. P. 104. 100
LXX. 1. Calling Hare. No. 310. 2. Alpine Hare. No. 308. 3. Ogotona Hare. No. 309. 112
LXXI. Castor Beaver. No. 311. 114
LXXII. Long-tailed Porcupine. No. 316. 123
LXXIII. Brasilian Porcupine. No. 317. 124
LXXIV. 1. Quebec Marmot. No. 321. 2. and 3. Earless Marmot. No. 326. 135
LXXV. Aye Aye. No. 334. 142
This figure was cut in wood by the very ingenious Mr. Thomas Bewick, of Newcastle upon Tyne. His history of quadrupeds, illustrated with similar prints, has such merit as to clame the attention of every naturalist.
LXXVI. 1. Hudson's Bay Squirrel. No. 341. 2. Black. No. 339. 3. Grey. No. 338. 144

[page] xxix

Number. to face page
LXXVIII. Sailing Squirrel, climbing. No. 349. 152
LXXIX. Gilc-tail Dormouse. No. 361. 162
LXXX. Sibirian Jerboa. No. 365. 166
LXXXI. 1. Middle Jerboa. P. 166. β. 2. Tamarisk Rat. No. 372. 175
LXXXII. 1. Lineated Rat. No. 393, 2. Œconomic Rat. No. 398. 3. Talpine. No. 422. 194
LXXXIII. 1. Lemmus. No. 403. 2. A variety of the same. 198
LXXXIV. 1. Hamster. No. 411. 2. Black variety of the same. 206
LXXXV. 1. Zarizyn. No. 414. 2. Songar. No. 416. 212
LXXXVI. 1. Blind Mole Rat. No. 418. 2. Dauurian Mole Rat. No. 419. 3. African Mole Rat. No. 421. 218
LXXXVII. Perfuming Shrew. No. 424. 222
LXXXVIII. Elephant Shrew. No. 430. 226
LXXXIX. Cape Mole. No. 441. 231
XC. 1. Radiated Mole. No. 443. 2. Long-tailed Mole. No. 443. 232
XC. A*. Common Hedge Hog. No. 446. Asiatic Hedge Hog. No. 418. 236
XCI. Three-toed Sloth. No. 450. 240
XCII. Uiform Sloth. No. 452. 243
XCIII. Twelve-banded Armadillo. No. 457. 249
XCIV. Long-tailed Manis. No. 459. 252
XCV. Left Ant-eater. No. 465. 260
XCVI. Aculeated Ant-eater. No. 467. 262

3

[page] xxx

TITLE PAGE to Div. III. Pinnated Quadrupeds.

Number. to face page
The skin of the Rubbon Seal. No. 476. 265
XCVII. Arctic Walrus. No. 468. 266
XCVIII. Pied Seal. No. 471. 273
XCIX. Harp Seal. No. 483. 279
C. Ursine Seal. No. 485 281
CI. Leonine Seal. No. 487. 288
CII. Round-tailed Manati. No. 490 296
CIII. Ternate Bat. No. 495 304
CIV. Lesser Ternate Bat. P. 308. 2. New York Bat. No. 506 314

ADDITIONS.

CV. Proboscis Monkey. 322
CVI. Profile of the same. 322
CVII. Heart-marked Maucauco. 323
CVIII. Slender-toed Weesel. 324
CIX. Ermined Weesel. 324

[page] 1

HISTORY

OF

QUADRUPEDS.

Div. I. HOOFED.

SECT. I. Whole Hoofed.
II. Cloven Hoofed.

SECT. I.

I. HORSE.

Hoof confiding of one piece.
Six cutting teeth in each jaw.

I. GENEROUS.

Equus Gesner quad. 404. Rail syn. quad. 62. Pferdt. Klein quad. 4.

Equus cauda undique fetcfa. E. caballus. Lin. Syst. 100. Hæft. Faun. Suec. No. 47.

Equus auriculis brevibus erectis, juba longa, Brisson, quad. 69.

Le Cheval. de Buffon. iv. 174. tab. I. Br. Zed. I. i.

Wildhorl'e. Leo dfr. 339, Hakluyt's call. voy. I. 329. Bell's trav. I. 225.

Zimmerman. 138. 140.

Smellie's de Buffon. III. 306. tab. xi *.

H. with a long flowing mane; tail covered on all parts with long hairs.

Cultivated in most parts of the world. The most generous and useful of quadrupeds; docile, spirited, yet obedient: adapted to all purposes, the draught, the road, the chace, the race. Its voice neighing; its arms, hoofs and teeth; its tail of the ut-

* An excellent translation of that celebrated author, published in 1785 in nine volumes octavo, London.

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most use in driving off insects in hot weather. Subject to many diseases; many from our abuse; more from our too great care of it. Its exuviæ useful: the skin for collars and harness: the hair of the mane for wigs; of the tail for the bottoms of chairs, floor-cloths, ropes, and fishing-lines. Tartars feed on its flesh, and drink the milk of mares; and both Kalmucks and Mongals distil from it a potent spirit.

WILD IN ASIA.

The horse is found wild about the lake Aral; near Kuzneck, in lat. 54; on the river Tom, in the south part of Sibiria*, and in the great Mongalian deserts, and among the Kalkas, N. W. of China. The Mongalians call them Takija. They are less than the domestic kind, and of a mouse-colour, with very thick hair, especially in winter. They have greater heads than the tame; their foreheads are remarkably arched. They go in great herds, and will often surround the horses of the Mongals and Kalkas while they are grazing, and carry them away†. They are excessively vigilant; a centinel placed on an eminence, gives notice to the herd of any approaching danger, by neighing aloud, when they all run off with amazing swiftness. They are often surprized by the Kalmucks, who ride in amongst them mounted on very swift horses, and kill them with broad lances. They eat the flesh, and use the skins to lie on‡. The wild horses are also taken by means of hawks, which fix on the head, and distress them so as to give the pursuers time to overtake them. In the interior parts of Ceylon is a small variety of the horse, not exceeding thirty inches in height; which is sometimes brought to Europe as a rarity.

* Bell i. 225.

Du Halde, ii. 254.

Bell i. 225.

[page] 3

IN AFRICA.

The horse is said to be found in a state of nature in the deserts of Africa, to be caught there by the Arabs, and eaten*.

The travellers under the conduct of Mynbeer Henry Hop, saw abundance far north of the cape; they also met with wild asses †: but have not favored us with any remarks, or descriptions of either.

ALSO WILD, THE OFFSPRING OF TAME HORSES.

Distinction must be made between the wild horses of Asia above mentioned, and those in the deserts on each side of the Don, particularly towards the Palus Mæotis and the town of Backmut. These were the offspring of the Russian horses employed in the siege of Asoph in 1697, when, for want of forage, they were turned loose, and which have relapsed into a state of nature, and grew as wild, shy, and timid as the original savage breed. The Cossacks chase them, but always in the winter, by driving them into the allies filled with snow, into which they plunge and are caught; their excessive swiftness excludes any other method of capture. They hunt them chiefly for the sake of the skins: if they catch a young one, they couple it for some months with a tame horse, and so gradually domesticate it. These are much esteemed, for they will draw twice as much as the former.

The horses of the wandering Tartars, carried away by the herds of the wild kind, mix and breed together. Their offspring are very distinguishable by their colors, which are composed of variety of shades of chesnut.

No horses are to be met with in any place within the Arctic circle, except there should be a few in the extreme part of Nor-

* Leo Afr, Engl. ed. 340.

† Journal Historique, 40.

B 2

[page] 4

way. They are found in Iceland; originally transported from Norway, and perhaps from Scotland, there having been an early intercourse between it and Iceland. In that island the horses for labor endure all the severity of the year abroad. I imagine they live, like the rein-deer, on moss, as they are laid to scrape away the snow with their feet to* get at the ground, and obtain subsistence. During winter, their hair grows long and thick, which preserves them against the cold. Towards summer they shed their coat, and the new one is smooth and sleek.

Kamtscbatka is entirely destitute of horses, and of every domestic animal except dogs: which, with the rein-deer, are the substitutes of horses used by the natives. America, before the arrival of the Europeans, was in like circumstances, or rather worse; for instead of the dog it had only a wolfish cur; nor do either the Greenlanders or Eskimaux make any other use of the rein-deer, than to supply themselves with its flesh for food, and its skin for raiment. But I reserve a more particular account of the adventitious animals of the new world for its intended Zoology.

2. DSHIKKETAEI.

Equus hemionus, Mongalis DSHIKKETAEI dictus, describente P. S. PALLAS. NOV. com. Petrop. xix. 394. tab. vii. Zimmerman 666.

OR WILD MULE.

H. of thesfize and appearance of the common mule, with o a large head, flat forehead, growing narrow toward the nose, eyes of a middle size, the irides of an obscure ash-color. Thirty-eight teeth in all; being two in number fewer than in a

* Horrebow, 44. They also resort to the shores, and feed on the marine plants. Von Trail, hill. Icel, Eng. ed. 134.

[page break]

[page break]

[page] 5

common horse. Ears much longer than those of a horse, quite erect, lined with a thick whitish curling coat. Neck slender, compressed: mane upright, short, soft, of a greyish color: in place of the foretop, a short tuft of downy hair, about an, inch and three quarters long.

Body rather long, and the back very little elevated. Bread: protuberant and sharp.

Limbs long and elegant: the thighs thin, as in a mule's. Within the fore legs, an oval callus, in the hind legs none. Hoofs oblong, smooth, black. Tail like that of a cow, slender, and for half of its length naked. The rest covered with long ash-color'd hairs.

WINTER COLOR.

SUMMER COLOR.

Its winter coat grey at the tips, of a brownish ash-color beneath; about two inches long, in softness like the hair of a camel; and undulated on the back. Its Summer coat is much shorter, of a most elegant smoothness, and in all parts marked most beautifully with small vortexes. The end of the nose white; from thence to the foretop inclining totawny. Buttocks white, as are the inside of the limbs and belly. From the mane a blackish testaceous line extends along the top of the back to the tail. broadeft on the loins, and growing narrower towards the tail. The color of the upper part of the body a light yellowish grey, growing paler towards the sides.

SIZE.

Length from the tip of the nose to the base of the tail, six feet seven inches. Length of the trunk of the tail one foot four; of the hairs beyond the end eight inches. The height three feet nine.

PLACE.

Inhabits the deserts between the rivers Onon and Argun in the most southern parts of Sibiria, and extends over the vast plains

[page] 6

and deserts of western Tartary, and the celebrated sandy desert of Gobi, which reaches even to India. In Sibiria these animals are seen but in small numbers, as if detached from the numerous herds to the south of the Russian dominions. In Tartary they are particularly conversant about Taricnoor, a salt lake, at times dried up. They shun wooded tracts and lofty snowy mountains.

MANNERS.

They live in separate herds, each consisting of a chief, a number of mares, and colts, in all to the number of about twenty; but seldom so many, for commonly each male has but five, and sometimes fewer females. They copulate towards the middle or end of August, and bring for the most part but one at a time, which by the third year attains its full growth, form, and color. The young horses are then driven away from their paternal herds, and keep at a distance, till they can find mates of their own age, which have quitted their dams. These animals always carry their heads horizontally; but when they take to flight, hold them upright, and erect their tail. Their neighing is deeper and louder than that of a horse.

UNTAMEABLE.

GREAT SWIFTNESS.

They fight by biting and kicking, as usual with the horse: they are fierce and untameable; and even those which have been taken young, are so intractable as not to be broken by any art which the wandering Tartars could use. Yet was it possible to bring them into fit places, and to provide all the conveniencies known in Europe, the task might be effected: but I suspect whether the subdued animal would retain the swiftness it is so celebrated for in its state of nature. It exceeds that of the Antelope; it is even proverbial: and the inhabitants of Thibet, from the same of its rapid speed, mount on it Chammo, their God of FIRE, The Mongalians despair of ever taking it by the

[page] 7

chace, but lurk behind some tomb, or in some ditch, and shoot them when they come to drink, or eat the fait of the desert.

SHYNESS.

They are excessively fearful, and provident against danger. A male takes on him the care of the herd, and always is on the watch. If they see a hunter, who, by creeping along the ground, has got near them; the centinel takes a great circuit, and goes round and round him, as discovering somewhat to be apprehended. As soon as the animal is satisfied, it rejoins the herd, which sets off with great precipitation. Sometimes its curiosity costs it its life; for it approaches so near as to give the hunter an opportunity of shooting it. But it is observed, that in rainy or in stormy weather, these animals seem very dull, and less sensible of the approach of mankind.

USES.

The Mongalians and Tungusi kill them for the fake of the flesh, which they prefer to that of horses, and even to that of the wild boar, esteeming it equally nourishing and wholesome*. The skin is also used for the making of boots.

Their senses of hearing and smelling are most exquisite: so that they are approached with the utmost difficulty.

NAMES.

The Mongalians call them Dshikketaei, which signifies the eared; the Chinese, γo to tse, or mule†.

In antient times the species extended far to the south. It was the Hemionos, or half ass, of ARISTOTLE ‡, found in his days in Syria, and which he celebrates for its amazing swiftness and its sœcundity, a breeding mule being thought a prodigy ‖; and Pliny, from the report of Theopbrastus, speaks of this species being found in Cappadoeia, but adds they were a particular kind §.

* Du Halde, ii. 253.

† The same.

Hist, An. lib. vi, c. 36.

Plinii Hist. lib. viii. C. 44.

§ The same.

[page] 8

COMMON MULES.

The domestic mules of present times are the offspring of the horse and ass, or ass and horse: are very hardy; have more the, form and disposition of the ass than horse. The finest are bred in Spain; very large ones in Savoy. The synonyms of this beast are the following:

MUIE. Mulus. Gesner quad. 702. syn. Quad. 64.

Maul esel. Klein quad. 6.

Le Mulct. De Buffon, iv. 401. xiv. 336. Brisson quad. 71.

Equus mulus. Lin. syst. Faun. Suee. No, 35. Br. Zool. I. 13.

3. Ass.

Afinus. Gesner quad. 5. Rail syn. Quad. 63.

Esel. Klein quad. 6.

L'ane. De Buffon. iv. 377.

Equus auriculis longis flaccidis, juba brevi. Briffon quad. 70.

Equus asinus. Eq. caudæ extremitate fetofa, cruce nigra supra. Lin. Syst. 100. Asna. Faun. Suec. No. 35. ed. 1746.

Ass. Br. Zool. I. ii.

Smellie's de Buffon. III. 398. tab. xii.

TAME.

H. with long slouching ears, short mane, tail covered with long hairs at the end. Body usually of an ash color, with a black bar cross the shoulders.

Patient, laborious, stupid, obstinate, flow. Loves mild or hot climates: scarcely known in the cold ones. Ears slouch most towards their northernly habitations. Remarkable for their size and beauty in Africa and the East.

WILD ASS, OR KOULAN.

Onager. Varro de re rust. lib. ii. c. 6. p. 81. Plinii Hist. Nat. lib. viii. c. 44. Oppian Cyneg. ii. Lin. 184.

Pallas in act. acad. Petrop. ii. 258, Zimmerman. 666.

The Koulan, or ass in a wild state, must be described comparatively with the foregoing species in some respects.

[page] 9

The forehead is very much arched: the ears erect, even when the animal is out of order; sharp-pointed, and lined with whitish curling hairs: the irides of a livid brown: the lips thick; and the end of the nose sloping deeply down to the upper lip: the nostrils large and oval.

The Koulan is much higher on its limbs than the tame ass, and its legs are much finer; but it again resembles it in the narrowness of its chest and body; it carries its head much higher: its scull is of a surprizing thinness.

The mane is dusky, about three or four inches long, composed of soft woolly hair, and extends quite to the shoulders; the hairs at the end of the tail are coarse, and about a span long.

COLOR.

The color of the hair in general is a silvery white; the upper part of the face, the sides of the neck, and body, are of a flaxen-color: the hind part of the thighs are the same; the fore part divided from the flank by a white line, which extends round the rump to the tail: the belly and legs are also white: along the very top of the back, from the mane quite to the tail, runs a stripe of bushy waved hairs of a coffee-color, broadest above the hind part, growing narrower again towards the tail; another of the same color crosses it at the shoulders (of the males only) forming a mark, such as distinguishes the tame asses: the dorsal band, and the mane, are bounded on each fide by a beautiful line of white, well described by Oppian, who gives an admirable account of the whole.

WINTER COAT.

SUMMER.

Its winter coat is very fine, soft, and silky, much undulated, and likest to the hair of the camel; greasy to the touch: and the flaxen color, during that season, more exquisitely bright. Its summer coat is very smooth, silky, and even, with exception of

VOL. I. C

[page] 10

certain shaded rays, that mark the sides of the neck, pointing downwards.

SIZE.

The dimensions of a male Koulan were as follow: The head was two feet long: from its setting on to the base of the tail was four feet ten inches and a half: the tail, to the end of the hairs, two feet one and a half: the ears eleven inches and a half. Its height before, four feet two; behind, four feet fix. It had also the asinine cross on the shoulders; which, with its superior size, and stronger formation in all its parts, distinguishes it at first: fight from the female.

PLACE.

This species inhabits the dry and mountainous parts of the deserts of Great Tartary, but not higher than lat. 48. They are migratory, and arrive in vast troops, to feed, during the summer, in the tracts east and north of lake Aral. About autumn they collect, in herds of hundreds, and even thousands, and direct their course towards the north of India, to enjoy a warm retreat during winter. But Persia is their most usual place of retirement: where they are found in the mountains of Casbin, some even at all times of the year. If we can depend on Barboga*, they penetrate even into the southern parts of India, to the mountains of Malabar and Golconda.

ESTEEMED AS A FOOD.

According to Leo-Africanus†, wild asses of an ash-color are found in the deserts of northern Africa. The Arabs take them in snares for the sake of their flesh. If fresh killed, it is hot and unsavory: if kept two days after it is boiled, it becomes excellent meat. These people, the Tartars, and Romans, agreed in their preference of this to any other food: the latter indeed

* As quoted by Dr. Pallas.

† 340.

[page] 11

chuse them young, at a period of life in which it was called Lalisio.

Cum tener est Onager, solaque Lalisio matre
Pascitur: hoc infans, sed breve. nomen habet.

MARTIAL. xiii. 97.

The epicures of Rome preferred those of Africa to all others *. The grown onagri were introduced among the spectacles of the theatre. Their combats were preferred even to those of the elephants. The same poet celebrates their performances.

Pulcher Onager adeft: mitti venatio debet
Dentis Erytbræi: Jam removete sinus†.

I can witness to the spirit and prowess of the tame ass, which diverted me much at les combats des animaux—the theatre, or bear-garden of Paris—where I saw a fight between an ass and a dog. The last could never seize on the long-eared beast; which sometimes caught the dog in its mouth, sometimes slung it under its knees, and kneeled on it, till the dog fairly gave up the victory.

MANNERS.

The manners of the Koulan, or wild ass, are very much the same with those of the wild horse and the Dshikketaei. They assemble in troops under the conduct of a leader: are very shy, but will stop in the midst of their course, even suffer the approach of man at that instant; but will then dart away with the rapidity of an arrow dismissed from the bow. This Herodotus speaks to, in his account of those of Mesopotamia; and Leo Africanus, in that of the African. The Ægyptians derive their fine breed of tame asses from them ‡.

* Plinii Hist. Nat. lib. viii. c. 44.

† See also Pomponius Læius, lib. i.; who says the emperor Philip introduced twenty Onagri.

Prester Alpinus, lib. iv. c. 6.

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SWIFTNESS.

They are extremely wild. HOLY WRIT is full of allusions to their savage nature. He scorneth the multitude of the city, neither regardeth be the crying of the driver *. Yet they are not untameable. The Persians catch and break them for the draught: they make pits, half filled with plants to lessen the fall, and take them alive. They break, and hold them in great esteem, and fell them at a high price. The famous breed of asses in the East is produced from the Koulan reclaimed from the savage state, which highly improves the breed. The Romans reckoned the breed of asses produced from the Onager and tame ass to excel all others. The Tartars, who kill them only for the fake of the flesh and skins, lie in ambush and shoot them.

They have been at all times celebrated for their amazing swiftness; for which reason the Hebreans called them Pere; as they styled them Arod from their braying†.

Their food is the saltest plants of the deserts, such as the Kalis, Atriplex, Chenopodium, &c.; and also the bitter milky tribe of herbs: they also prefer salt-water to fresh. This is exactly conformable to the history given of this animal in the book of Job; for the words barren land, expressive of its dwelling, ought, according to the learned Bocbart, to be rendered salt places ‡. The hunters lay in wait for them near the ponds of brackish water, to which they resort to drink: but they are not of a thirsty nature, and seldom have recourse to water.

WHERE ANTIENTLY FOUND.

These animals were antiently found in the Holy Land, Syria, the land of Uz or Arabia Deserta, Mesopotamia, Pbrygia, and

* Job xxxix. 7.

† Hierozoicon, Pars i. p. 868. 869.

‡ The same, 872.

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Lycaonia*. But at present they are entirely confined to the countries abovementioned.

CHACRIN.

CHAGRIN, a word derived from the Tartar sogbré, is made of the skin of these animals, which grows about the rump, and also those of horses, which is equally good †. There are great manufactures of it at Astracan, and in all Perfia. It is a mistake to suppose it to be naturally granulated, for its roughness is entirely the effect of art.

The Persians use the bile of the wild ass as a remedy against the dimness of fight: and the same people, and the Nogayan Tartars, have been known to endeavour the most infamous bestialities with it, in order to free themselves from the disorders of the kidnies.

4. ZEBRA.

Zebra. Nieremberg. 168.

Zecora. Ludolpb. Æthiop. I. lib. i. c. 10. II. 150.

Zebra. Raii syn. quad. 64. Klein quad. 5.

Le Zebre, ou L'ane raye. Brisson quad. 70. De Buffon, xii. I. tab. I. II.

Equus Zebra, Eq. fafciis fufcis verfi-color. Lin. syst. 101. Edw. 222.

Wild Ass. Kolben Cape Good Hope. ii. 112. Mus. LEV.

H. with a short erect mane. That, the head, and body are striped downwards with lines of brown, on a pale buff ground: the legs and things striped cross-ways. Tail like that of an ass, furnished with long hairs at the end. Size of a common mule.

This most elegant of quadrupeds: inhabits from Congo and Angola, across Africa, to Abyssinia, and fouthward as low as the Cape. Inhabit the plains, but on fight of men, run into the woods and difappear. Are gregarious, vicious, untameable, useless: vastly swift: is called by the Portuguese, Burro di Matto, or wild ass.

* Plinii Hist. Nat. viii, c. 44.

Pallas; also Tavernier, i. 21.

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Will couple with the ass. A he-ass was brought to a female zebra kept a few years ago in London. The zebra at first refilled any commerce with it: the ass was then painted, to resemble the exotic animal. The stratagem took effect, and the admitted its embraces; and produced a mule.

5. QUAGGA.

Le Voy. de M. Hop. 40. Opcagha, Moffon's Travels, in the Phil. Tranf.

LXVI. 297. luagga, of the Hotten-tots. Female Zebra? Edw. 223*.

H. striped like the former, on the head and neck and mane. From the withers to the middle of the flanks the stripes grow gradually shorter, leaving part of the back, loins, and sides quite plain. The ground color of the whole upper part and fides is bay: the belly, legs, and thighs white and free from spots or stripes. The ears shorter than those of the Zebra. The feet of each are small, the hoofs hard.

This animal and the Zebra have been confounded together, and considered as male and female; but in each species the sexes agree in colors and marks, unless that those in the male are more vivid. Sir JOSEPH BANKS enabled me first to separate them by the remarks he communicated to me on a Luagga he saw at the Cape in 1771. They keep in vast herds like the Zebra, but usually in different tracts of country, and never mix together. They are of a thicker and stronger make, and from the few tryals which have been made, prove of a more docil nature. A Luagga caught young has been known to lose its lavage disposition, and run to receive the caresses of mankind'; and there have been instances of its being broke so far as to draw

* The leins and lower part of the back in this are spotted.

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in a team with the common horses, It is said to be fearless of the Hyena, and even to attack and pursue that fierce animal: so that it proved an excellent guard to the horses with which it was turned out to grass at night *. Nature seemed to have designed them for the beast of draft or of burden for this country: and they certainly might be broke for the carriage or the saddle. They are used to the food which harsh dry pastures of Africa produce; are in no terror of wild beasts, nor are subject to the epidemic distemper which destroys so many horses of the European offspring; and it may generally be observed that both the oxen and horses introduced into this country lose the strength and powers of those in Europe.

6. HUEMEL.

Le Gnemelou Huemel Molina Chili. 303. Equus bifulcus Gmelin Lin. 209.

H. with bisuleated hoofs. Of the size, coat, and color of an ass. The ears erect, short, strait, pointed like that of a horse. The head equally elegant: neck and rump finely formed.

PLACE.

This animal inhabits the highest and most inaccessible part of the Andes, and is therefore very difficult to be taken. Yet it must at times descend as Com. Byron saw one at Port Desire. It neighed like a horse; frequently stopped and looked at our people; then ran off at full speed, and stopped and neighed again †. Its voice-had nothing of the braying of an afs; neither does it resemble that animal in its internal parts: is full of mettle, and of great swiftness. By its cloven hoofs forms the link, as M. Molina observes, between this genus and the ruminant animals.

* Sparman's Travels I. 224.

Hawksworth, Vol. I. 18.

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Div. I. Sect. II. Cloven Hoosed.

* with Horns.

* * without Horns.

II. OX.

Horns bending out laterally.
Eight cutting teeth in the lower jaw, none in the upper.
Skin along the lower side of the neck pendulous.

7. BULL.

Bos Gesner quad. 2 5. Raii syn. quad. 70.

Ochs. Klein quad. 9.

Bos cornibus Ievibus teretibus, furfum reflexis. Briffon quad. 52.

Bos Taurus. B. cornibus teretibus flexis. Lin. syst, 98. Faun. suec. No. 48.

Le Taureau. De Buffon, iv. 437. tab. xiv.

Zimmerman, 99.

Br. Zool. I. 15.

Auer oclis. Ridinger wilden Thiere tab. 37.

O. with rounded horns, with a large space between their bases.

Still found wild in small numbers, in the marshy forests of Poland, the Carpathian mountains, and Litbuania, and in Asia about mount Caucafus. The Urns, Bonasus, and Bison, of the antients. The finest and largest tame cattle in Holstein and Poland; the smalleft in Scotland: most useful animals, every part serviceable, the horns, hide, milk, blood, fat. More subject than other animals to the pestilence. Go nine months with young.

In a wild state, the Bonasus of Aristotle, bist. an. ix. c. 45. and Pliny, lib, viii. c. 15. The Urus of Cœfar, lib. vi. c. 28. Gesner

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quad. 143. Et Bonasus, p. 131. and Bison, 140. Bison and Urus Rzaczinski Polon. 214. 228. The Aurochs of the Germans. The American Bison, the next to be described, differs in no respect from this.

SCOTTISH BISONS.

The Bisontes jubati of Scotland are now extinct in a wild state; but their offspring, still sufficiently savage, are still preserved in the parks of Drumlanrig and Chillingham. They retain their white color, but have lost their manes*. That worthy and amiable man, my respected friend, the late Marmaduke Tunstal, Esq; of Wycliff, yorkshire, collected several curious particulars respecting this rare breed, which are published in 1790 in a general History of Quadrupeds, illustrated with wooden plates, cut with uncommon neatness by Thomas Bewick, of Newcastle upon Tyne. His ingenuity deserves every encouragement, as his essay is the first attempt to revive with any success that long disused art, which was first begun about the year 1448. I take the liberty of inserting here a more ample account of the Bisontes Scotici, extracted from p. 25 of that little elegant work.

The principal external appearances which distinguish this breed of cattle from all others, are the following:—Their color is invariably white; muzzles black; the whole of the inside of the ear, and about one third of the outside, from the tip down-wards, red: the color of the ears, in the undegenerated beasts, black†; horns white, with black tips, very fine and bent upwards: some of the bulls have a thin upright mane, about an inch and an half or two inches long.

At the first appearance of any person, they set off in full gallop;

* Tour Scotl. 1772. part. I. 124. part II. 284.

†About twenty years since, there were a few with black ears; but the present park-keeper destroyed them;—since which period there has not been one with black ears.

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and at the distance of two or three hundred yards, make a wheel round, and come boldly up again, tossing their heads in a menacing manner: on a sudden they make a full stop at the distance of forty or fifty yards, looking wildly at the object of their surprize; but upon the least motion being made, they all again turn round and fly off with equal speed, but not to the same distance; forming a shorter circle, and again returning with a bolder and more threatening aspect than before, they approach much nearer, probably within thirty yards; when they make another stand, and again fly off: this they do several times, shortening their distance, and advancing nearer, till they come within ten yards, when most people think it prudent to leave them, not chusing to provoke them, farther; for there is little doubt but in two or three turns they would make an attack.

CHACE.

The mode of killing them was perhaps the only modern remains of the grandeur of ancient hunting:—On notice being given, that a wild Bull would be killed on a certain day, the inhabitants of the neighborhood came mounted, and armed with guns, &c. sometimes to the amount of an hundred horse, and four or five hundred foot, who stood upon walls, or got into trees, while the horsemen rode off the Bull from the rest of the herd, until he flood at bay; when the marksman dismounted and shot. At some of these huntings twenty or thirty shots have been fired before he was subdued. On such occasions the bleeding victim grew desperately furious, from the smarting of his wounds, and the shouts of savage joy that were echoing from every side: but from the number of accidents that happened, this dangerous mode has been little practiced of late years, the park-keeper alone generally shooting them with a rifled gun, at one shot.

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When the cows calve, they hide their calves for a week or ten days in some sequestered situation, and go and suckle them two or three times a-day. If any person come near the calves, they clap their heads close to the ground, and lie like a hare in form, to hide themselves. This is a proof of their native wildness; and is corroborated by the following circumstance that happened to the writer of this narrative, who found a hidden calf, two days old, very lean, and very weak:—On stroking its head, it got up, pawed two or three times like an old bull, bellowed very loud, stepped back a few steps, and bolted at his legs with all its force; it then began to paw again, bellowed, stepped back, and bolted as before; but knowing its intention, and stepping aside, it missed him, fell, and was so very weak that it could not rise, though it made several efforts: But it had done enough: The whole herd were alarmed, and coming to its rescue, obliged him to retire; for the dams will allow no person to touch their calves, without attacking them with impetuous ferocity.

When any one happens to be wounded, or is grown weak and feeble through age or sickness, the rest of the herd set upon it, and gore it to death.

The weight of the oxen is generally from forty to fifty stone the four quarters; the cows about thirty. The beef is finely marbled, and of excellent flavor.

Those at Burton-Constable, in the county of York, were all destroyed by a distemper a few years since. They varied slightly from those at Chillingham, having black ears and muzzles, and the tips of their tails of the same color; they were also much larger, many of them weighing sixty stone, probably owing to the richness

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of the pasturage in Holderness, but generally attributed to the difference of kind between those with black and with red ears, the former of which they studiously endeavoured to preserve.—The breed which was at Drumlanrig, in Scotland, had also black ears.

I doubt whether any wild oxen of this, species are found on the continent of Africa. We must beware of the misnomers of common travellers, especially the antient. Thus we shall find the wild ox of Leo to be the antelope, which we shall describe under the name of Gnou; and the buffaloes of Pigesetta*, said to be found in Congo and Angola, may probably prove the species we describe in our number 9. A. With more confidence we may say, from the authority of Flacourt, that wild oxen are found in Madagascar, like the European, but higher on their legs. Borneo, according to Beckman†, and the mountains of Java, from the report of a worthy friend, yield oxen in a state of nature; but the torrid zone forbids the scrutiny into species, which would give satisfaction to an inquisitive naturalist. The varieties of domestic cattle sprung from the wild stock are very numerous; such as

A. The great Indian ox, of a reddish color, with short horns bending close to the neck; with a vast lump on the shoulders, very fat, and esteemed the most delicious part. This lump is accidental,, and disappears in a few descents, in the breed produced between, them and the common kind. This variety is also common in Madagascar, and of an enormous size.

* In Purches. I. 1002.

Leo, 304, Flacount. 151, Beckman,36.

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B. A very small kind, with a lump on the shoulders, and horns almost upright, bending a little forward. This is the Bos indicus of Linnæus, and the zebu of M. de Buffon, xi. 423. tab. xlii. In Surat is a minute kind, not bigger than a great dog; which has a fierce look, and is used to draw children in small carts. The larger species are the common beasts of draught in many parts of India, and draw the hackeries or chariots; and are kept in very high condition. Others are used as pads, are saddled, and go at the rate of twenty miles a day*.

C. Cattle in Abyssinia†, and the isle of Madagascar‡, with lumps on their backs, and horns attached only to the skin, quite pendulous.

D. Cattle in Adel‖ or Adea, and Madagascar, of a snowy whiteness, as large as camels, and with pendulous ears, and hunch backs. They are called in the last, Boury §.

E. white cattle, with black ears, in the isle of Tinian.

EUROPEAN.

F. the lant or dant, described by LEO AFRICANUS, is another beast, perhaps, to be referred to this genus. He says it resembles an ox; but hath smaller legs and comelier horns: that the hair is white; and so swift, as to be one of the rivals in speed with the Barbary horse: The ostrich is the other. If the horfe can overtake either, it is esteemed at a thousand ducats, or a hundred camels. The hoofs are of a jetty blackness: of the hide targets are made, impenetrable by a bullet; and valued at a great price.

G. Of the European cattle, the most famous are those of Holstein and Jutland, which feeding on the rich low warm lowlands,

* Terry's Voy. 155.

Lobo, 70.

Flacourt, 151.

Purchas, II. 1106

§ Flacourt, 151.

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between the two seas, grow to a great size. A good cow yields from twelve to twenty-four quarts of milk in a day. Besides home consumption, about 32,000 are annually sent towards Copenhagen, Hamburg, and Germany. About the Vistula is bred the same kind.

Podolia and the Russian Ukrain, particularly about the rivers Bog, Dnieper, and Dniester, produce a fine breed; tall, large-horned, of a greyish white-colour, with dusky heads and feet, and a dusky line along the back. The calves of those designed for sale fuck a year, and are never worked, which brings them to a larger size than their parents. They are called in Germany, blue oxen, 80 or 90,000 are driven to Konigsberg, Berlin, and Breslaw: the best are fold at 100 six-dollars apiece, or £. 20 sterling; which bring annually a return to their native country of 6,300,000 six-dollars.

Hungary breeds the same kind, and sends annually to Vienna and other parts of Germany about 120,000, which brings back 8,000,000 six-dollars *.

The English breed is derived from the foreign. Our native kind, such as the Welsh and Scottish runts, are small, and often hornless. But by cultivation, many parts of England rival in their cattle many parts of the continent.

The antient Gauls used horns to drink out of; in amplissimis epulis pro proculis utuntur, says Cæfar: if according to Pliny, each horn held an urna, or four gallons, it was a goodly draught. Gesner, in his Icon. Anim. 34, says, he saw a horn, he supposes of an Urus, hung against a pillar in the cathedral of Strasbourg, which was fix feet long. These were probably the horns of oxen, or castrated beasts, which often grow to enormous sizes. The horns of wild cattle being very short.

* Doctor Forster.

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7. AMERICAN BISON.

Taurus mexicanus. Hernandez, mex. 087. de Last, 220. Purchas's Pilgrims, iv. 1561.

Bison ex Florida allatus. Raii syn. quad. 71. Klein quad. 13.

Buffalo. Lawson Carol. 115. Catesby App. xxxvii. du Pratz. II. 49.

Eos bison. B. cornibus divaricatis, juba longiffima, dorfo gibboso. Lin. syst 99.

Zimmerman, 548. No. 3.

Le Bison d'Amerique. Brisson quad. 56. de Buffon, xi. 305.

Le Bceuf de Canada. Charlevoix, v. 193. Ara. Zool. Vol. I. No. 1. 2d Edition.

O. with short black rounded horns, with a great interval between their bases. On the shoulders a vast hunch, consisting of a fleshy substance, much elevated. The fore-parts of the body thick and strong. The hind part slender and weak.

The hunch and head covered with a very long undulated fleece, divided into locks, of a dull rust-color; this is at times so long, as to make the fore-part of the animal of a shapeless appearance, and to obseure its sense of feeing. During winter the whole body is cloathed in the same manner. In summer the hind-part of the body is naked, wrinkled, and dusky. The tail is about afoot long; at the end is a tuft of black hairs, the rest naked.

PLACE.

Inhabits Mexico and the interior parts of North America. Is found in great herds in the Savannas; fond of marshy places; lodges amidst the high reeds: is very fierce and dangerous; but if taken young, is capable of being tamed. Will breed with the common kind. The only animal, analogous to the domestic kinds, found by the Europeans on their arrival in the new world. Weighs from 1600 to 2900 weight.

SIZE.

These animals are the same with the bison and other cattle, in a

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SAME WITH THE EUROPEAN BIMON.

wild state, and to be common to Europe and America. For a fuller account, see American Zoology, No. 1. I shall only say here, that before the arrival of the Europeans, the domestic cattle were entirely unknown in the new world. They were equally strangers to Kamtschatka, its wild neighbor on the eaftern side of Asia, till very lately, when they were introduced by the Russians; the first discoverers of that country.

DOMESTIC CATTLE BEAR ALL CLIMATES.

Domestic cattle bear nearly each extreme of climate; enduring the heats of Africa and India; and live and breed within a small distance of the arctic circle, at Quickjock, in Secha Lapmark. So that Providence hath kindly ordered that cows, the most useful of quadrupeds, and corn, the great support of life, should bear the seasons of every country in which mankind can live.

8. GRUNTING.

Vacca grunniens villosa cauda equina, Sarluk. Nev. com. Petrop. v. 339. Rubruquis voy. Harris coll. I. 571.

Bos grunniens. B. cornibus teretibus extrorsum curvatis, vellere propendente, cauda undique jubata. Lin. syst. 99.

Zimmerman, 548, No. 2.

Le vache de Tartarie. De Buffon, xv. 136.

Le bœuf velu. Le Brun voy. Moscov, I. 120.

Bubel. Bell's Travels, I. 224.

Le Bussle a queue de cheval.

Pallas in act. acad. Petrop. I. pars H. 332.

O. with a short head, broad nose, thick and hanging lips. Ears large, beset with coarse bristly hairs, pointed downwards, but not pendulous. Horns short*, slender, rounded, up-

* On the authority of Mr Bogle, a most ingenious and observant traveller, who of late years penetrated from India into Thibet. See Phil. Tranf. LXVIII. 465.

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right, and bending, and very sharp-pointed. They are placed remote at their bases, between which the hair forms a long curling tust. The hair in the middle of the forehead radiated.

The space between the shoulders much elevated. Along the neck is a fort of mane, which in some extends along the top of the back to the tail. The whole body, especially the lower parts, the throat, and neck, are covered with hairs, so long as to conceal at left half the legs, and make them appear very short. All the other parts of the body are covered with long hairs like those of a he-goat. The hoofs are large: the false hoofs project much; are convex without, concave within.

TAIL.

Its most obvious specific mark is the tail, which, in the words of Mr. Bogle, spreads out broad and long, with flowing hairs like that of a beautiful mare, of a most elegant silky texture, and of a glossy silvery-color. There is one preserved in the British Museum, not less than six feet long.

COLOR.

The color of the head and body is usually black; but that of the mane of the same color with the tail.

SIZE.

Doctor Pallas compares the size of those which he saw to that of a small domestic cow. But the growth of these was probably checked by being brought very young from their native country into Sibiria. Mr. Bogle speaks of them as larger than the common Thibet breed. Marco Polo* says, that the wild kind; which he saw on his travels, were nearly as large as elephants.

* GUILLAUME de Rubruquis, a friar sent by Louis IX. or St. Louis, ambassador to the Khan of Tartary, in 1253, wrote his extensive travels, and addressed them to his master. See Purchas, III. i. 22. Marco Polo was a Venetian gentleman, who, in the same century, also vifited Tartary and many other distant countries. Purchas, III. 65. 79.

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He may exaggerate; but the tail in the British Museum is a proof of their great size, for it is fix feet long, yet probably did not touch the ground; for all the figures of the animal which I have seen, do not make that part, descend quite to the heels.

PLACE.

FIERCENESS.

These animals, in the time of Rubruquis and Marco Polo, were very frequent in the country of Tangut, the present feat of the Mongol Tartars. They were found both wild and domesticated. They are in these davs more rare, but are met with in abundance (I believe) in both states, in the kingdom of Thibet. Even when fubjugated, they retain their fierce nature, and are particularly irritated at the fight of red or any gay colors. Their rising anger is perceived by the shaking their bodies, raising and moving their tails, and the menacing looks of their eyes. Their attacks are so sudden and so rapid, that it is very difficult to avoid them. The wild breed, which is called Bucha, is very tremendous: if, in the chace, they are not slain on the spot, they grow so furious from the wound, they will pursue the affailant; and if they overtake him, they never desist tolling him on their horns into the air, as long as life remains *. They will copulate with domestic cows. In the time of Marco Polo, this half-breed was used for the plough, and for bearing of burdens†, being more tractable than the others: but even the genuine breed were so far tamed as to draw the waggons of the Nomades or wandering Tartars. To prevent mischief, the owners always cut off the sharp points of the horns. The tamed kinds vary in color to red and black, and some have horns white as ivory‡

* Gmelin in n. com. Petrop, v. 331.

Purchas, III. 79.

Witfen, as quoted by Dr. Pallas.

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VARIETIES.

HORNLESS.

There are two varieties of the domesticated kinds, one called in the Mongol language Ghainouk, the other Sariyk. The first of the original Thibet race, the other a degenerated kind. Many are also destitute of horns, but have on the front, in their place, such a thickness of bone, that it is with the utmost difficulty that the persons employed to kill them, can knock them down with repeated blows of the ax *.

VOICE.

Their voice is very singular, being like the grunting of the hog.

BEZOAR.

VALUE OF THEIR TAILS.

A Bezoar† is said to be sometimes found in their stomachs, in high esteem among the oriental nations: but the most valuable part of them is the tail, which forms one of the four great articles of commerce in Thibet. They are sold at a high price, and are mounted on silver handles, and used as chowras or brushes to chase away the flies. In India no man of sashion ever goes out, or 'fits in form at home, without two chowrazvbadars or brushers attending him, each furnished with an instrument of this kind ‡. The tails are also saftened by way of ornament to the ears of elephants ‖, and the Chinese dye the hair red, and form it into tusts, to adorn their "summer bonnets. Frequent mention is made of these animals in the sacred books of the Mongols: the cow being with them an object of Worship, as it is with most of the orientalists.

ÆELIAN'S ACCOUNT OF THEM.

Of the antients, Ælian is the only one who takes notice of this singular species. Amidst his immense sarrago of sables, he gives a very good account of it, under the name of the Poe "phagus, an Indian animal larger than a horse, with a most thick

* Pallas.

Whitfen, as quoted by Dr. Pallas.

‡ Mr. Bogle.

Bernier, Voy, Kacbemire. 124.

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"tail, and black, composed of hairs siner than the human. Highly valued by the Indian ladies for ornamenting their heads; each hair he says was two cubits long. It was the most fearful of animals and very swift. When it was chaced by men or dogs, and found itself nearly overtaken, it would face its pursuers, and hide its hind parts in some bush, and wait for them: imagining that if it could conceal its tail which was the object they were in search of, that it would escape unhurt. The hunters shot at it with poisoned arrows, and when they had slain the animal, took only the tail and;" hide, making no use of the flesh *.

9. BUFFALO.

οεσ ωγξο ε αξα ωοσ Arift. hist. lib. ii. C. i.

Bos Indicus. Plirt. lib. viii. c. 45. Bubalus. Gefner quad. 122. Raii syn. quad. 72. Klein quad. 10.

Taur. elephantes Ludolpb. Æthiop. I. lib. i. c. 10. II. 145.

Buffalo. Dellon voy. 82. Faunul. Sinens.

Bos cornibus compressis, sursum reflexis, resupinatis, fronte crispa. Brisson quad. 54.

Bos cornibus resupinatis intortis, antice planis. Lin. syst. 99.

Zimmerman. 369.

Le Buffle. De Buffon xi. 284. tab. xxv. Br. yiuf. Ashm. Mus. LEV MUS.

O. with large horns, straight for a great length from their base, then bending upwards; not round, but compressed, and one side sharp. Skin almost naked, and black. Those about the cape of Good Hope of a dusky red. The head is proportionably lesser than the common ox; the ears larger: nose broad and square: eyes white: no dewlaps. The limbs long; body square; tail shotter, and more slender than that of our common cattle.

* Ælian de an. lib, xvi. c. xi. p. 329.

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SIZE.

It grows to a very great size, if we may form a judgment from the horns. In the British Museum is a pair fix feet fix inches and a half long, it weighs twenty-one pounds, and the hollow will contain five quarts. Lobo mentions some in Abyssinia, which would hold ten. Dellon saw some in India ten feet long. They are sometimes wrinkled, but often smooth.

PLACE.

These animals are found wild in Malabar, Borneo, and Ceylon *. They are excessively fierce and dangerous if attacked: they fear fire; and are greatly provoked at the sight of red. They are very fond of wallowing in the mud; love the sides of rivers; and swim very well.

USES.

They are domesticated in Africa, India, and Italy, and are used for their milk and their flesh, which is far inferior to the bcommon beef: much cheese is also produced from the milk. The horns are much esteemed in manufactories; and of their skin is made an impenetrable buss.

They form a distinct race from the common cattle. They will not copulate together, neither will the female buffaloes suffer a common calf to fuck them; nor will the domestic cow permit the same from the young buffalo. A buffalo goes twelve months with young; our cows only nine†.

The buffaloes of Abyssinia grow to twice the size of our largest oxen, and are called taur-elephantes, not only on that account, but because their skins are naked and black like that of the elephant.

They are very common in Italy, originally introduced into Lombardy from India by king Agilulf, who reigned from 591 to

* Dillon, 82. Beckman, 36. Knox. 21.

† Journal historique, &c. 39.

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616*. They are said to have grown wild in Apuglia, and to be very common, in hot weather, on the sea-shore between Manfredonia and Barletta.

The tamed kind are used in Italy for the dairy and the draught. In India and Africa for both; and in some parts of India also for the saddle.

Aristotle describes these animals very well under the title of wild oxen, among the Arachotæ, in the northern part of India, bordering on Persia. He gives them great strength, a black color, and their horns bending upwards more than those of the common kind. Pliny probably means a large breed of this kind, as high as a camel, with horns extending four feet between tip and tip.

A. Naked: a small sort, exhibited in London some years ago, under the name of Bonasus; of the size of a runt: hair on the body bristly, and very thin, so that the skin appeared: the rump and thighs quite bare: the first marked on each side with two dusky stripes pointing downward, the last with two transverse stripes: horns compressed sideways, taper, sharp at the point. East Indies.

B. The Anoa is a very small species of buffalo, of the size of a middling sheep. They are wild, in small herds, in the mountains of Celebes, which are full of caverns. Are taken with great difficulty; and even in confinement are so fierce, that Mr. Soten lost in one night fourteen flags, which were kept in the same paddock, whose bellies they ripped up.

* Tunc primum caballi sylvatici et Bubali in Italiam delati, Italia populis miraculo fuerunt. Warnesridi de gestis Longobarder. Lib. iv. c. ii. Misson's: voy. iv. 392.

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C. The Gauvera is a species of ox found in Ceylon, and described by Knox, p. 21; who says, its back stands up in a sharp ridge, and whose legs are white half way from the hoofs. I have received an account of hunch-backed oxen being found in that island, which are probably the animals intended by Mr. Knox.

10. MUSK.

Le Bœuf Musque. de M. Jeremie, Voyages au Nord. iii. 314. Charlevoix.

v. 194. Arct. Zool, vol. I. No. 2. LEV. MUS.

BULL.

O. with horns very closely united at the base, bending in-wards and downwards, and turning outwards at their points; two feet round at the base, and vastly prominent, rising just on the top of the forehead; length only two feet; very sharp at the points: head and body universally covered with very long dusky hairs, of a dark color: some of the hairs are seven-teen inches long. Beneath them, in all parts, in great plenty, and often in flocks, is a cinereous wool of exquisite fineness. M. Jeremie brought some to France, of which stockings were made more beautiful than those of silk. The tail is only three inches long, a mere stump, covered with very long hairs.

TAIL.

THE COW.

The horns of the cow are nine inches distant from each other at the base, and are placed exactly on the sides of the head; are thirteen inches long, and eight inches and a half round at the base. The flesh scents strong of musk: the length of the skin of the cow was six feet four inches; including the head, which was fourteen inches long: the legs very short: the hair trails on the ground, so that the whole animal seems a shapeless mass, without distinction of head or tail: the shoulders rise into a lump. In size lower than a deer.

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This animal is very local: it appears first between Churchill river and those of Seals on the western side of Hudson's Bay: are very numerous between Lat. 66. and 73 North; and go in herds of twenty and thirty: delight in barren and rocky mountains: and run nimbly, and are very active in climbing the rocks: seldom frequent the woody parts: are shot by the Indians for the fake, of the skins; which make the best and warmest blankets.

They are found again among the Cris, or Criftinaux, and the Assinibouels, and among the Attimospiquay: are continued from these countries southward as low as the provinces of Nievera and Libola: for Father Marco di Nica and Gomara plainly describe both kinds*.

A part of this species has been found in the north of Asia, the head of one having been discovered in Sibiria, on the arctic mossy flats, near the mouth of the Oby. It is to Doctor Pallas † I owe the account; who does not speak of this kind as being fossil, but suspects that the whole carcase was brought on floating ice from America, and deposited where the scull was found. If this is certain, it proves that these animals spread quite across the continent of America from Hudson's Bay to the Asiatic feas.

11. Cape.

O. with the face covered with long harsh black hair. Chin, underside of the neck, and dewlap, covered with long, pendulous, and coarse hairs of the same color. From the horns, along the top of the neck, to the middle of the back, is a long loose black mane. Body covered with short, dark, cinereous

* Purchas, iv. 1561, v. 854,

† Nov. com. xvii. 601. tab. 17.

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hair: base of the tail almost naked and cinereous, the rest full of long black hair. Skin thick and tough.

HORNS.

Horns* thick at the base, bend outwards, then suddenly invert. Length along the curve one foot nine: from tip to tip eight inches and a half. Between each at the base three inches. The horns, tab. fig. iii. p. 9. of my former edition, which I attributed to the next species, most probably are those of a young animal of this kind. They are described by Grew, p. 26. of his account of the Museum of the Royal Society; but he improperly thinks them the horns of the common buffalo.

Length from nose to tail, of one not of the largest size, is eight feet: the height five and a half. Depth of the body three feet: length of the head one foot nine: of the trunk of the tail one foot nine: to the end of the hairs, two feet nine. Body and limbs thick and strong. Fore legs two feet and a half long.

HAIR.

The face is covered with black coarse hairs. From the chin along the throat and dewlap was a quantity of very long pendulous hairs, and from the hind part of the horns, ran on the middle of the back a long loose black mane. The body was covered with short dark cinereous hair. The base of the tail almost naked: the rest full of long black hair. In aged bulls the hair is of a deep brown color, about an inch long, and very thin†. The former I described from a very entire skin, brought from the Cape by Sir JOSEPH BANKS. It agreed in all the measurements with a bull of this species killed by Doctor Sparman in his African expedition, excepting in the horns: it possibly might have

* M. de Buffon has engraven the horns, vol. xi. 416. tab. xli.

Sparman's travels. II. 64. tab. II.

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OTHER HORNS.

been the skin of a younger animal, or of a female. Those described by Mr. Sparman occupied at their bases a circumference of about eighteen or twenty inches, and were placed about an inch distant from each other. Their upper surface was much elevated and very rugged, with hollows an inch deep. They spread far over the head towards the eyes, then grew taper and bent down on each side of the neck and the ends inclined backwards and upwards. The space between the point sometimes is not less than five feet. The weight of a pair in the Leverian Museum was twenty five pounds. The ears are a foot long, and swag in a pendulous manner beneath the bottom of the horns.

PLACE.

FIERCENESS AND CRUELTY.

They inhabit the interior parts of Africa, north of the Cape of Good Hope; but, I believe, do not extend to the north of the Tropic. They are greatly superior in size to the largest English ox: hang their heads down, and have a most fierce and malevolent appearance, which is increased by a method they have of holding their heads aside, and looking askance with their eyes sunk beneath the prominent orbits: are excessively fierce and dangerous to travellers: will lie quietly in wait in the woods, and rush suddenly on passengers, and trample them, their horses, and oxen of draught, under their feet*: so that they are to be shunned as the most cruel beasts of this country. They are not content with the death of man or animal which have fallen in their way; but they will return to the slaughtered bodies as if to satiate their revenge, stand over them for a time, trample on them, crush them with their knees, and with horns and teeth deliberately mangle the whole body; repeating this species of insult at certain intervals, and with their rough tongues entirely strip off by licking, the skin from

* Forfer's Voy. i. 83, Maffon's Trans, Phil. Tranf. lxvi. 296,

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corps, exactly in the manner in which Oppian informs us that the Thracian bisons did the slain in times of old. They are prodigiously swift, and so strong, that a young one of three years of age, being placed with fix tame oxen in a waggon, could not by their united force be moved from the spot.

They are also found in the interior parts of Guinea *but are so fierce and dangerous, that the negroes who are in chace of other animals are fearful of shooting at them. The lion, which can break the back of the strongest domestic oxen at one blow, cannot kill this species, except by leaping on its back, and suffocating it, by fixing its talons about its nose and mouth †. The lion often perishes in the attempt; but leaves the marks of its fury about the mouth and nose of the beast. It loves much to roll in the mud, and is fond of the water.

The flesh is coarse, but juicy, and has the flavor of venison; and the marrow most delicate. The bones are of most uncommon strength and hardness. The animals are lliot with balls of the weight of two ounces and a quarter, and hardened by an alloy of tin, yet are usually flattened or shivered to pieces when they happen to strike against a bone.

The hides are thick and tough, and of the first use among the African colonists for the making of thongs, halters, and harnesses. On them alone they depend on security of their horses or oxen, which, on the approach of a lion or other wild beast, would snap any other in their efforts to get loose.

They live in great herds, even of thousands, especially in Krake-

* Mr. Smeatbman, a gentleman long refident in Guinea on philofophical refearches.

Sparman, Stock, Welt, Handl. 1779, p. 79. tab. iii. and Travels, II. 63.

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Kamma, and other deserts of the Cape; and retire during day into the thick forests. They are called by the Hottentots t'Kau, by the Dutch of the Cape Aurochs, but differ totally from the European.

Another species of Aurochs is briefly described by the Dutch travellers*; who say it is like the common ox, but larger, and of a grey color; that its head is small, and horns short; that the hairs on the breast are curled; that it has a beard like a goat; and that it is so swift, that the Namacques call it Baas, or the Mafter-couricr. They distinguish this from the Gnou, No. 16 of this work, or I should think it the same animal.

12. DWARF.

Un moult beau petit bceuf d'Afrique, Beton voy. 119, 120.

Bos Indicus. B. cornibus aure brevio-ribus, dorfo gibbo juba, nulla. Lin, syst. 99.

Zimmerman, 459. No. 6.

O. with horns receding in the middle, almost meeting at the points, and standing erect: in body larger than a roe-buck, less than a flag: compact and well made in all its limbs: hair shining, of a tawny brown: legs short, neck thick, shoulders a little elevated: tail terminated with long hairs, twice as coarse as those of a horse.

This species is described by Belon, who met with it at Cairo; but he says, that it was brought from Asamie, the present Azafi, a province of Morocco, feated on the ocean. I suspect it to be the lant, mentioned, p. 17, which may vary in color.

* Journal historique, 43. 46.

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III. SHEEP.

Horns twisted spirally, and pointing outwards.
Eight cutting teeth in the lower jaw, none in the upper.

13. COMMON.

Ovis. Plinii. lil. viii. c. 47. Gefner quad. 771. Raii syn. quad. 73.

Widder Schaaf. Klein quad. 13.

La brebis. de Buffon, v. I. tab. I. II.

Aries Laniger cauda rotunda brevi. Brisson quad. 48.

Ovis aries. O. cornibus compressis Iunatis. Lin. syst. 97.

Far. Faun. fuec. No. 45.

Zimmerman. 112.

THE sheep, the most useful of the lesser animals; the source of wealth in civilized nations. England, once the envy of Europe for its vast commerce in the products of this creature, now begins to be rivalled by others, thro' the neglect, the luxury, the too great avidity of our manufacturers. The English wool excellent for almost every purpose. The Spanish extremely fine; the œconomy of the shepherds admirable; as is their vast attention to the business, and their annual migrations with their flocks. The finest fleeces in the world are those of Caramauia *, referved entirely for the Moulhaes and priests; those of Cache mire † excellent; and the Lamb-lkins of Butcharia exquifite ‡.

The sheep in its nature harmless and timid: resists by butting

* Chardin's 'Traveh in Harris's Coll ii. 878. and Tavernier, i. 40.

Bernier's Voy. ii. 94.

Bell's Travels, i. 46. These fkins bear a great price, have a fine glofs, and rich look.

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with its horns: threatens by stamping with its foot: drinks little: generally brings one at a rime, sometimes two, rarely three: goes about five months with young: is subject to the rot; worms in its liver; the vertigo.

A. COMMON Sh,

With large horns, twifting spirally and outwardly.

Ovis rustica. Lin. syst. 97. Zimmerman. 112. LEV. MUS.

Sheep have their teeth, when they feed in certain pastures, incrusted and gilt with pyritical matter; which has been observed in the sheep of Ægypt, Anti-Lebanon, and Scotland*. I never saw an instance of it in those animals: but have met with the teeth of oxen, in the Blair of Athol, N. Britain, covered with a gold-colored substance. Lin. syst. 98

B. CRETAN Sh. Ovis Strepficeros.Raii syn. quad. 75. Cornibus rectis carinatis slexuoso-spiralibus.Lin. syst.

La Chevre de Crete. Brisson quad. 48. Zimmerman. 131.

Strepsicheros ou McutondeCW/u. Belan voy. 16. Geftner quod. 308. Icon. 15.

Has large horns, quite erect, and twisted like a screw; common in Hungary. Is called by the Austrians, Zackl; and is almost

* Haffelquift's Trav, 192. Sib. Scot. lib. iii. 8.

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the only kind which the butchers deal in *. Great flocks are found on Mount Ida in Crete De Buffon has given figures of a ram and ewe, under the n. me of Vallacbtan Sheep†.

C. HORNLESS. Ovis Anglica. Lin. syst. 97.

Common in many parts of England; the largest in Lincolnshire, the left horned fheep in Wales.

D. Many-horned. Ovis polycerata. Lin. syst. 97. de Buffon xi. tab. xxxi.

suppl. iii. p. 73. Zimmerman, 127. 128. LEV. MUS.

Common in Iceland, and other parts of the North; they have usually three horns, sometimes four, and even five. Many horned sheep are also very common in Sibiria, among the Tartarian flocks, about the river Jenefei‡ The horns of these grow very irregularly, and form a variety totally different from the next.

E. I have engraven a very singular ram, with two upright and two lateral horns: body covered with wool: fore part of the neck with yellowish hairs, 14 inches in length: was alive in London a few years ago: very mischievous and pugnacious: the horns the same with those in Grew, tab. ii. M. De Buffon has engraven one of the same kind, but with only two horns, under the name of Le Morvant de la Chine ‖. The animal which I saw

* Kramer anim. Aufiria, 322.

† Suppl. iii. 66. tab. vii. viii.

‡ Pallas Spicil. Zool. sasc. xi. 71. tab. iv. & v.

‖ Sttppl, iii. 68. tub. X.

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was brought from Spain; but I am uncertain whether it was a native of that country.

F. A most elegant species, brought from Guinea, and presented to me by Richard Wilding, Esq; of Llanrhaidr, in Denbighshire. It was small of stature, and most beautifully limbed. The hair of a ilvery whiteness, and quite silky; on the fore and hind part of the neck of a great length, especially in front; half of the nose was of a jetty blackness; on each knee and on each ham was black spot; the footlock and feet black. It had only two horns.

In the month of November it began to assume a soft woolly coat, like that of the English sheep: so sensibly was it influenced by climate. When I first received this animal it was extremely gentle; attended, me like a dog, in all my walks; and leaped over every stile in its way. It afterwards (on being introduced to some females) grew so vicious as to become dangerous, so I was obliged to send it to a mountain-inclosure, where it died.

G. AFRICAN. Aries guineensis. Margrave Brasil. 134. Raii syn. quad. 75

Le Belier des Indes. de Buffon. xi. 362. tab. xxxiv. &c.

Ovis guineensis. O. auribus pendulis, palearibus laxis pilosis. Lin. syst.. 98. Zimmerman. 131.

La Brebis de Guinee. Brisson quad. 51.

Sheep of Sahara. Shaw's travels, 241.

Carnero or Bell wether. Della Valle trav. 91.

Meagre; very long legged and tall: short horns: pendent ears, covered with hair instead of wool: short hair: wattles on the neck. Perhaps the Adimain of Leo Africanus, 341; which he says furnishes the Lybians with milk and cheese; is of the size of an ass, shape of a ram, with pendent ears. Della Valle tells us, that at Goa he has seen a wether bridled and saddled, which car-

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ried a boy twelve years old. The Portvguese call them Cabrilto. They are very bad eating.

H. BROAD-TAILED. Ludolph. Æthlop. 53. Ovis arabica. Caii opusc. 72. Gesner quad. Icon. 15. Fannul. Sinens.

Ovis laticauda. Raii syn. quad. 74. Zimmerman. 129. Lin. syst. 97. Brisson quad. 50. Nov. Com. Petrop. v. 347. tab. viii.

Le Mouton de Barbarie. de Buffon, xi. 355. tab. xxxiii. Shaw's travels 241 Russel's Aleppo, 51.

Common in Syria, Barbary, and Æthiopia. Some of their tails end in a point, but oftener square or round. They are so long as to trail on the ground, and the shepherds are obliged to put boards with small wheels under the tails to keep them from galling. These tails are esteemed a great delicacy, are of a substance between fat and marrow, and are eaten with the lean of the mutton. Some of these tails weigh 50lb. each.

The short thick-tailed sheep are common among the Tartars*

The broad-tailed lheep are found in the kingdom of Thibet; and their sleeces, in fineness, beauty, and length, are equal even to those of Caramania. The Cachemirtans engross this article, and have factors in all parts of Thibet for buying up the wool, which is sent into Cachemir, and worked into shauls, superior in elegance to those woven even from the sleeces of their own country. This manufacture is a considerable source of wealth†. Bernier relates, that in his days, jhauls made expressly for the great omrahs, of the Thibetian wool, coft a hundred and fifty rou-

* Pallas Spicil. Zool. fafc. xi. tab. iv. fig. 2. a.

† Phil. Tranf. Ixvii. 485. From Mr. Bogh's account.

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pees: whereas those made of the wool of the country never cost more than fifty *.

These articles of luxury have, till of late, been fuppofedto have been made with the hair of a goat, till we were undeceived by Mr. Bogle, a gentleman sent by Mr. Hastings on a commission to the Tayshoo Lama of Thibet. His account of that diftant country is instructive and entertaining. We have sufficient in the Philosophical Transactions to make us regret that we have not the whole of that memorable mission.

Both the broad-tailed and long-tailed varieties were known to the antients. The Syrian are the kind mentioned. Aristotle takes notice of the first, Pliny of the second. One says the tails were a cubit broad; the other, a cubit in length†.

I. The fat-rumped sheep; without tails: arched noses; wattles; pendulous ears; and with curled horns, like the common sheep. The wool coarse, long, and in flocks: legs slender: head black. Ears of the same color, with a bed of white in the middle. The wool is generally white; sometimes black, reddish, and often spotted.

The buttocks appear like two hemispheres, quite naked and sinooth, with the os coccygis between scarcely sensible to the touch. These are composed only of fuet; whence Dr. Pallas properly styles this variety ovis steatopyges. These Cheep grow very large, even to two hundred pounds weight, of which the posteriors weigh forty.

* Bernier's voy. Cachemir. 95. By mistakc he calls it the hair of a goat from Great Thibet.

† Art St. hid. an. viii. c. aS. Plin. viii. c. 48.

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Their bleating is short and deep, more like that of a calf thau sheep.

They abound in all the deferts of Tartary, from the Volga to the Irtis, and the Altaic chain: but are more or less fat according to the nature of the pasture: but most so where the vernal plants are found; and in the summer, where there are herbs replete with juice and salts, and where salt springs and lakes impregnate the vegetation of the country. These monstrous varieties are supposed to originate from disease, arising from an excess of fat in the hind parts, which involved *, and at length destroyed the tail.

By breeding between animals similarly affected, the breed was continued in those parts where food and climate have concurred to support the same appearances. Those with fat tails, mentioned in the variety G, are rather in the way to exhibit such Angularity as this variety, or are a mixed breed between the common and the tail-less kind.

All abound so greatly in Tartary, that 150,000 have been sold annually at the Orenburg fairs, and a much greater number at Troinkaja, in the Irkutsk government, bought from the Kirgisian Tartars, and dispersed through Russia. They are very prolisic: usually bring two at a time, often three.

The next to be taken notice of is the stock from which the whole domestic race is derived.

* This is exemplified in fig. 1. tab. iv. Zimmerman. 132.

G 2

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H. WILD.

Musimon, Plinii lib. viii. c. 49.

Ophion, lib. xxviii. c. 9. xxx. c. 15. Musmon seu Musimon, Gesner quad. 823. Zimmerman, 114. 546.

Capra Ammon, lin. syst. 97.

Le Chamois de Siberie, Brisson quad. 42. & la chevre du Levant, 46.

Le Mouslon, de Buffon, xi. 352. tab. xxix.

Rupicapra cornubus arietinis. Argali, Nov. com. Petrop. iv. 45, 388. tab. viii.

SIBIRIAN.

I. Sh. with horns placed on the summit of the head, close at their bases, rising at first upright, then bending down and twitting outward, like those of the common ram; angular, wrinkled transversely. In the FEMALES lesser and more upright, and bending backwards.

Head like a ram; ears lesser than in that animal; neck slender; body large; limbs slender but strong; tail very little more than three inches long: hoofs small, and like those of a sheep.

SUMMER COAT.

Hair in the summer very short and smooth, like that of a flag: the head grey: the neck and body brownish, mixed with ash-colour: at the back of the neck, and behind each shoulder, a dusky spot: space about the tail yellowish.

WINTER.

In the winter, the end of the nose is white; face cinereous; back ferruginous, mixed with grey, growing yellowish towards the rump: the rump, tail, and belly white: the coat in this season rough, waved, and a little curling; an inch and a half long; about the neck two inches; and beneath the throat still longer.

* It is called by the Kirgifean Tartars, Argali, perhaps from Arga, an Alpine summit: the ram, Guldjha. By the Kamtfcbatkans, Goadinachtcb; and by the Kuritiars, Rikun-donotoh, or the Upper Rein Deer, from its inhabiting the loftier parts of the mountains. The Russians style it Stepnoi Barann, or the Ram of the Desert; Kamennoi, or the Rock Ram, and Dikoi, or the wild. PALLAS.

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SIZE.

The usual size of the male is that of a smaller hind; the females less: the form strong and nervous.

2. The second animal which I describe related to this species, is the Mouσμο of Strabo, and Musnon of Pliny; perhaps also the Ophion'of the latter, and the wild rani of Oppian*, which with its horns often laid proftrate even the wild boar. These were natives of Spain, Sardinia, and Corfica, and are still existing in those islands. I have seen a pair from the first at Taymouth, the feat of the Earl of Breadalbane, and another pair from the last at Shugborough, the feat of the late Thomas Anson, Esq.

CORSICAN.

The last I describe thus. The height of the male, to the top of the shoulders was two feet and a half: irides a light yellowish hazel; horns, ten inches and a half long, five and a half round at the base, twelve inches distant between tip and tip: ftnus lacrymalis very long. Ears short and pointed; brown and hoary without, white within. Head short and brown; lower part of the cheeks black; sides of the neck tawny: lower part covered with pendent hairs six inches long, and black. Body and shoulders covered with brown hairs, tipped with tawny: on the middle of the sides a white mark pointing from the back to the belly. Belly, rump, and legs white; the last have a dusky line on their insides. Tail short: scrotum (as common to all) pendulous, like that of a ram.

The remains of Martino, a male animal of this kind, imported from Corfica by the illustrious defender of the liberties of his. country, General Paoli, is now preserved in the Leverian Mufeimu It was of the age of four years at the time of its decease. Its

* Cyneg. ii. 330. Ophjon Rtinti lib. xxviii. c. 9. xxx. c. 15.

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horns aretwenty-two inches long; the space between tip and tip near eleven; the girth near the base the same. This poor animal had the ill fortune to fall, in our land of freedom, into heavy slavery, and hard usage, in the latter part of his life, which Uinted its growth, and prevented the luxuriancy of its horns; which ought, at its age, to have had the volutes of a largehorned ram, to have been fifteen inches round at the base, and to have resembled those of the painting by Oudry.

The colors of this specimen differed a little from the others, On the front of the neck is a large spot of white. The shoulders were covered with black hairs; bright and glofiy in a state of vigor. On each side of the back, near the loins, is a large bed of white. The eyes, when in health, large, bright, and expressive.

The male, in its native country, is called Mufro, the female Mufra. They inhabit the highest parts of the Corsican alps, unless forced down by the snows into rather lower regions. They are so wild, and so fearful of mankind, that the old ones are never taken alive: but are shot by the chasseurs, who lie in wait for them.

The females bring forth in the beginning of May, and the young are often caught after their dam is shot. They instantly grow tame, familiar, and attach themselves to their maften. They will copulate with the sheep: there is now an instance in England of a breed between the ram of this species, and a common ewe. They are likewise very fond of the company of goats.

In a wild state, they feed on the most acrid plants: and when tame will eat tobacco, and drink wine.

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Their flesh is savory, but always lean. The horns are used for powder-slasks, slung in a belt, by the Corsican peasants; and some are large enough to hold four or five pounds, of twelve ounces each.

MASTRRUCA SAR DORSM.

The Sardinians make use of the skins dressed, and wear them under their skirts, under the notion of preserving them against bad air. They also wear a surtout without sleeves, made of the same materials, which falls below the knees, and wraps close about their bodies. The skin is very thick, and might have been proof against arrows, when those missle weapons were in use. At present these furtouts are worn to defend them against briars and thorns, in passing through thickets. In all probability they are the very same kind of garment as the mastrucasardorum*, which the commentators on Cicero suppose to have been made of the skins of the Mufro: and the Mastrucati Latrunculi † the people who wore them. This is in a manner confirmed, as they are still in use with the latre or banditti of the island; who find the benefit of them in their impetuous sallies out of the brakes of the country, on the objects of their rapine.

PLACE.

The race is at present extinct in Spain; but is still found in Sardinia and Corsica: whether it exists still in Macedonia ‡, we are ignorant. It is found in these days in great abundance, but confined to the north-east of Asia, beyond the lake Baikal, between the Onon and Argun, and on the east of the Lena to the height of

* Quem purpura regal is non commovit, eum fardorum mastruca tentavit. Oratio pro M. Æmilio Scauro.

† Cum mastrucatis latrunculis a proprastore una cohorte auxiliaria gesta, &c. De Provinciis consul.

‡ Belon has given, in his Observation, &c. See. p. 54. a figure and very accurate defcription of this animal, under the name of Tragelaphus. As he then wrote from Mount Athos, it probably was an inhabitant of the chain of mountains continued from that famous promontory.

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lat. 60; and from die Lena to Kamtfchatkn; and perhaps the Kurili islands. It abounds on the desert mountains of Mongolia, Songaria and Tartary. It inhabits the mountains of Persia, and the north of Indostan*. The breed once extended further west, even to the Irtis; but as population increased, they have retired to their present haunts, shunning those of mankind.

CALIFORNIA.

It is probable that these animals are also found in California. The Jesuits who visited that country in 1697, say that they found a species of sheep as big as a cals of a year or two old, with a head like that of a stag, and enormous horns like those of a ram; and with tail and hair shorter than that of a flag. This is very likely, as the migration from Kamtschatka to America is far from beiner difficult.

ONCE IN BRITAIN.

They were once inhabitants of the British isles. Boethius mentions a pecies of sheep in St. Kilda, larger than the biggest he goat, with tails hanging to the ground, and horns longer, and as thick as those of an ox †. This account, like the rest of his history, is a mixture of truth and fable: I should have been filent on this head, had I not better authority; for I find the figure of this animal on a Roman sculpture, taken out ot Antoninus's wall near Glasgow‡. It accompanies a recumbent female figure, with a rota or wheel, expressive of a via or way, cut possibly into Caledonia; where these animals might, in that early age, have been found. Whether they were the objects of worship, as among the antient Tartars, I will not pretend to fay; for among the graves of those distant Afiatics, brazen images and stone figures of their argali, or wild fheep, are frequently found ‖.

* Dr. PALLAS.

Boetb. desc. Regn. Scotia, 8.

‡ Plates of the fculplures, published by the univerfity of Glasgorv, tab. xvi.

‖ Pallas Spicil. Zool. fafc. xi. 19. Strabler. bcrg's Hist. Russia, tab. B.

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MANNERS.

GREAT HORNS.

Their present habitations, in Sibiria, are the summits of the highest mountains, exposed to the fun, and free from woods. They go in small flocks; copulate in autumn*, and bring forth, in the middle of March, one, and sometimes two young. At that season the females separate from the males, and educate their lambs; which when first dropped are covered with a soft grey curling fleece, which changes into hair late in the summer. At two months age the horns appear, are broad, and like the face of an ax. In the old rams they grow of a vast size. They are sometimes found of the length of two Russian yards, measured along the spires; weigh fifteen pounds apiece; and are so capacious as to give shelter to the little foxess who find them accidentally fallen in the wilderness. Father Rubruquis, the traveller of 1253, first takes notice of these animals, under the name of Artak. He says he had seen some of the horns so large, that he could scarcely list a pair with one hand; and that the Tartars made great drinking-cups with them†.

FOOD.

They feed from spring to autumn in the little vallies among the tops of the mountains, on young shoots and Alpine plants, and grow very fat. Towards winter they descend lower, eat either the dry grass, perennial plants, mosses, or lichens; and are found very lean in the spring. They are then purged by the early pulsatillœ, and other sharp anemonoid plants, of which the tame sheep are also excessively fond. They, besides, at all times of the year, frequent the places abundant in fait, as is frequent in every part of Sibiria, and excavate the ground, in order to get more readily at it. These answer to the licking-places in America, and are the haunts of deer as well as argali.

* Gmelin, in Nov. Com. Petrop. iv. 390.

† Parches, iii. 6.

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They are very fearful of mankind: when closely pursued, they do not run in a progressive course, but obliquely from side to side, in which they shew the nature of sheep. They strive as soon as possible to reach the rocky mountains, which they ascend with great agility; and tread the narrowed paths over the moll dangerous precipices with the greatest safety.

The old rams are very quarrelsome, and have fierce combats among themselves, fighting with their heads, like the common kind. They often strike their antagonist down the lteep precipices; and their horns and bones are frequently found at the bottom; a mark of the fatal effects of their seuds. They will often entangle their horns accidentally, and thus locked, fall down together and perish.

USES.

They are important objects of the chace with the northern Asiatics, for their uses are confiderable. The flesh and fat are esteemed by the natives among the greatest delicacies. Doslor Pallas thought the lamb excellent; but the flesh, and especially the fat, of the old ones less agreeable, when boiled: but if roasted exceedingly good. The skins, with their winter coat, serve as warm raiments and coverlets: the lioms for variety of nccessaries.

CHACE.

The chace of these animals is both dangerous and difficult. As soon as they fee a man, they ascend to the highest peaks of the rocks; and are shot with the utmost stratagem, by winding round the rocks, and coming von them unaware. At other times they aretaken in pit-falls made in the paths which lead to their favorite fait or licking-paces. Elks, flags, and roes, and other wild beasts, are taken in these pits. They are oft times shot with crossbows, placed in the way of their haunts, which discharges its

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arrow whenever the beast treads on a string sastened for that purpose to the trigger. The Mongols and Tungusi use frequently a nobler method of chace, and surround them with horses and dogs. The Kamischatkans pass the latter part of the fummer to December, with all their families, amidst the mountains, in pursuit of these animals*. The old rams are of vast strength. Ten men can scarcely hold one. The young are very easily made tame. The first trial probably gave origin, among a gentle race of mankind, to the domesticating these most useful of quadrupeds: which the rude Kamtschatkans to this moment consider only as objects of the chace, while every other part of the world enjoy their various benefits, reclamed from a state of nature.

Besides the notices before cited, taken of these animals by the antients, I may add, that Varro informs us, that in his days there were wild sheep in Phrygia †. Strabo speaks of the rams of Sardinia, which have hair instead of wool, and are called musmones ‡. Of their skins were made both breast-plates and cloathing.

The antients did not neglect experiments whether they could not improve the breed. Columella ‖ says, that his uncle, M, Columella, a man of strong sense, and an excellent farmer, procured some wild rams, which had been brought among other cattle to Cales from Africa, by way of tribute, which were of a very singular color. These he turned to his common sheep. The first produce was lambs with a rough coat, but of the same color with the rams. These again produced, from the Tar inline ewes, lambs with finer sleeces; and in the third generation, the sleeces.

* Hist. Kamtschatka.

† De re rust. lib, ii. c. i.

‡ Lib. v. p. 344.

‖ De re ruft. lib, vii. c. 2,

H 2

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were as fine as those of the ewes, but the color the same with that of the father and grandfather. This breed was the same which the old Romans called umbri; or spurious *. But there had been once a notion, that the animal itself was no more than an Hybridous production.

Tityrus ex ovibus oritur, hircoque parente:
Musimonem capra exvcrvegno fem/ne gignitf†.

14. BEARDED.

Tragelaphus feu Hirco-cervus, Caii opuse. 59 iblrian Goat. syn, quad. No. II. ed. 1st.

SH. with the hairs on the lower part of the cheeks and upper jaws extremely long, forming a divided or double beard: with hairs on the sides, and body short: on the top of the neck longer, and a little eredt. The whole under part of the neck and shoulders covered with coarse hairs, not less than fourteen inches long. Beneath the hairs, in every part, was a short genuine wool, the rudiments of a fleecy cloathing: the color of the breast, neck, back, and side, a pale ferruginous. Tail very short.

Horns close at their base; recurvated; twenty-five inches long; eleven in circumference in the thickest place; diverging, and bending outwards; their points being nineteen inches distant from each other.

PLACE.

I bought the fkin of this animal in Holland. The person who sold it, informed me that it came from the East Indies: but I

* Plin. Hist. Nat. lib. viii. c. 49.

† An old epigram quoted by Hardouin, on the above passage in Pliny.

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BARBARY

rather imagine it was brought from Barbary, it being probably the same with the Lerzvee or Fishtal of Dodtor Shaw *; who says, that his Lerwee is a moft timorous animal, plunging down the rocks and precipices when pursued.

The same animal was brought into England from Barbary in 1561, and well described by my countryman, Doctor Kay or Caius. He says, that it inhabited the mountanous and rocky parts of Mauritania; and seemed in consinement to be very gentle: full of play, and srolicksome, like a goat. The horns were like those of a ram. They were larger in all respedts than those I describe, so belonged to a larger-sized animal, which he describes to be three feet and a half high to the mane: its whole length, four feet and a half. Under side of the neck covered with very long hairs, falling as low as the knees: the knees covered also transversely with long and thick hair, to preserve them from injury from falls, in any of its vast leaps. In my specimen, those parts were guarded by a callus: perhaps the hairs were rubbed off.

The skin I purchased was defective about the face. I could not therefore remark nor understand the divided beard described by Doctor Caius, till I met with a very fine print, engraven by Basan, from a painting by Oudry, taken from the living animal in the French King's menagery. From the print it appears that there was no beard on the chin; but that it was formed in the manner I describe by the assistance of the engraving, which supplied me with the idea given by the learned physician.

This I believe to be the Tragelaphus of Pliny †, not only on account of its beard, and the great length of hair on its shoul-

* Travels, 243.

† Lib. viii. c, 33.

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ders; but likewise of the place where that Roman naturalist says it was found, near the river Pkcsis; for I am informed by Doctor Pallas, that an animal with a divided beard, probably the same, has lately been discovered by Professor Guildenftaedt, on the mountains of Caucasus; from whose foot* arises the very river, on whose banks were its antient haunts.

This species and the last agree greatly together, the beard excepted, and great length of hair on the breast.

* D'anville.

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IV. GOAT.

Horns bending backward, and almost close ac their base.

Eight cutting teeth in the lower jaw, none in the upper.

The male bearded.

15. IBEX.

Ibex. Plinii lib. viii. c. 53.

Bouc estain. Bclon. obs. 14.. Bouc sauvage. Gaston de Foix. 99. Capricorne. Munstler Cosmogr. 381.

Ibex. Gesner quad. 303. Raii syn. quad. 77. Brisson quad. 39.

Capra Ibex. C. Cornibus supra nodo-fis, in dorfum reclinatis, gulabarbata. Lin. syst. 95 Klein quad. 16.

Le Bouquetin. de Buffon, xii. 136. tab. xiii. xiv. Zimmerman. 114.

Steinbock. Kram. Austr. 321. Ridinger kleine Tbiere, No. 71. Br. Mus. Asbm. Mus. LEV. MUS.

G. with large knotted horns, reclining backwards; sometimes three feet long. Eyes large, head small. Male surnilhed with a dusky beard. Hair rough. Color a deep brown, mixed with some hoary. Legs partly black, partly white. Space under the tail, in some tawny, in others white. Belly of a tawny-white. Tail short. Body short, thick, and strong. Legs strong. Hoofs very short.

Females are lesser than the males; have smaller horns, like those of the common she-goat; and have few knobs on the upper surface.

PLACE.

In Europe, inhabits the Carpathian and Pyrœnean mountains; and on the higher piers of the Sierra de Ronda, in the province of Granada*; in the Grisons country; and in the Vallais, amidst the highest points of the Rhæian Alps, amidst fnovv and glacieres. They are excessively wild, and difficult to be shot: in very fevere weather

* Carter's Hist. Malaga.

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descend a little, in quest of pasturage. The males, during the time of rutting, bray horribly. The females, at the time of parturition, separate from the males, and retire to the side of some rill to bring forth: have one, or at most two, at a time.

Their chace very difficult and dangerous: being very strong, they sometimes tumble the incautious huntsmen over the precipices, except they have time to lie down, and let the animals run over them.

It is said, that if they are hard presled, and cannot escape otherwise, they will fling themselves down the steep precipices, and fall on their horns so as to escape unhurt. Certain it is, that they are often found with one horn, the other being broken by the fall*. Some pretend, that to get out of the reach of the huntsmen, they will hang by their horns over the precipices, by a projecting tree, and remain suspended till the danger is past.

Their flesh is esteemed good. Their blood was once in great repute in pleurifies. They are said not to be long-lived.

It is found in Asia, on the rude summits of that chain of mountains from Taurus, continued between eastern Tartary and Sibiria. It likewise inhabits the tract beyond the Lena; and perhaps Kamtschatha: and a few are found to the east of the Jenesei, The Tartars call them Tau Tokkè, or mountain goats. The horns of these seem more incurvated than those of the European; otherwise they agree.

This animal also inhabits the province of Hedsjœs, in Arabia†, and is called there, Bœden.

Lastly, it is found in the high mountains of Crete; where

* Pallas.

Forskal. iv.

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Belon says, that if one of them is wounded by an arrow, it cures itself by browzing the herb dittany. Pliny says, that flags extract the steeled instrument by the same remedy*. He speaks much of their amazing agility.

The former writer informs us, that there are two species of these animals, and that he had seen the horns of each. This is now verified. The second I call the Caucafan, being lately discovered by professor Guildenstaedt on that vast chain of mountains.

16. CAUCASAN.

Pasen; Capricerva, Kæmpser, Amæn. exot. 398.

Wild goat, Tavernier's Trav. ii. 153. Monardus de Lap. Bezoar 8.

Act. Petrop. Acad. 1779. p. 273.

Æegagus. Pallas Spicil. Zool. xi. 45. tab. v. fig. 2, 3.

Zimmerman, 062. MUS. LEV.

G. with smooth black horns, sharply ridged on their upper parts, and hollowed on their'outward fides. No vestiges of knots or rings, but on the upper surface are some wavy risings: bend much back, like those of the last; are much hooked at the end; approach a little at the points. Length three feet. Are close at the base: one foot distant in the widest part: only eight inches and a half from tip to tip. The weight of a pair in the Leverian Museum weighed ten pounds.

BEARD.

On the chin a great beard, dusky, mixed with chesnut. Forepart of the head black, the sides mixed with brown; the rest of the animal grey, or grey mixed with rust-color. Along the middle of

* Hill. Nat. lib. viii. c. 27.

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the back, from the neck to the tail, is a black list. The belly, inside of the limbs, and space beneath the tail, white. The tail also black.

The female is either destitute of horns, or has very short ones, and is beardless.

SIZE.

In size it is superior to the largest he goats, but in form and agility resembles a stag: yet Monardus compares it to the he goat, and says that it has the feet of the goat.

PLACE.

Inhabits the lostiest and most rude points of Caucasus, among the schistous rocks, and chiefly about the rivers Kuban and Terek. All Asta Minor*, and perhaps the mountains of India. They abound on the inhospitable hills of Laar and Kborazan in Perfia; and according to Monardus are also found in Africa. They may likewise be found in Crete, and even on the Alps; for I find among the figures of animals by that great artist Ridinger, one†whose horns bear a resemblance to those in question. The Tartars and Georgians make use of their horns for drinking cups, and highly esteem their flesh.

AGILITY.

It is an animal of vast agility. Monardus was witnels to the manner of its saving itself from injury by falling on its horns; for he saw that which he describes leap from a high tower, precipitating itself on its horns; then springing on its legs, and leaping about, without receiving the left harm. They go to rut in November, and bring forth in April, therefore, like the common goat, are with young five months.

BEZOAR.

This is one of the animals which yields the once-valued alexipharmic, the Bezoar-stone; which is a concretion formed of many

* Nov. Com. Petrop. xx. 452.

Entwurf Einiger Thiere, 71.

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coats, incrusting a nucleus of small pebble, stones of fruits, bits of straw, or buds of trees. The incrusting coats are created from the vegetable food of the animals, especially the rich, dry, and hot herbs of the Persian and Indian mountains. Its virtues are now exploded, and it is reckoned only an absorbent, and that of the weakest kind.

The orientalists call the true kind Pasabr, from the word Pasen, the name of an animal which produces it in Persia; and from Pasabr is derived the word Bezoar*. It is produced from numbers of animals; from tame goats, cows, antelopes, deer, Lama, pacos, and even porcupines, and the apes of Macassar †. Those which are procured from the American animals are called occidental, and were left esteemed. But the oriental were so highly valued, that Tavernier sold one, weighing 4½ oz. for 2000 livres.

THIS ONE STOCS OF THE TAME GOATS.

Since the discovery of this species of goat, to it must be given the origin of the tame, as there is the greatest conformity between its horns and those of the domestic kinds; unless we can suppose that the latter, from their way of life, have lost the knots, the great character of the ibex, which I once supposed to be their only stock. I cannot help thinking with Doctor Pallas, that they may be derived from both, especially as we are assured that an union between the ibex and the goats will produce a fruitful off spring‡: yet Mr. Guldenstaedt says that the mountaineers of Caucasus never have observed them to mix or couple with the common goats. I will therefore now proceed to the tame goat, and all its varieties.

* Kæmpfer.

Tavernier, ii. 154.

Pallas Sp, Zool= xi. 48.

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α DOMESTIC. Cadra, Gesner quad. 266. Raii syn. quad. 77.

C. hircus, Lin. syst. C. cornibus carinatis arcuatis. 94.

Ges. Faun. suec. No 44. Siegen Bock, Siege Klein quad. 15.

Le Bouc, la chevre de Buffon. v. 59. Brisson quad. 38.

Goat, Br. Zool. i. No 5.

The horns of the tame goats have a curvature outwards towards their ends. I have a pair belonging to a Welsh he-goat three feet five inches long, and three feet two inches between tip and tip. The color of the domestic goats varies: the hair in some long: in those of hot countries smooth and short.

PLACE.

Inhabits most parts of the world, either native or naturalized: bears all extremes of weather; being found in Europe as high as Wardbuys in Norway, where they breed and run out the whole year; but in winter only have, during night, the shelter of hovels: feed in that feafon on moss and the bark of sir-trees, and even of the logs cut for fuel. Their skins in Norway and West Bothnia an article of commerce*. Thrive equally well in the hottest part of Africa †, and in India, and its islands ‡.

It is not a native of the new world, having been introduced there sirst by the discoverers of that continent; for the Americans were unacquainted with every domestic animal, with sheep, goats, hogs, cows, and horses ‖. The increase of these animals in

* Doctor SOLANDER.

Bosman, 227.

Dampier, i. 320. Becckman's voyage to Borneo, 36.

Ovalle'i hist. Chile. Churchill's coll. iii. 43. Jacques Carthier's voy. Canada. Hackluyt's coll. iii. 233.

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all parts, especially on the southern tract of that continent, ir prodigious; but in the rigorous climate of Canada the animal in question is too delicate to perpetuate its race *; so that new supplies are annually imported to prevent its extinction. We mention this, as an agreeable essayist: on husbandry †, and the Swedish naturalist ‡, have given to America animals to which it has no clame.

VARIETIES.

No animal seems so subject to varieties (the dog excepted) as the goat; Capræ tamen in multis similitudines transfigurantur, is a very just observation of Pliny § for besides those of Britain and France, are the following, that differ extremely from each other: at the head of these should be placed one not less eminent for its beauty than its use.

β ANGORA: Lin. syst. 94. De Buffon, v. 71. Brisson quad. 39. Zimmerman, 134, LEV. MUS.

A variety that is consined to very narrow bounds; inhabiting only the tract that surrounds Angora and Beibazar, towns in Asiatic Turkey ‖, for the distance of three or four days journey. Strabo † seems to have been acquainted with this kind; for speaking of the river Halys, he says, that there are goats found near it that are not known in other parts.

* De Buffon, ix, 71.

† P. 137.

Syst. nat. p. 95. sp. 6. & 7.

§ Lib. viii. c. 53.

Tournefort's voy. ii. 351.

Lib. xii. p. 823.

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In the form of their body they differ from the common goat, being shorter; their legs too are shorter, their sides broader and slatter, and their horns straiter; but the most valuable characteristic is their hair, which is soft as silk, of a glofly silvery whiteness, and curled in locks of eight or nine inches in length.

USES.

This hair is the basis of our fine camlets, and imported to England in form of thread; for the Turks will not permit it to be exported raw, for a reason that does them honor; because it supports a multitude of poor, who live by spinning it *.

The goatherds of Angora and Beibazar are extremely careful of their flocks, frequently combing and washing them. It is observed, that if they change their climate and pafture, they lose their beauty; we therefore syspest that the design of Baron Alftroemer, a patriotic Swede, turned out fruitless, who imported some into his own country, to propagate the breed, for the sake of their hair.

We imagine that the goats of Cougna (the old Iconium) are varieties of the Angora kind; for Tournefort mentions them together, and says the former are preferred because the latter are all either brown or black.

The horns of the he goat do not bend, but stand diverging from each other; their length is two feet one; the space between tip and tip two feet ten and a half; they are twisted spirally, in a most elegant manner. The horns of the female bend back, and are short.

* Hasselquist's voy. Eng. transl. 191. Tournefort voy. ii. 351. According to Nieuhoss they are also found at Gomron, Churchill's coll. 232.

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γSYRIAN. Capra mambrina seu syriaca.

Gesner quad. 153. Raii syn. Quad. 81.

C. cornibus reclinatis, auribus perdulis, gula barbata. Lin. syst. 95 Brisson quad. 47.

Prosper Alp. hist. Ægypti, i. 229.

Rauwolss's travels, ii. 71. Russel's Aleppo, 62. Zimmerman, 135.

Plentiful in the East: supply Aleppo with milk. Their ears of a vast length, hanging down like those of hounds: are from one to two feet long: sometimes they are so troublesome, that the owners cut off one to enable the animal to feed with more ease. The horns are black and short.

The same species is also found among the Kirghisian Tartars, and sometimes brought down to Astracan.

δ AFRICAN. Capradepressa. C. cornibus erectis apice recurvis. Lin. syst. 95.

Le bouc d'Afrique. De Busson, xiii. 154.tab. xviii. xix. LEV. MUS.

A dwars variety, found in Africa. The male covered with rough hair, and beneath the chin hang two long hairy wattles: the horns short, very thick, and triangular, and lie so close to the scull as almost to penetrate it: the horns of the female are much less, neither has it wattles: its hair is smooth.

WHIDAW. Capra reversa. C. cornibus depressis incurvis minimis cranio incumbentibus, gula barbata. Lin. syst. 95

Le bouc de Juda. De Buffon, xii. 154.tab. xx. xxi.

From Juda or Whidaw, in Africa. A small kind: the horns short, smooth, and turn a little forwards. Linnœus says, that this

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and the preceding came from America; but certainly, before its discovery by the Spaniards, the goat and every other domestic animal was unknown there.

CAPRICORN. Le Cipricorne. De Buffon, xii. 146. tab. xv.

A variety with short horns, the ends turning forward: their sides annulated: the rings more prominent before than behind.

In the country of the Cabonas, north of the Cape of Good Hope, is a species of tame goats resembling the common kind, only that they want horns*.

17. PUDU.

Le Pndu Molina Chili 291. Ovis Pudu Gmelin Lin. 201.

PLACE.

G. with brown hair; round smooth horns turning outwards: size of a kid six months old: no beard; in all other respects has quite the characters of the goat.

Inhabits the Andes; descends at approach of winter, in vast herds, to feed on the southern plains of Chili. The Chilians catch them in great numbers, not only for food, but for the sake of rearing them, in which they have great fuccefs: they are gentle animals, and very soon domesticated.

* Journal historique, 76.

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V. GIRAFFE

Horns short, upright, truncated at the top.
Neck and shoulders of a vast length.
Eight cutting teeth in the lower jaw, the two outmost bilo-bated. No teeth in the upper jaw.

18 CAMELOPARB.

Camelopardalis. Plinii lib. viii. c. 18. Dion Cassius, lib. xliii. Prœnest. pavem. apud Shaw suppl. 88. Oppian cyneg. iii. 466. La Giraffe que les Arabes nomment Zurnapa. Belon obs. 118. 119. Leo Asr. 337. Gesner quad. 160. Raii syn. quad. 90. Brisson quad. 37. De Buffon, xiii. 1.

Cervus Camelopardalis. C. cornibus fimplicibus, pedibus anticis longiffimis. Lin. syst. 92. Tragus Giraffa. Klein. quad. 22. Zimmerman, 534. Sparman's voy. ii. 149. 237. Paterfon's Travels. 125.

G. with short strait horns covered with hair, and truncated at the end and tusted: in the forehead a tubercle, about two inches high, resembling a third horn. The length, according to the measurement given by Mr. Hop in his journal hiftorique, p. 28, from the nose to the tip of the tail above eighteen feet. Height from the crown of the head to the foies of the fore feet seventeen feet: from the top of the rump to the bottom of the hind feet only nine: length of the neck seven: from the withers to the loins only fix: the fore legs not longer than the hind legs; but the shoulders of a vast length, which gives the disproportionate height between the fore and hind parts: the chest extremely projecting, and almost tuberous: head resembles that of a flag: the neck slender and elegant: on the upper part is a short erest mane: the ears large: horns, according to Mr. Paterson, one foot and half an inch long, ending abrupt, and with a tust of hair ifluing from the summit: they are not deciduous.

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The height of that killed by Mr. Paterson was only fifteen feet. The head isosan uniform reddish brown: the neck, back, and sides, outsides of the shoulders and thighs varied with large tessellated, dull rust-colored marks of a square form, with white septaria, or narrow divisions: on the sides the marks are less regular: the belly and legs whitish, faintly spotted: the part of the tail next to the body is covered with short smooth hairs, and the trunk is very slender: towards the end the hairs are very long, black, and coarse; and forming a great tust hanging far beyond the tip of the trunk: the hoofs are cloven, and nine inches broad, and black. This animal wants the spurious hoofs.

The female has four teats. Mr. Paterson saw six of these animals together; possibly they might have been the male and female, with their four young.

PLACE, AND MANNERS.

Inhabits the forests of Æthiopia, and other interior parts of Africa, almost as high as Senegal; but is not found in Guinea, or any of the western parts; and I believe not farther fouth than about lat. 28. 10 *, among the Nemaques on the northern side of the Orange river. It is very timid, but not swift: from the strange length of its fore legs, cannot graze without dividing them to a vast distance; it therefore lives by brouzing the leaves of trees, especially that of the miniofæ and a tree called the wild apricor: kneels like a camel when it would lie down; and is a gentle animal. When it would leap, it lifts up its fore legs and then its hind, like a horse whose fore legs are tied. It runs very badly and aukwardly, but continues its course very long before it stops. It is very difficult to distinguish this animal at a distance, for when slanding they look like a decayed tree by reason of their form, so are

* Journal historique, &c. 24.

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passed by, and by that deception escape. I saw the skin of a young one at Leyden, well stuffed, and preserved; otherwise might possibly have entertained doubts in respect to the existence of so extraordinary a quadruped. Belon's figure very good.

Known to the Romans in early times; appears among the figures in the assemblage of eastern animals on the celebrated Præneftine Pavement, made by the direction of Sylla, and is represented both grazing and brouzing, in its natural attitudes: was exhibited at Rome by the popular Cæfar, among other animals in the Circæan games. Finely and justly described by Oppian.

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VI. ANTELOPE.

Annulated or twisted horns.
Eight broad cutting teeth in the lower jaw; none in the upper.
Inside of the ears marked lengthways with three seathered lines of hair.
Limbs of a light and elegant form.

THE several species that compose this genus, two or three excepted, inhabit the hottest part of the globe; or at left those parts of the temperate zone that lie so near the tropics as to form a doubtful climate.

None therefore, except the Saiga*, and the Chamois, are to be met with in Europe; and, notwithstanding the warmth of South America is suited to their nature, yet not a single species has ever been discovered in any part of the new world. Their proper climates seem therefore to be thofe of Asia and Africa, where the species are very numerous.

As there appears a general agreement in the nature of the species that form this great genus, it will prevent a needless repetition, to observe here, that the Antelopes arc animals generally of a most elegant and active make; of a restless and timid disposition; extremely watchful; of great vivacity; remarkably swisr, re-

* Found between the Don and Dnieper; and, as I have heard, even Tranfylvania.

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markably agile; and most of their boundings fo light, so elastic, as to strike the spectator with astonishment. What is very singular, they will stop in the midst of their course, for a moment gaze at their pursuers, and then resume their flight *.

As the chace of these animals is a favorite diversion with the eastern nations, from that may be collected proofs of the rapid speed of the Antelope tribe. The Grehound, the fleeted of dogs, is usually unequal in the course; and the sportsman is obliged to call in the aid of the Falcon, trained to the work, to seize on the animal and impede its motions, to give the dogs opportunity of overtaking it. In India, and in Persia, a fort of Leopard is made use of in the chace: this is an animal that takes its prey not by swistness of foot, but by the greatness of its springs, by motions similar to that of the Antelope; but should the Leopard fail in its sirst essay, the game escapes †.

The fleetness of this animal was proverbial in the country it inhabited even in the earliest times: the speed of Asahel ‡ is beautifully compared to that of the ‖ Tzebi; and the Gadites were faid to be as swift as the Roes upon the mountains. The sacred writers took their similies from such objects as were before the eyes of the people they addressed themselves to. There is another instance drawn from the same subject; the disciple raifed to life at Foppa was supposed to have been called Tabitha, i. e. Dorcas, or the Antelope, from the beauty of her eyes; and

* Shaw's trav. 244.

Bernier's trav. iv. 45. Voy. de Boullaye le Gouz, 248.

‡ 2 Sam. ii. 18.

Shaw's trav. fuppl. 74; who informs us, that this word should have been translated, the Antelope; not the Roe, as the text has it.

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this is still a common comparifon in the East: Aine el Czazel, or "You have eyes of an ANTELOPE," is the greatest compliment that can be paid to a fine woman*.

Some species of the ANTELOPES form herds of two or three thousands, while others keep in small troops of five or six. They generally reside in hilly countries; though some inhabit plains: they often bronze like the goat, and feed on the tender shoots of trees, which gives their flesh an exellent flavor. This is to be understood of those that are taken in the chace; for those that are sattened in houses are far less delicious. The flesh of some species are said to taste of musk, which perhaps depends on the qualities of the plants they feed on.

This preface was thought necessary, to point out the difference in nature between this and the Goat kind, with which most of the systematic writers have classed this animal: but the ANTELOPE forms an intermediate genus, a link between the Goat and the Deer. They agree with the first, in the texture of the horns, which have a core in them; and they never cast them: with the last, in the elegance of their form, and great swiftness.

* with hooked horns.

19. GNOU.

Bos Gnou. Zimmerman, 372Journal Hist. 53. tab. p. 54. LEV. MUS.

HORNS.

A. with horns scabrous, and thick at the base, bending forward close to the head, then suddenly reverting upwards: the ends smooth. bases two inches distant: tips one foot three: length along the curve one foot five. The females are horned

* Pr. Alp. hist. Ægypt. i. 232.

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exactly like the males *. Horns in the young animals quite strait.

HEAD.

Mouth square; upper and lower tip covered with short stiff hairs: the lower with long bristes intermixed. Nostrils covered with broad slaps. From the nose, half way up the front, is a thick oblong-square brush of long stiff black hairs reflected upwards, on each of which the other hairs are long, and point closely down the cheeks. Round the eyes are disposed in a radiated form several strong hairs.

NECK.

Neck short, and a little arched. On the top a strong and upright mane, reaching frcm the horns beyond the shoulders. On the chin a long white beard; and on the gullet a very long pendulous bunch of hair. On the breast, and between the fore legs, the hairs are very long, and black.

TAIL.

Tail reaches to the first joint of the legs, and is full of hair like that of a horse, and quite, white.

COLOR.

The body is thick; and covered with smooth short hair of a rusty brown color tipt with white.

Legs long, elegant, and slender, like those of a slag. On each foot is only a single spurious or hind hoof.

SIZE.

The height of one brought over to the Hague was three feet and a half. The length from between the ears to the anus fix and a half: but they grow to a greater size.

It is a strange compound of animals: having a vast head like that of an ox: body and tail like a horse: legs like a flag: and the sinus lacrymales of an antelope.

The flesh is of a very fine grain, very juicy and of a most delicate flavor, in taste resembling that of others of the genus, and without the left resemblance to that of beef.

* Sparman.

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PLACE.

It inhabits in great herds the fine plains of the great Namacquas, far north of the Cape of Good Hope, extending from S. lat. 25. to 28. 42. where Africa seems at once to open its vast treasures of hoofed quadrupeds. It probably may be found higher, but as yet that is uncertain.

It is exceedingly fierce, and usually on the fight of any body drops its head and puts itself into an attitude of offence: and will dart with its horns against the pales of the inclosure towards the persons on the outside; yet will afterwards take the bread which is offered. It will often go upon its knees, run swiftly in that singular posture, and sorrow he ground with its horns and legs.

NAME.

The Hottentots call it Gnou from its voice. It has two notes, one resembling the bellowing of an ox, the other more clear. It is called an ox by the Europeans. I therefore suspect the wild grey ox, of great swiftness, described by Leo, to be of this kind; and perhaps the Baas, p. 36 of this work.

20. CHAMOIS.

Rupicapra, Plinii lib. viii. c. IJ. Gefner quad. 290. Rail syn. quad. 78. Stbeucbzer. It. Alp. i. 155. &c.

Capra rupicapra. C. Cornibus eredlis uncinatis. Lin. syst. 95.

Chamois ou Yfard. Belon olf. 54.

Ysarus ou Sarris. Gaston de Foix, 99 *. Brisson quad. 41. de Buffon, xii. 136. tab. xvi.

Gemse, Klein quad. 18. Ridinger Kleine Thiere, No. 72. wild Thiere, 25.

Antilope rupicapra. Pallas miscel. 4. Spicil. xii. 12. LEV. MUS.

G. with slender, black, upright horns, hooked at the end: behind each a large orisice in the skin: forehead brown: cheeks, chin, and throat white: belly yollowish: rest of the body

* Gaston tie Foix, Seigntur du Rù, commonly called Roy Pheebus, a celebrated writer on hunting, whose works are added to those of Jaques de Fouilloux, entitled, La Veneris & Fauconncrie. Paris, 1585.

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deep brown: hair long: tail short: hoofs much divided, short and goat-like.

In some (differing perhaps in sex) the cheeks and chin aredusky, and the forehead white.

PLACE.

Inhabits the Alps of Dauphine, Switzerland, and Italy; the Pyrænean mountains, the Sierra de Ronda, Greece, Crete, and the mountains of Caucafus and Taurus. It does not dwell so high in the hills as the Ibex, and is found in greater numbers. They feed before sunrise and after sun-set: during winter lodge!in hollows of the rocks, to avoid the falls of the Avelenches: during that season, eat the slender twigs of trees, or the roots of plants, or herbs; which they find beneath the snow: are very timid and watchful: each herd has its leader, who keeps centry on some high place while the rest are at food; and if it fees an enemy, gives a short sort of a hiss by way of fignal; when they instantly take to flight.

CHACE.

They have a most piercing eye, and quick ear and scent: are excessively swift and active: are hunted during winter for their skins, which are very useful in manufactures, and for the flesh, which is very well tasted. The chace is a laborious employ: they must be got at by surprize, and are shot with rislebarrel'd guns. In their stomachs is often a hairy ball, covered with a hard crust of an oblong form: are said to be long lived: bring two, seldom three, young at a time.

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* * With arcuated horns.

21. BLUE.

Blue Goat. Kolben's Cape ii. 114.

Antelope Leucophosa. Pallas Miscel. 4.

Spicil. Zool. 6. Br. Mus. LEV. MUS.

Le Tzeiran de Buffon suppl. vi. 168.

A. with sharp-pointed, taper, arcuated horns, bending backwards, marked with twenty prominent rings, but smooth towards their points; twenty inches long: ears sharp-pointed, above nine inches in length. Larger than a buck. Color, when alive, a fine blue, of a velvet appearance: when dead, changes to a blueish-grey, with a mixture of white. The hairs long. Beneath each eye is a large white mark. The belly white. The tail seven inches long; the hairs at the end six inches.

SlZE.

In size, superior to the fallow deer or buck.

PLACE.

I described it from a skin which I bought at Amsterdam, brought from the Cape of Good Hope. I was informed, that they are found far up the country, north of that vast promontory; which I find confirmed by the late journies*. It is called by the Dutch the Blauwe Bock, or blue goat.

M. de Buffon describes it under the same name, suppl. vi. 194. and in p. 168. again under the improper Asiatic name of Tzeiran, which belongs to a very different species, the Chinese, No. 36. but has borrowed the figure from the Dutch travellers.

This is the species, which, from the form of the horns and length of the hair, seems to connect the Goat and Antelope race.

* Journal Historique, &c. Amsterdam, 1778, p. 58, where it is called Boucebamois; and a good figure given of it.

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*** Strait horns.

22. ÆGYPTIAN.

Gazella indica cornibus rectis longissimis nigris prope caput tantum annulatis. Raii syn. quad. 79.

Capra Gazella. C. cornibus teretibus rectissimis longissimis annulatis Lin. syst. 96.

Antelope Bezoartica. Pallas, sp. Zool. i. 14. Ant. oryx. xii. 16.

Le Pasan. journal historique, 56.

La Gazelle des Indes. Brisson quad. 43.

Le Pasan. De Buffon, xii. 213. tab. xxxiii. Jig. 3. xv. 190. Br. Mus. Ashm. Mus. LEV. MUS

A. with strait slender horns, near three feet long, annulated o above half of their length: the rest smooth. Space between horn and horn at the points fourteen inches. At their base is a black spot; in the middle of the face another; a third falls from each eye to the throat, united to that in the face by a lateral band of the same color: the nose and rest of the face white. From the hind-part of the head, along the neck and top of the back, runs a narrow dusky line of hairs, longer than the rest, and standing above them, dilating towards the rump. Sides of a light reddish ash-color; the lower part bounded by a broad longitudinal dusky band, reaching to the breast.

Belly, rump, and legs white; each leg marked below the knees with a dusky mark. Tail covered with long black hairs; from the rump to the end of the hairs, two feet six inches long.

The length of the skin, which I examined, was above six feet six inches.

Inhabits Ægypt, Arabia, India, and the North-western parts of the Cape of Good Hope.

It is said to be a most dangerous animal when wounded, nor will the Hottentots approach it, unless they are satisfied that it be totally deprived of life.

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23. LEUCORYX.

Antelope Leucoryx cornibus subulatis rectis, convexe annulatis, corpore lacteo? Pallas sp. Zool, xii. 16.

Oryx, Oppian. Cyneg. ii. v. 445.

A. with the nose thick and broad, like that of a cow. Ears somewhat slouching. Body clumsy and thick. Limbs less so. Horns long, very flightly incurvated, slender, annulated part of the way: black, pointed. Tail reaching to the first joint of the legs, and tusted. Color in all parts a snowy whiteness, except the middle of the facs, sides of the cheeks, and limbs, which are tinged with red.

SlZE.

Size of a Welsh runt.

PLACE.

This species inhabits Gow Bahrein, an isle in the gulph of Bassora. I discovered two drawings of the animal in the British Museum, taken from life in 1712, by order of Sir John Lock, agent to the East India company at Ifpahan. They were preferred as rarities by Shah Sultahn Houssein, emperor of Persia, in his baague of Cassar, a park eight leagues from the capital *.

A horn, suspected by Dr. Pallas to have belonged to a beast of this kind, was found fossil in Sibiria †.

This animal is probably the Leucoryx of Oppian, and differs only in wanting the black marks about the temples and cheeks, as mentioned in the following excellent dsecription of the poet's, and which Sir John Lock's painter might omit.

* The account is taken from a paper attending the drawing.

Nov. Com. Petrop. xiii. 468. tab. x. fig. 5.

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En enim sera quæ sylvas perlustrat opacas;
Cornua acuta serens animifque serocibus iram
Formidandus ORYX, homines serasque laceslans;
Huic candore cutis niveo distinsta relucet
In morem verni lactis; sed tempora circum
Atque genas nigricat, duplicem pinguedine spinam
Latè dissindit; mucrones cornibus atri.

Oppian de Ven. ii. interpret. Gair. Bodcno.

24. ALGAZEL.

Gornu ignotum. Gesner quad.309.

La Gazelle. Belon. obf 120. Alpin. bist.Ægypt. i. 232. tab. xiv.

Animal bczoarticum. Raii syn. quad. 80.

Antelope Gazella. Pallas, sp. Zool. fasc. xii. 16.

La Gazelle du Bezoar. Briffon quad. 44. Algazel. De Buffon, xii. 211. tab. xxxiii. fig. 1. 2.

Capra bezoartica. C. cornibus arcuatis totis annulatis, gula barbata. Lin. syst. 96. Br. Mus. Asbm. Muf. LEV. MUS.

A. with very long, slender, upright, horns, bending at the upper part inward towards each other; some are much annulated, others smoother. The color red; breast and buttocks white.

Inhabits Bengal, Lybia, Ægypt, and Æthiopia. It runs swiftly up hill, and but slowly along a plain: is very easily made tame.

Both Belon and Alpinus note the form of the horns, which they call lunated, or in form of a crescent.

I never saw any more of this animal than its horns, which are not unfrequent in the cabinets of the curious. They are sufficient to determine me to pronounce the species to be distinct from the foregoing. Belon and Prosper Alpinus agree in the color, which they declare to be red, and omit all mention of the striking, and very characteristic marks of the other.

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25. INDIAN.

Le Coudous. De Buffon, xii. 357. tab. 47.

Aniilope oryx. Pallas spicil. 15.

An. oreas. spic. xii. 17.

Pacasse. Voy. Congo. Churchill's Coll. i. 623. Br. Mus. Ashm. Mus. LEV. MUS

A. with thick strait horns, marked with two prominent spiral ribs near two-thirds of their length; smooth towards their end: some are above two feet long: those at the British Museum, with part of the skin adhering, are black. Head of a reddish color, bounded on the cheeks by a dusky line. Ears of a middling size. Forehead broad: nose pointed. On the forehead, a stripe of long loose hairs, and on the lower part of the dewlap, a large tust of black hair.

Along the neck and back, from head to tail, is a black short mane: the rest of the body of a blueish grey, tinged with red. Space between the hoofs and false hoofs black.

The tail does not reach to the first joint of the leg; is covered with short cinereous hair; the end tusted with long black hairs.

The hoofs are short, surrounded at their junttion with the legs, with a circle of black hairs.

SIZE.

The height to the shoulders is five feet: is thick bodied, and strongly made: but the legs are slender.

FEMALES.

The females are horned like the males. This species wants the sinus lacrymalis *.

NAME.

The Caffres call this species Emposos. If this is the Pacasse, as there is reason to suppose it to be, they vary in color; the Pacasse being white, spotted with red and grey. The Dutch of the Cape

* Sparman.

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call it the Eland or Elk. The Hottentots, t'gann, from which is formed the name Canna. M. de Buffon, by mistake, calls this the Coudons, which he ought to have bestowed on his Condoma.

Inhabits India, Congo, and the southern parts of Africa. Frequents the plains and vallies of the country. They feed chiefly by browsing on shrubs and bushes; and when taken young are soon domesticated. As it is an animal of great strength, it seems possible to render it as useful as the horse or ox, which would be of no small service to the African colonists in the neighborhood of the Cape, as it is said to be content with a very little food. These animals are in seasons of great drought supposed to migrate from the interior parts of Africa in greater numbers than usual. They live in numerous heards; but the old males are often solitary. They grow very fat, especially about the breast and heart: so that they are easily caught: and when pursued, will sometimes fall dead in the chace. Are slow-runners: when roused, always go against the wind, nor can the hunters (even if they front the herd) divert them from their course. The flesh is fine grained, very delicious, and juicy. The hide is tough and thick, ef ecially that of the neck of the male; and is reckoned the best next to that of the Cape buffalo, p. 35, for making of traces, harnesses, or field shoes. The Hottentots make tobacco-pipes of the horns.

Ourebi, Atlamard Supplem. V. 33. tab. xii.

26. OUREES.

A. with small strait horns, small head, long neck, long pointed ears. Color above, a deep tawny, brightening towards the sides, neck, head and legs; lower part of the breast, belly,

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buttocks, and inside of the thighs, white. Tail only three inches long, and black. Hair on the body short, under the chest long and whitish. On each knee is a tust of hair. The females are hornless.

SIZE.

Length three feet nine to the tail.

PLACE.

Inhabits the country very remote from the Cape. Seldom more than two are seen together: they usually haunt die neighborhood of fountains surrounded with reeds. Are excellent venison.

27. KLIP SPRINGER.

A. oreotragus. Schreber. tal. cclix. Gmelin, Lin, 189.

A. with horns quite strait, slender, sharp pointed, wrinkled at the base, five inches long. Female head hornless, round, of a yellowish grey marked with black rays. Color of the body a yellowish tawny. Tail very short, lies close to the body, covered with very short hairs, and is scarcely visible. Size of a roebuck.

PLACE.

Inhabits the summits of the highest and most tremendous rocks near the Cape, and on the fight of man retires to the most inaccessible precipices: and will jump from one crag to another over the most frightful abysses. Nothing equals their activity: are shot with a ball, and are much valued for the fine flavour of the flesh. We are indebted to Doctor Forster for an accurate figure and description of this species.

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28. HARNESSED.

Le Guib. De Buffon, xii. 305. 327. tab. xl. Antelope scripta. Pallas Miscel. S.Spicil. 15. Sparman, ii. 219

Spotted goat, Kolber, ii. 115.

A. with strait horns nine inches long, pointing backwards, with two spiral ribs: ears broad: color a deep tawny: beneath each eye a white spot: sides most Angularly marked with two transverse bands of white, crossed by two others from the back to the belly: the rump with three white lines pointing downwards on each side: the thighs spotted with white: tail ten inches long, covered with long rough hairs.

Inhabits the plains and woods of Senegal, living in large herds. This is called at the Cape, the Bonte Bock, or spotted goat. But is not found farther to the east of that part of Africa than Zwellendam.

29. GUINEA.

Capra sylveltris Africana Grimmii. Raii syn, quad. 80. Klein quad. 19.

Moschus Grimmia. M. capite sasciculo tophoso. Lin. syst. 92.

La Grimme. De Buffon, xii. 307. tab. xli.

Le Chevrotain d'Afrique. Brisson quad. 67. Seb. Mus. i. tab. 43. C. D.

Antilope Grimmia. Pallas Mseel. 10. tab. i. Spicil. 38. tab. iii. LEV. MUS.

A. with strait black horns, slender, and sharp-pointed, not three inches long, slightly annulated at the base: height about 18 inches: most elegant form: ears large: eyes dusky; below them a large cavity, into which exuded a strong-scented oily liquid: between the horns a tust of black hairs. The color of the neck and body brown, mixed with a cinereous, and a tinge of yellow: belly white: tail short; white beneath, black above.

I examined this animal a few years ago, in company with

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Doctor Pallas, at the Prince of Orange's menagery, near the Hague. Several had been brought over from Guinea; but, except th is, all died. Dr. Pallas said that the females were hornless, but are tusted in the same manner as the males: it seems, therefore, that Dr. Grimm, who first described this species, never saw any but the female.

A beautiful specimen of a male, in the LEVERIAN Museum, is of a bright-bay color. The legs cinereous.

This species extends from Guinea to the Cape of Good Hope, and is known there by the name of the Duyker bock, or Diving Goat. It lives always among the brush wood; and, when it perceives the approach of a man, leaps up, and as suddenly squats down; then takes to slight, and every now and then springs into fight to discover whether it is pursued.

30. ROYAL.

King of the harts, Bosman's voy. 236. Petite biche. Des Marchais, i. 312.

Cervula parvnla Africana. Seb. Muf. i. 70. tab. xliii.

Adanson's voy. 207.

Le Chevrotain de Guineé. De Buffon. xii. 315. tab, xliii. fig. 2. its horn.

A. with very short strait horns, black and shining as jet; scarce two inches long: ears broad: height not above nine inches: legs not thicker than a goose-quill: color a reddish brown. The females want horns.

PLACE.

Inhabits Senegal, and the hottest parts of Africa: called in Guinea, Guevei: is very agile, will bound over a wall twelve feet high: is very tame, but, so tender as not to endure transportation into our climate.

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*** Horns bending forwards.

31. INDOSTAN.

Quadruped from Bengal. Ph. Tr. No. 476. Abridg. xi. 898. tab. vi.

Eiggel.Mandelslo's voy.Harris's coll. i. 775. Schrober. cclxii.

Antilope Tragocamelus. Pallas Miseel. j. Spicil. 9.

A. with horns seven inches long, bending forward: eyes, black and lively: neck strong, bending forward like that of a camel; along the top a short mane: on the shoulders a large lump, resembling that of the Indian ox, tusted with hair: hind parts like those of an ass: tail 22 inches long, terminated with long hairs: legs slender: on the lower part of the breast the skin hangs like that of a cow: hair short and smooth, of a light ash-color, in some parts dusky; beneath the breast, and under the tail, white: on the forehead is a black rhomboidal spot. The height of this animal, to the top of the lump on its shoulders, was 12 hands.

PLACE.

Inhabits the most distant parts of the Mogul's dominions; chews the cud; lies down and rises like a camel: its voice a sort of croaking, or like the rattle of deer in rutting-time. Doctor Parsons, to whom we were of late years obliged for the best zoologic papers in the Philosophical Transactions, was the only writer who has described this animal.

32. WHITE-FOOTED.

Antelope picta, Pallas spicil. xii. Scbreber cclxiii. 14. Nyl-ghau. Ph. Trans. Ixi. 170. tab. v. MUS. LEV.

A. with short horns, bending a little forward: ears large, marked with two black stripes: a small black mane on the neck, and half way down the back: a tust of long black hairs

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on the fore-part of the neck; above that a large spot of white; another between the fore-legs on the chest: one white spot on each fore-foot; two on each hind-foot: tail long, tusted with black hairs: color a dark-grey.

FEMALE.

Female of a pale brown color: no horns: with a mane, tust, and striped ears, like the male: on each foot three transverse bands of black and two of white.

SIZE.

Height to the top of the shoulders four feet and an inch. Length from the bottom of the neck to the anus four feet *.

HORNS.

Horns seven inches long: triangular towards their bottom; blunt at top. Distant at their bases three inches and a quarter; in which they vary from those of the Antelope race. Distant at the points six inches and a quarter. The head is like that of a stag. The legs delicate.

PLACE.

CHACE.

Inhabits the distant and interior parts of India, remote from our settlements. They are brought down as curiosities to the Europeans, and have of late years been frequently imported into England. I am not acquainted with the particular part of the country which they inhabit at present. In the days of Aurenge Zebe, they abounded between Delli and Labor, on the way to Cacbemire. They were called Nyl-ghau, or blue or grey bulls: and were one of the objects of chace, with that mighty prince, during his journey: they were inclosed by his army of hunters within nets, which being drawn closer and eloser, at length formed a small piecinst; into this the king, his omrahs, and hunters entered, and killed the beasts with arrows, spears, or musquets; and

* These measurements are taken from the accurate description with which Doctor Hunter has favoured the public, in the Philosophical Transactions.

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sometimes in such numbers, that Aurenge Zebe used to send quarters as presents to all his great people *.

MANNERS.

They are usually very gentle and tame, will feed readily, and lick the hands which give them food. In confinement they will eat oats, but prefer grass and hay; and are very fond of wheaten bread. When thirsty, will drink two gallons at a time.

They are said to be at times very vicious and fierce. When the males fight, they drop on their knees at a distance from one another, make their approaches in that attitude, and when they come near, spring and dart at each other. They will often, in a state of consinement, fall into that posture without doing any harm. They will, notwithstanding, attack mankind unprovoked. A laborer, who was looking over some pales which inclosed a few of them, was alarmed by one of the males flying at him like lightning; but he was saved by the intervention of the woodwork, which it broke to pieces, and at the same time one of its horns.

They have bred in England. They are supposed to go nine months with young, and have sometimes two at a birth. The young is of the color of a sawn. The dung is round and small, and comes away in quantities at a time, like chat of deer.

33. SWIFT.

Dama. Plinii lib. xi. c. 37.

Cemas. Ælian. An. lib. xiv. c. 14.

Le Nangusr. De Buffon, xii. 213. tab. xxxiv.

Antilope dama. Pallas Miscel. 5. Spicil. 8.

A. with round horns, eight inches long, reverting at their ends: length of the animal three feet ten inches; height two feet eight inches: general color tawny: belly, lower part of

* Berner voy. Cacbemire, 47.

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the sides, rump, and thighs, white: on the fore-part of the neck a white spot: bur this species varies in color.

Inhabits Senegal; is easily tamed; very swift. Ælian compares its flight to the rapidity of a whirlwind.

34. RED.

Le Xagor. De Buffon, xii 326. tab. xlvi. Antilope redunca. Pallas Spicil. 8.

A. with horns five inches and a half long; one or two flight rings at the base: ears much longer than the horns: length, four feet; height, two feet three inches: hair stiff and bright: in all parts of a reddish color; palest on the chest. Tail very short. Inhabits Senegal, and the Cape, where it is very frequent, and is a common food.

35. ClNEREOUS.

Antilope Eleotragus. Schreber. cclxvi.

A. with horns, elegantly marked with spiral wreaths. Head, a hind part of, and sides of the neck, back, sides, shoulders, and thighs, of a most elegant greyish ash color. Tail short, covered with longish hair of the same color. Front of the neck, breast, belly, andiegs, of a pure white.

An elegant species, described from Mr. Schrebers print; probably a native of Africa.

36. FOREST.

Le Bosbok. Alumand Supplem. V. 37. tab. xv. A. Sylvatica. Gmelin. Lin. 192.

A. with the head and upper part of the body dark brown, approaching about the head and under the neck to red. Belly and inside of the thighs and legs white. Rump marked

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with small round spocs of pure white. Horns ten inches long; almost strait, bending very slightly forward, and twisted spirally for more than the lower half. Ears long and pointed. Tail six inches long, and covered with long white hairs. Female hornless.

SIZE.

Length to the tail three feet six.

PLACE.

Inhabits the forests a hundred and sixty leagues beyond the Cape; are often discovered by their voice, which refembles the barking of a dog.

This sheuld be placed as the link between this class and the preceding.

37. RITBOX.

Allamand Supphm. V. 34. tab. xiii.

A. with horns one foot three inches long, bending forward, annulated half way up, very sharp pointed; their length in a strait line from base to point only ten. The whole upper part of the animal of an ash colored grey. Throat, belly, buttocks, and inside of the legs, white. Ears very long, white within, and near each is a bald spot. Tail eleven inches long, flat and covered with lone white hairs.

SlZE.

The length of this species from nose to tail is four feet five.

PLACE.

Inhabits the country a hundred leagues to the north of the Cape of GoodHope. Are numerous, but go in small herds, and sometimes only the male and female consort together. They frequent

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STRIPES.

white stripe: from this are seven others, four pointing towards the thighs, and three towards the belly: but I have observed them to vary in number of stripes. On the upper part of the neck, is a sliort mane: beneath the neck, from the throat to the breast, are some long hairs hanging down: the breast and belly are grey. Tail two feet long, brown above, white beneath, black at the end.

Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope, where it is called Coedoes. This name (perverted to that of Coudous) M. de Busson has applied to the Indian Antelope, No 21. I believe Kolben means this, by his wild goat, ii. 115. tab. vi. It is said to leap to a most asttonishing height *.

39. COMMON.

Strepsiceros et Addax? Plinil lib. viii. c. 53.

Gazella Africana, the Antilope. Raii syn. quad. 79.

Tragus Strepiiceros. Klein quad. 18.

Capra Cervicapra. C. cornibus teretibus, dimidiato annulatis, flexuosis contortis. Lin. syst. 96.

L'Antelope. De Buffon, xii. 215. tab. xxxv. xxxvi.

Allamands De Buffon, v. 58. tab. v.

La Gazelle. Brission quad. 44.

Antilope cervicapra. Pallas Misicel g. Spirit. 18. tab. i. ii. Br. Muf. Ajkm. Muf. LEV. MUS.

A. with upright horns, twisted spirally, surrounded almost to the top with prominent rings-, about sixteen inches long, twelve inches distance between point and point: in size, rather less than the sallow-deer or buck: orbits white: white spot on each side of the forehead: color, brown mixed with red, and

* Forster's Voy. i. 84.

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dusky: the belly and inside of the thighs white: tail short, black above, white beneath. The females want horns.

Inhabits Barbary. The form of these horns, when on the scull, is not unlike that of the antient Lyre, to which Pliny compares those of his Strepsiceros *. The Bracbia, or sides of that instrument, were frequently made of the horns of animals, as appears from antient gems. Montfaucon has engraved several.

To convey the idea of their structure, I cauled the figure of one to be engraved, taken from the fifth volume of the Philosophical Transanctions abridged, tab. xiv. p. 474. I preser this to many other figures, as the shell of a tortoise forms the bale; which gave rise to the beautiful comment on this passage in Horace, by Doctor Molyneux.

O Tefludinis aureæ
Dulcem quæ Itrepitum, PIERI temporas !
O mutis quoque piscibus
Donatura Cygni, si libeat, sonum.

The art of giving to dumb fishes the voice of a Swan, was thought a strange idea, till that gentleman pointed out that a Tortoise made part of the Lyre; which animal was by the antients ranked in the class of fifth †: and even gave the name of ελμσ to that species of musical instrument. Horace again invokes his lyre by an addrefs to the Tortoise; which flings light on a seven-stringed one preserved in the supplement to Montsaucon‡.
Tuque Testudo resonare septem
Callida nervis,
Nec loquax olim neque grata.

* Plinii bill, nat. lib. xi. C. 37.

Plinii nat. hijl. lib. ix. c. x.

‡ iii. tab. 75. fig. 6.

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α BROWN. Lidmeé? Shaw's travels.

Less than a Roebuck, horns like those of the last: face, back., and sides of a very deep brown, the last bordered with tawny: belly and inside of the legs white: above each hoof a black spot: tail black above, white beneath. Inhabits Bengal: possibly also Barbary, being nearer the size of the Lidmee than any other.

β Smooth horned. De Buffon, xii. 117. tab. xxxvi. fig. 3.

In my cabinet is a pair of horns twisted like those of the preceding, but quite smooth and black: they are joined together in a parallel direction, the points turned different ways: when thus mounted, they are carried by the Faquirs in India, by way of weapon. See MUS. LEV. where weapons formed of the horns of the species No 30 are preferved.

N 2

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***** with horns bending in the middle, and reverting forwards towards their end.

40. BAREARY.

Gazella Africana cornibus brevioribus, ab imo ad summum fere annulatis, et circum medium inflexis. Raii syn. quad. 80.

LaGazelle. De Buffon, xii. 201. tab. xxiii.

La Gazelle d'Afrique. Brisson quad. 45.

Capra Dorcas. Lin. syst. 96.

Antilope Dorcas. Pallas Spicil. xii. II.

A. with horns twelve inches long, round, inclining first backwards, bending in the middle, and then reverting forwards at their ends, and annulated with about thirteen rings on their lower part: upper side of the body reddish brown; lower part and buttocks white: along the sides the two colors are separated from each other by a strong dusky line: on each knee a tust of hair: the Dorcas of Ælian, lib. xiv. c. 14.

Inhabits Barbary, Ægypt, and the Levant: goes in large flocks.

41. FLATHORNED.

Le Kevel. De Buffon, xii. 204. tab. xxiv.

Antilope Kevella. Pallas Miscel. 7. Spicil. xi. 6. 8. 15.

A. with horns shaped like those of the last, but slatted on their sides; the rings more numerous, from fourteen to eighteen: the size equal to a small roebuck: in colors and marks resembles the preceding.

3

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Inhabits Senegal. This, the Barbary, and Harnessed, have the same manners and food; live in great flocks, are easily tamed, and are excellent meat.

Either this animal, or one of those nearly allied to it, is found in abundance in the country on the east side of the Caspian sea: the Persian name of it is Dshairan, not Ahu, which Kœmpser, by some mistake, applies to it.

42. WHITE FACED.

Antilope pygargus. Pallas Spicil. i. 10. & xii. 15. LEV. MUS.

A. with horns like those of the Kevel, sixteen inches long; five between tip and tip; annulated in the male, smooth in the female: ears seven inches long: face, and space between the horns, of a pure white: cheeks and neck of a fine bright bay: back, of a cinereous brown, dalhed with red: along the middle, a dark list: sides, slanks, and shoulders, a deep brown; separated from the belly by a broad band of darker color.

Belly and rump, and a small space above the tail, white.

Trunk of the tail seven inches long, covered with black coarse hairs, which extend four inches beyond the end of the trunk: hoofs short.

SIZE.

In size superior to the buck, or fallow deer. The length of the specimen in the LEVERIAN MUSEUM is five feet four inches: height three feet to the top of the shoulders.

PLACE.

Inhabits the countries north of the Cape of Good Hope.

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43. SPRINGER.

La Gazelle a bourse fur le dos. Allemande. Antilope Euchore Forster, Schrober, cclxxii.

A. with the face, cheeks, nose, chin, throat, and part of the under side of the neck, white: a dusky line passes from the base of each horn, and beyond the eyes, to the corner of the mouth.

Horns slender: annulated half way: twice contorted. Ears very long, dusky.

Whole upper side of the neck, part of the lower, the back, sides, and outside of the limbs, of a pale yellowish brown. Darkest on the hind of the neck. Chest, belly, and inside of the limbs, white: the sides and belly divided by a broad band of chesnut, which runs down part of the shoulders.

Tail reaches to the first joint of the leg. The upper part is white: the lower black, and furnished with long hair. The under side appears nearly naked. Buttocks are white; and from the tail, half way up the back, is a stripe of white, expansible at pleasure.

SIZE.

This elegant species weighs about fifty pounds, and is rather lesser than a roebuck.

PLACE.

Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope: called there the Spring-bock, from the prodigious leaps it takes on the fight of any body. When alarmed, it has the power of expanding the white space about the tail into the form of a circle, which returns to its linear form when the animal is tranquil.

They migrate annually from the interior parts in small herds, and continue in the neighborhood of the Cape for two or three

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months: then join companies, and go off in troops consisting of many thousands, covering the great plains for several hours in their passage. Are attended in their migrations by numbers of lions, hyænas, and other wild beads, which make great destruction among them. Are excellent eating, and, with other Antelopes, are the venilon of the Cape.

Mr. Masson* informs us, that they also make periodical migrations, in seven or eight years, in herds of many hundred thousands, from the north, as he supposes from the interior parts of Terra de Natal. They are compelled to it by the excessive drought which happens in that region, when sometimes there does not fall a drop of rain for two or three years. These animals in their course desolate Caffraria, spreading over the whole country, and not leaving a blade of grass. Lions attend them; where one of those beasts of prey are, his place is known by the vast void visible in the middle of the timorous herd. On its approach to the Cape, it is observed that the avant guard is very fat, the centre less so, and the rear guard almost starved, being reduced to live on the roots of the plants devoured by those which went before; but on their return, they become the avant guard, and thrive in their turn on the renewed vegetation: while the former, now changed into the rear guard, are familshed by being compelled to take up with the leavings of the others. These animals are quite fearless, when asslembled in such mighty armies, nor can a man pafs through unless he compels them to give way with a whip or stick. When taken young they are easily domesticated: the males are very wanton, and apt to butt at strangers with their horns.

* Phil. Trans. lxvi. 310.

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44. CHINESE.

Caprea campestris gutturosa. Nov. Com. Petrop. v. 34–7. tab. ix. Le Tzeiran de Buffon, xii. 207.

Yellow Goat. Du Halde China, ii. 253, 278, 290. Le Brun, i. 115.

Antilope. Bell's travels, i. 311. 319.

A. gulturosa. Pallas Spicil. xii. 14. 46. tab. ii.

A. with horns about nine inches long, of a yellow color, opake, annulated almost to their ends, reclining backwards, diverging much at the upper part, with their points bending towards one another. Head rather thick. Nose very blunt, and convex above. Ears small, sharp-pointed. On the middle of the neck is a great protuberance, occasioned by the uncommon structure of the windpipe. Tail not five inches long.

The hair on the approach of winter grows long, rough, and hoary; so that at a distance it appears almost white. In the beginning of May, the animal changes its coat for one very fliort, close, and tawny.

FEMALES.

The females are hornless; but do not differ in color from the males.

Length of a male from nose to tail about four feet and a half. Weight from eighty-one to ninety-eight pounds.

PLACE.

These animals abound in the country of the Mongal Tartars, and the deserts between Thibet and China, and along the river Amur to the Eastern Sea. They are found also between the country of Tangut and the borders of India.

NAMES.

MANNERS.

The Mongols call them Dseren, the Chinese, Hoang Yang, and Whang Yang, or Yellow Goats*. They are very swift, and take prodigious leaps, and when frightened will bound over three or four fathoms space at one spring. Are very stiy and timorous:

* Du Halle, ii. 253.

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love dry and rocky plains: shun water; nor will they go into it even to lave their lives, when driven by dogs or men to the brink of a river *. Are equally fearful of woods.

Go in small flocks in spring and summer: collect in great numbers in winter. They do not run confusedly, but in a file †, one after another; an old one leading the way. Seldom emit any voice. If taken young, are eafily tamed. Are objects of chace, being a great food among the Tartars. Their horns are an article of commerce, and in great request with the Chinese. These are the Ablavos ‡, which Le Brun met with by thousands near lake Baikal, in the land of the Burattes.

45. GUILDEN STEDT'S.

A. Subgutturosa. Act. Petr. 1778. i. 251. tab. 9. 12. Gmelin, Lin. 186.

PLACE.

A. with horns shaped like the former, but of the length of thirteen inches: color of the body and outsides of the legs and thighs cinereous brown: tail short and full of hair: form of neck, breast, and belly, white: space round the vent of the same color. On the fore part of the neck is a protuberance, but lesser than that of the former. Knees tusted: size of a roebuck: inhabits Persia, between the Caspian and Euxine feas: is gregarious: feeds chiefly on the artemifia pontica. The flesh delicious: the female brings forth in May, difcovered by that able traveller the late Mr. Guildenstedt.

* In my former edition I was mifled by Gmelin into a very different opinion.

Du Halde, ii. 290.

‡ Doctor Pallas.

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46. SCYTHIAN.

Colus. Gesner quad. 361.

Suhak. Rzaczinskt hist. Pclon. 224.

Ibex imberbis. Nov. com. Petrop. v. tab. xix. vii. 39. xiv. 512.

Sayga. Phil. Tr. 1767. p. 344. Bell's travels, i. 43.

Capra Tatarica. C. cornibus teretibus rectiusculis perfecté annulatis apice diaphanis gula imberbi. Lin. syst. 97.

Le Saiga, de Buffon, xii. 198. tab. xxii. fig. 1. Suppl. vi. 149.

Antilope Scythica. Pallas spicil. xii. 21, tab. i. Faunul. sineus. LEV. MUS.

HORNS.

A. with horns distant at the base, and with three curvatures; the last pointing inward. Stand a little reclining: the greatest part annulated: ends smooth. Color a pale yellow. Are semi-pellucid: length about eleven inches.

Head rather large. Nose in the live animal much arched and thick: very cartilaginous: divided lengthways by a small surrow: end as if truncated.

Ears small: irides of a yellowish brown. Neck slender: prominent about the throat. Knees guarded by tusts of hair. The hair, during summer, is very short: grey mixed with yellow: below the knees darker. Space about the cheeks whitish: forehead and crown hoary, and covered with longer hairs. Under side of the neck and body white.

Winter coat long, rough, and hoary.

TAIL.

Tail four inches long: naked below; above cloathed with upright hairs, ending with a tust.

SIZE.

Size of a fallow deer.

Females destitute of horns.

PLACE.

These animals inhabit all the deserts frora the Danube and Dnieper to the river Irtish, but not beyond. Nor are they ever

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FOOD.

seen to the north of 54 or 55 degrees of latitude. They are found therefore in Poland, Moldavia, about Mount Caucasus, and the Caspian Sea, and Siberia, in the dreary open deserts, where falt-springs abound, feeding on the fait, the acrid and aromatic plants of those countries, and grow in the summer-time very fat: but their flesh acquires a taste difagreeable to many people, and is scarcely eatable, until it is suffered to grow cold after dressing.

The females go with young the whole winter; and bring forth in the northern deserts in May. They have but one at a time; which is singular, as the numbers of these animals are prodigious. The young are covered with a soft sleece, like new-dropt lambs, curled and waved.

MIGRATORY.

They are regularly migratory. In the rutting-season, late in autumn, they collect; in flocks of thousands, and retire into the southern deserts. In the spring they divide into little flocks, and return northward at the same time as the wandering Tartars change their quarters.

They very seldom seed alone; the males seeding promiscuously with the females and their young. They rarely he down all at the same time: but by a providential instinct some are always keeping watch: and when they are tired, they seemingly give notice to such which have taken their rest, who arise instantly, and as it were relieve the centinels of the preceding hours. They thus often preserve themselves from the attack of wolves, and from the surprize of the huntsmen *.

SWIFT.

They are excessively swift, and will outrun the swiftest horse or gre-hound: yet partly through fear, for they are the most timid

* Doctor Pallas.

O 2

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VERYTIMID.

of animals, and partly by the shortness of their breath, they are very soon taken. If they are but bit by a dog, they instantly fall down, nor will they even offer to rise. In running they seem to incline on one side, and their course is so rapid that their feet seem scarcely to touch the ground *.

SHORT-SIGHTED.

They are during summer almost purblind; which is another cause of their destruction. This is caused by the heat of the sun, and the splendor of the yellow deserts they are so conversant in.

In a wild state they seem to have no voice. When brought up tame, the young emit a Ihort sort of bleating, like sheep.

LIBIDINOUS.

The males are most libidinous animals: the Tartars, who have sufficient time to observe them, report that they will copulate twenty times together; and that this turn arises from their feeding on a certain herb, which has most invigorating powers.

When taken young, they may easily be made tame: but if caught when at full age, are so wild and so obstinate as to vefuse all food. When they die, their noses are quite slaccid.

CHACE.

They are hunted for the sake of their flesh, horns, and skins, which are excellent for gloves, belts, &c. The huntsmen always approach them against the wind, least they should smell their enemy: they also avoid putting on red or white cloaths, or any colors which might at tract their notice. They are either shot, or taken by dogs; or by the BLACK EAGLE †, which is trained to this species of falconry.

No animals are so subject to vary in their horns; but the color and clearness will always point out the animal to which they belong.

* Dr. Cook's travels, i. 317.

Br. Zool i. No 2.

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COLOS OF STRABO.

This probably was the animal called by Strabo Κολοσ*, found among the Scythœ and Sarmatœ, and an object of chace with the antient inhabitants. He says it was of a size between a stag and a ram, and of a white color, and very swift. He adds, that it drew up so much water into its head, through its nostrils, as would serve it for several days in the arid deserts: a fable naturally formed, in days of ignorance, from the inslated appearance of its nose.

47. CORINE.

Le Corine. de Buffon, xii. 205. tab. xxvii. LEV. MUS†

A. with very slender horns, six inchcs long, surrounded with circular ruga: ears large: less than a roebuck: on each side of the face is a white line: beneath that is one of black: neck, body, and slanks, tawny: belly and inside of the thighs white: separated from the sides by a dark line: on the knees is a tust of hair.

Inhabits Senegal. Doctor Pallas doubts if this is not the female of the flat-horned, No 32; but the form of the horns prevents my assent.

* Lib. vii. p. 480.

† A sine entire specimen.

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48. CERVINE.

Bubalus. Plinii lib. viii. c. 15. βαλOppian Cyneg. ii. Lin. 300.

Buselaphus. Gesner quad. 121.

Capra Dorcas. Lin. syst.

Vache de Barbarie. Memoire de L'acad. i. 205.

Le Bubale de Buffon, xii. 294. tab. xxxvii. xxxviii.

Antilope Bubalis. Pallas spicil. xii. 16. MUS. LEV.

A. with horns bending outward and backward, almost close at their base, and distant at their points; twisted and annulated; very strong and black; some are above twenty inches long, and above eleven in girth at the base: head large, and like that of an ox: eyes placed very high, and near to the horns: the form of the body a mixture of the stag and heiser: height to the top of the shoulders four feet: the tail rather more than a foot long, asinine, and terminated with a tust of hair: color, a reddish brown: white about the rump, the inner side of the thighs, and lower part of the belly: a dark space occupies the top of the back, the front of the upper part of the fore legs, and hinder part of the thighs.

Inhabits Barbary, and probably other parts of Africa, being also found towards the Cape of Good Hope. It is the Bekker el wash of the Arabs, according to Dr. Shaw; who says, that its young quickly grow tame, and herd with other cattle. Mr. Forshal mentions it among the Arabian animals of an uncertain genus, by the name of Bakar Uasch. This is the Bubalus of the antients, not the Buffalo, as later writers have supposed. Pliny remarks an error of the same kind in his days; speaking of the Urus, he says, Uros, quibus imperitum vulgus bubalorum nomen imponit, cum id gignat Africa, vituli polius cervive quadam similitudine.

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The Dutch of the Cape call this species,Hartebeest. They go in great herds; few only are solitary. Gallop seemingly with a heavy pace, yet go swiftly. Drop on their knees to fight, like the white-footd Antelope, or Nil-ghau. The slesh is fine-grained, but dry*.

49. SENEGAL

Le Koba. De Buffon, xii. 210. 267. tab. xxxii. fig. 2.

Cers qu'on nomment Temamaçama. Seb. Mus. i. 69. tab. xlii. fig. 4. Schreber. cclxxvii.

Antelope Bubalis. Pallas spicil. xii. 16. LEV. MUS.

Bucula cervina. Caii opusc. 63.

A. with horns almost close at the base, a little above bending out greatly; then approach again towards the ends, and recede from each other towards the points, which bend backwards; the distance in the middle six inches and a half; above that four inches; at the points six; length, seventeen inches; circumference at the bottom eight; surrounded with fifteen prominent rings; the ends smooth and sharp: head large and clumsy, eighteen inches long: ears seven: head and body of a light reddish brown: from the horns to the nose along the face a stripe of black: down the hind part of the neck a narrow black list: rump, a dirty white: on each knee, and above the setlock, a dusky mark: on the lower part of the ham and lower part of the shoulders another: hoofs small: tail a foot long, covered with coarse black hairs, which hang far beyond the end. Length of the whole skin, which I bought at Amsterdam, seven feet.

Inhabits Senegal, where the French call it La grande vache brune. Certainly, neither the Temamaçama of Hernandez, nor even a native of America, as Seba asserts; nor yet to be made synenymous with the former.

* Spaman in Stockh. Wettsk. Handl. 1779. p. 151.

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50. GAMBIAN.

Le Kob, ou petite vache brune. de Buffon, xii. 210. 267. tab. xxxii. fig. I.

A. with horns thirteen inches long: five inches and a half round at the bottom: pretty close at the base and points; very distant in the middle. Surrounded with eight or nine rings: smooth at their upper part.

Inhabits Senegal.

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VII. DEER.

Horns upright, solid, branched, annually deciduous.
Eight cutting teeth in the lower jaw; none in the upper.

* With palmated horns.

51, ELK.

Alce machlis, Plinii lib. viii. c. 15. Gesner quad. i. 3. Munster Cosmog. 883.

Cervus palmatus, Alce, Elant Klein quad. 24. Ridinger wild Thiere. 36. Allamand, XV. 50. tab. ii.

Elk, Raii syn. quad. 86. Seheffer Lapl. 133. Bell's trav. i. 5. 215. 322.

Cervus Alces. C. cornibus acaulibus palmatis, caruncula gutturali, Lin. syst. 92. Ælg. Faun. Suec. No. 39. Los, Rzaczinski Polon. 212.

C. cornibus ab imo ad summum palmatis, Brisson quad. 6. Faunul. Sinens.

L'Elan, de Busson, xii. 79. tab. vii. viii. Br. Mus, Asb. Mus. LEV. MUS.

MALE.

D. with horns with short beams spreading into large and broad palms, one side of which is plain, the outmost furnished with several sharp snags. No brow antlers* The largest I have seen is in the house belonging to the Hudson Bay

* In the British Museum is a pair of Elk horns, which in all respects resembles the others, except that on the beam of each horn, about four inches from the base, is a branch, round and trifurcated: very different from a brow-antler. It is the only one of the kind I ever saw; so, probably, is a mere accident; for neither the many European Elks horns, or the several pair of American Elk or Moose, I have examined, are furnished with brow-antlers. Those in question seem to be the very pair which Mr. Dale describes and figures, Phil, Trans. abridg. ix. 85. tab. 6. fig. 50.

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company; weigh'd 56. 1b; length 32 inches; between tip and tip, 34; breadth of the palm 13½. There is in the same place an excellent picture of an Elk, which was killed in the presence of Charles XI. of Sweden, and which weighed 12291b. The length of one killed on the Altaic mountains in Sibiria, from nose to tail, was eight feet ten inches, Paris measure. The height before, five feet six; behind, about two inches more. The full length of the head two feet five; yet this was not one of the largest. The tail was only two inches and one-third. It is a very deformed and seemingly disproportioned beast.

FEMALE

A young female of about a year old, was to the top of the withers five feet high, or fifteen hands; the head alone two feet long; length of the whole animal, from nose to tail, about seven feet: the neck much shorter than the head, with a short thick upright mane, of a light brown-color. The eyes small: the ears one foot long, very broad and slouching: nostrils very large; the upper lip square, hangs greatly over the lower, and has a deep sulcus in the middle, so as to appear almost bifid: nose very broad: under the throat a small excrescence, from whence hung a long tuft of coarse black hair: the withers very high: fore legs three feet three inches long; from the bottom of the hoof to the end of the tibia two feet four inches: the hind legs much shorter than the fore legs: hoofs very much cloven: tail very short; dusky above, white beneath: color of the body in general a hoary black; but more grey about the face than any where else. This was living at the Marquis of Rockingham's house, at Parson's green. It seemed a mild animal; was uneasy and restless at our presence, and made a plaintive noise. This

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was brought from North America, and was called the Moose Deer*.

MOOSE AND ELK THE SAME ANIMAL.

A male of this species, and the horns of others, having been brought over of late years, prove this, on comparison with the horns of the European Elk, to be the same animal. But the account that Josselyn† gives of the size of the American Moose has all the appearance of being greatly exaggerated; asserting, that some are found twelve feet or thirty-three hands high. But Charlevoix, Dierville, and Lescarbot ‡, with greater appearance of probability, make it the size of a horse, or an Auvergne mule, which is a very large species; and the informations also that I have received from eye-witnesses, make its height from fifteen to seventeen hands. The writers who speak of the European kind, confine its bulk to that of a horse. Those who speak of the gigantic Moose, say, their horns are six feet high; Josselyn makes the extent from tip to tip to be two fathom; and La Hontan ‖, from hearsay, pretends, that they weigh from 300 to 400 lb.; notwithstanding he says, that the animal which is to carry them is no larger than a horse. Thus these writers vary from each other, and often are not confident with themselves. It seems then that Josselyn has been too credulous, and takes his evidence from huntsmen or Indians, who were fond of the marvellous; for it does not appear that he had seen it. The only

* From Musu, which in the Algonkin language fignisies an Elk. Vide Kalmiter. vol. iii. 510. Germ. ed. De Laet. 73. Purchas Pilgr. iv. 1831.

Josselyn's voy. New Engl. 88. New Engl, rarities, 19.

Charlevoix hist. nouvelle France, v. 185. Dierville voy. de L'Acadie, 122. Lescarbot hist. nouv. France, 810. The French call this animal, Original.

Voy, N. America, i. 57.

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thing certain is, that the Elk is common to both comments; and that the American, having larger forests to range in, and more luxuriant food, grows to a larger size than the European.

FOUND IN AMERICA.

EUROPE.

ASIA.

In America they are found, tho' rarely, in the back parts of New England; in the peninsula of Nova Scotia, and in Canada; and in the country round the great lakes, almost as low south as the Ohio. In Europe they inhabit Lapland, Norway, Sweden, and Russia; in Asia, the N. E. parts of Tartary and Siberia; but in each of those continents inhabit only parts, where cold reigns with the utmost rigour during part of the year.

MANNERS.

They live amidst the forests, for the conveniency of browzing the boughs of trees: by reason of the great length of their legs, and the shortness of their neck, which prevent them from grazing with any fort of ease, they often feed on water-plants, which they can readily get at by wading; and M. Sarrasin* says, they are so fond of the Anagyris fœtida, or stinking bean tresoil, as to dig for it with their feet, when covered with snow.

SPEED.

They have a singular gait; their pace is a high shambling trot, but they go with vast swistness; in old times these animals were made use of in Sweden to draw sledges; but as they were frequently accessary to the escape of murderers and other criminals, the use was prohibited under great penalties. In palling thro' thick woods, they carry their heads horizontally, to prevent their horns being entangled in the branches. In their common walk they raise their fore-feet very high; that which I saw stepped over a rail near a yard high with great ease.

They are very inoffensive animals, except when wounded, or in

* Martyn's abridg. mem. and hist. Acad. iv. 253.

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the rutting-season, when they become very furious, and at that time swim from isle to ifle, in pursuit of the females. They strike with both horns and hoofs. Are hunted in Canada during winter, when they sink so deep in the snow as to become an easy prey: when first unharbored, squat with their hind parts, make water, and then go off in a most rapid trot: during their former attitude, the hunter usually directs his shot.

USES.

The flesh is much commended for being light and nourishing, but the nose is reckoned the greatest delicacy in all Canada: the tongues are excellent, and are frequently brought here from Russia: the skin makes excellent buff leather*; Linnœtus says, it will turn a musket-ball: the hair which is on the neck, withers, and hams, of the full-grown Elk, is of great length, and very elastic; is used to make matresses. The hoofs were supposed to have great virtues, in curing epilepsies. It was pretended that the Elk, being subject to that disease, cured itself by scratching its ears with its hoof.

ALCE AND MACHLIS.

The Elk was known to the Romans by the name of Alce and Machlis: they believed that it had no joints in its legs; and, from the great size of the upper lip, imagined it could not graze without going backward.

FOSSIL HORNS.

Before I quit this subject, it will be proper to take some notice of the enormous horns that are so often found fossil in Ireland, and which have always been attributed to the Moose Deer: I mean the Moose Deer of Josselyn; for no other animal could possibly be supposed to carry so gigantic a head. These horns differ

* Numbers of the American Elk-skins are sent from hence to Bayonne, where they are dressed, and sold to the Gallegos, who make buff waistcoats of them.

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very much from those of the European or American Elk; the beam, or part between the base and the palm, is vastly longer: each is furnished with a large and palmated brow antler, and the snags on the upper palms are longer. The measurements of a pair of these horns are as follow: from the insertion to the tips, five feet five inches; the brow antlers eleven inches; the broadest part of the palm, eighteen; distance between tip and tip, seven feet nine: but these are small in comparison of others that have been found in the same kingdom. Mr. Wright, in his Louthiana, tab. xxii. book 111. gives the figure of one that was eight feet long, and fourteen between point and point. These horns are frequent in our Museums, and at gentlemen's houses in Ireland: but the Zoologist is still at a loss for the recent animal. I was once informed by a gentleman long resident in Hudson's Bay, that the Indians speak of a beast of the Moose kind (which they call Waskesser) but far superior in size to the common one, which they say is found 7 or 800 miles S. W. of York Fort. If such an animal existed, with horns of the dimensions just mentioned, and of proportionable dimensions in other parts, there was a chance of feeing Josselyn's account verified: for if our largest elks of seventeen hands high carry horns of scarcely three feet in length, we may very well allow the animal to be thirty-three hands high which is to support horns of 3 or 400 lb. weight. But from later enquiries, I find that the Waskesser of the Indians is no other than the animal we have been describing.

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52. REIN.

Tarandus? Plinii lib. viii. c. 34.

Le Rangier ou Ranglier. Gaston de Foix chez. du Fouilloux, 98.

Tarandus, Rangiser. Gesner quad. 839, 840. Icon. quad. 57, 58.

Cervus mirabilis. Jonstlon quad. Munster Cosmog. 1054.

Macarib, Caribo, Pohano. Josselyn's New England rarities, 20.

Cervus rangiser. Raii syn. quad. 88.

Rennthier. Klein quad. 23. Ridinger wild Thiere. 35.

C. Tarandus. C. cornibus ramosis recurvatis teretibus, summitatibus palmatis. Lin. syst. 93. Scbreber, tab. ccxlviii. A. B. C.

Rhen. Faun. Suec. No. 41. Aman. Acad. iv. 144.

Le Renne. de Buffon, xii. 79. tab. x. xi. xii. Allamand, XV. 50. tab. iii. Brisson quad. 63.

Reindeer. Schesser Suppl. 82. 129. Le Brun's trawls, i. 10, 11. Œuvres de Maupertuis, iii. 198. Voyage d'Outhier, 141. Hist. Kamtschatka, 228. Bell's travels, i. 213. Martin's Spitzberg, 99. Crantz Greenl. i. 70. Egede Greenl. 60. Dobbs's Hudson's bay, 20. 22. voy. Huds. bay. ii. 17. 18.

Le Caribou. Charlevoix hist. nouv. France, v. 190. Er. Mus. Ashm. Mus. LEV. MUS.

D. with large but slender horns, bending forwards; the top palmated, with brow antlers broad and palmated: horns on both sexes; those of the female less, and with fewer branches. A pair from Greenland was three feet nine inches long; two feet six from tip to tip; weighed 91b. 12 oz. Height of a full-grown Rein, four feet six. Space round the eyes always black. When it first sheds its coat, the hairs are of a brownish ash-color; after, that, changes to white; the hairs are very closely set together; along the fore-part of the neck are very long and pendent: hoofs large and concave; tail short.

PLACE.

Inhabits farther north than any other hoofed quadruped. In America, it is found in Spilzbergen, and Greenland, but not further south than Canada; in Europe, abounds in Samoidea, Lapland, Norway; in Asia, the north coast, as far as Kamtschatka, and the inland parts as low as Siberia. Found in all these places in a state of nature; is domesticated only by the Laplanders, Samoides and Kamtschatkans; is to the first the substitute

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USES.

of the horse, the cow, the goat, and the sheep; and is their only wealth. The milk of the Rein affords them cheese; the flesh, food; the skin, cloathing; the tendons, bowstrings; and when split, thread; the horns, glue; the bones, spoons. During the winter it supplies the want of a horse, and draws their fledges with amazing swistness over the frozen lakes and rivers; or over the snow, which at that season covers the whole country. In running makes a great clatter with the collision of the spurious hoofs, which are large and loose. It does not gallop in the manner represented in the figure of it in my first edition, or as represented by Mr. Ridinger, in the 35th plate of his Wilden Thiere; but has a rapid running pace. A rich Laplander is possessed of a herd of a thousand Reins. In autumn they seek the highest hills, to avoid the Lapland Gadsly *, which at that time deposits its eggs in their skin; and is the pest of these animals, for numbers die that are thus visited. The moment a single fly appears, the whole herd instantly perceives it: they fling up their heads, toss about their horns, and at once attempt to fly for shelter amidst the snows on the lostiest Alps. In summer they feed on several plants; but during winter, on the rein-liverwort †, which lies far beneath the snow; which they remove with their feet and palmated brow antlers, in order to get at their beloved food.

ITS HORNS FOSSIL.

My very worthy friend, the late Doctor Ramsay, prosessor of Natural History in Edinburgh, assured me, that the horns of this species were found sossil, in 1775, in a marle-pit, five feet below the surface, near Craigton, in the shire of Linlithgow. They live only sixteen years.

* Œstrus Tarandi. Faun. Suec. No. 1731. Flor. Lap. 360.

† Lichen rangiserinus, sp. pl. ii. 1620. Flor. Lap. 331.

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The horns vary in size, and a little in form: one at Mr. John Hunter's, has two broad four-furcated branches over the brow antlers, bending a little inwards: the whole was stronger and broader, in proportion to the length, than common, and of a dull deep yellow color. These are said to be the horns of the female.

53. FALLOW.

ξ. Arist. hist. An. lib. ii. c. 14.

Platyceros. Plinii lib. xi. c. 38. Oppian Cyneg. lib. ii. lin. 293.

Platogna. Belon obs. 55.

Dama vulgaris five recentiorum. Gesner quad. 307.

Daniel. Rzaczinski Polon. 217.

Cervus Platyceros, Fallow Deer. Raii syn. quad. 85.

Cervus palmatus. Dam-tanhirsch. Klein quad. 25.

Cervus dama. C. cornibus ramofis recurvatis compressis: summitate palmata. Lin. syst. 93. Hasselquist, itin. 290.

Dos, Doshiort. Faun. fuec. No. 42.

Le Dain. de Buffon, vi. 161. tab. xxvii. Brisson quad. 62.

Buck. Br. Zool. i. 34. Pontop, Norway, ii. 9. Du Halde China, i. 315. Fauhul. Sinens. LEV. MUS.

PLACE.

D. with horns palmated at their ends and pointing a little forward, and branched on the hinder side; two sharp and slender brow antlers, and above them two small slender branches. Color of this deer various, reddish, deep brown, white, spotted.

Not so universal as the Stag; rare in France and Germany. Found wild in the woods of Lithuania* and Moldavia†, in Greece, the Holy Land, and the north of China. In great abundance in England; but, except on a few chases, at present confined in parks. M. de Buffon says, that the fallow-deer of Spain are almost as large as stags. None originally in America. What are

* Rzaczinski.

† Doctor Pallas.

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improperly called by that name will be described hereafter. Are easily tamed: during rutting time, will contest with each other for their mistress; but are less fierce than the stag: during that season, will form a hole in the ground, make the female lie down in it, and then often walk round and smell at her.

* * With rounded horns.

54. STAG.

Cervus. Plinii lib. viii. c. 32. Gesner quad. 326.

Jelen. Rzaezinski Polon. 216.

Red Deer, Stag, or Hart. Raii syn. quad. 84.

Cervus nobilis. Hirsch. Klein quad. 23.

C. Elaphus. C. cornibus ramosis teretibus recurvatis. Lin. syst. 93. Hiort. Kron-hiort. Faun. Suec. No. 4.

Le Cers De Buffon, vi. 63. tab. ix. x. Brisson quad. 58.

Stag, or Red Deer. Br. Zool. i. 34. Shaw's travels, 243.

Catesby Carolin. Acc. xxviii. Lawson Carotin. 123. Faunul. sinens. LEV. MUS.

D. with long upright horns, much branched: slender and sharp brow antlers. Color of the stag generally a reddish brown, with some black about the face, and a black lift down the hind-part of the neck and between the shoulders. Grows to a large size; one killed in the county of Aberdeen weighed 18 stone Scots, or 3141b. Horns of the American stags sometimes weigh 30 lb. and are above four feet high.

PLACE.

Common to Europe, Barbary, north of Asia, and North America. Numerous in the southern track of Siberia, where it grows to a monstrous size. Extirpated in Russia. Arc still found in a state of nature in the highlands of Scotland. Lives in herds: one male generally supreme in each herd. Furious and dangerous in rutting-time. Seeks the female with a violent braying. Rutting-

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season in Attgust. Begins to shed its horns the latter end of February, or beginning of March: recovers them entirely in July. Fond of the sound of the pipe; will stand and listen attentively. Waller, in his ode to Lady Isabella on her playing on the lute, has this allusion to the fondness of the animal for music:

Here LOVE takes stand, and, while she charms the ear,
Empties his quiver on the listening deer.

PLAY FORD, in his introduction to music, has the following curious passage to this purpose: "Mysels," says he, "as I travelled some years since near Royston, met a herd of stags, about twenty, on the road, following a bag-pipe and violin; which, while the music played, they went forward, when it ceased, they all flood still; and in this manner they were brought out of Yorkshire to Hampton Court*."

The account of the Cervina Senectus †, or vast longevity of the stage, fabulous. Hinds go with young above eight months, bring one at a time, seldom two: secure the young from the slag, who would destroy it. Flesh of these animals coarse and rank: skin useful for many purposes: from the horns is extracted the celebrated spirit of hartshorn; but the horns of all other deer yield the same salt. The Hippelaphus ‡ of the antients, only a large race of stags, with longer hair on the neck, giving it the appearance of a mane. This is distinguished by the French with

* STILLINGFLEET'S Principles and Power ofHarmony, 183.

† Juvenal, Sat. xiv. 251. Plinii lib. viii. c. 33, speaks of some that were taken about 100 years before his time, with golden collars on their necks, which had been put on them by Alexander the Great.

Aristot. Hist. An, lib. ii. c. I.

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the title of Cers d Ardenne: by the Germans, with that of Brandhirtz. Under the same variety may be also brought the Tragelaphus of Gesner, so called from being more hairy than common *.

Le Cers de Corse of M. de Buffon, vi. is the lest species, of a deep brown color. Vide p. 95. tab. xi. This may be the same as the small kind of stag, rather larger than the fallow-deer, which Dr. Shaw says is found in Barbary, whose female the Moors call in derision Fortass, or Scald-head, from having no horns †.

Du Halde, i. 122. speaks of a small sort of stag, found in Sunnan, a province of China, not bigger than a common dog.

55. VIRGINIAN.

Fallow-deer. Lawson Carol. 123. Catesby, Acc. xxviii. du Pratz, ii. 50.

Dama Virginiana. Raii syn. quad. 86. Ph.

Tr. abridg. ix. 86. Br. Mus. Ashm, Mus. LEV. MUS.

D. with slender horns, bending very much forward: numerous branches on the interior sides; no brow antlers: about the size of the English fallow-deer: of a light color, a cinereous brown: tail ten inches long. A quite distinct species, and peculiar to America.

MANNERS.

Are found in vast herds. Those near the mores are lean and bad, and subject to worms in their heads and throats. Are very restless; always in motion; not fierce: their flesh dry; but of the utmost importance to the Indians, who dry it for their winter provision. The skins a great article of commerce, vast numbers annually imported from our colonies. Feed during hard winters

* Gesner quad. 296. Distinct from the Tragelaphus Caii.

Travels, 243.

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on the moss which hangs in long strings from the American trees, in the northern parts. Are very easily made tame, so as to return to their master at night, after feeding all day in the woods. These, not the Roe, as quoted by M. de Buffon *, are intended by Kalm †, and probably by M. Fontannette.

56. SPOTTED. AXIS.

Axis. Plinii lib. viii. c. 21. Belon. obs, 119. (fæm.) Raii syn. quad. 89.

Speckled Deer. Nieuhoss voy. 262.

L'Axis, de Buffon, xi. 397. tab. xxxviii. xxxix.

D. with slender trifurcated horns; the first branch near the base; the second near the top; each pointing upwards: size of the fallow-deer: of a light red color: the body beautifully marked with white spots: along the lower part of the fides, next the belly, is a line of white: the tail long, as that of a fallow-deer; red above, white beneath.

Common on the banks of the Ganges, and in the isle of Ceylon. Pliny describes them well among the animals of India, and adds that they were sacred to Bacehus. They will bear our climate; and have bred in the Prince of Orange's menagery near the Hague: are very tame: have the sense of smelling very exquisite: readily eat bread, but will refuse a piece that has been breathed on: many other animals of this, the antelope, and goat kind, will do the same.

* de Busson, Supplem. iii. 125.

† Travels, i. 209.

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57. MIDDLE-SIZED AXIS.

D. with rough and strong horns, trifurcated. The color of the hair is the same with the former. Is of a middle size between the spotted and the great, or equal to that of our stag; and is never spotted; but sometimes varies to white, and is reckoned a great rarity.

PLACE.

Inhabits the dry hilly forests of Ceylon, Borneo, Celebes, and Java, in herds of hundreds. In Java and Celebes they grow very fat: in those two islands are great hunting-matches, and multitudes are killed at a time. The flesh is cut into small pieces, and dried in the fun, and salted for use.

58. GREAT AXIS.

In the British Museum is a pair of large horns, of the same shape with the former, and, like them, trifurcated; are very thick, strong, and rugged; of a whitish color; two feet nine inchcs long; two feet four inches between tip and tip.

These probably came from Borneo or Ceylon. Mr. Loten having informed me of a species of stage in those islands as tall as a horse, and with horns three-forked. They are of a reddish-brown color. The Dutch call them Elanden, or Elks. In Borneo, they are found in low marshy places, for which reason they are there called, in the Javan and Malayan language,Mejangan Banjoe, or water stages.

The species of Deer, probably one of the three last, are found in Mindanao, Gilolo, Mandioly, Batchian, and all the Papuas islands. Oxen, buffaloes, goats, hogs, dogs, cats, and rats are also found there, but no kind of beasts of prey. In New Guinea, all those kinds of quadrupeds cease, except the dog and hog.

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59. PORCINE.

D. with slender trifurcated horns, thirteen inches long; six inches distant at the base: head ten inches and a half long: body, from the tip of the nose to the tail, three feet six inches: height, from the shoulders to the hoof, two feet two inches; and about two inches higher behind: length of the tail eight inches: body thick and clumsy: legs fine and slender: color on the upper part of the neck, body, and sides, brown; belly and rump, of a lighter color.

PLACE.

In possession of the late Lord Clive, brought from Bengal; called, from the thickness of their body, Hog Deer. The same species is also found in Borneo. They are taken in square pitfalls, about four feet deep, covered with some slight materials. Of their feet, as well as those of the lesser species of Musks and Antelopes, are made tobacco-stoppers.

60. RIBFACED.

D. with three longitudinal ribs extending from the horns to the eyes. Horns placed on a boney process, like a pedestal, elevated three inches above the scull, and covered with hair. The horns trifurcated; the upper fork hooked. From each of the upper jaws hangs a tusk.

SIZE.

In size somewhat less than the English roe-buck, but of the shape of the Porcine deer. They live only in families. Inhabit Java and Ceylon; where they are called in the Malaye tongue Kidang, and by the Javans, Munt-jak: are common, and esteemed for the delicacy of their flesh.

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The pedestals or pillars on which the horns stand, grow thicker as the deer advances in age; the margin also swells out around; so that if the horns are forced off the pedestals, the surface of the last have the appearance of a rose.

61 ROE.

Caprea. Plinii lib. xi. c. 37.

Caprea, capreolus, Dorcas. Gesner quad. 296.

Sarn. Rzaczinski Polon. 27.

Cervus minimus. Klein quad. 24.

Cervus capreolus. C. cornibus ramosis teretibus erectis, summitate bisida. Lin, syst. 94. Radjur. Faun. suec, No. 43.

Le Chevreuil. de Buffon, vi. 289. tab. xxxii. xxxiii. Brisson quad. bl. Charlevoix, N. Franc. v. 195.

Roebuck. Br. Zool. i. 139, 200. Br. Mus. Asb. Mus. LEV. MUS.

D. with strong upright rugged trifurcated horns, from six to eight inches long: length, from nose to tail, three feet nine inches: height before, two feet three inches: behind, two feet seven inches: tail, one inch: weight of a full-grown buck near 60 lb. Hair in summer very short and smooth; ends of the hairs deep red, bottoms dark grey: in winter very long, and hoary at the tips, except on the back, where it is often very dark: the legs slender; and below the first joint of the hind legs is a tuft of longhair: rump, and under side of the tail, white.

PLACE.

Inhabits most parts of Europe, as far north as Norway: is not found in Africa. Uncertain whether this kind is in N. America, notwithstanding it is mentioned by Charlevoix: being unnoticed by Lawson, Catesby, Kalm, and Du Pratz. Frequent in the wooded parts of the highlands of Scotland, but, at present, in no other part of Great Britain.

FOOD.

Fond of mountanous wooded countries, brouzes very much,

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and during winter eats the young shoots of fir and beech: is very active; lives in small families: brings two young at a time; conceals them from the buck. The slesh delicate, but never fat.

62. TAIL-LESS.

Cervus Pygargus. Pallas Itin. i. 453. C. Aha. S. Gmelin iter, iii. 496. Gmelin, Lin. 175. Schreber, tab. ccliii.

D. with trifurcated horns like the former, very rugged at the bale. The hairs of the eye-lids, and about the orbits, long and black. The inside of the ears covered with a very thick fur; nose and sides of the under lip black: its tip white. No tail; only a broad cutaneous excrescence above the anus.

Color of a roe-buck. About the buttocks is a great bed of a snowy whiteness, extending to the back.

Its whole coat excessively thick; and in the spring quite rough and erect.

SIZE.

PLACE.

Larger than the European kind*. Very common in all the temperate parts of Russia and Siberia, especially the shrubby mountanous tracts beyond the Volga, and in the mountains of Hyrcania. But it does not extend to the N. E. of Siberia.

At approach of winter descends into the open plains, and the hair in that season assumes a hoary appearance.

NAMES.

The Persians call this animal, Ahu† The Tartars name it the Saiga, which properly signifies the roe-buck; and is now adopted for the Scythian antelope by the inhabitants of the Russian empire ‡.

* Dr. Pallas. MS. The Roe-buck, Bell's Travels, i. 201, and Faunul. Sinens. of Osbeck, may be of this kind.

Pallas, Spicil. Zool. xii. 7.

‡ The same, 34.

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63. MEXICAN.

Teutlalmaçame. Hernandez An. Mexic. 324.

Cuguaca-apara? Marcgrave Brasil. 235. Piso Brasil. 97.

Baieu. Bancrost Guiana, 122.

Cervus major, corniculis brevissimis. Biche des bois. Barrere France Æqtdn, 151.

Chevreuil d'Amerique, de Buffon, vi. 210. 243. tcb. xxxvii.

Le Cariacou? de Buffon, xii. 324. 347. tab. xliv.

D. with strong thick rugged horns, bending forward; ten inches long; nine between point and point; trifurcated in the upper part: one erect snag about two inches above the base: by accident subject to vary in the number of branches: head large: neck thick: eyes large, and bright: about the size of the European Roe: color of the hair reddish: when young, spotted with white.

Inhabits Mexico, Guiana, and Brasil; not only the internal parts of the country, but even the borders of the plantations: the flesh inferior to that of European venison. A species very distinct from the Roe of the old continent. Perhaps this is the wild goat (as Bossu* calls it) which he fays is plentiful in Louisiana, whose female has two cornichons or snags to its horns.

The Squinaton, or more properly the Scenoontung, an inhabitant of the countries west of Hudson's Bay, is another obscure animal, said to be less than a Buck and larger than a Roe, with finer legs and sharper head. An accurate account of the hoofed quadrupeds of the new continent, is among the desiderata of the Zoologist.

In the Museum of the Royal Society is a pair of horns of some animal of the Roebuck kind, styled by Grew †, horns of the In-

* Travels, i. 350.

† Rarities, 24.

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dian Roebuck: they are sixteen inches long, and the same between tip and tip; are very thick, strong, and rugged; near the base of each is an upright forked branch; the ends bend forward, divide into two branches, each furnished with numerous snags.

64. GREY.

Cervus Guineensis. C. griseus subtus nigricans. Mus. Fr. Ad. 12. Lin. syst. 94.

AN obscure species, doubtful whether a Deer, a Musk, or female Antelope; for the horns were wanting in the animal described by Linnœus.

Size of a cat; of a grey color: between the ears a line of black: a large black spot above the eyes: on each side the throat a line of the same color pointing downwards: the middle of the bread black: the fore legs and sides of the belly, as far as the hams, marked with black: ears rather long: under side of the tail black.

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* * Without horns.

VIII. MUSK.

Two long tusks in the upper jaw.
Eight small cutting teeth in the lower jaw; none in the upper.

65. TIBET.

Capreolus Moschi. Gesner quad. 695.

Animal Moschiferum. Raii syn. quad. 127. Schrockius hist. Mosobi, I. tab. i.

Animal Moschiferum, Kabarga. Nov. com. Petrop. iv. 395.

Musk animal. Tavernier's trau. ii. 153. Le Brun's trav. i. 116. Bell's trav. i. 249. ii. 88. Strahlenlerg, 339.

Du halde China, i. 63. 324. Grew's Museum, 21.

Moschus Moschiferus. M. folliculo umbilicali. Lin. syst. 91.

Tragulus, sp. 5. Le Musc. Brissan quad. 67. Klein quad. 18.

Le Musc. De Buffon, xii. 361. Faunul sinens. LEV. MUS.

M. of the form of a roebuck: length three feet three inches; from the top of the shoulders to the soles of the feet, two feet three inches. From the top of the haunches to those of the hind feet, two feet nine inches.

Upper jaw much longer than the lower; on each side a slender tusk, near two inches long, very short on the inner edge, and hanging out quite exposed to view: in the lower jaw eight small cutting teeth; and in each jaw six grinders: ears long and narrow, inside of a pale yellow, outside deep brown: chin yellow: hair on the whole body erect, very long, and each marked with short waves from top to bottom: color near the lower part cinereous, black near the end: the tips ferruginous. The fore part of the neck, in some, marked on each fide with long white stripes from the head to the chest: back striped with pale brown,

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reaching to the sides: hoofs long, much divided, and black; spurious hoofs of the fore feet very long: tail an inch long, hid in the hair: the scrotum of a bright red color; but the penis so hid as scarce to be discovered.

Female less than the male: nose sharper: wants the two tusks, and has two small teats.

PLACE.

Inhabits the kingdom of Tibet, the province of Mohang Meng in China, Tonquin, and Bontan; about the lake Baikal, and near the rivers Jenesea and Argun. Found from lat. 60 to 44 or 45; but never wanders so far south, except when forced through hunger, by great falls of snow, when they migrate to feed on corn and new-grown rice. Inhabit naturally the mountains that are covered with pines, and places the molt wild and difficult of access: love solitude: avoid mankind. The chace is a trade of great trouble and danger. If pursued, they seek the highest summits, inaccessible to men or dogs.

MUSK-DAG.

That noted drug the musk is produced from the male. It is found in a bag or tumor of the size of a hen's egg, on the belly of that sex only, kidney-shaped and pendulous. It is furnished with two small orifices; the largest is oblong, the other round; the one is naked, the other covered with long hairs. The musk is contained in this; for Mr. Gmelin tells us, that on squeezing the tumor, the musk was forced through the apertures in form of a fat brown matter. The hunters cut off the bag, and tie it up for sale; but are very apt to adulterate the contents, by mixing other matter with it to encrease the weight. These animals must be found in great plenty, for Tavernier says, that he bought in one journey 7673 musk-bags. The musk of Tibet is far superior to that of other places, and of course much dearer. The flesh of

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the males is much insected with this drug, but is eaten by the Russians and Tartars. It is strongest in rutting time.

66. BRASILAN.

Cuguacu-ete. Maregrave Brasil. 235. Piso Brasil. 97.

Biche de Guiane. Des Marchais, iii. 295.

Wirrebocerra. Bancroft Guiana. 123.

Cervula furinamensis, subrubra albis maculis notata. Seb. Mus. I. 71. tab. xliv. Klein quad. 22. Brisson quad. 67.

M. about the size of a roebuck: ears four inches long: the veins very apparent: eye large and black; nostrils wide: space about the mouth black: the hind legs longer than the fore legs: tail six inches long; white beneath: hair on the whole body short and smooth: head and neck tawny, mixed with ash-color: back, sides, chest, and thighs, of a bright rust-color: lower part of the belly and inside of the thighs white. Marcgrave says, that the throat and under fide of the neck are also white. In all other respects the stuffed skin which I examined, agreed with his description.

Inhabits Guiana and Brasil; are excessively timid, and most remarkably active, and swift; like goats, they can stand with all their four legs placed together on the point of a rock. They are frequently seen swimming the rivers, and at that time are casily taken. The Indians hunt them, and their flesh is esteemed very delicate. The French of Guiana call them Biches or Does, because, notwithstanding their likeness to deer, both sexes are without horns. M. de Buffon accuses Seba of an error, in placing this animal in Surinam; but the last is vindicated by several authorities, who have had ocular proof of its existence in Guiana, &c.

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67. INDIAN.

Meminna. Knox hist. Ceylon. 21.

De Buffon. xii. 315. Pissay. Hamilton's voy. E. Indies, i. 261.

M. length 1 foot 5; weight 5lb. ½; of a cinereous olive-color: throat, breast, and belly white: sides and haunches spotted, and barred transversely with white: ears large and open: tail very short.

Inhabits Ceylon and Java. A fine drawing of this animal was communicated to me by Mr. Loten, late governor in Ceylon.

68. GUINEA.

Le Chevrotain des Indes. De Buffon, xii. 315. 341. tab. xlii. xliii. Gmelin, Lin. 174.

Tragulus Guineensis. Brisson quad. 66. Tr. indicus. 65. Klein quad. 21.

Moschus pygmæus. Lin. syst. 92. LEV. MUS.

M. nine inches ½ long: head, legs, and whole upper part of the body, tawny: belly white: no spurious hoofs: two very broad cutting teeth in the lower jaw: on each side of them, three others very slender: in the upper jaw two small tusks: ears large: tail an inch long.

The specimen in the LEVERIAN MUSEUM is ferruginous, mixed with black. The neck and throat striped downwards with white.

They are found in the East Indies, and several of the islands: in Java and Prince's island. The Malayes call them Kant-chil; the Javans, Poet-jang. The natives catch them in great numbers in little snares, carry them in cages to market, and fell them for two-pence halfpenny a piece.

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The horns which Linnœus says are fold as belonging to this animal, are those of the Royal Antelope, p. 20.

To this genus must be referred a large species mentioned by Nieuhoff, p. 209, found in the isle of Formosa, which he calls stags, less than ours, but without horns.

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IX. CAMEL.

No cutting teeth in the upper jaw. Upper lip divided like that of a hare. Six cutting teeth in the lower jaw.

Small hoofs. No spurious hoofs.

69. ARARIAN. ONE-BUNCHED DROMEDARY.

Καμλοσ αζαοσ. Arist. hist. An. lib. ii. c. I.

Camelus Arabicus. Plinii lib. viii. c. 18.

Camel called Hugiun. Leo Afr. 338.

Camelus Dromas. Gesner quad. 159. Pr. Alp. hist. Ægypt. i. 223.

Camelus unico in dorso gibbo, seu Dromedarius. Camel, or Dromedary. Raii syn. quad. 143. Klein quad. 42.

Camelus Dromedcrius. C. topho dorfi unico. Lin. syst. 90.

Le Dromednire. De Busson, xii. 211. tab. ix. Brisson quad. 33.

Camel with one bunch. Pecock's trav. i. 207. Shaw's trav. 239. Russel's hist. Aleppo. 56. 57. Plaisted's journal. 82.

Djammel. Forskal, iv. No. 12.

C. with a single bunch on the back: head small: ears short: neck long, slender, and bending: height to the top of thebunch six feet six inches: hair soft: longest about the neck, under the throat, and about the bunch: color of that on the protuberance dusky: on the other parts a reddish ash-color: taillong: the hair on the middle soft; on the sides coarse, black, and long: hooss small.: feet flat, divided above, but not thorough: the bottom excessively tough, yet pliant: has fix callosities on the legs; one on each knee; one on the infide of each foreleg, on the upper joint; one on the infide of the hind leg, at the bottom of the thigh; another on the lower part of the breast: the places on which the animal rests when it lies down.

The riches of Arabia, from the time of Job to the present. The patriarch reckoned 6000 camels among his pastoral treasures;

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the moderns estimate their wealth by the numbers of these useful animals. Without them great part of Africa would be wretched; by them the whole commerce is carried through arid and burning tracts, impassable but by beasts which Providence formed expressly for the scorched deserts. Their soles are adapted to the lands they are to pass over, their toughness and spungy softness preventing them from cracking. Their great powers of sustaining abstinence from drinking, enables them to pass over unwatered tracts for seven or eight days, without requiring the lest liquid; Leo Africanus says for fifteen. They can discover water by their scent at half a league's distance, and after a long abstinence will hasten towards it, long before their drivers perceive where it lies.

Their patience under hunger is such, that they will travel many days sed only with a few dates, or some small balls of bean, or barley-meal; or on the miserable thorny plants they meet with in the deserts.

The largest kind will carry a load of 1000 or 1200 lb. weight. They kneel down to be loaded; but rise the moment they find the burthen equal to their strength: and will not permit anounce more to be put on. Are most mild and gentle at all times, but when they are in heat: during that period, are seized with a fort of madness, that it is unsafe to approach them: cannot be prevaled. on to quicken their pace by blows; but go freely if gently treated; and seem enlivened by the pipe, or any music. In winter they are covered with long hair, which falls off in the spring, and is carefully gathered, being wove into stuffs, and also cloths to cover tents. In Summer their hair is short. Before the great heats the owners fmear their bodies, to keep off the flies.

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The Arabs are very fond of the flesh* of young camels. The milk of these animals is their principal subsistence; and the dung of camels is the fuel used by the Caravans in the travels over the deserts.

PL ACE.

This species is common in Africa, and the warmer parts of Asia; not that it is spread over either of the continents. It is a common bead of burden in Ægypt, and along the countries which border on the Mediterranean Sea; in the kingdom of Morocco, Sara or the Desert, and in Æthiopia; but no where fouth of thofe kingdoms. In Asia it is equally common, in Turky and Arabia, but is scarcely seen farther north than Perfia, being too tender to bear a more severe climate. It is very common in India. They are used there for burden as well as carrying men: for the use of the latter, they generally have a pad put on their backs frequently covered with trappings of scarlet cloth, or silk.

There are varieties among the camels. The Turkman is the largest and strongest. The Arabian is hardy. What is called the Dromedary, Maihary, and Raguahl, is very swist. The common fort travel about thirty miles a day. The last, which has a less bunch, and more delicate (shape, and also is much inferior in size, never carries burdens; but is used to ride on. In Arabia, they are trained for running-matches: and in many places, for carrying couriers, who can go above one hundred miles a day on them; and that for nine days together†, over burning deserts, unhabitable by any living creature. The African camels are the most hardy, having more distant and more dreadful deserts to

* Athenaus relates, that the Perfian monarchs had whole camels lerved up to their table, Lib. iv, p. 130. as the Romans had whole boars.

Leo Afr. 338.

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pass over than any of the others, from Numidia to the kingdom of Æthiopia. She Chin, a Chinese physician, says, that camels are found wild N. W. of his country*.

C. BACTRIAN. TWO-BUNCHED CAMEL.

Kαμη;λoσ Bαμξoσ Arist. hist. An. ii. e. I. Camelus Bactrianus. Plinti lib. viii. c. 18.

Camel called Becheti. Leo Asr, 338.

Camelus. Gesner quad, 150. Pr. Alp. hist. Ægypt i. 223. tab. xiii.

Camelus duobus in doso tuberibus, feu Bactrianus. Raiisyn. quad. 145.

Camelus Badtriinus. C. dorsi topnia duobus. Lin. syst. 90. Klein quad. 41.

Le Chameau. De Buffon, xi. an. tab. xxii. Brisson quad. 32.

Persian camel. Russel's hist. Aleppo, 57. Bocht. Forshal, iv.

C. with two bunches on the back; in all other respects like the preceding; of which it seems to be a mere variety, and is equally adapted for riding or carrying loads.

WILD.

The two-bunched camel is still found wild in the deserts of the temperate parts of Asia, particularly in those between China and India. These are larger and more generous than the domesticated race †

TAME.

This species is extremely hardy, and is very common in Asia; and is in great ufe among the Tartars and Mongols, as a beast of burden, from the Caspian Sea to the Empire of China. It bears even in so severe a climate as that of Siberia, being found about the lake Baikal, where the Burats and Mongols keep great numbers. They are far less than those which inhabit Western Tartary. Here they live during winter on willows and other trees, and are "by this diet reduced very lean. They lose their hair in April,

* Du Halde China, ii. 225.

† Pallas Spicil. Zool. fasc. xi. 4. 5.

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and go naked all May, amidst the frosts of that severe climate. To thrive, they must have dry ground and salt marshes. Here is a white variety, very scarce, and sacred to the idols and priests *.

CHINESE.

The Chinese have a swift variety, which they call by the expressive name of Fong Kyo Fo, or Camels with feet of the wind. Fat of camels, or, as those people call it, Oil of Bunches, being drawn from them, is esteemed in many disorders, such as ulcers, numbness, and consumptions†.

This species of camel is rare in Arabia, being an exotic, and only kept by the great men‡.

Camels have been introduced into Jamaica and Barbadoes; but, for want of knowlege of their diet and treatment, have in general been of very little service .

70. LLAMA.

Ovis Perdana. Hernandez An. Mex. 660. Marcgrauc Brasil. 243.

Huanueu-Llama. De Laet, 328.

Allo-camelus. Scaligeri. Ovis Indica. Gesner quad. 149.

Llama. Ovalle Chile. Churchills coll. 44, 45. Ulloa's voy. i. 478. Wood's voyage in Dampier's iv. 95. Molina. 301.

Camelus Glama. C. corpore Ixvi, topho pectorali. Lin. syst. 91.

Camelus Peruvianus Glama dictus. Raii syn. quad. 145.

Le Lama. De Buffon, xiii. 16.

Camelus pilis brevessimis. Le Chameau de Perou. Brisson quad. 34.

Camelus spurius. Klein quad. 42.

C. with an almost even back, small head, fine black eyes, and very long neck, bending very-much, with a protube-

* Pallas, M. S.

Du Halde, ii. 225.

Forskal, iv. Niebuhr defer. Aralie, 145.

Browne's hist. Jamaica, 488. Ligon's hist, Barbadoes, 58.

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rance on the breast constantly moist, with a greasy exudation, near the junction with the body: in a tame state, with smooth short hair; in a wild state, with long coarse hair *: white, grey, and russet, disposed in spots. According to Hernandez, yellowish, with a black line from the head along the top of the back to the tail, and belly white. The spotted may possibly be the tame; the last, the wild Llamas. The tail short: the height from four to four feet and a half: length, from the neck to the tail, six feet. The whole animal, according to Mr. Byron, weighed 300 lb. In general, the shape exactly resembles a camel, only it wanted the dorsal bunch.

It is the camel of Peru; and before the arrival of the Spaniards, was the only beast of burthen known to the Indians. It is as mild, as gentle, and as tradable. We find, that before the introduction of mules †, they were used by the Indians to plow the land; that at present they serve to carry burthens of about 100 lb.; that they go with great gravity, and, like their Spanish masters, nothing can prevale on them to change their pace. They lie down to be loaden; and when wearied, no blows can provoke them to go on. Feuillee says, they are so capricious, that if struck, they instantly squat down, and nothing but caresses can induce them to rise. When angry, have no other method of revenging injuries than by spitting, and they can ejaculate their saliva to the distance of ten paces; if it falls on the skin, it raises an itching, and a reddish spot. Their flesh is eaten, and said to be as good as mutton. The wool has a strong disagreeable scent. They are very sure-footed; therefore used to carry the Peruvian

* Ulloa, i. 479.

Ovalle, 44.

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ores over the ruggedest hills and narrowest paths of the Andes. They inhabit that vast chain of mountains, their whole length, to the straits of Magellan; but, except where those hills approach the sea; as in Patagonia, never appear on the coasts. Like the camel, they have powers of abstaining long from drink, sometimes for four or five days: like that animal's, their food is coarse and trifling.

Molina, who had frequent opportunity of feeing those animals in their native country, assures us that they differ specifically from the Guanaco. Linnaus had united them, but we must give way to the evidence of eye-witnesses.

This and every other species of South America inhabit the snowy Andes and Cordillera. Their bodies are covered with fat between the skin and the flesh: and they abound with blood: both requisite to preserve warmth in their frozen residence.

They keep in great herds, in the highest and steepest parts of the hills, and also near the shores; and while they are feeding, one keeps centry on the pinnacle of some rock: if it perceives the approach of any one, it neighs; the herd takes the alarm, and goes off with incredible speed. When they get to a considerable distance will slop, look at their pursuers till they come near, and then set off again *. They out-run all dogs; so there is no other way of killing them but with a gun. They are killed for the fake of their flesh and their hair; for the Indians weave the last into cloth †. From the form of the parts of generation, in both sexes, no animal copulates with such difficulty: it is often the labor of a day, Antequam actum ipfum venereum intipiant, et absolvant ‡.

* Byron's voy. 18.

De Last, 329.

Hernandez, 662.

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71. VlCUNNA.

La vigogne Molina, 295. Sclrtler, tab. cccvii.

Ovis Chilenfis. Wood's voy. Dampitr, iv. 9;. Narlorougb's voy. 32.

Vicunna, Alpaques. Freziers voy. 153. I 54. Ulloa's voy. i. 479.

Camelus seu Camelo congener Peruvianum lanigterum, pacos dictum. Raii sun.

quad. 147

Camelus Laniger. Klein quad. 42.

Le Paco. De Busson, xiii. 16.

Camelus pilis prolixis toto corpore vestitus. Le vigogne. Brisson quad. 35.

Camelus Pacos. C. tophis nullis, corpore lanato. Lin. syst. 91.

C. with the body covered with long and very fine wool, of the color of dried roses, or a dull purple: the bellywhite. Head round, nose short, tail like that of a goat. In a tame state, varies in color. Shaped like the former, but much less: the leg of one I faw was about the size of that of a buck.

Are of the same nature with the preceding: inhabit the same places, but are more capable of supporting the rigor of frost: and snow: they live in vast herds; are very timid, and excessively swift: sometimes the Guanacoes associate with them. The wool is very valuable both in Chili and in Europe, and is susceptibte of any dye. The flesh is excellent eating. The Indians take the Pacos in a strange manner: they tie cords, with bits of wool or cloth hanging to them, above three or four feet from the ground, cross the narrow passes of the mountains, then drive those animals towards them, which are so terrified by the flutter of the rags as not to dare to pass, but huddling together, give the hunters opportunity to kill with their flings as many as they please. These animals are not yet domesticated.

These animals yield a Bezoar: Waser, *says he has taken thir-

* Waser's voy. in Dampier, iii. 384.

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teen out of the domach of a finale bread: they were ragged, and of several forms, some round, some oval, others long: they were green at first, but changed to ash-color.

72. PACOS.

Le Paco ou Alpaco. Mo'ina, 296. Cimelus Paco. Gmelin, Lin. 171.

C. with an oblong visage: body covered with very long wool: of a make more robust than the vicunna.

Inhabits Peru only; the natives keep vast slocks of them for the sake of the wool, which they work into Stuffs as. resplendent as silks. They serve also to carry burdens; and, like camels, they bend their knees to receive or discharge their loads. They are found on the mountains of Peru in a state of nature, as well as the vinunna, but never mix together. This deftroys the opinion M. de Buffon had, that the paco and vicunna were the same animal, and that the sult was only a wild vicunna. Father Molina satisfies us of that mistake: he besides adds three more of American camels to the two we were before acquainted with. That gentleman was a jesuit, resident in South America, who had formed great collections in Natural History. When theorderwas expelled out of the new world. the Spaniards deprived him of every thing. By a strange accident on his return (I think to Bologna, his native place) he recovered one of his manuscripts, which was translated out of the Italian into French under she title or Essai sur l' Historie Naturelle du Chili, and published at Paris 1789, in oftavo. It is a choiceand it Huciive work; which gives us great reason to regret the loss of the left of his labors.

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73. GUANACO.

Camelus Huanacus. Molira, 300. GmtJin, Lin. 170. Schrcbir, tab. cccvi.

C. with around head, pointed nose: long hair; tawny on the back, white on the belly: back arched: tail short, and turned upwards: ears strait like those of a horse: the hind legs very, long: sometimes grows to the size of a horse.

Inhabits, during summer, the tops of the mountains; but more tender than the Pacos: descends in winter into the vallies. It runs with amazing swiftness; and, from the great length of the hind legs, prefers descending the hills, which it does by leaps and bounds like the buck. When young it is hunted and taken with dogs; when old, they are chaced by the Indians mounted on swift horses, who catch them with noofes, which they fling with great dexterity. These animals are easily domesticated: their flesh is excellent when young: in an adult state it is salted, and is capable of very long preservation.

74. CHILIHUCQUE.

Molina, 298. Camelus araucanus. Gmel Lin. 170.

C. with a head like a fheep, ears oval, and lips thick and pendulous; nose long, and arched: tail like that of afheep: body covered with long wool, very soft: length six feet; heightfour: varies in color (I suppose in a domestic state) to white, brown, black, and grey.

These animals inhabit Chili, and were employed by the antient Chilians as beafts of burden. They were led by a cord passed

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through the nose. Before the conquest of America the wool was manufactured in cloth, but is disused since the introduction of sheep. The Chilians love the flesh, but never kill the animal but on great seas or solemn sacrifices.

This is the ovis chilensts of Ovalle. p. 44. Cieza, 232. and Feuille, iii. 23. and Maregrave, 244.

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X. HOG.

Cutting teeth in both jaws.

75. COMMON.

(Wild). Sus fera, aper. Plinii lib. viii. c. 51. Cesner quad. 918.

Sus agrestis five aper, wild boar or swine. Raii syn. quad. 96.

Wieprz lesny, Dzik. Rzaczynsti Polon. 213.

Wild Schwein. Klein quad. 25.

Le Sanglier. De Buffon, v. 99. tab. xiv.

Sus caudatus, auriculis brevibus, subrotundis, cauda pilosa. Brisson quad. 75.

Sus aper. Lin. syst. 102.

(Tame). Sus. Gesnsr quad. 872. Raii syn. qual. 92.

Schwein. Klein quad. 25.

Le Cochon. De Buffon, v. 99. Le Verrat. tab. xvi.

Sus caudatus, auriculis oblongis, acutis, cauda pilosa. Brisson quad. 74.

Sus scrosa. S. dorso amice setoso, cauda pilosa. Lin. syst. 101. Swiin. Faun. suec. No 21. Er. Zool. i. 41. LEV. MUS.

WILD.

H. with the body covered with bristles: two large tusks a above and below: six cutting teeth in each jaw. In a wild state, of a dark brinded color: beneath the bristles is soft curled short hair: the ears short, and a little rounded.

TAME.

TAME: the ears long, sharp-pointed, and slouching: the color generally white, sometimes mixed with other colors.

The Siam Hog of M. de Buffon is a variety, differing chiefly in the superior length of the tail.

PLACE.

In a tame state, universal, except in the frigid zones, and Kamtschatka*, and such places where the cold is very severe. Since its introduction into America, by the Europeans, abounds to excefs in the hot and temperate parts. Found wild in most parts of Europe, except the British isles, and the countries N. of the

* Hist. Kamts. 108.

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Baltic in Asia, from Syria to the borders of the lake Baikal*, and as high as 55°N. latitude: in Africa, on the coast of Barbary. Are very numerous in Ceylon, Celebes, and Java; but are generally lesser than the European, yet are of the same species. In the forests of South America† are vast droves, which derive their origin from the European kind relapsed into a state of nature, and are what Mr, Bancroft, in his history of Guiana, 126, describcs as a particular species, by the name of Warree. Inhabits wooded countries: very swift: a stupid, slothful, drowsy animal, fond of wallowing in the mud to cool its surfeited body. Greedv, voracious, but not indiscriminate in the choice of its food; has been found to eat 72 species of plants, reject 171: very fond of various roots: so brutal as to eat its own offspring. Useful in America, by clearing the country of rattle-snakes, which it devours with safety. Restless in high winds: has a natural disposition to grow fat: is very prolific, brings sometimes 20 young at a time. Its flesh of vast use; takes fait the best of any; furnishes our table with various delicacies; brawn, peculiar to the English. The Romans made a dish.

Of the swelling unctuous paps

Of a fat pregnant Sow, newly cut off‡.

* Bell's trav. i. 279.

Des Marchais voy. ili. 312. Gumilla Oremque, ii. 4.

Alchymist, Act. ii. Sc. ii.

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α GUINEA Porcus Guineensis. Mart gravr Brasil. 230. Raii syn. quad. 96.

Sus poicus. S. dorso poltice setoso, cauda longitudine pedum. Lin. syst. 103.

Le Cochon de Guineéa. De Buffon, xv. 146. Brisson. quad. 76.

H. with a lesser head than the common kind: very long, slender, and sharp-pointed ears: tail hanging down to the heels, without hairs: the body covered with short, red, shining hairs, but about the neck and lower part of the back a little longer: no bristles. A domestic variety of the common kind.

β The Siam hog is another variety, very little differing from the former. It is described by M. de Buffon, under the title of Cochon de Shim. v. 99. tab. xv.

γCHINESE. SUS Chinensis. Lin. syst. 102. Erisson, quad. 75. Javan Hog. Kolbm Cape i. 117.

H. with the belly hanging almost to the ground: legs short: tail very short: the body generally bare, as is the case in general with the swine of India.

Its wild breed is found in great numbers in New Guinea, and in the islands of that country, which the Papuas chace in their canoss, as the animals are swimming from island to island, and kill them with lances, or shoot them with arrows *. They are also found on the island of Gilolo, and resort eagerly to the places where Jago trees have lately been cut down, to seed on the p:

* Forrestsk Voy. tab. xi. and p. 97.

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left there, which makes them very fat. They are said to appear, with their little black pigs, like so many flies on a table*

New Guinea must originally have supplied with hogs such of the islands of the South Sea, which are happy enough to possess these animals. They passed first to the New Hebrides, thence to the Friendly Isles, the Society, and the Marquesas. All the islands to the east, and even New Caledonia, a little to the south, are destitute of them. They are of the same variety with the Chinese, and are more delicious food, being fed with plantanes, bread fruit, and yarns: but are often too fat for an European stomach.

They are the animals which are sacrificed to the lesser deities of the isles: are roasted whole, placed on altars, and left there to decay.

The priests support my notion of the place of their origin: men, dogs, hogs, poultry, and fats, say they, came originally from an island, which they style the Mother of Lands: i. e. some island comparatively vastly larger than their own. This island is probably New Guinea, where the same species of hog, and the currilh fox-like dog, are found. As Captain Forrest informed me that New Guinea is not destitute of rats, it is not unlikely but that they were imported by some of the early navigators, and, escaping from the ships, became the pest of the islands.

* Forrest's Voy, p. 39.

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δ H. with undivided hoofs, only a variety of the common kind.

76. ÆTHIOPIAN.

Engalla. Sorrento's voy. in Churchill, i. 667. Barbot. 487. Dampier's voy.? i. 320.

African wild boar. Deslande's Martyn's m m. Acad. V. 386.

Sus Æthiopicus, Hardlooper. Pallas miscel. . 16. tab. xi, spicil. sasc. ii.

I. tab, i. Flacourt hist. Madagoscar. 511.

Sus Æthiopicus. S. faccalo molli suboculis Lin. syst. Apt 10m. III. 223.

Sangher du Cap. Verd. de Buffon suppiem. iii. 76. tab. xi. journal Histo. rique, tab. p. 02. LEV. MUS.

H. with small tusks in the lower jaws; very large ones in the upper; in old boars bending up towards the forehead, in form of a semicircle. As a singular mark of this. species, it has no fore teeth, their place being occupied by very hard gumss.

The nose is broad, depressed, and almost of a hard hardness: head very large and broad: beneath each eye a hollow, formed of loose skin, very soft, and wrinkled; under these a great lobe or wattle, lying almost horizontal, broad, slat, and rounded at the end, placed so as to intercept the view of any thing below from the animal.

Between these and the mouth, on each side is a hard callous protuberance: mouth small: skin dusky: bridles disposed in fesciculi, of about five each; longest between the ears, and on the beginning of the back, and but thinly disposed on the rest of the back.

Ears large and sharp-pointed, inside lined with long whitish hairs: tail slender and flat; does not reach lower than the thighs, and covered with hairs disposed in felciculi.

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Body longer, and legs shorter, than in the common swine: its whole length four feet nine inches; height before two feet two.

These animals inhabit the hottest parts of Africa, from Sierra Leone to Congo, and to within about two hundred leagues of the Cape. The Hottentots call them Kaunoba. They are found also in the island of Madagascar*

We also suspect that they are found in the isle of Mindanao, for Dampier† says that the hogs of that island are very ugly creatures, with great knobs growing over their eyes: that there are multitudes of them in the woods, and that they are commonly very poor, but sweet.

It lives under ground †;and burrows as expeditiously as the mole, forming almost instantancously a great hole in the ground, by means of its callous snout, as was experienced from the animal preserved in the Prince of Orange's menagery at the Hague.

We know little of their manners; but they are represented as very fierce and swift; and that they will not breed either with the domestic or Chinese sow; for that at the Hague killed one of the last, and, treated the other very roughly, which for experiment were turned to it ‖. Its savage nature proved fatal to its keeper, whom it flew, by a wound in the thigh.

The Hottentots dread the attack of them more than that of the lion. If not timely repelled, they will rush on a man, snap his legs in two, or rip open his belly: when the old ones are closely pursued, with their young, each will catch up a pig in its mouth, and convey it to a place of security.

* Ces sangliers, principalement les masles, ont deux comes a costez de nez qui font comme deux callositez. Flacourt hist. Madag. 152.

Voy. i. 321.

Sparman.

Fofmacr Monogr.

VOL. I. U

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77. CAPE VERD.

Sanglier de Cape Verd. De Buffon, xiv. 409. xv. 148. Ash. Mus. (the jaws only.) LEV. MUS.

H. with two cutting teeth in the upper, and fix in the lower jaw. Six grinding teeth on each side in both: the farthest very large: twenty-four in all. The tusks large, and of the hardness of ivory. The tusks of the upper jaw thick, and truncated obliquely.

Head long, nose slender: upper jaw extends far beyond the lower. Ears narrow, upright, pointed, and tusted with very long bristles. The whole body covered with very long fine bristles, especially about the shoulders, belly, and thighs, where they are of great length. The tail slender, and terminating in a large tust. It reaches to the first joint of the leg.

Inhabits Africa, from Cape Verd to that of Good Hope. Seems to be the same with that seen by Mr. Adanson, who calls it a boar of enormous size, peculiar to Africa.

I believe that the only entire specimen of the head now in Europe, is in possession of Sir Ashton Lever, which he received from the Cape.

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78. MEXICAN.

Quaahtla. coymatl. Quapizotl. aper Mexicanus. Hernandez an. mex. 637.

Hogs with navels on their backs. Parchas's Pilgr, iii. 863. 966.

Tajacu. Piso Brofil. 98 Barrere France equin. 161.

Tajacu, Caaigora. Marcgraw Brasil. 229. Ovalle Chile, Churchill, iii. 2.

Tajàcu feu aper Mexicanus moschiserus. Raii syn. quad. 77.

Mexican musk hog. Ph. Tr. abr. ii. 876.

Pecary. Waser's voy. Dampier, 328. iv. 48. Rogers's voy. 345.

Des Marchais voy. iii. 312. Gumilla Orenoque, ii. 6. Bancrost Guiana, 124. De Buffon, x. 21, tab. iii. iv. Seb. mus. i. 177.

Javaris. Rochfort Antilles. i. 285

Sus ecaudatus, folliculum ichorosum in dorso gerens. Brisson quad. 77.

Sus dorso cystisero, cauda nulla.

S. Tajacu. Lin. syst. 103. LEV. MUS.

H. with four cutting teeth above, six below; two tusks in each jaw; those in the upper jaw pointing down, and little apparent when the mouth is shut; the others hid. Length from nose to the end of the rump about three feet: head not so taper as in common swine: ears short and erect: body covered with bristles, stronger than those of the European kind, and more like those of a hedge-hog; they are dusky, surrounded with rings of white; those on the top of the neck and back are near five inches long, grow shorter on the fides: the belly almost naked: from the shoulders to the bread is a band of white: no tail: on the lower part of the back is a gland, open at the top, discharging a soetid ichorous liquor; this has been mistakenly called a navel.

Inhabits the hottest parts of S. America, and some of the Antilles: lives in the forests on the mountains: not fond of mire or marshy places: less fat than the common hog: goes in great droves: is very fierce: will fight stoutly with the beads of prey: the Jaguar, or American leopard, is its mortal enemy;

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often the body of that animal is found surrounded with those of numbers of these hogs, all slain in combat. Dogs will scarcely attack it: if wounded, it will turn on the hunter. Feeds on fruits and roots, on toads, and all manner of serpents, and holding them with the fore-feet, skins them with great dexterity. Is reckoned very good food; but all writers agree that the dorsal gland must be cut out as soon as the animal is killed, or the flesh will become so infected as not to be eatable. The Indian name of this species is Paquiras *, from whence seems to be derived that of Pecary.

79. BADY-ROUSSA

Aper in India, &c. Plinii lib. viii. c. 52.

γστετζάωσ.Ælian. an. lib. xviii. c. 10.

Baby-roussa. Bovtius India. 61, Grew's Museum. 27. Raii syn. quad. 96. Klein quad. 25. Seb, Muf. i. 8o. tab. 1. Valentyn Amboin. iii. 268.

Strange hog. Purchas's Pilgr. ii. 1693. v. 566. Nieuhoss's voy. 195.

Sus dentibus duobus caninis fronti innatis. S. Babyruffa. Lin. syst. 104.

Sus caudatus, dentibus caninis superioriribus, aborigine fursum verfis, arcuatis, cauda sloccosa. Brisson quad. 76.

Le Babiroussa. De Buffon. xii. 379. tab. xlviii. Br. mus. Asbm. mus. LEV. MUS.

H. with four cutting teeth in the upper, fix in the lower jaw; ten grinders to each jaw; in the lower jaw two tusks pointing towards the eyes, and standing near eight inches out of their sockets; from two sockets on the outside of the upper jaw, two other teeth, twelve inches long, bending like horns, their ends almost touching the forehead: ears small, erect, sharp-pointed: along the back are some weak bristles: on the rest of the body only a fort of wool, such as is on lambs: the tail long,

* Gumilla.

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ends in a tust, and is often twisted: the body plump and square; not of the elegant form which Bontius and Nieuhoff give it; as appears by an original drawing Mr. Loten favored me with.

Inhabits Boero, a small isle near Amboina: but neither on the Continent of Asia, or Africa; what M. de Buffon takes for it, is the Æthiopian boar. They are sometimes kept tame in the Indian isles: live in herds: have a very quick scent: feed on herbs and leaves of trees; never ravage gardens, like other swine: their flesh well-tasted. When pursued, and driven to extremities, rush into the sea, swim very well, and even dive, and pass thus from isle to isle: in the forests often rest their head, by hooking their upper tusks on some bough *. The tusks, from their form, useless in fight.

* The natural history of this animal is taken from Valentines hist. of the East Indies, from a translation Mr. Loten was fo obliging to communicate to me.

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XI. RHINOCEROS.

With one, sometimes two, large horns on the nose.
Each hoof cloven into three parts.

80. TWO-HORNED.

Rhinoceros cornu gemino. Martial Spectac. ep. 22. Pb. Tr. Abr. ix. 100. xi. 910. Ph. Tr. vol. lvi. 32. tab. ii.

Kolbeu, ii. 101.

Sparman, stock. wettsk. Handl. 1778. p. 103.

Flacourt, bist. Madag. 39;. De Buffon. xi. 186. Lobo, Abyss. 230.

Rhinoceros bicocnis. Lin syst.104. Er. mus. LEV. MUS.

RH. with two horns, one placed beyond the other. Length of the fore horn of one in the Ph. Trans. twenty inches, of the second horn nineteen; but they vary in sizes. Upper lip short, reaching but a little way over the lower: no fore teeth. The skin without any plicæa or folds; much granulated or warty; of a deep cinereous grey. Between the legs smooth, and flesh-colored. In other parts are a few scattered stiff bristles, most numerous about the ears and end of the tail. Tail thick as a thumb: convex above and below: slatted on the sides. Feet no more in diameter than the legs: but the three hoofs project forward. Soles callous.

PLACE.

Inhabits Africa. Observed first by Flacourt, in the bay of Saldague, near the Cape. Within these few years by Mr. Sparman, a learned Swede, at some distance N. of that promontory. He, with the laudable perseverance of a naturalist, watched she arrival of those and other animals at a muddy water, whither the wild beasts resort to quench their thirst, and some to indulge, in that hot climate, in rolling in the mud. In that spot he shot two of these animals: one was so large that the united force of five men could not turn it. The lesser he measured: its length

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SIZE.

was eleven feet and a half, the girth twelve: the height, between six and seven.

The skin is quite naked, very strong and thick, but is easily penetrated with an iron bullet: one of lead is slatten'd against the hide. The Hottentots at present always kill these animals by a musquet shot, and the skin is capable of being transfixed with the launce or dart. The Hottentots usually hasten the death of the Rhinoceros, by taking care to poison the weapon.

MANNERS.

This species seems to agree in manners with the following. Its flesh is eatable, and tastes like coarse pork. Cups are made of the horns; and of the hide, whips. Its food is boughs of trees, which it bites into bits of the size of a finger. It feeds also much on succulent plants, especially the stinking stapelia, and a species of Stæbe called the Stæbe Rhinocerotis.

It continues during day in a state of rest. In the evenings and mornings (perhaps the whole night) wanders in quest of' food: or in search of places to roll in.

Has no voice, only a fort of snorting, which was observed in females anxious for their young.

Its dung is like that of horses. It has a great propensity to cleanliness, dropping its dung and urine only in particular places.

Its sense of fight is bad. Those of hearing and smelling very exquisite: the left noise or scent puts it in motion. It instantly runs to the spot from which those two senses take the alarm. Whatsoever it meets with in its course, it overturns and tramples on. Men, oxen, and waggons, have thus been overturns, and sometimes destroyed. It never returns to repeat the charge; but keeps on its way: so that a senseless impulse, more than rage, feems the cause of the mischief it does.

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This was the species described by Martial, under the name of RHINOCEROS cornu gemino: who relates its combat with the Bear.

Namque gravem gemino cornu fic extulit urfum,
Jactat ut impofitas taurus in aftra pilas*.

In fact, the Romans procured their Rhinocerofes from Africa only, which was the reason why they are represented with double horns. That figured in the Prenestine pavement, and that on a coin of Domitian, have two horns: that which Pausinias† describes under the name of Æthiopian Bull had one horn on the nose, and another lesser higher up: and Cosmas Ægyptius‡, who travelled into Æthiopia, in the reign of Justinian, also attributes to it the same number: whereas Pliny, who describes the Indian kind, justly gives it but a single horn. Cosmas, vol. II. p. 334, says, that its skin was so thick and hard, that the Æthiopians ploughed with it, and that they called the animal Aru and Harisi: the last signifying the figure of the nostrils, and the use made of the skin. He adds, that when the beast is quiescent, the horns are loose, but in its rage become firm and immoveable. This is confirmed by Doctor Sparman, who observed that they were fixed to the head, or rather nose, by a strong apparatus of sinews and muscles, so as to give the animal the power of giving a steady fixture whenever occasion demands.

Augustus introduced a rhinoceros (probably of this kind) into the shews, on occasion of his triumph over Cleopatra ‖.

* Spect. Epig. 22.

† ix. 9.

‡ Tom. ii. 334.

Dion Cossius, lib. li.

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Mr. Bruce's figure of a Rhinoceros lies* under some suspicion of being mod faithfully copied from the single horned species of M. de Biffon†, with the long upper lip and every characteristic fold and plait: but by the addition of another horn, it becomes Bicornis; and, as Mr. Bruce very justly twice observes, the first drawing of the kind ever presented to the public ‡. So true is the old faying, Semper aliquid novi AFRICAM asserre!

I am indebted to Mr. Paterson for my figure of the two horned species: it does not differ materially from that by Doctor Sparman, unless in the lateral marks that distinguish the former: and seem no more than a looseness of skin. M. Allamand had engraved the lame animal from a rawing communicated to him by Col. Gordon, the great explorer of Caffraria; and M. de Buffon again copied his plate from a drawing, in which the looseness of the skin on the sides is far better expressed ‖.

I will not quit the subject till I have laid before the public my reasons to imagine that this species is not confined to Africa. Mr. William Hudson, with his usual friendship, communicated to me the following remark of Mr. Charles Miller, who was long resident in Sumatra: 'I never saw but two of die two-horned "Rhinoceros; but I believe they are not uncommon in the island, but are very shy, which is the reason they are but seldom seen. I was once within twenty yards of one. It had not any appearance of solds or plaits on the skin; and had a smaller horn resembling the greater, and, like that, a little turned inward. The figure given by Doctor Sparman is a faithful refemblance of that I saw.'

* Vol. v. tab. p. 8;.

† Vol. xi. tab. vii.

‡ Vol. v. p. 86. 87.

De Buffon Supplem, vi. 78. tab. vi.

VOL. I. X

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81. ONE-HORNED.

Rhinoceros. Plinii lib. viii. c. 20. Gesner quad. 842. Raii syn. quad. 12z. Klein quad. 26. Grew's museum, 29. Worm. mus. 336. De Buffbn, xi. 174. tab. vii. Brisson quad. 78. Ph. Tr. Abr. ix. 93. Scbreber, ii. 44. tab. Ixxviii.

Rhinoceros or Afobados. Linscbotten stin. 56. Bontius India. 50. Sorri bist. Cacbin-Chinæ. 797. Du Halde China. i. izo. Faunul. Sineus.

Rhinoceros unicornis. Lin. syst. 104. Edw. 221. Br. Muf. Ash. Muf. LEV. MUS.

RH. with a tingle horn, placed near the end of the nose, sometimes three feet and a half long, black and smooth: the upper lip long, hangs over the lower, ends in a point; is very pliable, and serves to collect its food, and deliver it into the mouth: the nostrils placed transversely: four cutting teeth; one on each corner of each jaw. Six grinders in each; the first remote from the cutting teeth. The ears large, erect, pointed: eyes small and dull: the skin naked, rough, or tuberculated, thick and strong, lying about the neck in vast folds; there is another fold from the shoulders to the fore-legs; another from the hind part of the back to the thighs: the tail is slender, flatted at the end, and covered on the fides with very stiff thick black hairs: the belly hangs low: the legs short, strong, and thick: the hoofs divided into three parts; each pointing forward.

Those which have been brought to Europe have been young and small: Bontius says, that in respect to bulk of body, they equal the elephant, but are lower on account of the shortness of the legs.

Inhabits Bengal, Siam, Cochin-China, Luangsi in China, and the isles of Java and Sumatra; loves shady forests, the neighborhood of rivers, and marshy places: fond of wallowing in mire, like

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the hog; is said by that means to give shelter in the folds of its skin to scorpions, centipes, and other insects. Is a solitary animal: brings one young at a time, very solicitous about it: quiet and inoffensive; but when provoked, furious: very swift, and very dangerous: I know a gentleman* who had his belly ripped up by one, but survived the wound. Is dull of fight; but has a most exquisite scent: feeds on vegetables, particularly shrubs, broom, and thistles; grunts like a hog: is said to consort with the tiger; a fable, founded on their common attachment to the sides of rivers, and on that account are sometimes found near each other.

It is said, when it has slung down a man, to lick the flesh quite from the bone with its tongue: this is impossible, as the tongue is quite smooth; that which wounded the gentleman, retired instantly after the stroke.

Its flesh is eaten; the skin, the flesh, hoofs, teeth, and very dung, used in India medicinally; the horn is in great repute as an antidote against poison†, especially that of a virgin Abbada, cups are made of them, which are supposed to communicate the virtue to the liquor poured into them.

THE UNICORN.

Is the unicorn of HOLY WRIT, and Indian ass of Aristotle‡, who says, it has but one horn; his informers might well compare the clumsy shape of the Rhinoceros to that of an ass, so that the philosopher might easily be induced to pronounce it a whole-footed animal. I may add, that Ælian, lib. iv. c. 22, attributes the same alexipharmic qualities to the horn of the Indian ass, as

* Charles Pigot, Esq, of Peploe, Shropshire, at that time in the India service.

† It was not every horn that had this virtue: some were held very cheap, while Others take a vast price.

Hist. An. lib. ii. c.

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are ascribed to that of the Rhinoceros. This was also the fera monoceros of Pliny *; which was of India, the same country with this animal; and in his account of the monoceros, he exactly describes the great black horn and the hog-like tail. The unicorn of HOLY WRIT has all the properties of the Rhinoceros, rage, untameableness, great swiftness, and great strength.

Various animals were styled monoceros and unicornis, probably from the accident of having loft one of their horns. Thus Pliny mentions a bos unicornis, and oryx unicorne. Any of the great strait-horned antelopes, such as the Indian, No 22, deprived of one horn, would make an excellent unicorn, and answer to the figure given of it: for on such an accident die fable seems to be founded, when the word is not applied to the Rhinoceros.

The combats between die Elephant and Rhinoceros, a fable, derived from Pliny.

An entire Rhinoceros was found buried in a bank of a Siberian river, in the antient frozen soil, with the skin, tendons, and some of the flesh in the highest preservation. This fact, incredible as it is at first sight, is given, not only on the best authority †: but, as an evidence, the complete head is now preserved in the Museum at Petersburg: the body was discovered in 1772, in the sandy banks of the Witim, a river falling into the Lena below Jakutsk, in N. lat. 64, and a most ample account of it given by that able naturalift Doctor PALLAS, to whom this work is under such frequent obligations.

* Lib. viii. c. 21.

† Dr Pallas, Nov. Com. Petrop. xvii, 585. tab. xv.

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XII. HIPPOPOTAME.

Four cutting teeth in eachjaw: two tusks in each.
Each hoof divided into four parts.

82. HIPPOPOTAME.

φφοσ ωοταοσ Arislot. bist. An. lib. ii. c. 7.

Hippopotamus. Pliniilib. viii. c. 26. Belon obs. 104. des Poissons, 19, 20. Gesner quad. 493. Radzivil iter Hiero'ol. 142. Raii syn. quad. 123.

River Horse, or Hippopotamus. Grew's Museum, 14. tab. i. Ludolph. Æthiop. 60.

Cheropotamus et Hippopotamus. Prosp. Alp. bist. Ægypt, i. 245.

Sea Horse. Leo Asr, 344. Sea Ox. ibid. Lobo Abyss. 105. Kolben Cape, ii. 129.

Hippopotamus, or Behemoth. Shaw's trav. Suppl. 87.

Tgao of the Hottentots.

Sea Horse. Dampier's voy. ii. 104. Adanfon's voy. 133. Moore's voy. Gambia, 105, 188, 216.

River-Paard. Houttuyn, Nat. bist, iii. 405. tab. xxviii.

Water Elephants. Barbot voy. Guinea, 113, 73.

Hippopotamus pedibus quadrilobis. H. amphibius. Lin. syst. 101. Haffelquistiter, 201. Klein quad. 34. Journal bistorique, &c. 17. tab. ii. Allamande, 124.

L'Hippopotame. De Buffon, xii. 22. tab. cxi. Buffon quad. 83. Br. Mus Ashm. Mus. LEV. MUS.

H. with four cutting teeth in each jaw; those in the lower jaw strait and pointing forward, the two middlemost the longed: four tusks; those in the upper jaw short; in the lower, very long and truncated obliquely; sometimes these teeth weigh six pounds nine ounces apiece, and are twenty-seven inches long*. The head of an enormous size: its mouth vastly wide: the ears small and pointed, lined within very thickly with short fine hairs: the eyes and nostrils small, in proportion to the bulk of the animal: on the lips are some strong hairs, scattered in tusts, or fasciculi, here and there: the hair on the body is very thin, of a

* Sparman Stock: Wettsk. Handl. 1778. 329. tab.

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whitish color, and scarce disecrnible at first fight: there is no mane on the neck, as some writers feign; only the hairs on that part are rather thicker: the skin is thicker even than that of a Rhinoceros, and of a dusky color: the tail is about a foot long, taper, depressed, and naked: the hoofs are divided into four parts; but, notwithstanding it is an amphibious animal, are unconnected by membranes: the legs short and thick.

In bulk, it is second only to the Elephant: the length of a male has been found to be seventeen feet; the circumference of its body fifteen; its height near seven; the legs near three; the head above three and a half; its girth near nine. Twelve oxen have been found neeeflary to draw one ashore, which had been shot in a river above the Cape. Hasselyquist says, its hide is a load for a camel.

Inhabits the rivers of Africa, from the Niger to Berg river, many miles north of the Cape of Good Hope. These animals formerly abounded in the rivers nearer the Cape, but are now extirpated. To preserve the few which are left in Berg river, the governor has abfolutely prohibited the shooting them, without particular permission.

It is not found in any of the African rivers which run into the Mediterranean, except the Nile, and even there only in the upper Ægypt *, and in the fens and lakes of Æthiopia, which that river passes through. Is a mild and gentle animal, unless it be

* Dr. Saw says, that the present race of Ægyptians are not even acquainted with this animal; none ever appearing below the cataracts of the Nile. It was not fo formerly; for Radzivil relates, that he faw and Ihot at four near Damietla, Hasselquist confirms the account of our countryman.

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provoked: inhabits equally the land and the water: swims very swiftly: during night leaves the rivers to graze: goes in troops sometimes six miles from the banks*, either in search of food or another river, and does great damage to the sugar-canes, and plantations of rice and millet: it also feeds on the roots of trees, which it loosens with its great teeth; but never eats fish. It is a clumsy animal on the land, walks slowly; but when pursued, takes to the water, plunges in, and sinks to the bottom, and is seen walking there at full ease: it cannot continue there long, it often rises towards the surface; but in the day time is so fearful of being discovered, that when it takes in fresh air, the place is hardly perceptible, for it does not venture even to put its nose out of the water. In rivers unfrequented by mankind, it is less cautious, and puts its whole head out of the water.

In shallow rivers it makes deep holes in the bottom, in order to conceal its great bulk. When it quits the water, it usually puts out half its body at once, and smells and looks around: but sometimes rushes out with great impetuosity, and tramples down every thing in its way.

VOICE.

Its voice is between the roaring of a bull and the braying of an elephant; and is at first interrupted with frequent short pauses. It may be heard at a great distance.

If wounded, will rise and attack boats or canoes with great fury, and often sink them, by biting large pieces out of the sides: and frequently people are drowned by them; for they are as bold in the water, as they are timid on land. It is reported that they will at once bite a man in two. Are most numerous high

* Journal bislorique, 18.

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up the rivers; frequently found near their mouths. It is now well known that they will at times enter the sea, not for the sake of feeding, but to sport for a time in greater expanse. They will not even drink the salt water; but come on shore in the night to quench their thirst in a neighboring well *.

They sleep in the reedy islands in the middle of the stream; and on which they bring forth their young. They perform the act of generation like our common cattle; and for that purpose select a shallow part of the river.

They are capable of being tamed. Belon says, he has seen one fo gentle, as to be let loose out of a staple, and sed by its keeper, without attempting to injure any one. They are generally taken in pit-falls; and the poor people eat the flesh, which is reckoned wholesome, and the fat is esteemed to be the best lard. In some parts, the natives place boards, full of sharp irons, in the corn-grounds; which these beads strike into their feet, and so become an easy prey. Sometimes they are struck in the water with harpoons sastened to cords; and ten or twelve canoes are employed in the chase†. The teeth are most remarkably hard, even harder than ivory, and much less liable to grow yellow. It is certain that the dentists prefer them for the making of false teeth. The skin, when dried, is used to make bucklers, and is of an impenetrable hardness.

A herd of females has but a fingle male: they bring one

* Sparman, ii. 285.

Purcbas's Pilgr. ii. 1544. Hasselquist gives an account of another method of taking them. The natives lay a great heap of peas in the places the Hippopotame frequents; it eats greedily, then growing thirlly, drinks immoderately; the pepsin its belly fwell the animal bursts, and is found dead. p. 188. Engl. Ed.

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young at a time, and that on the land, but suckle it in the water. Among other errors related of them, is that of their enmity with the Crocodile, an eye-witness declaring he had seen them swimming together without any disagreement*.

Among the antient paintings in the Rospigliosi palace, are some most ludicrous representations of the chace of both these animals, by pygmies with long beards; and the scenery suitable. The painter, in the circumstance of the pygmies, dealt in the fiction of the times; in the former, shewed his knowledge of the Hippopotame and Crocodile being joint tenants of the same waters; and added the diminutive chasseurs with much propriety, as they were said by some to have their residence in the country of those tremendous animals.

It was known to the Romans: Scaurus treated the people with the fight of five Crocodiles and one Hippopotame †, during his ædileship; and exhibited them in a temporary lake. Augustus produced one at his triumph over Cleopatra‡. An antient writer asserts, that ‖ these animals were found in the Indus; which is not confirmed by any modern traveller.

This animal is the Behemoth of Job; who admirably describes its manners, food, and haunts.

I. Behold now BEHEMOTH, which I made near thee; he cateth grass as an ox.

II. Lo ! now, his strength is in his loins, and his force is in the navel of his belly.

III. His bones are as strong pieces of brass, his bones are like bars of iron.

IV. He lieth under the shady trees, in the covert of the reed and fens.

* Purchases Pilgr, ii. 1544, 1568.

Plinii lib. viii. C. 26.

‖ Vide Gesner Pisc. 419.

Dion Cassius, lib, li.

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V. Behold! he drinketh up a river, and hasteth not. He trusteth he can draw up Jordan into his mouth.

The first, as the learned Bochart* observes, implies the locality of its situation, being an inhabitant of the Nile, in the neighborhood of UZ, the land of Job.

The second describes its great strength: and the third, the peculiar hardness of its bones.

The fourth, its residence, amidst the vast reeds of the river of Egypt, and other African rivers overshadowed with thick forests †

The fifth, the characteristic wideness of its mouth: which is hyperbolically described as large enough to exhaust such a stream as Jordan.

* Hierozoicon, ii. 754.

† See Masson's, travels, Ph. Trans. lxi. 292.

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XIII. TAPIIR.

Fore hoofs divided into three parts; and a fort of false hoof behind.
Hind hoofs into three.

83. LONG-NOSED.

Tapiirete Brasiliensibus, Lusitanis Anta. Marcgrave Brasil. 229. Piso Brasil. 101. Nieuhoss's voy. 23. Raii syn. quad. 126. Klein quai. 36.

Elephant hog. Waser's voy. in Dumpier, iii. 400.

Mountain cow. Dampier, ii. 102.

Sus aquaticus multifulcus. Barrere France Æquin. 160.

Anta ou grand Ecte. Gumilla Orenoque, ii. 15. Condamine voy. 82.

Species of Hippopotamus, or River Horse. Bancroft Guiana, 127.

Le Tapir ou Manipouris. Brisson quad. 81. De Buffon, xi. 444. tab. xliii.

Hippopotamus terrestris. H. pedibus posticis trifulcis. Lin. syst. Ed. x. 74.

T. with the nose extended far beyond the lower jaw; slender, and forming in the male a fort of proboscis, capable of being contracted or extended at pleasure; the sides sulcated; the extremities of both jaws ending in a point; ten cutting teeth in each; between them and the grinders, a vacant space: in each jaw ten grinders: ears erect, and oval, bordered with white: eyes small: body formed like that of a hog: the back arched: legs short: hoofs small, black, and hollow: tail very small: grows to the size of a heifer half a year old: the hair is short: along the neck is a bristly mane, an inch and a half high: when young, is spotted with white; when old, of a dusky color.

The nose of the female is destitute of the proboscis, and the jaws are of equal lengths.

PLACE.

Inhabits the woods and rivers of the eastern side of South America, from the isthmus of Darien to the river of Amazons: sleeps.

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during day, in the darkest and thickest forests adjacent to the banks: goes out in the night-time in search of food: lives on grass, sugar-canes, and on fruits: if disturbed, takes to the water; swims very well, or finks below, and, like the Hippopotame, walks on the bottom as on dry ground. The Indians shoot it with poisoned arrows: they cut the skin into bucklers, and eat the flesh, which is said to be very good. Is a salacious, slow-footed, and sluggish animal: makes a fort of hissing noise.

MANNERS.

These animals are of a very mild nature, and capable of being made very tame. In Guiana they are sometimes kept, and fed with other domestic beasts in the farm-yards. They feed themselves with their nose, making use of it as the Rhinoceros does its upper lip. They know their matter, who brings them their food: will take any thing that is offered, and rummage people's pockets with their nose for meat. Their common attitude is fitting on the rump, like a dog*. Notwithstanding their mild nature, Gumilla says, that, if attacked, they will make a vigorous resistance; and scarcely fails to tear off the skin from the dogs which they can lay hold of.

Dampier and Bancrost give very faulty descriptions of this beast, imagining it to be the same with the Hippopotame.

* Allamand's edit, of De Buffon, nouvelle ed. xv. 67. with two excellent figures.

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XIV. ELEPHANT.

No cutting teeth; two vast tusks; a long proboscis.
Feet round, terminated by five small hoofs.

84. GREAT.

ελφασ. Arist. Hist. An. lib. i. f. 11. ix. c. 1.

Elephas. Plinii lib. viii. c. 1. Gesner quad. 376. Raii syn. quad. 131. Klein quad. 36. Ludolph. Æthiop. 54. Boullaye le Gouz, 250. Dellon's voy. 71. Leo Afr. 336. Kolben's Cape, ii. 98. Bosman's bist. Guinea, 230. Linscbotten iter, 55. Du Halde's China, ii. 224. Adanfon's voy. 138. Moore's trav. 31. Borri's accouiti Cochin China, 795. Barbot's Guinea, 141, 206, 207, 208. Seb. Mus. i. 175. tab. iii. Edw. 221. Scbreber, ii. 60. tab. lxxviii.

L'Elephant. Brisson quad. 28. De Buffon, xi. 1. tab. i.

Elephas maximus. Lin. syst. 48. Faunul. Sinens. Br. Mus. Asbm. Mus. LEV. MUS.

E. with a long cartilaginous trunk, formed of multitudes of rings, pliant in all directions, terminated with a small moveable hook: the nostrils at the end of the trunk; its use that of a hand, to convey any thing into the mouth: no cutting teeth: four large flat grinders in each jaw; in the upper two vast tusks, pointing forwards, and bending a little upwards; the largest* are seven feet long, and weigh 1521b. each: the eyes small: ears long, broad, and pendulous: back much arched: legs thick, and very clumsy and shapeless: feet undivided; but the margins terminated by five round hoofs: tail like that of a hog, terminated with a few long hairs, thick as packthread: color of the skin dusky, with a few scattered hairs on it.

The females have two teats, very small in proportion to the bulk of the animal, and placed a little behind the fore legs.

* To be understood of those imported into England.

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SIZE.

The largest of land animals: there are certain accounts of their attaining the height of twelve feet; others are faid to have been three feet higher: but I suspect that the last is exaggerated, and the first very rare. The height of nine feet and a half being reckoned a very tall beast.

PLACE.

Inhabits India, and some of its greater islands*, Cochin-China, and some of the provinces of China: abounds in the southern parts of Africa, from the river Senegal to about two degrees north of the Cape†, and from thence as high as Æthiopia on the other side: sound in greatest numbers in the interior parts, where there are vast forests, near the sides of rivers: are fond of marshy places, and love to wallow in the mire like a hog: swim very well: feed on the leaves and branches of trees: do great damage to the fields of corn, and to plantations of Coco Palms, tearing up the trees by the roots to get at their tops.

MANNERS.

Often sleep standing; are not incapable of lying down, as is vulgarly believed; are very mild and harmless, except wounded, or during the rutting-time, when they are seized with a temporary madness: are said to go nine months with young: this is guessed by the casual escape of the tame females, when in rut, into the woods; where they couple with the wild: are soon discovered and brought back; and observed to bring forth in about

* Soolo, an island to the south west of Mindanao, was destitute of elephants till a few were sent as a present from Siam. Some escaped to the woods, and their offspring are now wild there. None are found in Mindanao, Celebes, or the other islands to the east of Scolo. Capt. Forrest.

† From the names of many places, it is probable that elephants were formerly found nearer to that great promontory; but at present none are feen further fouth than the country of the Amacquas.

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nine months from the time. According to the Ayeen Akbery*, i. 148, they are said to go eighteen months. In a wild state the young elephants do not attach themselves to their dams, but fuck indifferently the milch females of the whole herd. They bring only one at a time; very rarely two. The young are about three feet high when they are first born; aad continue growing till they are sixteen or twenty years old. They are said to live a hundred and twenty or thirty years †.

Drink by means of their trunk, sucking water up it, and then conveying it into the mouth; are very careful of the trunk, conscious that their existence depends on it; is to them as a hand; is their organ of feeling and of smell, both which senses it has in the most exquisite degree: its strength matchless; the tame elephants carry small pieces of artillery, small towers, with numbers of people in them, and also vast loads: is not at present domesticated in Africa, only in the more civilized continent of Asia; they are much more numerous in Africa, in some parts swarm, so that the negroes are obliged to make their habitations under ground for fear of them. Are killed and eaten by the natives; the trunk said to be a delicious morsel: caught in pit-falls, covered with branches of trees; sometimes chaced and killed with lances: are instantly killed by a flight wound in the head, behind the ears. All the teeth are brought from Africa; frequently picked up in the woods; uncertain whether shed teeth, or from dead animals: the African teeth ‡, which come from Mosambiquc,

* Or institutes of the emperor Akber.

Tavernier, ii. 96.

Dellon's voy. 74. I have feen, in very large teeth, small brass bullets lodged almost in the centre: the orifice made by the ball was entirely filled up with the. ivory matter, and the bullet formed a nucleus.

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are ten feet long; those of Malabar only three or four; the largest in Asia are those of Cochin-China, which even exceed the elephants of Mosambique *. The skin is thick, and, when dressed, proof against a musket-ball: the flesh, the gall, the skin, the bones, according to Shi Chin, are used in medicine.†

MANNER OF PASSING RIVERS.

The wild elephants of Ceylon live in troops or families distinct and separate from all others, and seem to avoid the strange herds with particular care. When a family removes from place to place, the largest-tusked males put themselves at the head; and if they meet with a large river, are the first to pass it. On arriving on the opposite bank, they try whether the landing-place is safe: in case it is, they give a signal of a note from the trunk, as if it were the found of a trumpet, on which the remaining part of the old elephants swim over; the little elephants follow, holding one another by locking their trunks together; and the rest of the old ones bring up the rear.

In the woods are often seen a solitary male elephant, wandering like an outlaw banished from the herd, and all the race. These are as if in a state of desperation, and very dangerous. A single man will put to flight whole herds of social elephants. This, alone, fears not his presence, but will stand firm, putting his power to defiance‡.

* Borri, 795.

Du Halde China, ii. 224.

‡ The several curious particulars inserted in this edition, respecting the elephant, are taken from a memoir on the subject, transmitted by Mr. Marcellus Bles, fecretary during twelve years to the Dutch government in Ceylon, and communicated to me by Governor LOTEN.

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CHANCE IN CEYLON.

In Ceylon they are a great article of commerce, and are fold to the merchants of the Indian continent, who resort there to buy them for the use of the great men. This makes the taking of them a matter of importance. The Ceylonese sometimes surround the woods where the elephants inhabit, with numerous bands, and drive before them, with all kinds of noises, firing of guns, and with lighted torches, the beasts that happen to be there, till they are entrapped in a park in closed with pallisades, constructed in the forest, in form of a wheel. At other times, the younger and most active Ceylonefe follow them in the woods, and, putting them to slight, pursue till they have an opportunity of slinging a fort of springe, made of cord, round the hind legs of a beast, which they follow, holding it in their hands till they can wind it round a tree: then they bring two tame elephants, which they place on each side of the wild one, and so conduct him home; but should he prove restive, they direct the tame ones to beat him with their trunks, which soon quiets even the mod ferocious.

A third way of taking the wild kind, is by means of tame female elephants, trained for the purpose. These the Indians carry into the woods, where the artful female soon enveigles a male out of the savage herd. As soon as she has trade a conquest, and separated the male from his family, the Indians with a great noise terrify the rest, and put them to flight, and others make themselves matters of the beast thus detached from its friends.

The report of the great swiftness of the elephants is erroneous: an active and nimble Indian can easily outrun them*.

* M. Bles. In Borneo, elephants are only found near a great inland lake, which separates Banjarmaling from the empire of Borneo, and in no other part of the island. Their tusks are a great article of commerce.

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By the observations of Mr. Bles, it is very long before the tusks arrive at a great size: neither is it every male that has them of the magnitude we often fee; not one in ten has them, notwithstanding they may equal, in vigor and bulk of body, those which have: on the contrary, their tusks are short, slender, and blunt, and never above a foot long: nor is it possible to know whether the tusks will be larger or not, till the beast arrives at the age of twelve or fourteen.

SAGACITY.

Are, notwithstanding the great dullness of their eye and stupidity of their appearance, the most docile and most intelligent of animals: tradable and most obedient to their matter's will: are sensible of benefits, resentful of injuries: directed by a flight rod of iron hooked at one end: are in many parts of India the executioners of justice; will, with their trunks, break every limb of the criminal, or trample him to death, or transfix him with their trunks, according as they are directed: are so modest as never to permit any one to fee them copulate: have a quick sense of glory. In India, they were once employed in the launching of ships: one was directed to force a very large vessel into the water: the work proved superior to his strength: his matter, with a sarcastic tone, bid the keeper take away this lazy beast, and bring another: the poor animal instantly repeated his efforts, fractured his scull, and died on the spot*. In Delli, an elephant passing along the streets, put his trunk into a taylor's shop, where several people" were at work; one of them pricked the end with his needle: the beast passed on, but in the next dirty puddle filled its trunk with wa-

* Ludelph. Com. in bift. Æthiop, 147.

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ter, returned to the shop, and spurting every drop among the people who had offended him, spoilt their work*.

An elephant in Adsmeer, which often patted through the Bazar or market, as he went by a certain herb-woman, always received from her a mouthful of greens: at length he was seized with one of his periodical fits of rage, broke his fetters, and, running through the market, put the crowd to flight; among others, this woman, who, in haste, forgot a little child the had brought with her. The animal, recollecting the spot where his benefactress was wont to fit, took up the infant gently in his trunk, and placed it in safety on a stall before a neighboring house†.

Another, in his madness, killed his Cornac or governor: the wife, feeing the misfortune, took her two children and slung them before the elephant, faying, Now you have destroyed their father, you may as well put an end to their lives and mine. It instantly stopped, relented, took the greatest of the children, placed him on its neck, adopted him for its Cornac, and never afterwards would permit any body else to mount it †.

The Indians have from very early times employed the elephant in their wars: Porus opposed the passage of Alexander, over the Hydaspes ║, with eighty-five of these animals: M. de Buffon very justly imagines, that some of the elephants which were taken by that monarch, and afterwards transported into Greece, were employed by Pyrrhus against the Romans. From the time of Solomon, ivory has been used in ornamental works; it was one of the imports of his navy of Tarsbists, whofe lading was gold and silver, ivory, apes, and peacocks §.

* Hamilton's account of East Indies, ii. 109.

Terry's Voyage, 148.

De Busson, xi. 77.

Luint. Curtius, lib. viii. c. 42.

§ 2 Chron. ix. 21.

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An elephant was presented, in 1254, to Henry III. by Louis IX. of France*, which was kept with great care in the Tower. A writ was issued to the Sheriffs of London, directing them to make sufficient provision for our Elephant, Elephans noster, and its keeper†; and another, which orders them to "build, out of the city revenues, in our Tower of London, one house of forty feet long and twenty deep, for our Elephant‡".

FOSSIL IN ENGLAND.

The teeth of this animal are often found in a fossil state; some years ago two great grinding teeth, and part of the tusks of an elephant, were given me by some miners, who discovered them at the depth of forty-two yards, in a lead-mine in Flintshire; one of the strata above them was lime-stone, about eight yards thick; the teeth were found in a bed of gravel in the same mine; the grinders were almost as perfect as if just taken from the animal; the just much decayed, just, and exfoliating. A stage's horn was found with them.

SIBERIA.

The grinders and tusks of the Mammouth, so often found sossil in Siberia, must be referred to this animal, as is evident from the account and figures of those in the Ph. Tr. abridg. ix. 87. by Mr. Breynins║. The molares differ not in the left from those recent; but the tusk has a curvature far greater than those of any elephant I have seen; whether this was accidental or preternatural, cannot be determined from a single specimen; Strablenberg says,

* Matthew Paris, 903.

Madox, Antiq. Exch. i. 377.

Maitland's London, i. 171.

‖ Who has given very accurate figures of the entire head, the molares, the tusk, and the thigh bone.

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they are somewhat more crooked * than elephants teeth commonly are; and others relate that a pair weighed 400lb. which exceeds the weight of the largest recent tusks: there are also found with them fossil grinders of 241b. weight; but since, in all other respects, those grinders resemble those of the living elephants; and one being found lodged in the skeleton of the same head with the tusks, we cannot deny our assent to the opinion of those who think them to have been once the parts of the animal we have just described.

Entire skeletons, or parts of them, teeth, and tusks, are found in prodigious quantities all over northern Asia, there not being the bank of any great river in which they are not met with, washed out of the clay or rather muddy strata, in which they are lodged. All the country towards the Arctic circle is a vast mossy flat, formed of a bed of mud or sand, seeming the effect of the sea, and which gives great reason to think, that immense tract: was in some very distant age won from it. With them are mixed an infinitely greater number of marine bodies, than are found in the higher parts of that portion of Asia. I give the fact: let others, more favored, explain the cause how these animals were transported from their torrid feats to the Arctic regions, for (as I have before mentioned, that the Rhinoceros, and the Antelope, have been found at this distance from their native country, a flood must have brought them here, and a sudden retreat of the water left them) I should have recourse to the only one we have authority for: and think that phenomenon sufficient: I mention this, because modern philosophers look out

* Hist Russia, 40Z. Also Bell's Travels, ii. 165. Le Bruit's Travels, i. 63.

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for a later cause: I rest convinced; therefore avoid contradicting what never can be proved.

85. AMERICAN.

The tusks are made use of as ivory, formed into combs, and used to inlay cabinets: and are a great article of commerce, especially with the Chinese. The Tartars have many wild notions about the Mammouth, such as its being a subterraneous animal, &c. &. Linnæus* says, it is the skeleton of the Walrus slung on fhore.

An animal only known in a sossil state, and that but partially; from the teeth, some of the jaw-bones, the thigh-bones, and vertebra, found with many others five or six feet beneath the surface, on the banks of the Ohio, not remote from the river Miame, seven hundred miles from the sea-coast.

Some of the tusks near seven feet long, one foot nine inches in circumference at the base, and one foot near the point; the cavity at the root or base nineteen inches deep: the tusks of the true elephant have sometimes a very flight lateral bend, there have a larger swift or spiral curve towards the smaller end; but the great and specific difference consists in the shape of the molares or grinders, which are made like those of a carnivorous animal, not fiat, and ribbed transversely on their surface, like those of the recent elephant, but furnished with a double row of high and conic processes, as if intended to masticate, not to grind their food.

A third difference is in the thigh-bone: which is of a great disproportionable thickness to that of the elephant, and has also some anatomical variations.

USES.

The tusks have been cut and polished by the workers in ivory,

* Syst. Nat. 49.

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who affirmed, that in texture and appearance they differed not from the true ivory: the molares were indurated to a great degree. Specimens of these teeth and bones are deposited in the British Museum, that of the Royal Society, and in the cabinet of that liberal man the late Doctor Hunter *. I should have been less accurate in this description, had not that gentleman favored me with his observations on some particulars, which otherwise might have escaped my notice.

These fossil bones are also found in Peru, and in the Brazils: as yet the living animal has evaded our search; it is more than probable that it yet exists in some of those remote parts of the vast new continent, unpenetrated yet by Europeans. Providence maintains and continues every created species; and we have as much assurance, that no race of animals will any more cease while the earth remaineth, than feed-time and harvest, cold and heat, summer and winter, day or night.

SIBERIA.

These reliques are not peculiar to America, for some have of late years been discovered in Siberia, and perhaps in Russia †. It is remarked, that they are not only met with more rarely than those of the true elephants, but even at greater depths: in such strata, which are supposed to have been the ruins of the old world, after the event of the deluge.

To this may properly be added a very obscure animal, mentioned by Nieuhoss ‡, and called by the Chinese of Java Suko-

* Who has obliged the world with an ingenious essay on the subject, vide Ph. Tr. vol. lviii. 34. The late worthy Peter Collinson, in the preceding volume, gave us other notices of these bones.

Pallas in Aft. Acad. Petrop. 11. 219:

Nieuhoss's vay. in Churchill's call. 11. 360.

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tyro. It is of the size of a large ox: has a snout like a hog: two long rough ears; and a thick bushy tail: the eyes placed upright in the head, quite different from other beasts: on the fide of the head, next to the eyes, stand two long horns, or rather teeth, not quite so thick as those of an elephant. It feeds on herbage, and is but seldom taken.

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DIV. II.

DIGITATED QUADRUPEDS.

VOL. I. A a

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DIV. II. Digitated Quadrupeds.

SECT. I. Anthropomorphos*.

XV. APE.

Four cutting teeth in each jaw, and two canine.

Each of the feet formed like hands, generally with slat nails, and, except in one instance, have four fingers and thumb.

Eye-brows above and below.

A Most numerous race; almost consined to the torrid zone: fills the woods of Africa, from Senegal to the Cape, and from thence to Æthiopia: a single species is found beyond that line, in the province of Barbary: found in all parts of India, and its islands; in Cochin-China, in the S. of China, and in Japan; and one kind is met with in Arabia: they swarm in the forests of South America, from the isthmus of Darien, as far as Paraguay.

Are lively, agile, full of frolic, chatter, and grimace: from the structure of their members, have many actions in common

* Animals approaching the human form: A term to be taken in a limited sense; to be applied to all of this section, as far as relates to their feet, which serve the uses of hands in eating, climbing, or carrying any thing: to the flatness of the nails, in many species; and to some resemblance of their actions, resulting from the structure of their parts only, not from any superior sagacity to that of most others of the brute creation.

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with the human kind: most of them are fierce and untameable; some are of a milder nature, and will shew a degree of attachment; but in general are endowed with mischievous intellects: are filthy, obscene, lascivious, thieving: feed on fruits, leaves, and insects: inhabit woods, and live in trees; in general are gregarious, going in vast companies: the different species never mix with each other, always keep apart and in different quarters: leap with vast activity from tree to tree, even when loaded with their young, which cling to them. Are the prey of leopards, and others of the seline race; of serpents, which pursue them to the summit of the trees, and swallow them entire. Are not carnivorous; but for mischief-sake will rob the nests of birds of the eggs and young. In the countries where apes most abound, the sagacity of the feathered tribe is more marvellously shewn in their contrivances to six their nest beyond the reach of these invaders *.

Apes and parrots (the apes of birds) are more numerous in their species than any other animals; their numbers and their different appearances made it necessary to methodize and subdivide the genus; accordingly Mr. Ray first distributed them into three classes:

Simiœ, APES, fucli as wanted tails.

Cercopitheci, MONKIES, such as had tails.

And from the last he formed another division, viz.

Papiones, BABOONS, those with short tails; to distinguish them from the common monkies, which have very long ones. I comprehend in this division of baboons, such whose tails do not

* Indian Zoology, p. 7. tab. viii.

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exceed half the length of their bodies, and commonly carried in an arched direction. Heads large; bodies short.

From Ray, Linnæus formed his method; M. de Buffon followed the same; but makes a very judicious subdivision of the long-tailed apes, or the true monkies, into such which had prehensile tails*, and such which had not. I shall endeavor in this genus no other reform in the system of our countryman, than what that gentleman has made; in respect to the trivial names of the species, I have in general invented such as I supposed congruous, or in a few instances retained those of M. de Buffon.

Without tails; the true APES.

86. GREAT.

Satyrus. Gesner quad. 863.

Pongo. Purchas's Pilgr. ii. 982. v. 623. Homo sylvcslris, orang outang. Bontius Java, 84. Beckman's Boneo, 37. Baris. Nieremberg, 179.

Barrys. Burbot's Guinea, 101.

Quojas morrou. idem, 115.

Chimpanzee. Scotin's print, 1738.

Man of the wood. Edav. 113.

Le Jocko, de Buffon, xiv. 44. tab. i.

Le Pongo. ibid.

L'Homme de bois. Simia unguibus omnibus planis et rotundatis csefarie facieni cingente. Brisson quad. 134.

Homo Troglodytes. Homo noifturnus. Lin. syst. 33. Amæn. Acad. vi. 68. 69. 72.

Simia satyrus. S. ecaudata serruginea, lacertorum pilis reverfis, natibus tectis. Lin. syst. 34. Br. Mus.

L'orang outang. Schxeler, 64. tab. i. ii.

A. with a flat face, and a deformed resemblance of the human: ears exactly like those of a man: hair on the head longer than on the body: body and limbs covered with reddish and

* Animals with this kind of tail can lay hold of any thing with it, for it serves all the uses of a hand; they can twill it round the branch of a tree, and suspend themselves by it, or keep them secure in their feat, while their feet are other wife employed. This faculty is common to some Monkies, to Macaucos, and one species of Porcupine. Vide plates of yellow Macauco, and Brasilan Porcupine.

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shagegy hair; longest on the back, thinnest on the fore-parts: face and paws swarthy: buttocks covered with hair.

This seems the lesser kind, and is that engraven by Mr. Edwards, tab. 213, and by Mr. Schreber, tab. 1.

The Pongo of Purchas is the greater, more robust, muscular, of a deeper color, and very thinly furnished with hair. This is figured by de Buffon, xiv. tab. i. and by Schreber, tab. ii. The history of these is still obscure, nor are we allured whether they are distinct species or only varieties.

Inhabit the interior parts of Africa and the isle of Borneo. Are solitary, and live in the most desert places: grow to the height of six feet: have prodigious strength; will overpower the strongest man. The old ones are shot with arrows; only the young can be taken alive. Live entirely on fruits and nuts: will attack and kill the negroes who wander in the woods: will drive away the elephants, and beat them with their fists, or pieces of wood: will throw stones at people that offend them: sleep in trees; make a sort of shelter from the inclemency of the weather: are of a solitary nature, grave appearance, and melancholy disposition, and even when young not inclined to frolic: are vastly swift and agile: go erect: sometimes carry away the young negroes*.

When taken young are capable of being tamed: very docile; are taught to carry water, pound rice, turn a spit. The Chimpanzee shewn in London, 1738, was extremely mild, affectionate,

* These accounts are chiefly taken from Andrew Battel, an English sailor, who was taken prisoner 1589, and lived many years in the inner parts of Congo; his narrative is plain, and seems very authentic. It is preserved in Purchas's collection.

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good-natured, like the satyr of Pliny, mitissima natura; very fond of the people it was used to: would eat like a human creature: lay down in bed like one, with its hand under its head: fetch a chair to fit down on: drink tea, pour it into a saucer if too hot: would cry like a child; be uneasy at the absence of its keeper. This was only two feet four inches high, and was a young one: that described by Doctor Tyson * two inches shorter. There is great possibility that these animals may vary in size and in color, some being covered with black, others with reddish hairs.

Not the Satyrs of the antients, which had tails†, and were a species of monkey. Linnæuss Homo nocturnus, an animal of this kind, unnccessarily separated from his Simia Satyrus. Some of the authorities in the Amæen. Acad, very doubtful. Sir John Mandeville, p. 361, certainly meant this large species, when he says he came to another yle where the Folk ben alle skynned roughe heer, as a rough best, sas only the face, and the pawme of the bond.

* Orang outang, five homo sylvestris; or the anatomy of a Pygmy. Folio. London. 1699.

†Æliax gives them tails, lib. xvi. r. si. Pliny says they have teeth like dogs, lib. vii. c. 2. circumstances common to many monkies. Ptolemy, lib. vii. c. 2. speaks of certain islands in the Indian ocean, inhabited by people with tails like those with which Satyrs are painted, whence called the ides of Satyrs. Kæping, a Swede, pretended to have discovered these Homines Caudati; that they would have trafficked with him, offering him live parrots; that afterwards they killed some of the crew that went on shore, and eat them, &c. &c. Aman. Acad. vi. 71.

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87. PIGMY.

Aristot hist an. lib. c. 8.

Simia. Gesner quad. 847. Raii syn. quad. 149.

Ape, 2d. sp. Bosman's Guinea. 242.

Le Singe. Simia unguibus omnibus plants et rotundatis. Brisson quad. 133.

Le Pitheque. de Busson, xix. 84.

Simia sylvanus. S. ecaudatus, natibus calvis capite rotundato. Lin. syst. 34.

Le Singe commun. Schreber, 80. tab. iv.

A. with a slattish face: ears like those of a man: body of the size of a cat: color above of an olive brown, beneath yellowish: nails flat: buttocks naked: sits upright.

Inhabits Africa. Not uncommon in our exhibitions of animals: very tractable, and good-natur'd: most probably the pygmy of the antients. Abounds in Æthiopia*, one feat of that imaginary nation: was believed to dwell near the fountains of the Nile†, descended annually to make war on the cranes, i. e. to steal their eggs, which the birds may be supposed naturally to defend, whence the fiction of their combats. Strabo judiciously ‡ observes, that no person worthy of credit ever ventured to assert he had seen this nation: Aristotle speaks of them only by hearsay, ωσφεζ λεγετα: they were said to be mounted on little horses, on goats, on rams, and even on partridges. The Indians taking advantage of the credulity of people, embalmed this species of ape with spices, and fold them to merchants as true pygmies§: such, doubtless, were the diminutive inhabitants mentioned by Mr. Grose ║ to be found in the forests of the Carnatic.

* Ludolph. Ætbiop. 57.

Arist. bist. an. lib. viii. c. 13.

Gesner quad. 852, from Marco Polo. They take off all the hair, except a little by way of beard.

§ Lib. xvii.

Voy. E. Indies, 365.

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FOOD.

Feed on fruits; are very fond of insects, particularly of ants: assemble in troops *, and turn over every stone in search of them. If attacked by wild beasts, take to flight; but if overtaken, will face their pursuers, and by flinging the subtile sand of the desert in their eyes, often escape †

88. LONG-ARMED.

Le grand Gibbon, de Busson, xiv. 92. tab. ii. Schreber, 78. tab. iii.

A. with a flat swarthy face, surrounded with grey hairs: hair on the body black and rough: buttocks bare: nails on the hands flat; on the feet long: arms of a mod disproportioned length, reaching quite to the ground when the animal is erect, its natural posture: of a hideous deformity. Grows to the height of four feet: sometimes walks upright; sometimes on all fours.

α LESSER. Resembling the former, but much less: its colors brown and grey. From Malacca. Le petit gibbon, de Buffon, xiv. tab. iii. Schreber, 80. tab. iii. S 2. MUS. LEV.

β A species in possession of Lord Clive, about two years ago, much resembling the last, but more elegant in its form, and the arms shorter; but so nearly allied in shape, as not to be separated: face, ears, crown of the head, feet, and hands, black: the rest of the body and arms covered with silvery hairs: about three feet high: good-natured, and full of frolic. That which

* Ludolph. Ætbiop. 57.

Idem, 58.

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we have engraven is in the Leverian Museum; and is remarkable for the great length and shagginess of its hair: seemingly needless for a native of the torrid zone. It was a female, and not three feet high.

These animals are mild, gentle, and modest; feed on leaves, fruits, and barks of trees. Inhabit Malacca, the Molucca islands, and Sumatra, where they are to be seen by hundreds on the tops of trees*. These last seem our lesser variety, not exceeding three feet in height. They walk erect, and never on all four.

The great black ape of Mangsi, a province of China, is probably of this kind†

89. GOLOK.

Ph. Trans. lix. 72. tab. iii.

A. with a pointed face, long and slender limbs: arms, when the animal is upright, do not reach lower than the knees: head round, and full of hair: grows to the height of a man.

PLACE.

Inhabits the forests or Mevat, in the interior parts of Bengal. They are gentle and modest, called by the natives Golok, or wild men: distinct from the orang outang, by their slender form; from the Gibbons, by having shorter arms.

90. LAR.

Simia Lar. Gm. Lin. 27. Miller's plates, tab. xxvii.

A. with black face, crown of the head, fingers, and inside of the feet and hands: round the face the hair long and whitish, on the cheeks and chin forming a beard: hair on the body short and

* Phil. Trans. vol. lxviii. part. i. 170.

Du Halde China, i. 118.

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dusky: limbs very long: face obtuse. A small species: seemingly distinct from the others.

Inhabits, according to Mr. Miller, China.

91. BARBARY.

Κυγοχ;αλοσ;. Aristot. bist. an. lib. ii. c. 8.

Cynocephalus, Plinii lib. viil. e. 54.

Simius cynocephalus. Pr. Alp. Ægypt. i. 241. tab. xv. xvi.

Le Magot. de Busson, xiv. 109. tab. vii. viii. Shaw, Spec. Lin. i.

Le Singe Cynocephale. Brisson quad. 135. Scbrgter, 84. tab. v.

Simia Inuus. S. ecaudata naribus calvis, capite oblongo. Lin. syst. 35.

Yellow ape? Du Halde China, i. 120. La Roque voy. Arabic, 210. MUS. LEV.

A. with a long face, not unlike that of a dog: canine teeth, long and strong: ears like the human: nails flat: buttocks bare: color of the upper part of the body a dirty greenish brown: belly of a dull pale yellow: grows to above the length of four feet.

PLACE.

Inhabits many parts of India, Arabia, and all parts of Africa, except Ægypt, where none of this genus are found. A few are found on the hill of Gibraltar, which breed there: probably from a pair that had escaped from the town; for I never heard that they were found in any other part of Spain.

MANNERS.

Are very ill-natured, mischievous, and fierce; agreeing with the character of the antient Cynocephali: are a very common kind in exhibitions: by force of discipline, are made to play some tricks; otherwise, are more dull and sullen than the rest of this genus: assemble in great troops in the open fields in India*: will attack women going to market, and take their provisions

* Dellen's voy. 83.

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from them. The females carry the young in their arms, and will leap from tree to tree with them. Apes were worshipped in India, and had magnisicent temples erected to them. When the Portuguese plundered one in Ceylon, they found in a little golden casket * the tooth of an ape; a relique held by the natives in such veneration, that they offered 700,000 ducats to redeem it, but in vain; for it was burnt by the Viceroy, to stop the progress of idolatry.

A. With short tails.

92. HOG-FACED.

Aristotle barely mentions another species of ape, under the title of χοζοφθχοσ Simia Porcaria. In tab. of this work is an engraving of this animal, taken from the drawing of one in the British Museum, with a nose exactly resembling that of a hog, which possibly may be Aristotle's animal; but there is no account attending the painting, to enable us to trace its history.

M. Gmelin, in his Syst. Lin. refers to Boddaert Naturs. 22. p. 17. tab. i. ii. says it is half-tailed, has a naked face, olive brown body; buttocks cover'd, nails sharp. In size of the length of three feet six inches.

Inhabits Africa.

* Linschottans voy. 53. In Amadabat are hospitals for apes, and other maimed animals. Tavernier's voy. part ii. 48. The same writer says, that they breed in great numbers in India, in the copses of Bamboos, which grow on each side the road, p. 94.

B b 2

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93. GREAT.

Papio. Gesner quad. 560, with a good figure.

Simia fphynx. Lin. syst. 35.

Le Choras. Snnia mormon. Alslromer, Schreber, 92. tab. viii. MUS. LEV.

B. with hazel irides: ears small and naked: face canine, and very thick: middle of the face and forehead naked, and of a bright vermilion color; tip of the nose of the same: it ended truncated like that of a hog: fides of the nose broadly ribbed, and of a fine violet hue: the opening of the mouth very small: cheeks, throat, and goat-like beard yellow: hair on the forehead is very long; turns back, is black, and forms a kind of pointed crest. Head, arms, and legs covered with short hair, yellow and black intermixed; the breast with long whitish yellow hairs; the shoulder with long brown hair.

Nails slat; feet and hands black: tail four inches long, and very hairy; buttocks bare, red, and filthy, but the space about them is of a most elegant purple color, which reaches to the inside of the upper part of the thighs.

This was described from a stuffed specimen in Sir ASHTON LEVER'S Museum. In October, 1779, a live animal of this species was shewn at Chester, which differed a little in color from the above, being in general much darker. Eyes much funk in the head, and small. On the internal fide of each ear was a white line, pointing upwards. The hair on the forehead turned up like a toupee. Feet black: in other respects resembled the former.

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In this I had opportunity of examining the teeth: the cutting-teeth were like those of the rest of the genus; but in the upper and lower jaw were two canine, or rather tushes, near three inches long, and exceedingly sharp and pointed. This makes me subscribe to Mr. Scbreber's opinion, that the TUFTED APE of my former edition was designedly cropped and disguised by its keeper, to render it a monster *. I offer in my defence of having inserted it as a genuine species, that it had been described by Doctor Bradley, and adopted by the Royal Society, and placed in their inftruftive Transactions.

SIZE.

This animal was five feet high, of a most tremendous strength in all its parts; was excessively fierce, libidinous, and strong.

MANNERS.

Mr. Scbreber says, that this species lives on succulent fruits, and on nuts: is very fond of eggs, and will put eight at once into its pouches; and, taking them out one by one, break them at the end, and swallow the yolk and white. Rejects all flesh-meat, unless it be dressed: would drink quantities of wine or brandy. Was less agile than other baboons: very cleanly, for it would immediately sling its excrements out of its hut.

That which was shewn at Chester was particularly fond of cheese. Its voice was a kind of roar, not unlike that of a lion, but low and somewhat inward. It went upon all fours, and never stood on its hind legs, unless forced by the keeper; but would frequently fit on its rump in a crouching manner, and drop its arms before the belly. I have given a figure of that in the LEVERIAN MUSEUM, and another taken from the live animal, which shews its common and natural attitude. The last will be

* I leave the figure as copied from the drawing in the British Museum.

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a proof of the excellence of Gesner's * figure of this species, hitherto thought erroneous.

PLACE.

Inhabits the hotter parts of Africa.

94. RIBBED NOSE.

Le Mandrill, de Buffon, xiv. 154. tab. xvi. xvii.

S. maimon. S. caudata subbarbata genis cæruleis striatis. Lin. syst. 35.

Le Maimon. Schreber, 90. tab. vii. Shaw, Spec. Lin, 2.

B. with a long naked nose compressed sideways, of a purple color, and ribbed obliquely on each side: on the chin a short, picked, orange beard: tail very hairy, about two inches long, which it carries erect: buttocks naked: hair soft, dusky mottled with yellow: length from nose to tail, about two feet.

PLACE.

Inhabits Guinea. Those I have seen sat erect on their rump, but walked on all fours: were good-natured, but not sportive.

Linnœcus places this among the simiœ cauda elongata, and applies to it some of the synonyms of the 72d species: but his description agrees with this so exactly, that there can be no doubt but that it is his Simia maimon.

This animal is well described by M. de Buffon, Mr. Ray, Linvœus, and M. Brisson; and indeed every Naturalist, except M. de Buffon, has copied Gesner: but we think the first ought to have applied the name of Baboon to this species, instead of that described by him, p. 133; the one having the character of this sedlion, the other having a length of tail, that constitutes that of the monkey.

The animal called, by Barbot and Bosman †, SMITTEN, is a

* P. 560. Papio, a barbarous name: from whence the English, Baboon: Italian, Babbuino; and French Babouin.

Barbot's Guinea, 212. Bofman's Guinea, 242.

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large species to be referred to this genus: it is described with a great head, short tail, and of a mouse color; that it grows to the size of five feet, is very sierce, and will even attack a man.

The Tretretretre of Madagascar is another animal of this kind; described to be of the size of a calf of two years old; to have a round head, village and ears of a man, feet of an ape, hair curled, very short tail; a solitary species: the natives are greatly afraid of it, and fly its haunts as it does theirs *.

95. WOOD.

B. with a long dog-like face, covered with a small glossy black skin: hands and feet naked, and black like the face: hair on all parts long, elegantly mottled with black and tawny; nails white.

About three feet high when erect: tail not three inches; and very hairy on the upper part.

Inhabits Guinea, where it is called by the English, the Man of the Wood. LEV. MUS.

96. YELLOW.

B. with a black long face: ears hid in the fur: over the eyes are several long dusky hairs: hands covered above with hair: color a bright yellow, mottled with black. This greatly resembles the wood Baboon, except in size, and its hairy hands.

These two are about two feet long: probably natives of Africa; but their place, age, and history obscure. LEV. MUS.

97. ClNEREOUS.

B. with a dusky face: pale brown beard: body and limbs of a cinereous brown: crown mottled with yellow. LEV. MUS.

* Flacourt, bist. Madag. 154.

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98. BROAD-TOOTH ED.

B. with a blueish face: two very flat broad fore teeth: a pale a brown beard: long hairs over each eye: a tust of hair beyond each ear; the hair black and cinereous, mixed with dull rust-color.

Length about three feet. A fuller history of these three is wished. LEV. MUS.

99. BROWN.

Simia Platypygos. Schreber, 89. tab. v. B.

B. with pointed ears, face of a dirty white; nose large and broad: hairs round the face short and strait: color of the upper part of the body brown; of the under, ash-color.

Tail about four inches long; taper, and almost bare of hair. Beneath, is quite naked. The animal which I called the New Baboon, in the first edition, seems by the taperness of the tail, and general form, to be of this kind.

100. LITTLE.

Simia apedia. S. semicaudata, palmarum polliceapproximato, unguibus oblongis pollicum rotundatis, natibustectis. Lin. syst. 35.

Simia cauda abrupta, unguibus compressis obtusiusculis, pollice palmarum digitis adhærente. Amœn. Acad. i. 558.

B. with a roundish head, mouth projecting, ears roundish, and naked; thumb not remote from the fingers: nails narrow, and compressed; those of the thumbs rounded: color of

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the hair yellowish, tipt with black: face brown, with a few scattered hairs: tail not an inch long: buttocks covered with hairs: size of a squirrel, according to Linnœus. But Mr. Balk, in the Amœn. Acad, says it is as large as a cat.

Inhabits India: is a lively species.

101. CRESTED.

B. with the hairs on the crown very long, and dishevelled; those on the cheeks of the same form, and of a dusky color; breast whitish: rest of the body and limbs covered with black long hair. Face and feet black and bare: tail slender, taper, about seven inches long: whole length of the animal two feet.

Inhabits Africa. LEV. MUS.

102. PIC-TAIL.

Pig-tailed Monkey. Edw. 214.

Le Maimon. de Buffon, xiv. 176. tab. xix. Simia Nemestrina. S. Semicaudata subbarbatagrisea iridibus brunneis, nalibus calvis. Lin. syst. 35. Br. Mus. LEV. MUS.

B. with a pointed face, not so long as that of the last: eyes hazel: above and beneath the mouth some few black hairs: face naked, of a swarthy redness: two sharp canine teeth: ears like the human: crown of the head dusky: hair on the limbs and body brown, inclining to ash-color, palest on the belly: fingers black: nails long and flat: thumbs on the hind feet very long, connected to the nearest toe by a broad membrane: tail four inches long, slender, exactly like a pig's,

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and almost naked: the bare spaces on the rump red, and but small: length, from head to tail, twenty-two inches.

Inhabits the isle of Sumatra and Japan*, is very docilc: in Japan is taught several tricks, and carried about the country by mountebanks. Kœmpser was informed by one of these people, that the Baboon he had was 102 years old.

BABOONS.

* *With longer tails.

103. DOG-FACED.

Le Tartarin. Belon, portraits, 102.

Simia Ægyptiaca cauda elongata, clunibus tuberosis nudis. Hasselquist, itin. 189.

Simia Hamadryas. S. caudata cinerea, auribus comosis, unguibus acutiusculis, natibus calvis. Lin. syst. 36.

Cercopithecus cynocephalus, parte anteriore corporis longis pilis obsita, naso violaceo nudo. Le Magot ou le Tartarin. Brisson quad. 152. Edw. fig. ined.

Le Babouin gris. Schreber, loo. tab. x.

Shaw, Spec. Lin. iii.

B. with a long, thick, and strong nose, covered with a smooth red skin: eyes small: ears pointed, and hid in the hair: head great, and flat: hair on the fides of the head, and fore-part of the body, as far as the waist, very long and shaggy; grey and olive brinded; that on the cop and hind part of the head very short: the hair on the limbs and hind part of the body also short: limbs strong and thick: hands and feet dusky: the nails on the fore feet flat; those on the hind like a dog's: buttocks very

* Kœmser's bist. Japan, i. 126.

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bare, and covered with a skin of a bloody color: tail scarcely the length of the body, and carried generally erect.

Inhabit the hottest parts of Africa and Asia: keep in vast troops: are very fierce and dangerous: rob gardens: run up trees when passengers go by: shake the boughs at them with great fury, and chatter very loud: are excessively impudent, indecent, lascivious: moil detestable animals in their manners, as well as appearance. Mr. Edwards communicated to me an account and a fine print* of one, which was shewn in London some years ago: it came from Mokha, in the province of Yemen, in Arabia Felix. They inhabit the woods by hundreds, which obliges the owners of the coffee-plantations to be continually on their guard against their depredations †. This animal was above five feet high; very fierce, and untameable; so strong, as easily to master its keeper, a strong young man: its inclinations to women appeared in the mod violent manner. A footman, who brought a girl to fee it, in order to teize the animal, kissed and hugged her: the beast, enraged at being so tantalized, caught hold of a quart pewter pot, which he threw with such force, and so sure an aim, that had not the man's hat and wig softened the blow, his scull mu ft have been fractured; but he fortunately escaped with a common broken head.

Of the same kind are those so common about the Cape of Good Hope, or the following.

* With several sketches of the same, and an ample description, in a lesser, July 14, 1770.

Niebuhr, Deser. Arabie, 147.

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β 104. URSINE.

B. with a great head and long thick nose: short ears: crown covered with long upright hairs. The part of the head immediately above the forehead prominent, and terminating in a ridge. The whole body covered with long dusky hair, so that at first sight the animal appears like a young bear.

Body thick and strong: limbs short: tail half the length of the body; strait at the beginning, arched at the end: nails flat and round: buttocks of a bloody redness.

Is four feet high, even when fitting; and as tall as a middle-sized man, when erect.

Inhabits the Cape of Good Hope. Are very numerous, and go in troops in the mountains. When they see any one approach, they set up an universal and horrible cry for about a minute or two, and then conceal themselves in their fastnesses, and keep a profound silence. They hardly ever descend into the plains, unless it be to pillage the gardens, which lie at the foot of the mountains. It is said, that while they are plundering, they place centinels to guard against surprize; and that for greater expedition, they fling the fruit from one to another, in order to carry it off. They break the fruit into pieces, and cram it into the pouches nature hath furnished them with on each fide of their cheeks, in order to cat it afterwards at leisure. The centinel, on fight of man, gives a yell; when the whole troop retreats in the most diverting manner, the young clinging to the backs of the parents *.

* Kolben, ii. 120. La Caille, 296.

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When taken and confined, are tolerably tame; but very revengeful when provoked. They are strong enough to draw the strongest man to them, notwithstanding he makes the most powerful resistance. They usually lay hold of the ears, and will bite off one as close as if it was done with a razor.

This seems to be the same with the Mandrill, described by Smith in his voyage to Guinea, which he fays grows to a great size, and that the body is as thick as a man s. Head very large: face covered with a white skin: nose always a running; and body cloathed with long black hair, like a bear.

105. MOTTLED.

Le Papion ou Babouin proprement dit. de Buffon, xiv. 133. tab. Schreber, 98. tab. vi.

B. with the nose covered with a dusky red skin. Hair on the head, neck, shoulders, and breast, very long; in other parts shorter. Colors a mixture of tawny, black, and brown: feet dusky: buttocks naked, and hideous.

Tail, in the specimen described by M. de Buffon, only seven inches long, it being mutilated: nails on the thumbs; on the roes, blunt and crooked claws.

SIZE.

Height, when fitting up, sometimes three or four feet: has all the detestable manners of the former.

From the defect in the tail, it is difficult to determine the species, or be certain whether it should be placed with these long-tailed baboons, or as a connecting link between them and the shorter.

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β6. LITTLE.

M. de Buffon has described and engraven another, which he calls le Petit Babonin, differing only in size from the other, being a quarter less; but I fall into Mr. Schreber's notion of its being only a young animal. See the former's account and figure, p. 147, tab. xiv. The latter's, p. 99, tab. vi, fig. 2.

106. LION-TAILED

Cercophithecus barbatus primus. Clusii exot. 371. Raii syn. quad. 159. Klein quad. 89.

Simia veter. S. caudatabarbata alba barba nigra. Lin. syst. 36. Brisson quad. 147.

Simia filenus. S. caudata barbata nigra, barba nigra prolixa. Lin. syst. 36. Brisson quad. 149.

Cercopithecus niger Ægyptiacus, ibid.

Simia Faunus. S caudatabarbata, cauds apice sloccosa. Lin. syst. 36.

Cercopithecus barbatus infra albus, barba incana mucronata, cauda in floccum definente. Brisson quad. 144.

Le finge barbu noir. Schreber, 107, tab. xi. MUS. LEV.

B. with a long dog-like face, naked, and of a dusky color: a very large and full white or hoary beard: the beards of these females brown: large canine teeth: body covered with black hair: belly of a lighter color: nails fiat: tail terminated with a tust of hair like that of a lion: bulk of a middling-sized dog.

Inhabits the East Indies, and the hotter parts of Africa.

One was shewn in London some years ago, excessively sierce and ill-natured: the tail not longer than the back, ending with a large tuft: beard reaching quite up the cheeks, as far as the eyes. This is certainly the Ouanderou of M. de Buffon, xiv. 169. tab. xviii. which he makes a fort of Baboon, or Monkey with a short tail; for he seems to have met with a specimen mutilated in that part; and describes it accordingly.

To these may be added the following more obseure species.

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δ. The little bearded men of Barbot, voy. Guinea, 212. and Bosman, 242. are about two feet high, and are black as jet, with long white beards. The negroes set a great value on the skins of this species, and fell them to one another at eighteen or twenty shillings each. Of the skins of these they make the caps for the Tie-tie's, or public Criers.

* ** With tails longer than their bodies, or Monkies.

A. Those of the old world, or the continents of Asia and Africa, having within each lower jaw pouches for the reception of their food.

Buttocks (generally) naked.

Tails strait, not prehensile.

107. PURFLK-FACED.

M. with a great triangular white beard, short and pointed at the bottom; and on each side of the ears extending in a winged fashion far beyond them; face and hands purple: body black: tail much longer than the body, terminated with a dirty white tust.

Inhabit Ceylon. The figure taken from a drawing communicated to me by Mr. Loten, is probably the same with those called by Knox* Wanderows. These are very harmless; live in the woods, and feed on leaves and buds of trees; and when taken soon become tame.

There is a variety entirely white; but in form exactly like the Others. These are much scarcer †.

* Hist, Ceylon, 25.

† The same.

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This is described in the former edition, p. 109, β. as a variety; but on reconsideration, is here placed as a distinct species.

108. PALATINE.

La Palatine. Schreber, 1. 124, tab. xxv.
La Palatine, ou Roloway. Allamande, 77. LEV. MUS.

M. with a triangular black face, bordered all round with white hair, which on the chin is divided into a long forked beard: back dusky: head, sides, and outsides of the arms and thighs, of the same color, but each hair tipped with white: breast, belly, and inside of the limbs, white, in the subject shewn in Europe, but in their native country orange, for they fade in our colder climate.

About a foot and a half high: the tail of the length of the body.

Inhabits Guinea; is called there Roloway: very full of frolic, and fond of the persons it is acquainted with; averse to others.

109. HARE-LIPPED.

Cercopithecus angolenfis major, macaquo. Marcgravit, Brasil. 227. Raii syn. quad. 155. Klein quad. 89.

Cercopithecus cynocephalus, naribus bifidis elatis, natibus calvis. Briffon quad. 152. C. Cynoceph. ex virid. &c. 151.

S. Cynomolgus. S. caudataimberbis, naribus bifidis elatis, cauda arcuata, natibuscalvis. Lin. syst. 38. S. cynocephar Vis. ibid. Le Macaque. De Buffon, xiv. 190. tab. xiv. Scbreber, 112.

LeMalbrouc. Scbreber, 110. MUS. LEV.?

M. with the nostrils divided, like those of a hare: nose thick, flat, and wrinkled: head large: eyes small: teeth very white: body thick, and clumsy: buttocks naked: tail long:

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color varies; sometimes like that of a wolf; but others are brown, tinged with yellow, or olive: belly and inside of the limbs of a light ash-color: the tail is rather shorter than the body, and is alway carried arched.

Inhabits Guinea and Angola: is full of frolic, and ridiculous grimaces.

Le Malbrouck of M. de Buffon, xiv. 224. tab. xxix. so much resembles this species, that I place it here as a variety. That able Zoologist suspected the same; but separates them, on account of some trifling distinctions, and the difference of country: this being a native of India, the other of Africa: but since those very distinctions may arise from the last cause, it seems better to unite them, than to multiply the species, already so numerous. A few years ago, one that seemed of this species was shewn in London, equal in size to a small greyhound.

110. SPOTTED.

Cercopithecus barbatus Guineensis, Exquima. Marcgrave Brasil. 227. Raii syn. quad. 156.

Cercopithecus barbatus suscus punctis albis inspersis barba alba. Brisson quad. 147.No. 23. 148. No. 24.

Simia Diana. S. caudata barbata, sronte barbaque sastigiata. Lin. syst. 38.

L'Exquima. De Buffon, xv. 16.

La Diane. Scbreber, 115. tab. xiv.

M. with a long white beard: color of the upper parts of the body reddish, as if they had been singed, marked with white specks: the belly and chin whitish: tail very long: is a species of a middle size.

PLACE.

Inhabits Guinea* and Congo, according to Marcgrave: the Con-

* Purchas's Pilgrims, ii. 955.

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gese call it Exquima. M. de Buffon denies it to be of that country: but, from the circumstance of the curl in its tail, in Marcgrave's figure, and the description of some voyagers, he supposes it to be a native of South America.

Linnæus describes his S. Diana somewhat differently: he says it is of the size of a large cat; black, spotted with white: hind part of the back ferruginous: face black: from the top of the nose is a white line passing over each eye to the ears, in an arched form: beard pointed; black above, white beneath; placed on a fattish excrescence: breast and throat white: from the rump, cross the thighs, a white line: tail long, strait, and black; ears, and feet, of the same color: canine teeth, large.

411. LONG-NOSED.

M. with a very long slender nose, covered with a flesh-colored naked skin: hair on the head falling back; on the body and breast long: color of the head, and upper part of the body and limbs, pale, ferruginous, mixed with black; of the bread and belly light ash: tail very long.

SIZE.

Height when sitting down, about two feet: very good-natured. Described from a drawing by Mr. Paillou, animal painter. Place uncertain, probably Africa. Its face very like that of a long-nosed dog.

I engrave another in the same plate, under the title of the Prude, which possibly may be related to the former.

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112. YELLOWISH.

M. with a black face: great canine teeth: great black naked ears: on the side of the cheeks long hairs, of a pale yellow, falling backward towards the head: long hairs above each eye: throat and breast of a yellowish white: crown, upper part of the body, arms, and thighs, cinereous, mixed with yellow. On the lower part of the arms and legs, and on the tail, the cinereous predominates. Hair on the body coarse. Tail the length of the body.

Size of a fox.

Inhabits Guinea? LEV. MUS.

113. GREEN.

Simius Callitrichus. Prosp. Alp. Ægypt. i.

Simia fabæa. S. caudata imberbis slavicans, facie atra, cauda cinerea, natibus calvis. Lin. syst. 38. Edwards, 215.

Cercopithecus ex cinereo slavescens, genis long is pilis albis obsita. Brisson quad. 145. et Cercobarbatus rusus facie nigra, cæsarie alba cincta. 149.

Le Callitriche. De Buffon, xiv. 272. tab. xxxvii. Schreber, 122. tab. xviii. MUS. LEV.

M. with a black nose: red flattish face: the sides of it bounded by long yellow hairs, falling backwards like a mustachio, and almost covering the ears, which are black, and like the human: head, limbs, and whole upper part of the body and tail, covered with soft hairs, of a yellowish green color at their ends, cinereous at their roots: under side of the body and tail, and inner side of the limbs, of a silvery color: tail very long and slender: size of a small cat.

Inhabits different parts of Africa: keep in great stocks, and

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live in the woods: are scarce discernible when among the leaves, except by their breaking the boughs with their gambols, in which they are very agile and silent: even when shot at, do not make the left noise; but will unite in company, knit their brows, and gnash their teeth, as if they meant to attack their enemy *: are very common in the Cape Verd islands: and also found in the East Indies: from whence Sir A. Lever had his specimen.

114. WHITE EYELID

β Simia Ætbiops. caudata imberbis, capillitio erecto lunalaque frontis albis. Lin. syst. 39 Hasselquist it in? 190.Shaw, spec. Lin. iv.

Le Mangabey. De Buffon, xiv. 244. tab. xxxii. xxxiii. Scbreber, 128. tab. xx. xxi. LEV. MUS.

M. with a long, black, naked, and dog-like face: the upper eye-lids of a pure white: ears black, and like the human: no canine teeth: hairs on the sides of the face, beneath the cheeks, longer than the rest: tail long: color of the whole body tawny and black: flat nails on the thumbs and fore-fingers; blunt claws on the others: tail, hands, and feet black.

Shewn in London a few years ago: place uncertain: that described by M. de Buffon came from Madagascar: was very good-natured, went on all fours.

Le Mangabey a collier blanc† is a variety, with the long hairs on the cheeks and round the neck white.

I have seen one at Mr.Brook's, perhaps of this kind, with the crown of the head ferruginous: cheeks, under side of the neck, and belly, white: back, legs, and tail black.

* Adanson's voy. 316.

† Of M. de Buffon, tab. xxxiii.

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115. MUSTACHE.

Cercopithecus alius Guineensis. Marcgrave Brasil. 228. Raii syn. quad. 156.

S. cephus. S. caudata buccis barbatis, vertice slavescente, pedibus nigris, caudæ apice ferruginea. Lin. syst. 39.

Cercopithecus nigricans, genis et auriculis longis pilis ex albo slavicantibus obsitis, ore cærulefsente. Brisson quad.. 146.

Le Moustac. De Buffon, xiv. 283. tab. xxxix. Scbreber, 125. tab. xix. LEV. MUS.

M. with a short nose, of a dirty blueish color; beneath the nose a transverse stripe of white: edges of both lips, and space round the eyes, black: on the cheeks, before the ears, two large tufts of yellow hairs, like mustaches: ears round, and tufted with whitish hairs: the hair on the top of the head long and upright: round the mouth are some black hairs: the color of the hair on the head yellow, mixed with black: on the body and limbs, a mixture of red and ash-color: the part of the tail next the body of the same color; the rest yellowish: the under part of the body paler than the upper: the feet black: nails slat: its length one foot; that of the tail, eighteen inches.

Inhabits Guinea.

116. WHITE NOSE.

Simianictitans. S. caudata imberbis nigra punctis pallidis aspersa, naso albo, police palmarum brevissimo, natibus tectis. Lin. syst.

Cercopithecus Angolensis alius*Marcgrave Brasil. 227. White Noses. Purchas's Pilg. ii. 955. LEV. MUS.

M. with a black flat face: the end of the nose of a snowy whiteness: irides yellow: hair on the head and body smooth, mottled with black and yellow: belly white: hands black: tail very long; upper side black, lower white.

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Inhabits Guinea and Angola: is when tamed, after being taken young, very sportive and diverting: in a wild state avoids mankind: is very crafty, and has a very bad smell.

The ape described by Mr. Schreber, p. 126. tab. xix. B. agrees with this in the whiteness of the nose, but has a large white beard, which that which I saw wanted. He calls it, Le Blanc Nez; and Simia Petaurista.

317. TALAPOIN.

Le Talapoin. De Buffon, xiv. 287. tab. xl. Scbreber, 124. tab, xvii. LEV. MUS.

M. with a sharp nose, round head, large black naked ears: eyes, and end of the nose, flesh-colored: hair on the cheeks very long, and reflected towards the ears: on the chin a small beard: the color of the whole upper part of the body, a mixture of dusky yellow and green: outside of the limbs black; inside whitish: the lower part white tinged with yellow: the tail very long and slender; above, of an olive and dusky color; beneath, cinereous: the paws black: length, about one foot; of the tail, one foot five inches.

Inhabits India.

118. NECRO.

Middle-sized black monkey. Edw. 311. Scbreber, 131, tab. xxii. B. LEV. MUS.

M. with a round head: nose a little sharp: face, of a tawny flesh-color, with a few black hairs: irides, a reddish hazel: hair above the eyes long, uniting with the eye-brows; that

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on the temples partly covering the ears: breast and belly of a swarthy flesh-color, almost naked: hair on the body, limbs, and tail, black, and pretty long: paws covered with a black soft skin: size of a large cat.

Inhabits Guinea: active, lively, entertaining, good-natured. In Siam is a large species of black monkey, probably different from this.

119. EGRET.

S. aygula. S. caudata subimberbis grisea, eminentia pilosa verticis reversa longitudinal. Lin. syst. 39. Osbeck's voy. i. 151.

L'Aigrette. De Buffon, xiv. 190.tab. xxi Schreber, 129. tab. xxii.

M. with a long face, and an upright sharp-pointed tust of hair on the top of the head: hair on the forehead black: the color of the upper part of the body olivaceous; of the lower cinereous: eye-brows large: beard very small: size of a small cat.

Inhabit Java: sawn on men, on their own species, and embrace each other; play with dogs, if they have none of their own species with them: if they fee a monkey of another kind, greet him with a thousand grimaces: when a number of them sleep, they put their heads together: make a continual noise during night.

120. MONEA.

M. with a high, upright, rusty tust on the crown: limbs and body ferruginous, mixed with dusky: belly, and inside of the legs, whitish.

This species is called by the Malayes, Monèa, from which is derived the English name Monkey.

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121. RED.

Le Patas a bandeau noir. De Buffon, xiv. 208. tab. xxv.
Le Singe rouge. Schreber, 120. tab. xvi.

M. with a long nose: eyes sunk in the head: ears furnished with pretty long hairs: hairs on each side of the face long: chin bearded: body slender: over each eye, from ear to ear, extends a black line: the upper part of the body of a most beautiful and bright bay, almost red, so vivid as to appear painted: the lower parts ash-color, tinged with yellow: tail not so long as the body, whose length is about one foot six inches.

M. de Buffon gives a variety of this species, tab. xxvi, with a white band cross the face, which he calls Le Patas a bandeau blanc.

Inhabits Senegal: is less active than the other kinds: very inquisitive: when boats are on their passage on the river, will come in crowds to the extremities of the branches, and seem to admire them with vast attention: at length, will become so familiar, as to throw pieces of sticks at the crew: if shot at, will raise hideous cries; some will throw stones, others Void their excrements in their hands, and sling them among the passengers *.

Barbot† mentions another fort of red monkey, called in Guinea, Peasants, because of their ugly red hair and figure, and their natural stink and nastiness.

* De Brue, as quoted by M. de Buffon.

Defer. Guinea, 212.

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122. CHINESE.

Rillow Knox's Cylon, 26.

Le Bonnet-Chinois. De Buffon, xiv. 190. tab. xxx, Br. Mus. Scbreber, 132 tab. xxiii. LEV. MUS.

M. with a long smooth nose, of a dusky color: hair on the crown of the head long, lying slat, and parted like that of a man: color, a pale cinereous brown, mixed with yellow: belly whitish.

In the LEVERIAN MUSEUM is a variety of a ferruginous color, with a dusky face, and naked hands.

Inhabit Ceylon: keep in great troops: rob the gardens of fruit, and fields of the corn: the natives are obliged to watch the whole day; yet these monkies are so bold, that, when drove from one end of the field, they will immediately enter at the other, and carry off with them as much as their mouth and arms can hold. Bosman *, speaking of the thefts of the monkies of Guinea, says, that they will take in each paw one or two stalks of millet, as many under their arms, and two or three in their mouth; and thus laden, hop away on their hind legs; but if pursued, sling away all, except what is in their mouths, that it may not impede their slight. They are very nice in their choice of the millet, examine every stalk, and if they do not like it, sling it away; so this delicacy does more harm to the fields than their thievery. Of late years a Russian tanner has discovered that the skins might be dressed and made into shoes.

* Voy. Guinea, 243.

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123. BONNETED.

M. with a dusky face: on the crown a circular bonnet, consisting of upright black hairs: on the sides of the cheeks the hairs are long: those and the body brown: legs and arms black.

Size of a small cat. LEV. MUS.

124. VARIED.

Κη;? Arist. bist. An.

Monne? Leo Afr. 342.

Monichus. Prosp. Alp. Ægypt. i. 242.

La Mone. De Buffon, xiv. 258. tab. xxxvi. Schreler, 119. tab. xv.

Cercopithecus pilis ex nigro et ruso variegatis vestibus, pedibus nigris, caudacinerea. Le singe varie. Brisson quad. 141. LEV. MUS.

M. with a short, black, thick nose: orbits and mouth of a dirty flesh-color: hair on the sides of the face, and under the throat, long, of a whitish color, tinged with yellow: on the forehead, grey: above the eyes, from ear to ear, a black line: the upper part of the body dusky and tawny: the breast, belly, and inside of the limbs white: outside of the thighs, and arms, black: hands and feet black and naked: the tail of a cinereous brown: length, about a foot and a half; the tail above two.

Inhabits Barbary, Æthiopia, and other parts of Africa: is the kind which gives the name of Monkey to the whole tribe, from the African word Monne; or rather its corruption, Monichus. M.de Buffon supposes it to be the Kη; of Aristotle: but the Philosopher says no more, than that the Cebi are apes furnished with tails.

Of this kin is the Cercopitbecus Guineensis alius of Marcgrave

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Brasil. 228. Brisson quad. 139. which the first describes as being of the color of the back of a hare.

125. COCHIN-CHINA.

Le Douc. de Buffon, xiv. 298. tab. xli.

Cercop thecus cineveus, genis longis pilis ex albo slavicantibus obsitis, torque ex castaneo purpurascente. Le grand singe de la Cochin-chine. Buffon quad, 146. Schreber, 137. tab. xxiv.

M. with a short flattish face, bounded on each side by long hairs of a yellowish color: on the neck a collar of purplish brown: the lower part of the arms, and tail, are white: the upper part of the arms, and thighs, black: legs and knees of a chesnut color: the back, belly, and sides, grey, tinged with yellow: above the root of the tail is a spot of white, which extends beneath as far as the lower part of the belly and part of the thighs: the feet black: the buttocks* covered with hair: is a very large species, about four feet long, from the nose to the tail; but the tail not so long.

Inhabits Cochin-China and Madagascar†: lives on beans: often walks on its hind feet.

126. TAWNY.

M. with a face a little produced: that and the ears flesh-colored: nose flattish: long canine teeth in the lower jaw: hair on the upper part of the body pale tawny, cinereous at the

* All the species of apes of Asia and Africa, except this and No. 64, 70, and 87, have their buttocks naked.

† Where it is called Sifac, Flacourt bist. Madag. 153.

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roots: hind part of the back orange: legs cinereous: belly white: size of a cat: tail shorter than the body.

Inhabits India. From one in Mr. Brookes's exhibition. Very ill-natured.

M.Paillou communicated to me a variety of this species, with a black face, and long black hairs on the cheeks: body of a dull pale green: limbs grey: tail dusky.

127. GOAT.

M. with a blue naked face ribbed obliquely: a long beard, like that of a goat: whole body and limbs of a deep brown color: tail long. Described from a drawing in the British Museum, by Kikius, an excellent painter of animals.

128. FULL-BOTTOM.

M. with a short, black, and naked face: small head; that and the shoulders covered with long, coarse, flowing hairs, like a full-bottomed perriwig; of a dirty yellowish color, mixed with black: body, arms, and legs, of a fine glossy blackness, covered with short hairs.

Hands naked, furnished with only four fingers: on each foot five very long slender toes.

Tail very long; of a snowy whiteness; with very long hairs at the end, forming a tust: body and limbs very slender: length above three feet.

Inhabits the forests of Sierra Leone, in Guinea; is called there, Bey or King Monkey: the negroes hold its skin in high estimation, and use it for pouches, and for coverings to their guns.

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129. Bay.

M. with a black crown: back of a deep bay color: outside of the limbs black: cheeks, under part of the body, and legs, of a very bright bay.

Only four fingers on the hands; on the feet five long toes.

Tail very long, slender, and black.

Body and limbs very slender and meagre.

Inhabits Sierra Leone, and brought over by Mr.Smeathman, who presented this and the former to the LEVERIAN MUSEUM.

130. ANNULATED.

Simia apella. Lin. syst. 42. Schreber, tab. xxviii.

M. with a flat face: long hairs on the forehead and cheeks: upper part of the body and limbs of a tawny brown; belly cinereous: tail shorter than the body, annulated with a darker and lighter brown: hands naked and black. From a drawing in the British Museum.

131. PHILIPPINE.

Cercopithecus Luzonicus minimus, Magu vel Root Indorum. Pet. Gaz. 21. tab. xiii.

Simia syrichta. S. caudata imberbis ore ciliisque vibrissatis. Lin. Syst.. 44. Schreber, 152. tab. xxxi.

M. with its mouth and eye-brows beset with long hairs: an obscure species, mentioned only by Petiver; said to come from the Philippine isles.

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B. Monkies of the new world, or the continent of America, having neither pouches in their jaws, nor naked buttocks.

Tails of many prehensile, and naked on the under side, for a certain space next their end.

α. With prehensile tails *.

132. PREACHER.

Guariba. Margrave Brasil, 226. Raii syn. quad. 153.

Aquiqui. De Laet, 486. Grew's Museum, 11

Howling Baboons, Guareba. Bancroft's Guiana, 133.

Simia Beelzebub. S. caudata barbata nigra, cauda prehensili extreme pedibusque suscis. Lin. syst. 37.

Cercopithecus niger, pedibus suscis. Brisson quad. 137.

L'Ouarine. Schreber, 137. de Buffon, xv. 5.

M. with black shining eyes: short round ears: a round beard under the chin and throat: hairs on the body of a shining black; long, yet lie so close on each other that the animal appears quite smooth: the feet and end of the tail brown; tail very long, and always twisted at the end: size of a fox.

Inhabits the woods of Brasil and Guiana in vast: numbers; and makes a most dreadful howling: sometimes one mounts on a higher branch, the rest feat themselves beneath: the first begins as if it was to harangue, and sets up so lond and sharp a howl as may be heard a vast way; a person at a distance would think that a hundred joined in the cry; after a certain space, he gives a signal with his hand, when the whole assembly joins in chorus; but

* These M. de Buffon calls Sapajous.

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on another signal, is silent, and the orator finishes his address *: their clamor is the most disagreeable and tremendous that can be conceived, owing to a hollow and hard bone placed in the throat, which the English call the throttle-bone†. These monkies are very fierce, untameable, and bite dreadfully.

α ROYAL. Cercopithecus barbatus maximus, serruginosus, Stertorosus. Aloaiita, singe rouge. Barrere, France Æqnin, 150.

Cerconithecus barbatus saturate rufus. Buffon quad, 147.

Simia seniculus. S. caudata barbata rufa, cauda prehensili. Lin. syst. 37.

Arabata. Gumilla Orenoque, ii. 8. Bancroft Guiana, 135.

L'AIlouatte, de Buffon, xv. 5. Schreber, 138.

A variety of a ferruginous or reddish bay color, which the Indians‡ call the king of the monkies: is large, and as noisy as the former. The natives eat this species, and several other sorts of monkies, but are particularly fond of this; Europeans will also eat it, especially in those parts of America where food is scarce: when it is scalded, in order to get off the hair, it looks very white, and has a resemblance shocking to humanity, that of a child of two or three years old, when crying ║.

* A singular account, yet related by Maregrave and several other writers. Maregrave is a writer of the first authority, and a most able naturalist, long resident in the Brasils, and speaks from his own knowledge.

Grew's Rarities, 11.

De Laet. 486.

Ullca's vsy. i. 113. Des Marcbais, iii. 311, says, they are excellent eating, and that a soupe aux singes will be found as good as any other, as soon as you have conquered the aversion to the Bouilli of their heads, which look very like those of little children.

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133. FOUR-FINGERED.

Cercopithecus major niger, faciem humanam referens. Quouata. Barrere Frane Æqun. 150.

Quato. Bancrost Guiana, 131.

Cercopithecus in pedibus anterioribus pollice carens cauda inserius apicem versus pilis dertituta. Le Belzebut. Brisson quad. 150.

Simia Paniscus. S. caudata imberbis atra, cauda prehensili, ad apicem subtus nuda. Lin. syst. 37.

Le Coaita. de Buffon, xv. 16. Schreber, 140. tab. xxvi.

Spider Monkey. Edw. Gleanings, iii. 222. Br. Mus. LEV. MUS.

M. with a long flat face, of a swarthy flesh-color: eyes sunk in the head: ears like the human: limbs of a great length, and uncommonly slender: hair black, long, and rough: only four fingers on the hands, being quite destitute of a thumb: five toes on the feet: nails slat: tail long, and naked below near the end: body slender: about a foot and a half long: tail near two feet, so prehensile as to serve every purpose of a hand.

Inhabits the neighborhood of Carthagena, Guiana, Brasil, and * Peru: associate in vast herds: scarce ever are seen on the ground. Dampier† describes their gambols in a lively manner: "There, was", says he, a great company, dancing from tree to tree over my head, chattering and making a terrible noise, and a great many grim faces and antic gestures; some broke down dry slicks and slung at me, others scattered their urine and dung about my ears, at last one, bigger than the rest, came to a small limb just over my head, and leaping directly at me, made me leap back, but the monkey caught hold of the bough with the tip of his tail, and there continued swinging to and fro, making mouths at me. The females with their young ones

* De Buffon, xv. 21.

Voy. ii. 6o.

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are much troubled to leap after the males, for they have commonly two, one the carries under her arm, the other sits on her back, and claps its two fore paws about her neck. Are very sullen when taken; and very hard to be got when shot, for they will cling with their tail or feet to a bough, as long as any life remains; when I have shot at one, and broke a leg or arm, I have pitied the poor creature, to see it look and handle the broken limb, and turn it from side to side.

They are the most active of monkies, and quite enliven the forests of America: in order to pass from top to top of lofty trees, whose branches are too distant for a leap, they will form a chain, by hanging down, linked to each other by their tails, and swinging in that manner till the lowest catches hold of a bough of the next tree, and draws lip the rest*, and sometimes they pass†rivers by the same expedient.

Are sometimes brought to Europe: are very tender, and seldom live long in our climate: Mr. Brookes had one or two, which, as long as they continued in health, were so active, and played such tricks, as to confirm the account of voyagers.

134. FEARFUL.

Simia trepida. S. caudata imberbis, capillitio arrecto, manibus pedibusque cæruleis, cauda prehensili villosa. Lin. syst. 39.

Singe, &c. Schreber, 147. tab. xxvii.

Bush-tailed Monkey, Edw. 312.

Simiolus Ceylonicus. Seb. Mus. i. 77. tab. 48. Br. Mus.

Le Sajou. de Buffon, xv. 37. tab. iv. v.

M. with a round head; and short flesh-colored face, with a little down on it: hair on the forehead more or less high and erect in different subjects: top of the head black or dusky,

* Wafer's voy. in Dampier, iii. 330.

Ulloa, i. 113.

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hair on it pretty long: hind part of the neck, and middle of the back, covered with long dusky hairs; rest of the back and the limbs of a reddish brown: hair on the breast and belly very thin: hands and feet covered with a black skin: on the toes slat nails: tail longer than the head and body, and often carried over the shoulders; the hair on it very long, of a deep brown color, and appears very bushy from beginning to end.

Inhabits Guiana, not Ceylon, as Seba asserts: is a lively species; but capricious in its affections in a state of captivity, having a great fondness for some persons, and as great a hatred to others.

135. CAPUCIN.

Simia capucina. S. caudata imberbis susca, cauda prehensili hirsuta, pileo artubusque nigris, natibus tectis. Lin. syst. 42. Mus. Ad. Fred. tab. ii.

Le sai. Schreber, 147. tab. xxix. de Buffon, xv. 51. tab. viii. LEV. MUS.

M. with a round head: face slat and flesh-colored, encircled with upright whitish hairs: breast covered with long shaggy pale yellow hair: head black; body and tail of a deep brown, or dusky: tail very long, and thickly cloathed: on the toes are crooked claws, not slat nails as on those of the former. I confess my inattention to that circumstance in my former edition, which made me confound this and the last species.

Inhabits South America.

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136. WEEPER

Cercopithecus Brasiliensis secundus Clustiexot. 372.

Cay? Di Laet, 486. Raii syn. quad, 155.

Cercopithecus totus niger. Brisson quad. 139.

Le Sai—Le Sai a gorge blanc, de Buffon, xv. 51. tab. viii. ix.

Schreber, 147. tab. xxviii.

Simia apella. Lin. syst. 42. Mus. Ad. Fred. tab. i.

M. with a round and slat face, of a reddish brown color, very deformed: the hair on the head, and upper part of the body, black, tinged with brown; beneath, and on the limbs, tinged with red: tail black, and much longer than the head and body: the young excessively deformed; their hair very long, and thinly dispersed: on each toe a slat nail. In the British Museum are specimens of old and young. M. de Buffon has a variety with a white throat.

Inhabits Surinam and Brasil: appear as if they were always weeping*: of a melancholy disposition; but very full of imitating what they see done. These probably are the monkies Dampier saw in the Bay of All Saints, which he says are very ugly, and smell strongly of musk†: keep in large companies; and make a great chattering, especially in stormy weather: reside much on a species of tree, which bears a podded fruit, which they seed on ‡.

The figure in Mus. Ad. Fred, has much too cheerful a countenance.

* Froger's voy, 116.

Dampler's voy. iii. 53.

De Laet, 486.

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137. ORANGE.

Caitaia. Margrave Brasil. 227. Raii syn. quad. 175.

Cercopithecus pilis ex susco, slavescente, et candicante variegatis vestitus, pedibus ex slavo rusescentibus. Brisson quad. 140.

Cercopithecus ex albo slavcscens moschum reddens. Brisson, 139.

Cercopithecus minor luteus; Le Sapajoujaune. Barrere France Æquin. 151.

Simia sciurea. S. caudata imberbis, occipite prominulo, unguibus quatuor plantarum subulatis, natibus tectist Lin. syst. 43.

Le Saimiri. de Buffon, xv.

Mus. Schreber, 148. tab. xxx. LEV. MUS.

M. with a round head: nose a little pointed: tip of the nose, and space round the mouth, marked with black, of a circular form: orbits flesh-colored: ears hairy: hair on the body short, woolly, and fine, of a yellow and brown color; but in its native country, when in perfection, of a brilliant gold* color: the feet orange: nails of the hands slat: of the feet, like claws: tail very long; less useful for prehensile purposes than that of the rest: body of the size of a. squirrel.

Inhabits Brasil and Guiana: when provoked, screams: is a very tender animal: seldom brought here alive: smells of musk†. The Simia Morta of Linnaus, 43; and Cercopithecus cauda murina of Buffon, 143; engraved in Seba, tab. 48. under the name of Simiolus Ceylonicus, is only the fetus of some monkey: probably, as Linnæus conjectures, of this species.

* Froger's voy. 116.

† Some of the African monkies have also a strong smell of musk. A Bezoar is sometimes found in certain species.

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138. HORNED.

Cercopithecus ex nigro et susco variegatus, sasciculis duobus pilorum capitis, corniculorum æmulis. Le Sapajou cornu, Brisson quad. 138.

Simia Fatuellus. Lin. syst, 42. LEV. MUS.

M. with two black tusts of hair like horns on the top of the head: eyes bright; of a dusky color: ears like the human: face, sides, belly, and fore legs, reddish brown: upper part of the arms, neck, and upper part of the back, yellowish: top of the head, lower part of the back, hind legs, and all the feet, black: tail prehensile, covered with short bright hair: body fourteen inches long, tail fifteen.

Inhabits America. A most deformed species.

139. ANTIGUA.

M. with a short nose: black face: hair on each side long: back and sides orange and black, intimately mixed: belly white: outside of the legs black; inside ash-colored: tail of a dusky ash: its length twenty inches; that of the body eighteen.

In possession of the late Richard Morris, Esq; of the Navy-Office: brought from Antigua: but its native place uncertain: very good-natured, lively, and full of tricks: frequently hang by its tail.

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b. with strait tails, not prehensile *

140. FOX-TAILED.

Cagui major. Marcg Brasil. 227.

Cercopithecus pilis nigris, apice albido, veitus, cauda pilis Iongissimis nigris obsita. Brisson quad. 138. C. pilis cinerescentibus nigro mixtis, cauda rufa. Brisson, 141.

Simia Pithecia. S. caudata imberbis, vellere nigro apice albo, cauda nigra villosissima. Lin. syst. 40.

Le Saki. De Buffon, xv. 83. tab. xii. Scbreber, 153. tab. xxxii.

Saccawinkee. Bancroft Guiana, 135. Br. Mus. MUS. LEV.

M. with a swarthy face, covered with short white down: fore head and sides of the face with whitish, and pretty long hair: body with long dusky brown hairs, white or yellowish at their tips: hair on the tail very long and bushy; sometimes black, sometimes reddish: belly and lower part of the limbs a reddish white: length from nose to tail near a foot and a half: tail longer, and like that of a fox: hands and feet black, with claws instead of nails.

Inhabits Guiana.

* Distinguished from those with prehensile tails, by M. de Buffon, by the name of Sagouins; which, as well as Sapajous, are American names for certain kinds of monkies.

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141. GREAT. EARED.

Cercopithecus minimus niger Leontocephalus, auribus elephantinis. Barrere France Æquin. 151.

Simia midas. S. caudata imberbis, labio superiore sisso, auribus quadratis nudis, unguibus subulatis, pedibus croceis. Lin. syst. 42.

Le Tamarin. De Buffon, xv. 92. tab. xiii. Schreber, 160. tab. xxxvii.

Little black monkey. Edw. 196. Br. Muf. LEV. MUS.

M. with a round head, swarthy, flesh-colored, naked face: upper lip a little divided: ears very large, erect, naked, and almost square: hair on the forehead upright and long; on the body soft, but shaggy: the head, whole body, and upper part of the limbs, black, except the lower part of the back, which was tinged with yellow: hands and feet covered with orange-colored hairs, very fine and smooth: nails long and crooked: tail black, and twice the length of the body: teeth very white.

Size of a squirrel.

PLACE.

Inhabits the hotter parts of South America, and the isle of Gorgona, south of Panama, in the South Sea. There are, says Dam pier, a great many little black monkies: at low water, they come to the sea-side to take muscles and perriwinkles, which they dig out of the shells with their claws *.

* Voy. i. 173.

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142. STRIATED.

Cagui minor. Marcgrave Brasil, Cercopithecus Brasilianus tertius Sagouin. Chasvi Exot. 372. Gesner quad. 869. Raii syn, quad 154. Klein quad. 87. tab. iii. Ludolph. Com. Ætbiop. 58.

Cercopithecus tæeniis transversis alternatim suscis et e cinereo albis variegatus, auriculis pilis albis circumdatis. Brisson quad. 143.

Simia lacchus, S. caudata auribus villosis patulis, cauda hirsma curvata, unguibus subulatis; pollicum rotundatis. Lin. syst. 40.

L'Ouistiti. De Buffon, xv. 96. tab xiv. Sanglin, or Cagui minor. Edw. 218. Ph. Tr. abridg. 1751, p. 146 tab. vii. Br. Mus.

Le Sagoin. Schreber, 154. tab. xxxiii. MUS. LEV.

M. with a very round head: about the ears two very long full tusts of white hairs standing out on each side: irides reddish: face of a swarthy flesh-color: ears like the human: head black: body ash-colored, reddish, and dusky; the last forms striated bars cross the body: tail full of hair, annulated with ash-color and black: body seven inches long: tail near eleven: hands and feet covered with short hairs: fingers like those of a squirrel: nails, or rather claws, sharp.

Inhabits Brasil: feeds on vegetables; will also eat fish*: makes a weak noise: very restless: often brought over to Europe.

* Edw. Gleanings, p. 17.

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143. SILKY.

Cercopithecus minor dilutè olivaceus, parvo capite, Acarima a Cayenne. Barrere, France Æquin. 151.

Cercopithecus ex albo slavicans, facici circumserentia, saturatè rufa. De petit singe Lion. Brisson quad. 142.

Simia Rosalia. S. caudata imberbis, capite piloso, facici circumserentia pedibusque rubris, unguibus sabulatis. Lin. syst. 41.

Le Marikina. De Buffon, xv. 108. tab. xvi. Schreber, 158. tab. xxxv. LEV. MUS.

M. with a flat face, of a dull purple color: ears round and naked: on the sides of the face the hairs very long, turning backwards, of a bright bay color; sometimes yellow, and the former only in patches: the hair on the body long, very sine, silky, glossy, and of a light but bright yellow: hands and feet naked, and of a dull purple color: claws, instead of nails, to each finger: length of the head and body ten inches: tail thirteen and a half; a little bushy at the end.

Inhabits Guiana; is very gentle, and lively.

144. RED-TAILED.

Pinche. Condamine's voy. 83.

Simia Œdipus. S. caudata imberbis, capillo dependente, cauda rubra, unguibus subulatis. Lin. syst. 41.

Cercopithecus pilis ex susco et ruso vcstitus, facie ultra auriculas usque nigra et nuda, vertice longis pilis obsita. Brisson quad. 150.

Le Pinche. De Buffon, xv. 114. tab. xvii. Schreber, 156. tab. xxxiv.

Little Lion Monkey. Edw. 195.

M. with a round head and black pointed face: ears round and dusky: hair on the head white, long, and spreading over the shoulders: shoulders and back covered with long and loose brown hairs: rump and half the tail deep orange-colored, almost red; the remaining part black: throat black: breast, belly, and legs, white; insides of the hands and feet black: claws crooked

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and sharp: length of the head and body eight inches; tail above twice as long.

Inhabits Guiana, Brasil, and the banks of the river of Amazons, whose woods swarm with numberless species: is agile and lively, and has a soft whittling note. Often marches with its tail over its back, appearing like a little lion.

145. FAIR.

A. Sagoin, &c. Condamines's voy. 83.

Cercopithecus ex cinereo albus argenteus, facie auriculisque rubris splendentibus, cauda caitanei coloris. Brisson quad. 142.

Le Mico. De Buffon, xv. 121. tab. xviii. Schreber, 159. tab. xxxvi.

M. with a small round head: face and ears of the most lively vermilion color: body covered with most beautiful long hairs, of a bright and silvery whiteness, of matchless elegance: tail of a shining dark chesnut: head and body eight inches long; tail twelve.

Inhabits the banks of the Amazons, discovered by M. de Condamine.

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XVI MAUCAUCO.

Six cutting teeth, and two canine teeth in each jaw.

Sharp pointed fox-like visage.

Feet formed like hands, like the apes.

146. TAIL-LESS.

Animal elegantissimum Robinsoni. Raii syn. quad. 161.

Cercopithecus Ceylonicus, feu Tardigradus dictus, major. Seb. Mus. tab. xlvii. Klein quad. 86.

Lemur tardigradus. L. ecaudatus. Lin. syst. 44. Shaw, Spec. Lin. v.

Simia unguibus indicis pedum posteriorum longis, incurvis, et acutis. Brisson quad. 134. LEV. MUS.

M. with a small head; sharp-pointed nose: orbits surrounded with a black circle, space between them white: from the top of the head along the middle of the back, to the rump, a dark ferruginous line, which on the forehead is bifurcated: ears small: body covered with short, soft, and silky ash-colored and reddish fur: toes naked: nails flat: those of the inner toe on each hind foot long, crooked, and sharp: length from the nose to the rump sixteen inches.

Inhabits Ceylon and Bengal; lives in the woods, and feeds on fruits: is fond of eggs, and will greedily devour small birds: has the inactivity of the Sloth *, creeps slowly along the ground †: is very tenacious of its hold, and makes a plaintive noise.

The inhabitants of Bengal call this animal Chirmundi Billi, or Bashful Billy. It sleeps, as I have seen one do in London in this year, holding fast the wires of the cage with its claws. It mikes a plaintive noise, Ai, Ai. Its tongue is rough.

* Vide that article: this animal, notwithstanding its manners, cannot be ranked with the Sloth, having both cutting and canine teeth.

† I doubt not bnt the candor of Mr. Schreber will induce him to rectify his misrepresentations of this passage.

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147. INDRI.

Sonnerat voy. II. 142. tab. Ixxvii.

M. with a produced dog-like visage: short ears, briefly tusted: hair silky and thick: face and lower parts greyish: rump white: whole upper part of the neck and body black: nails slat, but pointed, at the ends: no tail.

MANNERS.

The largest of the genus being three feet and a half high its note is that like a child's crying. Is a very gentle animal: when taken young, it is trained for the chace as dogs are. Inhabits Madagascar, where it is called Indri, or Man of the Wood.

148. LORIS.

Arimalculum cynocephalum, ceilonicum, Tardigradum dictum, simii species. Sub. Muf. i. 55. tab. xxxv.

Le Loris. De Buffon, xiii. 2 10. tab. xxx. Schreber, 162. tab. xxxviii; LEV. MUS.

M. with a produced dog-like visage: forehead high above the nose: ears large, thin, and rounded: body slender and weak: limbs very long and slender: thumb on each foot more distinct, and separate from the toes; on that, and the three outmost toes, are flat nails: on the interior toe of every foot a crooked claw: no tail: the hair on the body universally short, and delicately soft: the color on the upper part tawny; beneath whitish: space round the eyes dusky: on the head is a dart shaped spot, with the end pointing to the interval between the eyes.

MANNERS.

Length from the tip of the nose to the anus only eight inches.

It differs totally in form and in nature from the preceding. Notwithstanding the epithet of Sloth given in Seba, it is very

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active, ascends trees most nimbly; has the actions of an ape. If we credit Seba, the male climbs the trees, and tastes the fruits before it presents them to its mate.

149. WOOLLY.

Macassar fox. Nieuhoss voy. 361. Chitote, Barbot. 560.

Vary (l). Flacourt, hist Madag. 153.

Simia-sciurus lanuginosus suscus. Petiv. Gaz. tab. xvii.

The Mongooz. Edw. 216.

Prosimia fusca. Pr fusca, naso pedibusque albis. Pr. fusca. ruso admixta facie nigra, pedibus fulvis. Brisson quad. 150, 157.

Lemur Mongooz. L. caudatas giseus, cauda unicolore. Lin. syst. 44.

Le Mongooz. De Buffon, xiii. 174. tab. xxvi. Schreber, 166, tab, xxxix. LEV. MUS.

M. with orange-colored irides: short rounded ears: end of the nose black: eyes lodged in a circle of black: the space between them of the same color: rest of the nose and lower sides of the cheeks white: when in full health, the whole upper part of the body covered with long, soft, and thick fur, a little curled or waved, of a deep brownish ash-color: tail very long, covered with the same sort of hair, and of the same color: breast and belly white: hands and feet naked, and dusky: nails slat, except that of the inner toe of the hind feet: size of a cat: varies, sometimes with white or yellow paws, and with a face wholly brown.

Inhabits Madagascar, and the adjacent isles: sleeps on trees r turns its tail over its head to protest it from rain *: lives on fruits:, is very sportive and good-natured: very tender: found as far as Celebes or Macassar. This is the species M. Sonnerat calls

* Cauche, voy. Madagasar, 53.

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Maquis a bourres, vol. ii. p. 143; but his figure is not by any means accurate. Linnæus confounds this with Mr. Edwards's black maucauco, our 151st.

150. RING-TAIL.

Vari. Flacovrt, hist. Madag. 153.

Mocawk. Grose's voy. 41.

Maucauco. Edw. 197.

Prosimiacincrea, cauda cincta annulis alternatim albis et nigris. Brisson quad. 157. Shaw, Spec. Lin. vi.

Lemur Catta. L. caudatus. cauda albo nigroque annulata. Lin. syst. 45. Oβck's voy. ii. 168.

Le Mococo. De Buffon, xiii. 173. tab. xxii. Schreler, 172. tab. xli. LEV. MUS.

M. with the end of the nose black: ears erect: white face: black circles round the orbits: hair on the top of the head and hind part, deep ash-color: back and sides reddish ash-color: outsides of the limbs paler: belly and inside of the limbs white: all its hair very soft, close, and fine, erect like the pile of velvet: tail twice the length of the body; is marked with numbers of regular rings of black and white; and when sitting, is twisted round the body, and brought over its head: nails slat, particularly those of the thumbs of the hind feet: inside of the hands and feet black: size of a cat.

Inhabits Madagascar and the neighboring isles: is very good-natured, has all the life of a monkey, without its mischievous disposition: is very cleanly: its cry weak: in a wild state, goes in troops of thirty or forty: is easily tamed when taken young: according to Flacourt, sometimes found white; Cauche in his voyage to Madagafcar* also speaks of a white kind, which he says grunts like swine, and is called there Amboimeres.

* P. 53.

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151. RUFFED.

Vari, ou Varicossi. Flacourt, hist. Madag, 153. Cauche, voy. 53.

Black Maucauco. Edw. 217.

Le Vari. De Buffon, xiii. 174. tab, xvii. Schreber, 171. tab. xl.

Lemur caudatus niger, collari barbato Lin. syst. 44.

M. with orange-colored irides: long hair round the sides of the head, standing out like a ruff: tail long: the color of the whole animal black, but not always, being sometimes white, spotted with black; but the feet black: rather larger than the last

Inhabits Madagascar: very fierce in a wild slate; and makes so violent a noise in the woods, that it is easy to mistake the noise of two for that of a hundred: when tamed are very gentle and good natured. The hind thighs and legs of these three species are very long, which makes their pace sideling, and bounding.

Le Tarsier. de Buffon, xiii. 87. tab. ix. LEV. MUS.

152. TARSIER.

M. with a pointed visage; slender nose, bilobated at the end: eyes large and prominent: ears erect, broad, naked, semitransparent; an inch and a half long: between them, on the top of the head, is a tuft of long hairs: on each side of the nose, and on the upper eye-brow, are long hairs.

In each jaw are two cutting and two canine teeth; which form an exception in this genus.

Four long slender toes, and a distinct thumb, on each foot: the lower part of each tuberous: the claws sharp-pointed but (except on the two interior toes of the hind feet) are attached to

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the skin: the thumbs of the hind feet are broad, and greatly dilated at their ends: hairs on the legs and feet short, white, and thin; tail almost naked: the greater part round and scaly, like that of a rat; but grows hair towards the end, which is tusted.

The penis pendulous; scrotum and testicles of a vast size, in proportion to the animal: hair foft, but not curled: of an ash-color, mixed with tawny.

Length from note to tail near fix inches; to the hind toes eleven and a half, the hind legs, like those of the jerboa, being of a great length: the tail nine inches and a half long. Described from two fine specimens in the cabinet of Doctor Hunter.

Inhabits the remotest islands of India, especially Amboina. Is called by the Macassars, Podje *.

153. BICOLOR.

Miller's plates, tab. xiii. Lemur bicolor, Gm. Lin. 44.

M. with a large white heart-shaped spot between the ears, pointing downwards: face, nose, back, and fides, almost as low as the belly, black: breast, shoulders, legs, rest of the fides, and belly, white: tail much longer than the body, thickest at the end, black: limbs strong: toes long and slender: nails long, strait, and very slender; feet an exception to the genus. Inhabits South America.

154. MURINE.

Miller's plates, xxxii. fig. ii. Lemur murinus, Gm. Lin. 44.

M. with head and body of an elegant light grey: inside of the ears white: orbits rufous: tail far exceeds the body in

* Pallas.

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length; bushy at the end, and of a bright rust color: nails flat and rounded: size about twice that of a mouse.

PLACE.

Inhabits Madagascar, very nearly allied to the next: may only differ in sex.

155. LITTLE

Brown's Illustr. of Zoology, 108. tab. xliv.

M. with a rounded head, sharp nose, long whiskers; two canine teeth in each jaw; four cutting teeth in the upper jaw; fix in the lower: seven grinders on each side; the nearest sharp, the more distant lobated: the ears large, roundish, naked, and membranaceous: eyes very large and full.

The toes long, of unequal lengths; the ends round: nails round, and very short; that of the first toe strait, sharp, and long: tail hairy, of the length of the body, and is prehensile.

Color of the upper part cinereous; of the lower white; space round the eyes dark.

Rather less than the black rat.

Described from the living animal, in possession of MARMADUKE TUNSTAL, Esq.

This seems to be the same animal, which M. de Buffon calls Le Rat de Madagascar*. It is supposed to live in the palm-trees, and feed on fruits. It eats, holding its food in its fore feet, like squirrels; is lively, and has a weak cry; when it sleeps, rolls it self up.

* Supplem. iii. 149. tab. xx.

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156. FLYING.

Vespertilio admirabilis. Bontius Java, 68.

Felis volans Ternatana. Seb. Mus. i. tab. lviii.

Lemur volans. L. caudatus, membrane ambiente volitans. Lin. syst. 45. Schreber, 175. tab. xliii. LEV. MUS.

Galcopithecus Act. Acad. Petrop. 1780. p. 208. tab. vii.

M. with a long head: small mouth: small ears, round and membranous. No fore teeth in the upper jaw: six in the lower; short, broad, and elegantly pectinated, and distant from each other. From the neck to the hands, thence to the hind feet, extends a broad skin, like that of a flying squirrel; the same is also continued from the hind feet to the tip of the tail, which is included in it: the body and outside of this skin is covered with soft hairs, hoary or black, and ash-color; in adults the back is hoary, crossed transversely with black lines. The inner side of the extended skin appears membranous, with little veins and fibres dispersed thro it: the legs are cloathed with a soft yellow down: five toes on each foot: the claws thin, broad, very sharp, and crooked, by which it strongly adheres to whatsoever it fattens on: the whole length of this species is near three feet; the breadth of the same: the tail slender: a span long.

Inhabits the country about Guzarat, the Molucca isles, and the Philippines: feeds on the fruits. Inhabits trees entirely. In defending from the top to a lower part it spreads its membranes, and balances itself to the place it aims at in a gentle manner; but in ascending uses a leaping pace. It has two young, which adhere to its breasts by its mouth and claws.

It is called by the Indians, Caguang, Colugo, and Gigua.

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DIV. II. SECT. II. Digitated Quadrupeds.

With large canine teeth, separated from the cutting teeth.

Six, or more cutting teeth, in each jaw.

Rapacious: carnivorous.

XVII. DOG.

Six cutting teeth, and two canine, in each jaw.

Five toes before; four behind*.

Long visage.

157. FAITHFUL.

D. with its tail bending towards the left: a character common to the whole species; first observed by Linnœus.

Several beautiful varieties in the LEVERIAN MUSEUM.

The predominant passion of the whole race towards an attachment to mankind, prevents these animals from separating themselves from us till deserted, or by some accident left in places where there was no possibility of re-union: it seems beyond the power of ill usage to subdue the faithful and constant qualities inherent in them. Found in great numbers wild, or rather without matters, in Congo, Lower Æthiopia, and towards the Cape of Good Hope†: are red-haired: have slender bodies, and turned-up tails,

* Invariable in the wild species, such as wolf, &c.; in the common dogs, ofttimes five toes on each foot.

Churchill's coll. voy. v. 486. Kolben's bist. Cape, ii, 106, 107.

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like grehounds; others resemble hounds: they are of various colors, have erect ears, and are of the size of a large fox-hound. Destroy cattle, and hunt down antelopes as our dogs do the stag *, and are very destructive to the animals of chace: they run very swiftly; have no certain residence; are very seldom killed; being so crafty as to shun all traps: and of so sagacious notes as to avoid every thing that has been touched by man. Their whelps are sometimes taken; but grow so excessively fierce when they grow old, that they never can be domesticated.

They go in great packs: attack lions, tigers, and elephants, but are often killed by them: the fight of these dogs pleasing to travellers, who suppose they have conquered the wild beasts, and secured their journey, by driving them away. Attack the sheep of the Hottentots, and commit great ravages among them.

Multitudes wild in South America: derived from the European race. Breed in holes, like rabbetholes†: when found young, instantly attach themselves ‡ to mankind; nor will they ever join themselves to the wild dogs; or desert their matters: these have not forgot to bark ║, as Linnœus says: look like a grehound §: have erect ears: are very vigilant: excellent in the chace.

The dog unknown in America before it was introduced there

* Masson, in Ph. Trans. Ixvi. 278.

† Narrative of the distresses of Isaac Morris, &c. belonging to the Wager floreship, belonging to Commodore Anson's squadron, p. 27.

‡ The same, p. 28.

║ The same, p. 37.

§ As appears from a drawing communicated to me by Mr. Greenwood, painter, who took it from one that followed an Indian to Surinam from the inland part of the ceuntry.

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by the Europeans: the Alco of the Peruvians, a little animal, which they were so fond of, and kept as a lap-dog, is too flightly mentioned by A-Costa for us to determine what it was: and the figure given by Hernandez* too rude to form any judgment of: the other animal described by Hernandez is a large species, he calls it Xoloitzicuintli, the same name that is given by the first to the Mexican wolf†, as it is certain that the dog of N. America, or rather its substitute, on its first discovery by the English, was derived from the ‡wolf, tamed and domesticated; so it is reasonable to imagine that of S. America had the same origin. These substitutes cannot bark, but betray their savage descent by a sort of howl: want the fagacity of a true dog; ferve only to drive the deer into corners: the wolfish breed to this day detected║ by European dogs, who worry them on all occasions, retaining that dislike which it is well known all dogs have to the wolf. These reclamed breed are commonly white: have sharp noses, and upright ears.

The dog subject to more variety than any other animal; each will mix with the other, and produce varieties still more unlike the original stock. That of the old world is with great reason supposed to be the Schakal, to which article the reader is referred. From the tamed offspring, again casually croffed with the Wolf, the Fox, and even the Hyœana, has arisen the numberless forms and sizes of the canine race §. M. de Buffon, who with great ingenuity has given a genealogical table of all the known dogs, makes the Chien de Berger, the shepherd's dog, or what is sometimes

* Hernandez, 466.

Hernandez, 470.

Smith's hist. Virginia, 27.

Catesby Carolina, ii. A pp. xxvi.

§ Pallas ohs, sur la formation des Montagnes, &c. 15.

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called Le Cbien loup, or the wolf dog, the origin of all, because it is naturally the most sensible; becomes, without discipline, almost instantly the guardian of the flocks; keeps them within bounds, reduces the stragglers to their proper limits, and defends them from the attacks of the wolves. We have this variety in England, but it is small and weak. Those of France and the Alps are very large and strong; sharp-nosed, erect, and sharp-eared; very hairy, especially about the neck, and have their tails turned up or curled; and, by accident, their faces often shew the marks of their combats with the wolf.

I shall follow M. de Buffon, in the catalogue of dogs; but add some few remarks, with the synonyms of a few other writers, to each variety.

I. SHEPHERD'S Dog, Le Chien de Berger. De Buffon*, v. 201. tab. xxviii. Canis domesticus. Raii syn. quad. Lin. syst.

* The English reader will find all the varieties well described and engraven in vol. iv. of Mr. Smellie's translation of this author.
Notwithstanding M. de Buffon denies the junction of the wolf and bitch, yet there has been an instance to the contrary. Mr. Brook, animalmerchant, in Holborn, turned a wolf to a Pomeranian bitch in heat: the congress was immediate, and as usual between dog and bitch: (he produced ten puppies. I have seen one of them, at Gordon Castle, that had very much the resemblance of a wolf, and much of its nature; being slipped at a weak deer, it instantly caught at the animal's throat and killed it. I could not learn whether this mongrel continued its species: but 'another of the same kind did; and flocked the neighborhood of Fochabers, in the county of Murray (where it was kept) with a multitude of curs of a most wolfish aspect.
There was lately living a mongrel offspring of this kind. It greatly resembled its wolf parent. It was first the property of Sir Wolfian Dixey: afterwards of Sir Willughby AJlon. During day it was very tame; but at night sometimes relapsed into ferocity. It never barked; but rather howled: when it came into fields where sheep were, it would seign lameness, but if no one was present, would instantly attack them. It had been seen in copulation with a bitch, which afterwards pupped: the breed was imagined to resemble in many respects the supposed fire. It died between the age of five and six.
The bitch will also breed with the fox. The woodman of the manor of Monge-well, in Oxfordshire, has a bitch, which constantly follows him, the offspring of a tame dog fox by a shepherd's cur: and she again has had puppies by a dog. Since there are such authentic proofs of the further continuance of the breed, we may surely add the wolf and fox to other supposed flocks of these faithful domstics.

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Its varieties, or nearest allies, are,

α POMERANIAN Dog, Le Chien Loup. De Buffon, tab. xxix.

β SIBERIAN Dog, Le Chien de Siberie, tab. xxx. which is a variety of the former, and very common in Russia. The other varieties, in the inland parts of the Empire and Siberia, are chiefly from the shepherd's dog: and there is a high-limbed taper-bodied kind, the common dog of the Calmuc and independent Tartars, excellent for the chace, and all uses.

II. Hound, or dog with long, smooth, and pendulous ears. Le Chien courant, p. 205, tab. xxxii. Canis venaticus fagax. Raii syn. quad. 177. Canis sagax. Lin. syst. 57. This is the same with the blood-hound. Br. Zool. i. 51. and is the head of the other kinds with smooth and hanging ears.

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α HARRIER. Le Braque, tab. xxxiii.

β DALMATIAN *. Le Braque de Bengal, tab. xxxiv. a beautiful spotted kind, vulgarly called the Danish dog.

γ Turnspit. Le Baffet a jambes torfes—a jambes droitcs, tab. xxxv.

δ WATER-dog, great and small. Le grand and le petit Barbet, tab. xxxvii. xxxviii. Canis aviarius aquaticus. Raii syn. quad. 177. Lin. syst. 57.

From N° II. branches out another race of dogs, with pendent ears, covered with long hairs, and lefs in size, which form

III. SPANIEL. Canis aviarius, five Hispanicus campestris, Raii syn. quad. 177. Canis avicularius? Lin. syst. 57. These vary in size, from the setting-dog to the springing spaniels, and some of the little lap-dogs, such as

α KING CHARLES'S †. Le Gredin, tab. xxxix. fig. 1.

* I have been informed, that Dalmatia is the country of this elegant dog. As for those of India, they are generally small and very ugly; or, if the European dogs are brought there, they immediately degenerate.

† CHARLES II. never went out, except attended by numbers of this kind.

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β. PYRAME. Le Pyrame, tab. xxxxx. fig. 2. There is no English name for this kind: they are black, marked on the legs with red: and above each eye is a spot of the same color.

γ. SHOCK. Le Chien de Malte ou Bichon, lab. xl. fig. &c Lc Chien Lion, fig. 2. Catulns melitaus canis getulus, feu Islan dicus. Raii syn. quad. 177. Lin. Syst. 57.

IV. Dogs with short pendent ears: long legs and bodies: of which kind is the

α. Irish GRE-HOUND. A variety once very frequent in Ireland, and used in the chace of the wolf: now very scarce: a dog of great size and strength. Le Matin *. De Buffon, tab. xxv. Canis graius Hibernicus. Raii syn. quad. 176.

β. COMMON GRE-HOUND. Le Levrier. De Buffon, xxvii. Schreber, Ixxxvii. Canis venations graius. Raii syn. quad. 176. Canis graius. Lin. syst. 57. Its varieties are, 1. ITALIAN GRE-HOUND, small, and smooth: 2. Oriental, tall, slender, with very pendulous ears, and very long hairs on the tail, hanging down a great length.

γ. DANISH DOG. Le grand Danois. De Buffon, xxvi. of a stronger make than a gre-hound: the largest of dogs: perhaps of this kind were the dogs of Epirus, mentioned by Aristotle, lib. iii. c. 21; or those of Albania, the modern Schirwan, or East Georgia, fo beautifully described by Pliny, Lib. viii. c. 40.

* Not the mastiff, as commonly translated.

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Indiam petentl Alexandro magno, rex Albania dono dederat inusitatrs magnitudinis unum; [seil. Canem] cujus specie delectatus, jussit ursos, mox apros, et deinde damas emicti contemptu immobili jacente. Eaque fegnitie tanti corporis offensus Imperator generosi spiritus, eum interimi jussit. Nuntiavit hoc Fama Regi. Itaque alterum mittens addidit mandata, re in parvis experiri vellet, fed in leone, elephantove. Duos sibi fuisse: hoc interempto, praeterea nullum fore. Nec diftulit Alexander, leonemque fractum protinus vicit. Postea elephantum jussit induci, haud alio magis spectaculo lætatus. Horrentibus quippe per totum corpus villis, ingenti primum latratu intonuit. Mox ingruit assultans, contraque belluam exurgens hinc & illinc, artisici dimicatione, qua maxime opus esset, insestans atque evitans, donec assidua rotarum vertigine asslixit, ad casum ejus tellure concussa.

Perhaps to this head may be referred the vast dogs of Tbibet, said by Marco Polo to be as big as asses, and used in that country to take wild beasts, and especially the wild oxen called Beyamini *.

δ. MASTIFF. Very strong and thick made: the head large: the lips great, and hanging down on each side: a fine and noble countenance: grows to a great size: a British kind. For a further account of this and other British dogs, vide Br. Zool. i. 49. Le Dogue de forte race. De Buffon, tab. xiv. Maftivus. Raii syn. quad. 176. Canis molossus. Lin. syst. 57.

V. Dogs with short pendent ears j short compact bodies: short noses: and generally short legs.

α. BULL-DOG: with a short nose, and under jaw longer than the upper: a cruel and very fierce kind, often biting before it barks: peculiar to England: the breed scarcer than it has been,

* Purchas, iii. 90.

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since the barbarous custom of bull-baiting has declined. Lc Dogue. De Buffon, tab. xliii.

β. PUG DOG. A small species: an innocent resemblance of the last. Le Doguin. De Buffon, tab. xliv.

γ. BASTARD PUG. Le Roquet. De Buffon, xli. fig. 2.

δ. NAKED. Le chien Turc. De Buffon, xiii. a degenerate species, with naked bodies; having lost its hair by the heat of climate.

DOGS OF THE SEA ISLANDS.

Dogs (brought originally from New Guinea)*, are found in the Society Islands, New Zeland, and the Low Islands: there are also a few in New Holland. Of these are two varieties.

EATEN THERE.

I. Resembling the sharp-nosed pricked-ear shepherd's cur. Those of New Zealand are of the largest sort. In the Society Islands they are common food, and are flattened with vegetables, which the natives cram down their throats, as we serve turkies, which they will voluntarily eat no more. They are killed by strangling, and the extravasated blood is preserved in Coconut shells, and baked for the table. They grow very fat, and are allowed, even by Europeans who have got over their prejudices, to be very sweet and palatable.

FLESH OF DOGS EATEN BY THE ANTIENTS.

But the taste for the flesh of these animals was not confined to the islanders of the Pacific Ocean. The antients reckoned a young and fat dog excellent food, especially if it had been castrated †; Hippocrates placed it on a footing with mutton and pork ‡: and in another place says, that the flesh or a grown dog is wholesome and strengthening; of puppies (if I take him right)

* See this edition under title Hog.

† Gln, lib. iii. de Alim, facult. c. II.

‡ De intern. affeft. Sect. v.

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relaxing*. The Romans admired fucking puppies: they sacrificed them also to their divinities, and thought them a supper in which the Gods themselves delighted †.

2. The Barbet, whose hair being long and silky, is greatly valued by the New Zelanders for trimming their ornamental dress. This variety is not eaten. The islanders never use their dogs for any purposes but what we mention; and take such care of them as not to suffer them even to wet their feet. They are excessively stupid, have a very bad nose for smelling, and seldom or never bark, only now and then howl. The New Zelanders feed their dogs entirely with fish

The Marquesas, Friendly Islands, New Hebrides, New Caledonia, and Easter Isle, have not yet received those animals.

‡ The most faithful of animals: is the companion of mankind: fawns at the approach of its master: will not suffer any one to strike him: runs before him in a journey; often passing backward and forward over the same ground: on coming to cross-ways, stops and looks back: very docile: will find out what is dropt: watchful by night: announces the coming of strangers: guards any goods committed to its charge: drives cattle home from the field: keeps herds and flocks within bounds: protects them from wild beasts: points out to the sportsman the game, by virtue of its acute sense of smelling: brings the birds that are shot to its master: will turn a spit: at Brussels and in Holland draws little carts to the herb-market: in Siberia draws a fledge with its master in it, or loaden with provisions: fits up

* De Diæt. et facult. lib. ii.

Plin. bist. lib. xxix. c. iv.

‡ This part is almost entirely translated from Linnœus

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and begs*: when it has committed a thest, slinks away with its tail between its legs: eats enviously, with oblique eyes: is master among its fellows: enemy to beggars: attacks strangers without provocation †: fond of licking wounds: cures the gout and can-

* The French Academicians record a marvellous tale of a dog that could speak, and call for tea, coffee, and chocolate.

† This part of the nature of dogs is so elegantly expressed by Theocritus, that the reader will not be displeased with the reference, and the translation by the Rev. Mr. Fawkes, giving an account of the instinct of the old herdsman's dogs at the approach of Hercules.

Τες δεχυνες πξοσιουας αποπξοτΤεν ανψ' ενοησαν,
Αμϕοτεξον οδμη τε χξοος, δπω τε οδοιν.
Θεσπεσιονυ υλογλες επε ξαμον αλλοθεγ αλλ
ΑμΦιγξι γιαογ Ηξαχχε τογ δ εγεξ γτα
Αχεγογ χλαζογτε Ωεξττα γογ θετεξωθεγ.
Τς μενο ΓεΚ εταπο χΒονης οτογ χξων,
Φπεν μεν αψ οπισω δεδσσεΤο Τχχοα φωνπ
Ηπελει μαλατ χπν, εχητνοαχε διλΓμ
Χακωγ εν φξσιν,οθνχξγαυλιυε υτο
Αυεγπο εδο Τοιογ εειπεγ
Ωοπο, ογ Τεο εο εοιηααξvεξ
Θηξιον χνθξποιοι μειεμμναι ωζ επιμηθεζ.
Ει οι χαιφενεζ ωδε νοημονεζ ενδοθεν ησαν,
Ηδε δ ωε χξη χαλεπαινεμεν, ε χαι χ,
Ουχ αν τοι γξωνΤιζ εδ ξ σενζεεξ ττεχασμ
Νυν δε λιηγ ζαχοογ τε ννινεγεζ γε νε ν ωζ.

Ηα' χαι εσσυμεγωζ ωοπ ταυλιογ ιζον λογ εζ.

I.lyl. xxv. ν. 68

The watchful dogs, as near the stalls they went,
Perceiv'd their coming by their tread and scent,
With open mouths from every part they run,
And bay'd incessant great Amphitryon's son;
But round the swain they wagg'd their tails and play'd,
And gently whining, secret joy betray'd;
Loose in the ground the Hones that ready lay Eager he (hatch'd, and drove the dogs away;
With his rough voice he terrify'd them all,
Though pleas'd to find them guardians of his stall.
Ye GODS! (the good old herdsman thus began)
What useful animals are dogs to man !
Had Heav'n but sent intelligence to know
On whom to rage, the friendly or the foe,
No creature then could challenge honour more;
But now too furious and too fierce they roar.'
He spoke, the growling mastives ceas'd to bay,
And Hole obsequious to their stalls away.

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cers: howls at certain notes in music, and often urines on hearing them: bites at a stone slung at it: is sick at the approach of bad weather: gives itself a vomit by eating grass: is afflicted with tape-worms: spreads its madness: grows blind with age: sœpe gonorrhaea infectus: driven as unclean from the houses of the Mahometans; yet the same people establish hospitals for them, and allow them a daily dole of food: eats flesh, carrion, farinaceous vegetables, not greens: fond of rolling in carrion: dungs on a stone; its dung the greaest of septics: drinks by lapping: makes water side-ways, with its leg held up; very apt to repeat it where another dog has done the same: odorat annm alterius: menstruans caulic cum variis; mordet illa illos; cohœret copula junctus. Goes 63 days with young; brings from four to ten; the males like the dog, females like the bitch: its scent exquisite: goes obliquely: foams when hot, and hangs out its tongue: scarce sweats: about to lie down, often goes round the spot: its sleep attended with a quick sense of hearing: dreams.

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Stockdale's Bot. Bay, 274. White's, 280.

158. NEW HOLLAND.

D. with short erect sharp-pointed ears: a fox like head; color of the upper part of the body pale brown; grows lighter towards the belly; hind part of the fore legs, and fore part of the hind legs, white: feet of both of the same color: tail very bushy: length about two feet and a half: of the tail not a third of that of the body: height about two feet.

PLACE.

MANNERS.

Inhabits New Holland, and seems the unreclamed dog of the country. Two have been brought alive to England; are excessively fierce, and do not shew any marks of being brought to a state of domesticity. It laps like other dogs; but neither barks or growls, when provoked; but erects its hair like bristles, and seems quite furious. Is eager after its prey; and is fond of rabbets and fowls, but will not touch dressed meat: is very agile: It once seized on a fine French Dog by the loins, and would have foon destroyed it had not help been at hand. It leaped with great ease on the back of an ass, and would have worried it to death had not the ass been relieved, for it could not disengage itself from the assailant. It was known to run down deer and sheep.

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159. WOLF.

Lupus. Gesner quad. 634. Raii syn. quad. 173.

Wolf. Klein quad 69. Kram. Aust. 313.

Canis ex griseo slavescens. Brisson quad. 170.

Canis Lupus. C. cauda incurvata. Lin. syst. 58.

Warg, Ulf. Faun. stec. No. 6.

Le Loup. De Buffon, vii. 39. tab. i.

Wolf. Br. Zool. 1. 62. lab. 5. Schreber, lxxxviii. LEV. MUS.

D with a long head: pointed nose: ears erect and sharp: tail bushy, bending down; the tip black: long leg'd: hair pretty long: teeth large: head and neck cinereous: body generally pale-brown, tinged with yellow; sometimes found white*: taller than a large grehound. In Canada sometimes black: and called by Linnaus, Canis Lycaon.

PLACE.

EUROPE.

Inhabits the continents of Europe, Asia, and America; Kamtschatka, and even as high as the Arctic circle. Is unknown in Africa, notwithstanding M. Adanson† speaks of it familiarly. The French and other naturalists mistake the Hyœna for this animal. Has been long extirpated in Great Britain‡. The last wolf which was known in this island, was killed in Scotland in 1680, by the famous Sir Ewen Cameron, according to the tradition of the country. I have travelled into almost eveiy corner of that country; but could not learn that there remained even the memory of those animals among the oldest people. In Ireland they continued longer; for one was killed in that island in 1710, when the last pre-

* Such are found near the Jenesea, and sold to the Russians on the spot for twenty shillings a skin. Muller Ruff. Samlung. iii. 527, 529.

† P. 209.

‡ M. de Buffon must have been greatly misinformed on this point. Les Anglois pretèndent on avcir purge leur isle, cependant on m'a assure qu'il yen avoit en Ecosse, vii. 50.

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sentment for killing of wolves was made in the county of Cork*. In 1281, I find that they infested several of the English counties †; but after that period, our records make no mention of them. The vast forests on the continent of Europe will always preserve them.

AMERICA.

The wolves of N. America the smallest; when reclamed, are the dogs of the natives.

MANNERS.

Are cruel, but cowardly animals: fly from man, except pressed by hunger, when they prowl by night in vast droves thro' villages, and destroy any persons they meet: such as once get the taste of human blood, give it the preference: such were the wolves of the Gevaudan, of which so many strange tales were told: the French peasants call this Loup-garou, and suppose it to be possessed with some evil spirit: such was the Were Wulf of the old Saxon ‡. The wolf preys on all kinds of animals; but in case of necessity will feed on carrion: in hard weather assemble in vast troops, and join in dreadful howlings: horses generally defend themselves against their attacks; but all weaker animals fall a prey to them: throughout France the peasants are obliged nightly to house their flocks. Wolves are most suspicious animals; fally forth with great caution: have a fine scent; hunt by nose: are capable of bearing long abstinence: to allay their hunger will fill their bellies with mud: a mutual enmity subsists between dogs and them: are in heat in winter; followed by several males, which occasions great combats: goes with young ten weeks: near her time, prepares a soft bed of moss, in some retired place: brings from five to nine at a birth: the young born blind: teeth

* Smith's hist. Cork, ii. 226.

Rymer's Fad. ii. 168.

Verslegan's Antiq, 236.

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of the wolf large and sharp: its bite terrible, as its strength is great: the hunters therefore clothe their dogs, and guard their necks with spiked collars. Wolves are proscribed animals: destroyed by pit-falls, traps, or poison: a peasant in France, who kills a wolf, carries its head thro' the villages, and collects some small reward from the inhabitants: the Kirghis-Kkaissacks take the wolves by the help of a large fort of hawk called Berkut, which is trained for the diversion, and will fallen on them and tear out their eyes*.

160. MEXICAN.

MEXICAN WOLF. Xoloitzcuintli. Hernandez Mex. 479.

Cuetlatchtli, seu lupus Indicus. Hernandez An Nov Hisp. 7.

Canis cinereus, maculis sulvis variegatus, tæniis subnigris a dorso ad latera deorfum hinc inde deductis. Brisson quad. 172.

Canis Mexicanus. C cauda deslexa Iævi, corporec iereo, suscis, fulcis, maculisque sulvis variegito. Lin. syst. 60.

Le Loup de Mexique. De Buffon, xv. 149.

D. with a very large head: great jaws: vast teeth: on the upper lips very strong brittles, reflected backwards, not unlike the softer spines of a porcupine; and of a grey and white color: large, erect, cinerous ears, the space between marked with broad tawny spots: the head ash-colored, striped transversely with bending dusky lines: neck fat and thick, covered with a loose skin, marked with a long tawny stroke: on the breast is another of the same kind; body ash-colored, spotted with black; and the sides striped, from the back downwards, with the same color: belly cinereous: tail long, of the color of the

* Ritchkoss Topog. Orenb. i. 282.

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belly, tinged in the middle with tawny: legs and feet striped with black and ash-color: sometimes this variety (for Hernandez, who has described the animals of Mexico, thinks it no other) is found white.

Inhabits the hot parts of Mexico, or New Spain: agrees with the European wolf in its manners: attacks cattle, and sometimes men. No wolves found farther south, on the new continent.

161. Fox.

Vulpes. Gesner quad. 966. Raii syn. quad. 177.

Fuchs. Klein quad. 73. Msycr's Aa. i. tab. 36.

Canis vulpes. C. cauda refta apice albo. Lin. syst. 59. Hasselquist, itin. 191.

Raef. Faun. suec. No. 7.

Canis fulvus, pilis cinereis intermixes. Buffon quad. 173.

Le Renard. De Buffon, vii. 75. tab. vi.

Fox. Br. Zool. i. 58. LEV. MUS.

D. with a sharp nose: lively hazel eyes: sharp erect ears: body tawny red, mixed with ash-color: fore part of the legs black: tail long, strait, bushy, tipt with white: subject to much variety in color.

α FOX: with the tip of the tail black. Canis alopex, vulpes campeftris. Lin. syst. 59.

β CROSS FOX: with a black mark, passing transversely from shoulder to shoulder; and another along the back, to the tail. Vulpes crucigera. Gesner quad. 90. Jonston quad. i. 93. Schaser Lapl. 135. Hist. Kamtschatka. 95. Klein quad. 71.

Le Renard croise. Brisson quad. 173. De Buffon, xiii. 276.

Korsraef. Faun. suec. p. 4.

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Inhabits the coldest parts of Europe, Asia, and North America: a valuable fur; thicker and softer than the common sort: great numbers of the skins imported from Canada. Not a variety of the Isatis or Arctic fox.

γ. BLACK FOX. The most cunning of any: and its skin the most valuable; a lining of it estemmed in Russia preferable to that of the finest fables: a single skin will fell for 40a rubles. Inhabits the northern parts of Asia, and N. America: the last of inferior goodness.

δ. BRANT FOX. That described by Gefner* and Linnæus† is of a fiery redness; and called by the first Brand-suschs, by the last Brandraes: one that was the property of Mr. Brook, was scarcely half the size of the common fox the nose black, and much sharper: space round the ears serruginous: forehead, back, shoulders, sides, and thighs, black, mixed with red, ash-color, and black; the ash-color predominated, which gave it a hoary look: the belly yellowish: tail black above, red beneath: cinereous on its fide. This Mr. Brook received from Pensylvania, under the name of Brant fox.

KARAGAN.

Allied to this is the Karagan, a small species very common in all parts of the Kirghisian deserts and Great Tartary.

Head yellowish above, reddish above the eyes: behind the whiskers is a black spot: ears black without; white within: exterior edge and base red, and near the base of that edge is a white

* Gesner quad. 967, who likewise says, it is less than the common kind.

Faun. suec. No. 7.

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spot: the color of the back and sides like a wolf; and the hair coarse in the same degree: between the shoulders is a dark spot, from which, along the back to the tail, extends a reddish or yellowish track: a deep grey or blackish space, mixed with white, covers the throat, and is continued over the breast and part of the belly; the rest of which is whitish.

A small kind, described to me by Doctor Pallas from the skins.

ζ. CORSAK FOX. Canis corsac. C. cauda fulva basi spiceque nigra. Lin. syst. iii. 223. Schreber, xci. B.

D. with upright ears: soft downy hair: tail bushy, the length of the body: throat white:sides yellowish green: color in summer pale tawny; in winter grey: hair coarser than that of the common fox: base and tip of the tail black; the rest cinereous: is a small species.

Inhabits the deserts beyond the Yaik; and from the Don to the Amur: lives in holes, and burrows deep: howls and barks: never found in woody places: caught by the Kirghis-Khaissacks, with falcons and gre-hounds: 40 or 50,000 are taken annually,, and sold to the Russians, at the rate of 40 Kopeiks, or 20 pence each. The former use their skins instead of money. Great numbers are sent into Turky*.

M. de Buffon confounds this with the Isatis, or Arctic Fox †.

* Ritchkoss Topogr. Orenb. i. 296.

† Suppl. iii. p. 113. tab. xvii.

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COMMON FOX inhabits all Europe, the cold and temperate parts of Asia, Barbary, but not the hotter parts of As abounds in N. America; and also found in S. America*: in all countries they have the same cunning disposition; the same ravages after prey; and commit the same ravages among game, birds, poultry, and the lesier quadrupeds: are very fond of honey; attack the wild bees and neils of wasps, for the sake of the maggots: will eat any sort of insects: devour fruit; and are very destructive in vineyards: bury what they cannot eat: fond of baking in the fun.

Lodge under ground; generally making use of a badger's hole, which they enlarge, adding several chambers, and never neglecting to form another hole to the surface to escape at, in cases of extremity: prey by night: females in heat in winter; bring five or six at a time; if the young are disturbed, will remove them one by one to a more secure place: their voice a yelp, not a bark: their bite, like that of the wolf, is very hard and dangerous: their scent excessively strong; the chace on that account more keen, more animating: when chased, first attempt to recover their hole, but finding that stopt, generally fly the country.

These animals are extremely common in the Holy Land† From the earliest to the present time, they were particularly noxious to the vineyards; "Take us the foxes, the little foxes that spoil the vines; for our vines have tender grapes "‡." Whether they were the species of which Sampson made use, to

* Garcilasso de la Vega says, that the foxes of Peru are much less than those of Spain, and are called Atoc. P. 331.

Hasselquist, Original 191. Transl. 184.

‡ Song of SOLOMON, ii. 15.

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destroy the corn of the Phillistines, is undecided. Since Schakals are found to this day in great abundance about Gaza*, it is much more probable, from their gregarious nature, that he could catch three hundred of them, than of the solitary quadruped the fox.

162. ARCTIC.

Vulpes alba. Jonston quad. 93.

Fox. Marten's Spitzberg. 10. Egede Greenl. 62. Cranlz Greenl. i. 72.

Ashen-colored Fox. Schœffer Lapland,135.

Canis Lagopus. C. caudata recta, apice concolore. Lin. syst. 59.

Fial racka. Faun fuec. No. 8.

Canis hieme alta, æstate ex cinereo cæsrulescens. Brisson quad 174. Scbreber, xciii.

Isatis. Nov. Com. Petrop v. 358. De Buffon, xiii. 271. Ash. Mus. LEV. MUS.

D. with a sharp nose: short rounded ears, almost hid in the fur: long and soft hair, somewhat woolly, and of a white color; sometimes pale cinereous: short legs: toes covered on all parts, like those of a hare, with fur: tail shorter than that of a common fox, and more bushy: hair much longer in winter than summer, as usual with animals of cold climates.

PLACE.

Inhabits the countries bordering on the frozen sea, as far as the land is destitute of woods, which is generally from 70 to 68 degrees latitude. The species extends to Kamtschatka, and in Bering's and Copper Islands, but in none of the other lslands between Kamtschatka and the opposite parts of America, discovered in Captain Bering's expedition, 1741; is again found in Greenland, Iceland, Spitzbergen, Nova Zembla, and Lapland: burrows.

* Hassalquist,

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underground; forms holes many feet in length; strews the bottom with moss; in Greenland and Spitzbergen, lives in the cliffs of rocks, not being able to burrow, by reason of the frost: two or three pair inhabit the same hole: are in heat about Lady-Day; during that time continue in the open air; afterwards take to their holes: go with young nine weeks: like dogs, continue united in copulation: bark like that animal; for which reasons the Russians call them Peszti or dogs: have all the cunning of the common fox: prey on the young of geese, ducks, and other water-fowl before they can fly; on grouse of the country, and hares; on the eggs of birds; and in Greenland (through necessity) on berries, shell-fish, or any thing the sea flings up: but their principal food in die North of Asia, and in Lapland, is the Leming: those of the countries last mentioned are very migratory, pursuing the Leming, a very wandering animal: sometimes these foxes will desert the country for three or four years, piobably in pursuit of their prey; for it is well known that the migrations of the Leming are very inconstant, appearing in certain countries only once in several years: the people of Jenesea suspect they go to the banks of the Oby Are taken in traps: oft-times the Glutton and Great owl destroy them, before the hunter can take them out: the skins of small value. The great rendezvous of these animals is on the banks of the frozen sea, and the rivers that flow into it, being found there in great troops. Molina found this species in Chili *,

* P. 253.

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163. SOOTY.

Arct, Zool. i. p. 90.

With a dusky fur on every part; in size and habit resembling the former.

A distinct species. Inhabits Iceland in great numbers. Communicated to me by John Thomas Stanley, Esq.

164. GREENLAND.

Arct. Zool. i. 91.

Above of a footy brown: ears rounded, white within: a white bed extends from each to the lower part of the throat, which, with the whole underside, and inside of the haunches, is white: tail white below, brown above; in one specimen the one half of the tail wholly white: beneath each eye a white spot: feet furred beneath. A very small species.

Inhabits Greenland. Bought by Mr. Stanley at Copenhagen.

165. ANTARCTIC.

Coyotl feu vulpes Indica,

Loup-renard. Wolf fox.

Hernandez Anim. Mex. 4.

Bougninville's voy. transt. 58.

D. with short pointed ears; their inside lined with white hairs: irides hazel: head and body cinereous brown: hair more woolly than that of the common fox, resembling much that of the arctic: legs dashed with rust-color: tail dusky, tipped with white; shorter and more bushy than that of the common fox, to which it is about one-third superior in size. It has much the habit of the wolf, in ears, tail, and strength of limbs. The French therefore call it Loup-renard, or Wolf-fox. It may be a wolf

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degenerated by climate. The largest are those of Europe: those of North America are still smaller. The Mexican wolves, which I apprehend to be this species, are again less; and this, which inhabits the Falkland isles, near the extremity of South America, is dwindled to the size described.

It is the only land animal of those distant isles: lives near the shores: kennels like a fox; and forms regular paths from bay to bay, probably for the conveniency of surprizing the water-fowl, on which it lives. It is at times very meager, for want of prey: is very tame; fetid, and barks like a dog.

The islands were probably flocked with those animals by means of islands of ice broken from the continent, and carried by the currents.

This description was taken from one brought to England when we possessed those antartic spots. The following seems only a variety of this species.

166. A. CULPEU.

Canis culpæus, Molina. Chili, 274.

D. with a strait tail, covered with short hair, like the domestic dog: color deep brown. In all respects of form resembles the fox, but is larger: length to the tail two feet and a half.

MANNERS.

Inhabits the open countries of Chili, in which it forms its boroughs. Its voice is feeble, but has some resemblance of barking. If it sees a man at a distance, will, march strait towards him; stop at a distance, and regard him attentively. If the man makes 110 movement, will remain long in the same situation, but with-

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out doing him the left harm, and then retires the same way it came. This Molina often had occasion to remark: for it never doing the same thing. This subjets it to the shot of the sports-men: the Chilians call it Culpeu from Culpem, which signifies folly.

This is certainly the same as the foregoing. Mr. Byron * found them in great numbers on Falkland isles. They constantly came running up to the men, which was mistaken for a design to attack them; which it does not appear these animals ever did.

167. SCHREBERIAN.

Canis cinereo-argenteus, Erxleb. 567. Schreber, tab. xcii. 4.

D. with its neck and sides tawny; ears tawny within, tipt with black: crown and back mixed with grey, black, and white: throat, breast, and belly, white: legs than the common fox. Inhabits North America. Possibly the young of the preceding.

168. GREY.

Grey fox. Smith's voy. Virginia, 27. Josselyn's voy. 81. Rarities, 21. Lawson's Carolina, 125. Catesby Carolina, i. 78.

Canis ex cinereo argenteus. Brisson quad. 174. Schreber, xci. xcii.

D. with a sharp nose: sharp, long, upright ears: legs long: color grey, except a little redness about the ears. Inhabits Carolina, and the warmer parts of N. America: differs from the arctic fox in form; and in the nature of its dwelling: agrees with the common fox in the first, varies from it in the last: never burrows; lives in hollow trees: gives no diversion to the sports-man, for after a mile's chace takes to its retreat: has no strong

* Voyage in Hawkesworth's coll. i. 49, 50.

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smell: seeds on poultry, birds, &c.: easily made tame: their skins, when in season, made use of for muffs.

169. SILVERY.

Le Renard argentè. Charlevoix Nouv. France, v. 196. Du Pratz, Louisian. ii. 64.

IN form resembling the common fox: abound in the wooded eminences in Louisiana, which are every where pierced with their holes: their coat very beautiful: the short hairs of a deep brown; over them spring long silvery hairs, which give the animal a very elegant appearance: they live in forests abounding, in game, and never attempt the poultry which run at large.

170. BENGAL.

D. of a light brown color: face cinereous, with a black stripe down the middle, and a white space round the eyes and middle of the jaws; with fulvous legs: tail tipt with black: a species scarcely half the size of the European fox.

Inhabits Bengal: feeds chiefly on roots and berries. The English, at a vast expence, import into India hounds for the purpose of the chace; which quickly degenerate.

171. BARBARY.

Le Chacal. De Buffon, Supplem. vi. 112. tat, xvi.

D. with a long and slender nose, sharp upright ears, long bushy tail: color a very pale brown: space above and below the eyes black: from behind each ear is a black line, which soon divides into two, which extend to the lower part of the neck: the tail surrounded with three broad rings: size of the common fox, but the limbs shorter, and the nose more slender.

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I had a drawing made from the skin of this animal, badly preserved, some years ago, in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, which I sent to M. de Buffon. He caused it to be engraven; and informs us that Mr. Bruce told him it was common in Barbary, where it was called Thaleb. Mr. Bruce should have given it a more distinguishing name; for Thaleb*, or Taaleb†, is no more than the Arabic name for the common fox, which is also frequent in that country.

172. SCHAKAL.

Adil, Squilachi, Grœc. modern. Belon, obs. 163.

Lupus Aureus. Kœmffer Aman. exot. 413. Raii syn. quad. 174. Klein quad. 70.

Canis aureus. Lin. syst. 59.

Canis flavus. Brisson. quad. 171.

Le Chacal & L'Adive. De Buffon, xiii. 255. Zimmerman, 361. Schreber, xciv. 472. LEV. MUS.

Schakali. Hist. Gueldenstaedt, in Nov. Com. Petrop. xx. 449. tab. xi.

Vaui, ou Benat el Vaui. Niebuhr deser; Arab. 146. LEV. MUS.

D. with yellowish brown irides; ears erect, formed like those of a fox, but shorter and less pointed: hairy and white within; brown without, tinged with dusky: head shorter than that of a fox, and nose blunter: lips black, and somewhat loose: neck and body very much resembling those of that animal, but the body more compressed: the legs have the same resemblance, but are longer: tail thickest in the middle, tapering to the point: five toes on the fore feet; the inner toe very short, and placed high: four toes on the hind feet; all are covered with hair even to the claws.

The hairs much stiffer than those of a fox, but scarcely for stiff

* Shaw's travels, 249.

Forskal's obf. p. III.

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as those of a wolf; short about the nose; on the back three inches long; on the belly shorter. Those at the end of the tail four inches long.

COLOR.

Color of the upper part of the body a dirty tawny; on the back mixed with black: lower part of the body of a yellowish white: tail tipt with black; the rest of the same color with the back: the legs of an unmixed tawny brown; the fore legs marked (but not always) with a black spot on the knees; but on no part are those vivid colors which could merit the title of golden, bellowed on it by Kœmpser.

I avoid in general the mention of the internal structure of animals, from a consciousness of my deficiency in that branch of science: but must here remark from Professor GUELDENSTAEDT, the able describer of this long-lost animal, that the cacum entirely agrees in form with that of a dog, and differs from that of the wolf and fox. I may add, that there is the same agreement in the teeth with those of a dog; and the same variation in them from those of the two other animals. I mention this, as it is an opinion with some writers, that the dogs of the old world did derive their origin from one or other of them.

SIZE.

The length of the Schakal, from the nose to the root of the tail, is little more than twenty-nine inches English: the tail, to the ends of the hairs, ten three quarters, the tip reaching to the top of the hind legs: the height, from the space between the shoulders to the ground, rather more than eighteen inches and a half; the hind parts a little higher.

PLACE.

Inhabits all the hot and temperate parts of Asia, India, Persia, Arabia, Great Tartary, and about Mount Caucasus, Syria, and the Holy-land. In most parts of Africa, from Barbary to the Cape of Good Hope.

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MANNERS.

They have so much the nature of dogs, as to give reasonable cause to imagine that they are (at left) the chief stock from which is sprung the various races of those domestic animals. When taken young, grow instantly tame; attach themselves to mankind; wag their tails; love to be stroked; distinguish their mailers from others: will come on being called by the name given to them; will leap on the table, being encouraged to it: drink lapping: make watersideways, with their leg held up. Their dung hard: odorat anum alterius, cohœet copula junctus. When they see dogs, instead of flying, seek them, and play with them*: will cat bread eagerly; notwithstanding it is in a wild state carnivorous: has a great resemblance to some of the Calmuc dogs, which perhaps were but a few descents removed from the wild kinds. Our dogs are probably derived from those reclamed in the first ages of the world; altered by numberless accidents into the many varieties which now appear among us. The wild Schakals go in packs of forty, fifty, and even two hundred, and hunt like hounds in full cry from evening to morning †. They destroy flocks and poultry, but in a less degree than the wolf or fox: ravage the streets of villages, and gardens near towns, and will even destroy children ‡ if left unprotected. They will enter stables and outhouses, and devour skins, or any thing made of that material: are bold thieves; will familiarly enter a tent, and steal whatsoever they can find from the sleeping traveller. In default of living prey, they will feed on roots and fruits; and even on the most infected carrion: will greedily dif-

* Nov. Com. Petrop. xx. 459. Pallas, Sp. Zool. sasc. xi. I.

Bellon obs. 163.

Dellon's voy. 81

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inter the dead*, and devour the putrid carcases; for which reason, in many countries, the graves are made of a great depth. They attend caravans, and follow armies, in hopes that death will provide them a banquet.

VOICE.

Their voice naturally is a howl. Barking is latently inherent; and in their state of nature seldom exerted: but its different modifications are adventitious, and expressive of the new passions and affections gained by a domestic state. Their howlings and clamours in the night are dreadful, and so loud that people can scarcely hear one another speak. Dellon says, their voice is like the cries of a great many children of different ages mixed together: when one begins to howl, the whole pack join in the cry. Kœmpfer says, that every now and then a sort of bark is intermixed; which confirms what I above assert. Dellon agrees in the account of their being tamed, and entertained as domestic animals. During day they are silent.

They dig burrows in the earth, in which they lie all day, and come out at night to range for prey: they hunt by the nose, and are very quick of scent*.

The females breed only once a year; and go with young only four weeks: they bring from six to eight at a times.

Both Mr. Gueldenstedt and Mr. Bell contradict the opinion of their being very fierce animals.

This animal is vulgarly called the Lion's Provider, from an opinion that it routes the prey for that bad-nosed quadruped. The fact is, every creature in the forest is set in motion by the

* Bell's trav. i. 54. 55.

Gmelin, jun. as quoted by Mr. Zimmerman, p. 473.

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fearful cries of the Jackals; the Lion, and other beasts of rapine, by a sort of instinct, attend to the chace, and seize such timid animals as betake themselves to flight at the noise of this nightly pack. Described by Oppian* under the name of Aux, or yellow wolf; who mentions its horrible howl.

May, as M. de Buffon conjectures, be the ; of Aristotle †, who mentions it with the wolf, and says that it has the same ([suppose partial) internal structure as the wolf, which is common with congenerous animals. The Thoes of Pliny may also be a variety of the same animal; for his account of it agrees with the modern history of the Schakal, exoept in the last article ‡.

173 CAPESCH.

Capische Schacall. Schreber Germ. ii. tab. xcv. p. 370, Sc Canis Mesomelas. The same. Tenlie or Kenlie of the Hottentots.

D. with erect yellowish brown ears, mixed with a few scattered black hairs: head of a yellowish brown, mixed with black and white, growing darker towards the hind part: sides of a light brown, varied with dusky hairs: of the body, and also the back part of the legs, of a yellowish brown, lightest on the body: throat, breast, and belly, white.

On the neck, shoulders, and back, is a bed of black; broad on the shoulders, and growing narrower to the tail, where the hairs

* Cyneg. lii. 206.

Hist. An, lib. ii. c. 17. lib. ix. c. 44.

Thocs, Luporum id genus est procerius longitudine, brevitate crurum dissimile, velox saltu, venatu vivens, innccuum homini. Lib. viii. c. 34.

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are smooth. The part on the neck seems barred with white: that on the shoulders with white conoid marks, one within the other, the end pointing to the back: when the hairs are russled, these marks vanish, or grow less distinct, and a hoariness appears in their stead.

The tail is bushy, of a yellowish brown: marked on the upper part with a longitudinal stripe of black, and towards the end encircled with two rings of black, and is tipt with white.

SIZE.

Length two feet three quarters, to the origin of the tail: the tail one foot.

PLACE.

Inhabits the countries about the Cape of Good Hope, and probably is found as high as the Line.

174. CEYLONESS.

Chien sauvage de Ceylan. Vosmaer.

D. with a long thick nose, blunt at the encircle ears erect at their bottom, pointing forward at their ends: the legs stronger the claws more like those of cat than a dog: the color cinereous yellow: belly ash-colored: the legs almost entirely brown: the hair close-set, and soft.

SIZE.

The length of the body twenty-two inches and a half, of the tail sixteen. The tail tapers to a point.

PLACE.

This animal is a native of Ceylon: its history quite unknown.

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175. SURINAM.

Canis Thous. C. cauda deslexa Iævi, corpore subgriseo subtus albo. Lin. syst. 6o.

D. with upright cars: little warts on the cheeks, above the eyes, and under the throat: the tongue fringed on the sides: size of a large cat: color of the upper part of the body greyish; the lower white: tail bending downwards, and smooth: five toes before, four behind.

According to Linnœus, inhabits Surinam: mentioned by no other Naturalist.

176. ZERDA.

Stock. Wettsk. Handl. 1777, p. 265, tab. vi.

D. with a very pointed visage: long whiskers: large bright black eyes: very large ears, of a bright rose-color; internally lined with long hairs: the orifice so small as not to be viable, probably covered with a valve or membrane: legs and feet like those of a dog: tail taper.

COLOR.

Color between a straw and pale brown.

SIZE.

Length, from nofe to tail, ten inches: ears three inches and a half long: tail six: height not five.

PLACE.

Inhabits the vast desert of Saara, which extends beyond Mount Atlas: is called by the Moors, Zerda: burrows in the sandy ground, which shews the use of the valves to the ears: is so exessively swift, that it is very rarely taken alive: feeds on insects, especially locusts: sits on its rump: is very vigilant:

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barks like a clog, but much shriller, and that chiefly In the night: never is observed to be sportive. Doctor Sparman suspects that he law it during his travels in Qiffraria*

We are indebted to Mr. Eric Skioldebrand, the lace Swedish Conful at Algiers, for our knowledge of this lingular animal. He never could procure but one alive, which escaped before he examined its teeth: the genus is very uncertain: the form of its head and legs, and foms of its manners, determined us to place it here* That which was in possession of Mr. Skioldebrand led freely from' the hand, and would eat bread or boiled meat. Mr Skioldebrand had a drawing made of the animal, and we are informed; that he communicated a copy of it to Mr. Bruce, at that time the British conful at Algiers. This is a secret betrayed by Dodtor Sparman, which brings on him the wrath of Mr. Bruce, expressed in terms I cannot repeat. Mr. Bruce claines the honor of the drawings, and asserts, that Mr. Skioldebrand acquired the copy by unfair means; that he corrupted his servant, and gained his end. This never would have been known, but by the lucky accident of a death-bed repentance: the poor lad fell ill; nor could he do part in peace till he had discharged his conscience by a full confession of his grievous crime. The world will probably, think,

Nec Deus intersit; nisi dignus vindice nodus
inciderit.

M. de Buffon‡ has given a figure of this animal, communicated to him by Mr. Bruce; but from his authority afcribes to it a different place, and different manners. He says that it is found to the

* Vol. ii. p. 186.

† Mr. Bruce's Trawls, v. 129.

Supplem. iii. 48. tab. xix.

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south of the Palus Tritonides, in Lilya; that it has something of the nature of the hare, and something of the squirrel; and that it lives on the palmtrees, and feeds on the fruits.

When Mr. Bruce favored the public with his splendid work, he gives at p. 128 of his fifth volume a different account. From a hare or a squirrel, it is converted into a weesel; and the place of its habitation is changed from the Palus Tritonides to Biseara, a southern province of Mauritania Cœsariensis, many hundred miles from the first position.

I will not dare to fix any genus to this curious and seemingly anomalous animal. To judge by Mr. Bruce's, or Mr. Skioldebrand's figure (I will not attempt to decide the property), it has all the appearance of the vulpine: its face strongly shews the alliance; and the length and strength. of limbs are other proofs, very satisfaftory proofs, of its being no more able, with limbs so formed, to climb a tree, than a dog. All the weesel tribe have very short legs: they can climb; they do creep. Our great RAY makes the last the character of the class, and for that reason styles them vermineum genus, the vermes, or worm-like class. Had the figure received that form of limb, I would have assented to the genus, nor even have troubled the public or myself, with my; difference of opinion with the great traveller.

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XVIII. HYÆNA.

Six cutting teeth, and two canine, in each jaw,
Four toes on each foot.
Short tail; a transverse orifice between it and the anus.

177. STRIPED.

γawα. Arift. hist. an. lib. vi. c. 32. Oppian Cynrg. iii. 263.

Hyæna. Plinii lib. viii. c. 30.

Lupus marinus. Belon aquct. 33. Gesner quad.

Taxus porcinus, five Hyæna veterum. Kasion, Kœpfer Amœn, exot. 411.

Dubha. Shaw's travels, 246.

Hyæna. Russel's Aleppo, 59.

Canis Hyæna. C. cauda recta annulata, pilis cervicis erectis, auriculis nudis, palmis tetradactylis.Lin. syst. 58.

L'Hyæne. De Buffon, ix. 268 tab. xxv. Brisson quad. 169. Schreber, xcvi.

H. with long sharp-pointed naked ears: upright mane: high shoulders: fore legs longer than the hind legs: hair on the body coarse, rough, and pretty long: of an ashcolor, marked with long black stripes from the back downwards: others cross the legs: tail very full of hair, sometimes plain, sometimes barred with black: size of a large dog, but very strongly made.

Inhabits the mountains of Caucasus and the Altaic Chain, Asiatic Turley, Syria, Persia, Barbary, and Senegal, and even as low as the Cape*. Is by Adanson and others frequently misnamed, the wolf, which is not even found in Africa: like the jackal, violates the repositories of the dead, and greedily devours the putrid contents of the grave; preys by night on the herds and flocks; yet, for want of other food, will eat the roots of plants†, and the tender shoots of the palms; but, contrary to the nature of the former, is

* Forster.

Shaw's Travels, 246.

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an unsociable animal; is solitary, and inhabits the chasms of the rocks: will venture near towns; and, as Mr. Niebuhr assures us, will, about Gambron, in the season when the inhabitants sleep in the open air, snatch away children from the Tides of their parents*. The supersticious Arabs, when they kill one, carefully bury the head† Should be applied to magical purposes; as the neck was of old by the Thessalian sorceress.

Viscera non Lyncis, non dirtt nodus Hyænæ
Desuit‡.
Nor entrails of the spotted Lynx she lacks,
Nor bony joints from fell Hyæna's backs.

The antients were wild in their opinion of the Hyæna: they believed that it changed its sex; imitated the human voice; that it had the power of charming the shepherds, and as it were riveting them to the place they flood on: no wonder that an ignorant Arab should attribute to its remains preternatural powers.

They usually are cruel, fierce, and untameable animals, with a mod malevolent aspect: have a sort of obstinate courage, which, will make them face stronger quadrupeds than themselves; Kœmpfer relates that he saw one which had put two lions to flight. Their voice is hoarse, a disagreeable mixture of growling and roaring.

* Deser. Arabie 147.

Shaw's Travels, 246.

Lucan, lib. vi. 672. The antients believed that the neck of the Hyœna confined of one bone without any joint.

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I recollected an instance, an exception to the notion of their untameable nature; having seen one at Mr. Brook's as tame as a dog M. de Buffon mentions another: it is probable that if they are taken very young, they may be reclamed by good usage; but they are commonly kept in a perpetual state of ill humor by the provocations of their matter. I saw this year (1792) in the Tower two young ones not above half a year old. They were quite tame and inoffensive: but I was informed that, as they advanced in life, their savage nature would appear.

178. SPOTTED.

Jackal, or Wild Dog. Bosman's Guinea, 293.

Quumbengo. Churchill's coll. voy. v. 486.

Tiger Wolf. Kollen's Cafe, ii. 108.

Hyæna, or Crocuta? Ludolph. Æthiopia, 57.

Cani-apro-lupo-vulpes? Dejlctndcs Hist. de l' Acad, tom. xxviii. 50. octa vo ed.

H. with a large and flat head: above each eye some long hairs: on each side of the nose very long whiskers: short black mane: hair on the body short and smooth: ears short, and a little pointed; their outside black, inside cinereous: face, and upper part of the head, black: body and limbs reddish brown, marked with distinct round black spots; the hind legs with transverse black bars: tail short, black, and full of hair. This description was taken from one shewn some years ago in London. It was superior in size to the former.

Inhabits Guinea, Æthiopia, and the Cape: lives in holes in the earth, or clefts of rocks: preys by night: howls horribly: breaks into the folds, and kills two or three sheep: devours as much as it can, and carries away one for a future repast: will attack mankind scrape open graves, and devour the dead. It has very great

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strength. One has been known to seize a female Negro, sling her over its back, and holding her by one leg, run away with her till she was fortunately rescued*. M. de Buffon, misled by Bosmat's name of this animal, makes it synonymous with the common jackal. Has, till the present time, been undistinguished by naturalists.

M. de Buffon had an account from Mr. Bruce, of an Hyæna which that gentleman observed in the isle of Meroe, in Æthiopia. He says that it was greatly superior in size to the common kind; had a head more like that of a dog, and a very wide mouth; without a mane on the neck; perhaps it was not observed, on account of its shortness. He adds this proof of its strength, that it would lay hold of a man, lift him up with the greatest ease, and run a league or two with him, without once putting him on the ground It Can there be any doubt but that the traveller meant the same animal with this?

* Bosman, 295.

De Busson, Suppkm. iii. 235.

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XIX. CAT.

Six cutting teeth, and two canine, in each jaw.
Five toes before; four behind.
Sharp hooked claws, lodged in a sheath, that may be exerted or drawn in at pleasure.
Round head, and short visage: rough tongue.

* With long tails.

179. LION.

Leo. Plinii lib. viii. c. 16. Gesner quad. 572. Raii syn. quad. 162.

Lowe. Klein quad. 81.

Felis cauda in floccum definente. Brisson quad. 194. Scbreber, xcvii. A. B.

Felis Leo. F. cauda elongata, corpore helvulo. Lin. syst. 60.

Le Lion. De Buffon, ix. 1. lab. i. ii. Lev. Mbs.

C. with a large head: short rounded ears: face covered with short hairs; upper part of the head, chin, whole neck, and shoulders, with long shaggy hairs, like a mane: hair on the body and limbs short and smooth; along the bottom of the belly long: limbs of vast strength: tail long, with a tust of long hairs at the end: color tawny, but on the belly inclines to white: length of the largest lion, from nose to tail, above eight feet: the tail four feet long; tusted with long black hairs: the lioness or female is less, and wants the mane.

An inhabitant of most parts of Africa, and rarely of the hot parts of Asia, such as India* and Persia† and a few are still met

* Fryers vou. 189. Bernier's voy. Kacbemir, 48.

† In Gilan and Cardistan, See the new description of Persia in Harris's Coll. ii. 884.

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with in the deserts between Bagdat and Bassorah*, on the banks of the Euphrates. Mr. Niebuhr also places them among the animals of Arabia†; but their proper country is Africa, where their size is the largest, their numbers greatest, and their rage more tremendous, being inflamed by the influence of a burning fun, on a most arid soil. Dodlor Fryer fays, that those of India are feeble and cowardly. In the interior parts ‡, amidst the scorched and desolate deserts of Zaara, or Biledulgerid, they reign foie matters, they lord it over every beast, and their courage never meets with a check, where the climate keeps mankind at a distance: the nearer they approach the inhabitants of the human race, the less their rage, or rather the greater is their timidity ║: they have often expenenced the unequal combat, and, finding that there exists a being superior to them, commit their ravages with more caution: a cooler climate again has the same effect; but in the burning deserts, where rivers and fountains are denied, they live in a perpetual fever, a sort of madness fatal to every animal they meet with. The author of the Occonomy of Nature gives a wonderful proof of the instinct of these animals in those unwatered tracts. There the Pelican makes her nest; and in order to cool her young ones, and accustom them to an element they must afterwards be conversant in, brings from afar, in their great gular pouch, sufficient water to fill the nest; the lion, and other wild beasts, approach and quench their thirst, yet never injury the unfledged § birds, as if conscious that their destruction, would

* Voyages de Boullaye Le Gouz, 320.

Defer. A alie. 142.

Leo Afr. 342.

Purechas's Pilg. ii. Sop,

§ Amten. Acud. ii. 7.

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immediately put a stop to those grateful supplies. It is to be observed, that whenever a lion can get at water, it drinks much.

The courage of the lion is tempered with mercy*, and has been known to spare the weaker animals, as if beneath his attention: there are many instances of its gratitude; relations fo strange, that the reader is referred to them in the notes † to the authorities themselves. Lions are capable of being tamed: the monarch of Persia, full of savage state, had, on days of audience ‡, two great ones chained on each side of the passages to the room of state, led there by keepers, in chains of gold. As they have been so far subdued, why may we not credit the story of their being harnessed for the triumphal car of the conqueror Bacchus?

The lion preys on all kinds of animals: as his scent is bad, his peculiar and tremendous roar strikes terror into every beast: of the desert, and sets them in motion, in open view; he then selects his object, and takes it not so much by pursuit, as by a vast bound, striking it with his talons, and tearing it to pieces. In inhabited countries he invades the folds, leaps over the fences with his prey; and such is his strength, that he can carry off a middling ox with the utmost ease║: in many places it takes its prey by surprize, lurking in the thickets, and springing on it: ost-times mankind fall a victim to his hunger, but then it is rather thro' necessity than choice. The Arabs have a notion of his sparing the tender sex; but Doctor Shaw informs us § that they

* Leoni tantum exseris clementia in supplices: profit atis proit: et uhi sœwt, in viros prius, quam in saminas fremit, in infantes non nisi magna same. Plinii lib. viii. c. 16. Misson, vol. iii. 292, confirms the left.

A. Gellius.Ælian. Pliny.

Bell's travels, i. 102.

La Caille, 294.

§ Travels, 244.

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make no distinction in these days: die same writer acquaints us, that the flesh of the lion is often eaten in Barbary, and it resembles veal in taste.

Formerly found in Europe, between the rivers Achelous and Nessus*; none in America; the animal called Puma†, which is mistaken for the lion, is our 160th species.

180. TIGER.

Tigris. Plinii lib. viii. c. 18. Pentii Java, 53. Gesner quad. 936. Rail syn. quart. 165. Kkin quad. 78.

Felis Higris. F. cauda elongata, corpore maculis omnibus virgatis. Linsyst. 61.

Felis flava, maculis Iongis nigris varie-gata. Brsson quad. 194.

Le Tiigre. De Buffon, ix 129. tab. ix. Schrcbcr, xcviii. Lev. Mus.

C. with a smooth head and body, vast strength in its limbs; of a pale yellow color, beautifully marked with long stripes of black from the back, pointing to the belly, with others cross the thighs: the tail shorter by a third than the body; annulated with black: often superiorin size to a lion; that called the Royal‡ Tiger is of a tremendous bulk. M: de Buffon mentions one that was (tail included) fifteen feet long. Hyder Ally presented the Nabob of Arcot with one of far greater dimenfions, it being eighteen feet in length. Du Halde, ii. 254, says, that the Chinef e tiger, or Lou-chu, or Lau-hu, as it is called in that language, varies in color, some being white, striped with black and grey.

* Arijlol. hift. an. lib. vi. c. 31.

Garcilaffi de la vega, 332.

Dellon voy. 78.

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MANNERS.

The tiger is peculiar to Asia *; and is found as far north as China, and Chinese Tartary; and about lake Aral, and the Altaic mountains. By a most common misnomer, this animal is improperly given to Africa and America. It inhabits mount Ararat, and Hyrcania, of old famous for its wild beads; but the greatest numbers, the largest, and the most cruel, are met with in India, and its islands. In Sumatra the natives are so insatuated that they seldom kill them, having a notion that they are animated by the souls of their ancestors†. They are the scourge of the country; they lurk among the bushes, on the sides of rivers, and almost depopulate many places: they are inlidious, blood-thirsty, and malevolent; and seem to prefer preying on the human race preferable to any other animals: they do not pursue their prey, but bound on it from their ambush, with an elasticity, and from a distance that is scarcely credible: if they miss the object, they make off; but if they succeed, be it man or be it beast, even one as large as a Buffalo‡, they carry it off with luch ease, that it seems not the left impediment to their fight. It they are undisturbed, they plunge theirhead into the body of the animal up to their very eyes, as if it were to satiate themselves with blood, which they exhaust the corpse of before they tear it to pieces ‖. There is a sort of cruelty

* M. de Buffon says they are found in the south of Africa. I can meet with no authority for it; the animals so called by Luaolpbus and Kolhen, being only Panthers, or Leopards, which are generally confoundcd with the Tiger by moll voyagers.

† Mr. Miller's Account of Sumatra, Phil. Trans. lxviii. 171.

Bontius, 53. Straho. lib. xv. relates much the same of the Tigers of the country of the Prafii.

Bontius, 53.

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m their devastations, unknown to the generous lion; as well as a poltronery in their sudclen retreat on any disappointment. I was informed, by very good authority, that in the beginning of this century, some gentlemen and ladies, being on a party of pleasure, under a shade of trees, on the banks of a river in Bengal, observed a tiger preparing for its fatal spring; one of the ladies, with amazing presence of mind, laid hold of an umbrella, and furled it full in the animal's face, which instantly retired, and gave the company opportunity of removing from so terrible a neighbor.

Another party had not the same good fortune: a tiger darted among them while they were at dinner, seized on one gentleman, and carried him off, and he never was more heard of. They attack all sorts of animals, even the lion; and it has been known that both have perished in their combats. There is in some parts of India a popular notion*, that the rhinoceros and the tiger are in friendship, because they are often found near each other: the fact is, the rhinoceros, like the hog, loves to wallow in the mire; and on that account frequents the banks of rivers; the tiger, to quench its raging thirst, is met with in places contiguous to them.

GREAT SWIFTNESS.

Pliny has been frequently taken to task by the moderns, for calling the tiger, animal tremendce velocitatis † they allow it great agility in its bounds, but deny it swiftness in pursuit: two travellers of authority, both eye-witnesses, confirm what Pliny says; the one indeed only mentions in general its vast fleetness, the

* Bontius, 53.

Plinii lib. viii. c. 18.

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other saw a tryal between one and a swift horse, whose rider escaped merely by getting in time amidst a circle of armed men. The chace of this animal was a favorite diversion with the great CAM-III, the Chinese monarch, in whole company our countryman, Mr. Bell, that faithful traveller, and the Pere Gerbillon, saw these proofs of the tiger's speed*.

They are said to roar like a lion; but those I have seen in captivity, emitted only a furly growl.

181. PANTHER.

Varia et Pardus? Plinii lib. viii. c. 17.

φαγδαλζ μζωγ? Opplan Cyneg. lib. iii. I. 65.

Panthera, Pardus, Pardalis, Leopardus. Gesrer quad. 824. Raii syn quad. 166. Klein quad. 77.

Felis Pardus. F. cauda elongata, corpora maculis superioribus orbiculatis; inferioribus virgatis. Lin. syst. 61 † Brisson quad. 198.

La Panthere. De Buffon, ix. 151. lab. xi. xii. Schreber, xcix.

C. with short smooth hair, of a bright tawny color: the back, sides, and flanks, elegantly marked with black spots, disposed in circles, from four to five in each, with a single black spot in the centre of each: on the face and legs single spots only: on the top of the back is a row of oblong spots; the longest next the tail: the chest and belly white; the first marked with transverse dusky stripes: the belly and tail with large irregular black spots: ears short and pointed: end of the nose brown: limbs very strong: the skin of one I measured was, from the end of the nose to the origin of the tail, six feet ten inches; the tail near three.

* Bell's Travels, ii. 91. Du Halde, ii. 343.

† A description that does not suit any known animal of this genus.

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Inhabits Africa, from Barbary to the remotest; parts of Guinea*. This species is next in size to the tiger; next to it in cruelty, and in its general enmity to the animal creation: it is to Africa what the former is to Asia, with this alleviation, that it prefers the flesh of brutes to that of mankind; but when pressed with hunger, attacks every living creature without distinction: its manner of taking its prey is the same with that of the tiger, always by surprize, either lurking in thickets, or creeping on its belly till it comes within reach: it will also climb up trees in pursuit of monkies, and lesser animals: so that nothing is secure from its attacks. It is an untameable species; always retains its fierce, its malevolent aspect, and perpetual growl or murmur.

The antients were well acquainted with these animals; these and the leopards were the Variæ and Pardi of the old writers: one should think that the Romans would have exhausted the deserts of Africa, by the numbers they drew from thence for their public shews: Scaurus exhibited at onetime 150 Panthers; Pompey the Great 410; Augustus 420†: probably they thinned the coasts of Mauritania of these animals, but they still swarm in the southern parts of Guinea. This species, the Leopard, and the Once, were observed by Doctor Sparman as remote as the Cape of Good Hope ‡.

In my former edition I used some arguments in favor of these animals being also natives of South America. I had seen the skins at the furriers shops, which had been brought from the Brazils: but as that country has a great intercourse with Congo and Angola

* Shaw's Travels, 244. Des Marchais, i. 204. the last mistakenly calls them Tigers.

Plinii lib. viii, c. 17.

Travels, ii. 251.

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on account of the Slave Trade, I have no doubt but that they were brought from those kingdoms, and re-exported to Europe, The largest congenerous animal that South America has is the Brasilian, hereafter to be transcribed.

Oppian describes two species of Panthers; a large species and a small one; the first of which has a shorter tail than the lesser, and may possibly be this kind.

182. LEOPARD.

Uncia. Caii epusc. 42. Gesner quad. 825. Le Leopard. De Marchas voy. i. 202.

Le Leopard. De Buffon, ix. 151. tab. xiv Scbreber, ci. LEV. MUS.

C. with hair of a lively yellow color; marked on the back and sides with small spots, disposed in circles, and placed pretty closely together: the face and legs marked with single spots: the breast and belly covered with longer hairs than the rest of the body, of a whitish color: the spots on the tail large and oblong: the length of this species, from nose to tail, four feet; the tail two and a half.

Inhabits Senegal and Guinea; spares neither man nor beast: when beasts of chace fail, descends from the internal parts of Africa in crowds, and makes great havock among the numerous herds that cover the rich meadows of the lower Guinea. It tears its prey to pieces with both claws and teeth; is always thin, tho' perpetually devouring. The Panther is its enemy, and destroys numbers of them. The Negresses make collars of their teeth, and attribute to them certain virtues. The Negroes take these animals in pit-falls, covered at the top with flight hurdles, on

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which is placed some flesh as a bait. The Negroes nuke a banquet of these animals, whofe flesh is said to be as white as veal, and very well tasted. The skins are often brought to Europe, and reckoned very valuable.

In Asia it is found in the mountains of Caucafus, from Persia to India; and also in China, where it is called Poupi; and by the Buchanan traders, who often bring their skins to Russia, are styled Bars. It inhabits also Arabia, where it is called Nemr. We are informed by Mr. Forskal*, that in that country, as well as in Ægypt, it will do no harm to man unless provoked but will enter houses by night, and destroy the cats.

BLACK VARIETY.

In the Tower of London is a black variety, brought from Bengal by Warren Hastings, Esq. The color universally is a dulky black, sprinkled over with spots of a glosly black, disposed in the same forms as those of the Leopard: on turning aside the hair, beneath appears a tinge of the natural color.

This animal is engraven by M. De la Metherie†. That gentleman mentions my quoting the Congar noire of M. de Buffon as a synonym. I beg leave to rectify his mistake. The black Tiger is a distinct species, and from a different country, being a native of South America. I must say besides, that M. de Buffon was totally unacquainted with the animal till I sent to him the drawing from which he made the engraving in vol. iii. of his supplement, tab. xlii. notwithstanding he suppresles the origin.

* P. V.

†Observations sur la Physique, &c. tom. xxxviii Juillet. 1788. p. 45.

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183. LESSER LEOPARD.

C. with the face spotted with black: chin white: a great black spot on each side of the upper lip: breast marked with small spots: belly white, spotted with black: back, sides, and rump, covered with hair of a bright yellow color: marked with circles of spots, like the former; but the spots much less: not half the bulk of the last; but the tail shorter in proportion, and tapering to a point, and the hair on it short. The tails of the two last species are of equal thickness from top to bottom.

Inhabits the East Indies? kept a few years ago in the Tower: seemed a good-natured animal.

184. HUNTING.

Le Leopard. Voy. de Baullayt-le-gouz, 248.

Felis jubata. Schrcber, cv.

Le Gueparp. De Buffon, xiii. 249.

Le Jaguar, ou le Leopard. Suppl. 218. tab. xxxviii. LEV. MUS.

C. with a small head: irides pale orange: end of the nose black: from each corner of the mouth to that of each eye, a dusky line: ears short, tawny, marked with a brown bar: face, chin, and throat, of a pale yellowish brown: the face slightly spotted: body of a light tawny brown, marked with numbers of small round black spots; not in circles, but each distinct: the spots on the rim and outside of the legs were larger: the inside of the legs plain: hair on the top of the neck longer than the rest: that on the belly white, and very long: tail longer than the body; of a reddish brown color; marked above with large black spots; the hair on the under side very long.

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Size of a large gre-hound: of a long make: chest narrow: legs very long.

Inhabits India: is tamed, and trained for the chace of antelopes: carried in a small kind of waggon, chained and hoodwinked, till it approaches the herd: when first unchained, does not immediately make its attempt, but winds along the ground, stopping and concealing it self till it gets a proper advantage, then darts on the animals with surprizing swiftness: overtakes them by the rapidity of its bounds: but if it does not succeed in its first efforts, consisting of five or six amazing leaps, it misles its prey losing its breath, and finding itself unequal in speed, stands still; gives up the point for that time*, and readily returns to its master.

This species is called in India, Chittah. It is used for the taking of jackals, as well as other animals.

185. ONCE.

αξλσ Opiann Cyneg. ill. l. 95.

Panthera? Punii lib. vii c. 17.

L'Once. De Buffon, ix. 151. tab. xiii. Schreber, c.

C. with a large head: short ears: long hair on the whole boay: color a whitish all, tinged with yellow; on the bread and belly with a smaller cast of yellow: head marked with small round spots: behind each ear a large black spot: the upper part of the neck varied with large single spots: the sides of the back with longitudinal marks, consisting of several spots, almost touching each other, leaving the ground color of the body in the middle: the spots beneath these irregular, large, and full: those on the legs small, and thinly dispersed: the tail full of hair; irregu-

* Berniers travels, iv. 45. Taverriers travels, i. 147, Tbevenot, voy. v. 34.

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larly marked with large black spots. This species is of a strong make: long backed: short legged: length, from the nose to the tail, about three feet and a half: tail upwards of three feet.

Inhabits Barbary*, Persis, Hyrcania†, and China‡; the Buchanan and Altaic chain, and to the west of Lake Baikil: is an animal of a more gentle and mild nature than most of the preced* ing; is, like the lad, used for the chace of antelopes, and even hares; but, instead of being conveyed in a waggon, is carried on the crupper on horseback: is under as much command as a setting-dog; returns at the left call, and jumps up behind its master ║.

Is supposed to be the lesser Panther of Oppian, and the Panther a of Pliny§.

186. ERASILIAN.

Jagura.Maregrave Brasil. 23 y. Piso Brasil. 203.

Pardus aut Lynx Brasiliensis, Jaguara dicta, Lusitanis onza. Rail syn. quad. 168. Klein quad. 80.

Le Tigre de la Guiane. Des Marcbais, voy. iii. 299.

Tigris Americana. Felis slavescens, maculis nigris orbicularis quibusdam rosam referentibus variegata. Brisson quad. 196.

Felis onça. Felis cauda mediocri, corpore slavescente, ocellis nigris rotundato angulatis medio slavis. Lin. syst. 91.

Le Jaguar. De Buffon, ix. 201.tab. xviii. Suppl, iii. 218. tab. xxxix. Schreber, cii.

C. with hair of a bright tawny color: the top of the back marked with long stripes of black: the sides with rows of ir-

* Where it is called Faadh. Shaw's trav. 245.

Chardin.

‡ The /kins are brought from China into Russia, and sold for twenty shillings a piece. Muller Samhmge rur Russischen Geschicht. iii. 549, 608.

Olearius's trawls into Persia, 218.

§ Pantheris in candido breves macularum octtli, lib. viii. c. 17.

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regular oblong spots; open in the middle, which is of the ground-color of the hair; the thighs and legs marked with full spots of black: the breast and belly whitish: the tail not so long as the body; the upper part deep tawny, marked with large black spots, irregularly; the lower part with smaller spots: grows to the size of a wolf, and even larger.

Inhabits the hottest: parts of S. America, from the isthmus of Darien to Buenos Ayres: fierce and destructive to man and beast. Like the tiger, it plunges its head into the body of its prey, and fucks out the blood before it devours it: makes a great noise in the night, like the howling of a hungry dog: is a very cowardly animal: easily put to flight; either by the shepherds dogs, or by a lighted torch, being very fearful of fire: it lies in ambush near the sides of rivers: there is sometimes seen a singular combat between this animal and the crocodile; when the Jaguar comes to drink, the crocodile, ready to surprize any animal that approaches, raises its head out of the water, the former instantly strikes its claws into the eyes of this dreadful reptile, the only penetrable part, who immediately dives under the water, pulling his enemy along with it, where they commonly both perish*.

187. Mexican

Tlacoozelotl; Tlalocelotl. Catul-pardus Mexicanus. Hernandez Mex. 512.

L'Ocelot. De Buffon, xiii. 239. tab. xxxv. xxxvi. Felis Pardalis. Lin. syst

Felis sylvedris, Americanus, Tigrinus. Seb. Mus. i. 47. tab. xxx. fig. 2, 77. tab. xlviii fig. 2. Scbreber, ciii.

C. with its head, back, upper part of the rump, and tail, of a bright tawny: a black stripe extends along the top of the

* Condamine's voy. 81.

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back, from head to tail: from the nostrils to the corners of the eyes, a stripe of black: forehead sported with black: the sides whitish, marked lengthways with long stripes of black, hollow and tawny in the middle; in which are sprinkled some small black spots: from the neck towards the shoulders, point others of the same colors: the rump marked in the same manner: legs whitish, varied with small black spots: tail spotted with small spots near its base; with larger near the end, which is black: about four times the fize of a large cat.

PLACE.

Inhabits Mexico, the neighborhood of Carthagena, and Brasil: lives in the mountains: is very voracious; but fearful of mankind: preys on young calves*, and different sorts of game: lurks amidst the leaves of trees; and sometimes will extend itself along the boughs, as if dead, 'till the monkies, tempted by their natural curiosity, approaching to examine it, become its prey†.

128. CINEREOUS.

C. of a cinereous color, palesl on the legs and belly: irides hazel: tip of the nose red: ears short, and rounded; black on the outside, grey within: from the nose to the eye, on each side was a black line; above and beneath each eye a white one: sides of the mouth white, marked with four rows of small black spots: from the hind part of the head, to the back and shoulders, ran some long, narrow, hollow stripes: along the top of ihe back two rows of oval black spots: the marks on the sides long, hollow, and irregular, extending from shoulders to thighs: shoul-

* Dampler, voy. ii. 6z.

Hernandez, Mex. 514.

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ders both barred and spotted: legs and belly only spotted: tail not so long as the body; had large spots above, small beneath.

About the size of the preceding. Inhabits Guinea.

189. PUMA.

Cugacuarana. Maregrave Brasil. 235. Raii syn. quad. 169.

Cugacuara. Piso Brasil. 103.

Panther. Lawfon Carolina, z I 7. Catesby Carolina App.

Tigris sulvus. Barren France quin. 166. Du Pratz, ii. 63.

Tigris sulva. Felis ex slavo rusescens, mento et infimo ventre albicantibus. Brisson quad. 197.

Le Couguar. De Buffon, ix. 116. tab. xix. Suppl. iii. 222.

Felis Concolor. Schrebcr, civ. Pagi. Molina. Chili. 276.

C. with a very small head: ears a little pointed: eyes large: chin white: back, neck, rump, sides, pale brownish red, mixed with dulky hairs: breast, belly, and inside of the legs, cinereous, hair on the belly long: tail dulky, and ferruginous; the tip black: the teeth of a vast size: claws white: the out-most claw of the fore feet much larger than the others: is long bodied, and high on its legs: the length from nose to tail five feet three inches; of the tail two feet eight.

Inhabits the continent of America, from Canada to Brasil: in South America is called Puma* and mistaken for the lion: is the scourge of the colonies of the hotter parts of America; fierce and ravenous to the highest degree: swims over the broad rivers, and attacks the cattle, even in the inclosures; and when presled with

* Hernandez Mix. 518, Condamine's voy. 81,

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hunger, spares not even mankind. In N. America their fury seems to be subdued by the rigor of the climate; the smallest cur, in company with its matter, makes them seek for security, by running up trees: but then they are equally destructive to domestic animals, and are the greatest nuisance the planter has: when they lay in wait for the Moose, or other deer *, they lie close on the branch of some tree, 'till the animal pasles beneath, when they drop on them, and soon destroy them: they also make wolves their prey: that whole skin is in the Museum of the Royal Society, was killed just as it had pulled down a wolf. Conceal suchpart of the prey which they cannoteat: purr like a cat: their fur lost, and of some value among the Indians, who cover themselves with it during winter: the flesh is also eaten, and said to be as good and as white as veal†.

190. JAGUAR.

Jaguarete. Marcgrave Brasil. 235. Piso Brasil. 103. Raii syn. quad. 169.

Once. Des Mar chats, iii. 300.

Le Congar noir. De Buffon, Suppl iii. 223. tat. xiii.

C. with the head, back, sides, fore part of the legs, and the tail, covered with short and very glossy hairs, of a dufky-

* Charlevoix voy. Kouv. Francs, v. 189, who, by mistake., calls it Carcajoz.

† Mr. Dupont once shewed me, some years ago, the tail of an animal from South America, three quarters of ayard long, covered with short, white, glosly hair: a piece of the skin of the back was left to it, on which were black hairs near eight inches long. I mention it here, as belonging to some plain-colored bead of this genus; perhaps the Tzonyztac seu quadrupes capillorum candentium, brevibus cruribus, colore atro, manibus pedibujque st corporis mag'tit it dire 'Tigris; RCproltxa cauda. Hernandez quad, nov. Hisp. 3.

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color; sometimes spotted* with black, but generally plain: upper lips white: at the corner of the mouth a black spots; long hairs above each eye, and long whiskers on rhe upper lip: lower lip, throat, belly, and the inside of the legs, whitish, or very pale ash-color: paws white: ears pointed. Grows to the size of a heiser of a year old: has vast strength in its limbs.

Inhabits Brasil and Guiana: is a cruel and fieree beast; much dreaded by the Indians; but happily is a scarce species.

191. CAPE.

C. with short hair, of a bright ferruginous color: the face marked with black stripes, tending downwards: from the hind part of the head to the tail, the back is marked with oblong stripes of black: the sides with very numerous small and round spots of black: belly white: tail long, of a bright tawny-color, simulated with black: ears long, narrow, pointed, and very erect: length from the nose to the tail near three feet.

Described from a skin in a surrier's shop in London. Inhabits the neighborhood of the Cape of Good Hope, and as high north as Congo. Inhabits the woods, and is very destructive to lambs, young antelopes, and all the lesser animals: is well described and figured by Doctor Forster, in Phil. Trans. lxxi. p. i. tab. i. The

* For which reason M. de Buffon suspects it to be only a variety of No. 186; but since M. des Marcbais, who describes it very exactly, makes no mention of its being spotted, nor had the two which were shewn in London some years ago anyspots on them; it is very probable, then, that the Jaguarete, described by Margrave, was a variety of this species, and not of his Jaguara, as it agrees with it in the ground color, and in its superior lize.

† On the chin of one of those above-mentioned was a rovrd black scot.

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specimen he made his description from was only eighteen inches long. Mine might have been from a distended skin, or his from a young animal. Mr. Miller, in his plates, tab. xxxix. also gives a good figure of this animal.

192. CAYENNE.

Maraguao.Marcgrave Brosil. 233.

Felis sera tigrina. Barrere France Æquin. 152.

Tepe Maxlaton. Hernand. Nov. Hisp. 9. c. 28.

Le Pichou, Cat-a-mount. Du Pratx. Louijian. ii. 64.

Felis sylvestris tigrina. F. ex griseo slavescens, macalis nigris variegata. Brisson quad. 193.

Le Margay. De Buffon, xiii. 24S. tab. xxxvii. Supplem. iii. 226. Scbreber cvi.

C. with the upper part of the head, the neck, back, sides, shoulders, and thighs, of a bright tawny color: the face striped downwards with black: the shoulders and body marked with stripes, and oblong large black spots: the legs with smallspots: the breast, and inside of the legs and thighs whitish, spotted with black: the tail very long, marked with black, tawny; and erey: size of a common cat.

Inhabits S. America, and perhaps Louisiana*; lives on the seathered game, and on poultry: is untameable: makes a noise like the common cat: lives much in trees: is very active; goes by bounds or leaps: brings forth in all seasons of the year,, in hollow trees, and has two at a time.

193. BENGAL.

C. with white whiskers: large ears; dulky, with a white spot in the middle of the outside: between each eye and the nose a white line, and beneath each eye another.

* Bossu's trav. i. 94. 359.

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Color of the head, upper jaw, and sides of the neck, back, and sides, a beautiful pale yellowish brown: the head and face striped downwards with black: along the back are three rows of short stripes of the same color, pointing towards the tail: behind each shoulder, to the belly, is a black line: chin and throat white, surrounded with a semicircle of black: breast, belly, and inside of the limbs, white; the spots on those parts, the legs, and rump, round: tail loner, full of hair, brown and annulated with black.

Rather less than a common cat, and more elegantly made.

PLACE.

MANNERS.

Mr. Lee of Hammersmith, in whose possession the remains of this animal are, assured me that it swam on board a ship at anchor off the coast of Bengal; that after it was brought to England, it coupled with the female cats, which twice produced young: I saw one of the offspring, which was marked in the same manner as the male parent; but the ground-color was cinereous. It had as little fear of water as its fire; for it would plunge into a vessel of water near two feet deep, and bring up the bit of meat slung in by way of trial. It was a far better mouser than the tame cat; and in a little time cleared Mr. Lee's magazine of feeds of the swarms of rats, which, in spite of the domestic breed of cats, had for a long time made most horrible ravages among; his boxes.

These small spotted species are called by the general name of tiger cats: several kinds are found in thc East-Indies*, and in the woods near the Cape of Good Hope; but so negligently, or fo unscientifically mentioned, as to render it impossible for a zoologist to form a description from them: yet a good history of

* Dellon's voy. 77.

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these animals being among the many desiderata of the naturalist; the following main accounts may serve to direct the enquiries of future voyagers. Kolben* mentions two kinds: one he calls

The WILD RED CAT, which has a streak of bright red running along the ridge of the back to the tail, and losing itfelf in the grey and white on the sides: the skins are said to give ease in the gout, and are much valued on that account at the Cape. The other he calls

The BUSH CAT; of which he says no more, than that it is the largest of wild cats in the Cape countries: perhaps my Cape cat.

The SACA is an obscure species of wild cat, mentioned by Fla-court† to be found in Madagajcar. He says they are very beautiful, and that they couple with the tame cats. The tails of the domestic kind in that island are for the most part turned up.

Felis Manul. Pallas Itin. iii. App. 692.

194. MANUL.

C. with a large head: color universally tawny, mixed with a few white and brown hairs; crown of the head speckled with black: the cheeks marked with two dulky lines, running obliquely from the eyes: the feet striped obscurely with dark lines: the tail longer than that of the domestic cat, beset thickly with hair, and of an equal thickness in all parts; encircled with ten black rings, the three next to the tip almost touching one another, the rest more remote.

Size of a fox: the limbs very robust; in that and color greatly resembles a lynx.

* Hist. Cape, ii. 126.

Hist. Madag. 152.

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Inhabits all the middle part of northern Asia, from the Yaik;, or Ural, as it is now called, to the very Amur. Loves open, woodless, and rocky countries, and preys on the lesser quadrupeds. Is chiefly conversant about N. Lat. 52.: for want of other retreats, it will occupy the holes of the fox or of the Bobak. The Russians call it Stepnaja Koschka, or the cat of the desert.

195. COMMON.

(WILD CAT.) Catus sylvestris. Boumriitter. Gesner quad. 325.

Catus sylvestris, serus vel seralis, eques arborum. Klein quad. 75.

Wilde Katze. Kram Austr. 311.

Felis sylvestris. F. pilis ex susco, slavicante, et albido, variegatis vestita, cauda annulis alternatim nigris et ex sordidè albo slavicantibus cincta. Brisson quad. 192.

Kot Driki, Zbik. Rzaczinski. Polon. 217. Schreber, cvii. A. cvii. B.

Le chatsauvage. De Buffon, vi. 1. tab. i. Br. Zool. i. 67. LEV. MUS.

C. with long soft hair, of a yellowish white color, mixed with grey; the grey disposed in streaks, pointing downwards, rising from a dulky list, that runs from the head to tail, along the middle of the back: tail marked with alternate bars of black and white, its tip black: hind part of the legs black: three times as large as the common cat; and very strongly made.

Inhabits the woods of most parts of Europe; but none are found in the vast woods of Russia or Siberia: dwells with the common Lynx in all the wooded parts of the mountains of Caucasus, and their neighborhood: most destructive to lambs, kids, and sawns; and to all forts of feathered game. The stock, or origin of the DOMESTIC CAT*, which is subject to many varieties.

* Felis Catus. F. cauda donga! a fusco annulata, corf ore fifciis nigricanlibxs; dorfalibus loigitudinahhus tribus; latcrelibus spiralibus. Lin. syst. 62. Faun, fuec, No 9. Br. Zcol. i. 69. De Buffon, vi. tab. ii. Brisson quad. 191.

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Doctor Sparman, p. 148, informs us that he shot a wild cat near the hot baths at the Cape, which was of a grey color, and three times the weight of the tame fort. Its length was twenty-one inches: of the tail thirteen. It was exactly the same as the domestic kind; possibly of the same extradtion.

α ANGORA CAT. Schreber, cvii. B. With long hair; of a silvery whiteness, and silky texture; very long, especially about the neck, where it forms a fine ruff: the hairs on the tail very long, and spreading: is a large variety: found about Angora; the same country which produces the fine-haired goat, p. 62. Degcucrates after the first generation, in our climate. A variety of this kind is found in China, with pendent ears, of which the Chinese are very fond, and ornament their necks with silver collars. They are cruel enemies to rats. Perhaps the domestic animals which the Chinese call Sumxi*.

β TORTOISE-SHELL CAT: black, white, and orange. Le chat d'Efpagne. De Buffon, vi. tab. iii.

γ BLUE CAT. Le chat des chartreux. De Buffon, vi. tab. iv.

This variety is properly of a dun color, or greyish black. It is much cultivated in Siberia, on account of its fine fur; but was brought there, as well as die other domestic kinds, by the Russians.

δ The long-headed cat with a sharp nose, from New Spain, of

* De Buffon, Supplem. iii. 116.

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the size of a common cat: short legs: weak claws: round and flat ears, and of a reddish yellow color; and of a same nature—is another animal little known*.

The cat, a useful, but deceitful domestic: when pleased, purrs, and moves its tail: when angry, spits, hisles, strikes with its foot: in walking, draws in its claws: drinks little: is fond of fish: the female very falacious; a piteous, jarring, squalling lover: its urine corrosive: buries its dung: the natural enemy of mice; watches them with great gravity; does not always reject vegetables: waflies its face with its fore feet, Linnœus says, at the approach of a storm; fees by night: its eyes shine in the dark: its hair emits fire, when rubbed in the dark: always lights on its feet: proverbially tenacious of life: very cleanly; hates wet: is fond of perfumes; marion, valerian, catmint. The unaccountable antipathy of multitudes! beloved by the Mahometans: Maillet, who says that the cats of Ægypt are very beautiful, adds, that the inhabitants build hospitals for them†

196. JAPAN.

Chat sauvage Indien. Vosmaer.

C. with upright pointed ears: color of the face and lower part of the neck whitish: breast and lower belly a clear grey: body, part yellow and clear grey, mixed with black disposed in transverse rays. Along the back, quite to the tail, is a broad band of black: it also extends over the upper part of the tail; the lower part semi-annulated with black and grey.

* Seb. Mus. i. 76. tab. xlvii. fig. i.

Voy. d'Egypt. 30.

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SIZE.

Size of a common cat: tail ten inches and a half long: is said to be of gentle manners. Its cry is the mewing of a great cat. By Mr. Vosmaer's epithet it seems a native of Japan.

197. BLOTCHED.

Blotched weesel. Hist. quad. ed. i. No 222. Viverra tigrina. Schreber, tab. cxv. Chat-Bizaim. Vosmaer.

C. with a round head: short nose: pointed ears: white whiskers: yellowish white nose and cheeks; a round black spot on each side of the former: a dusky line down the middle of the forehead: back and outside of the limbs a reddish brown: sides and thighs yellowish white, blotched with deep brown: tail as long as the body; of a reddish brown color; marked spirally near the end with black. Size of a cat.

MANNERS.

On reconsideration of this animal, I am induced, not only by its form, but also its manners, to transfer it to this genus. It purrs and murmurs like a cat: its manners are also treacherous; but its appearance in general gentle.

PLACE.

It inhabits the neighborhood of the Cape of Good Hope, and is much fought after for its skin. Kolben says it scents of mulk, and that it is called the Biguam cat. He gives a figure of it, which, like all his others, is very bad. It is of the size of our tame cat.

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198. GUIGNA.

Felis Gulgna. Melina Chili. 275.

C.of a tawny color, marked with round black spots, five lines in diameter, extending along the back to the tail: size of the common cat.

Inhabits Chili, and inhabits the forests.

199. COLOROLO.

Felis Colorolla, Melina Chili. 275.

C.of a white color, marked with irregular spots of black and yellow: the tail encircled with black quite to the point.

This, like the other, inhabits the forests of Chili: lives on birds and mice; and sometimes insests the poultry yards. A character of these two species is the having the head and tail larger in proportion than the common cat.

200. NEW SPAIN.

Le chat fauvage de la Nouvelle Espagne. tab. xliii.

De Buffon, Supplem. iii. 227.

C. with small eyes: tail the shortest, in proportion, of any of this division of the genus: color of a cinereous blue, marked with very short streaks of black: hairs strong enough to make pencils with firm points.

Length four feet; height three.

Inhabits New Spain. Described by M. de Buffon from a draw-

Q q 2

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ing. He supposes it to be the same with No 202, the Serval; but it is nearly double the size. The spots in this are long, in the other round; and if we may credit the drawing, the legs in this are plain, in the Serval spotted.

The Tepe Maxtlaton of Hispaniola, described by Seba, 1. 77. tab, xlviii. fig. 2. may be referred to this species.

* With short tails;

Lynxes.

301. MOUNTAIN.

Le Chat-pard. Mmoires pour servir a I'hist. Nat. An. part. i. 110.

Catus Pardus five Catus Montanus Americanorum. The Cat a mountain. Raii syn. quad. 169.

Felis Pardalis. F. cauda elongata, corpora maculis superioribus virgatis, inserioribus orbiculatis. Lin. syst, 62. Brisson quad. 199.

Chat sauvage de la Caroline. De Buffon, Supplem. iii. 226. LEV. MUS.

C. with upright pointed ears, marked with two brown transverse bars: color of the head, and whole upper part of the body, reddish brown, marked with long narrow stripes on the back; and with numerous round small spots on the legs and sides: the belly whitish: the chin and throat of a pure white: the tail barred with black: the length of this animal two feet and a half: that of the tail eight inches.

Inhabits North America: grows very fat: is a mild and gentle animal. The Quanhpecotli* of Mexico agrees in nature with this: is of a brown or dusky color, darkest about the back, and glossy:

* Hernandez An. Mex. 6. Seb. Mus. i. 68. tab. xiii.fig. 2.

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feet black: on the belly the hair is long and white: disagrees with the former in the tail, which is thick and long.

202. SERVAL.

Le Serval. De Buffon, xiii, 233. tab. xxxiv. Schreber, cviii.

DIFFERS from the preceding in these particulars: the orbits are white: the spots on the body universally round: in its nature very fierce, and untameable: inhabits the woods in the mountanous parts of India: lives in trees, and scarcely ever descends on the ground, for it breeds in them: leaps with great agility from tree to tree: called by the natives of Malabar, the Marapute; by the Portuguese, the Serval*.

203. LYNX.

Chaus.Plinii lib. viii. c. 19. Lupus cervaiius, c. 22.

Auγ. Ælian. lib, xiv. c. 6. Oppian Cyneg iii. 84.

Lupus cervarius, Lynx, Chaus. Gesiner quad. 677. 678.

Lynx live Leuncia. Caii opufc, 50. Fabri Exp. An. Nov. Hisp. 527.

Lynx, Catus cervarius, Anglice, the Ounce. Raii An. quad. 166. Tourne-fort's voy. 4to. i. 360.

Rys, Ostrowidz. Rzaczinski Polon. 222. Srcheber, cix.

Lux. Kramer Austr. 311. Ridinger Wilden Thiere, 22. Klein Thiere, 65. &c.

Felis Lynx. F. cauda abbreviata; apice atra, auriculis apice barbatis. Lin. syst 62.

Warglo, Kattlo. Faun. suce. No 10, 11.

Lynx. Felis auriculorum apicibus pilis longiflimis praeditis, cauda brevi. Brisson quad. 200. Catus cervarius, 199.

Le Lynx, ou Loup-Cervier. De Buffon, ix. 231. tab. xxi. LEV. MUS.

C. with a short tail, black at its end: eyes of a pale yellow: hair under the chin long and full: hair on the body long and soft, of a cinereous color, tinged with red, marked with dulky spots, more or less distinct in different subjects; in some scarcely visible: belly whitish: ears erect, tusted with long black hairs, the character of the different species of Lynxes: legs and

* De Buffon.

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Feet very thick and strong: the length of the skin of a lynx, from nose to tail, was four feet six inches; the tail only ; vary sometimes in their color: the Irbys, from lake Rachage*, or the Kattlo of the Swedes, is whitish, spotted with black, and larger than the common kind; this large variety is called by the Germans, Wolf-Lucks, and Kalb-Lucks, on account of its size. In the BRITISH MUSEUM are two most beautiful specimen, said to have been brought from Spain.

Perhaps it was a variety of this which Doctor Pallas informed me was killed in the pine woods, on the banks of the Volga, below Casan. It was of an uniform whitish yellow above, and unspotted; beneath white: the ears tipped with black. That might also be the variety seen by Doctor Forjler, in the Empress's menagery at Petersburgh, brought from the kingdom of Tibet. With dusky spots on a yellowhitish white ground; and of a fierce and piercing aspect.

Inhabits the vast forests of the north of Europe, Asia, and America†, not India, though poets have harnesled them to the chariot of Bacchus, in bis conquest of that country: brings two or three young at a time: is long-lived: climbs trees: lies in wait for the deer, which pass under; falls on them, and seizing on the jugular vein, foon makes them its prey: will not attack mankind; but is very destructive to the rest of ihe animal creation. The furs of these animals are valuable for their softnesss and warmth: numbers are annually imported from North America, and the north of Europe and Asia; the farther North and East they

* Situated west of the river Irtysh.

† Wild Cat. Larvfon Carolina, 118. Catesby App. xxv. Found as far south as Mexico, the Pinuum Dasypus of Nieremhrg, 153.

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are taken, the whiter they are, and the more distinct the spots; of these the most elegant kind is called Irbys, taken near lake Balckash, whole skin fells on the spot for one pound sterling*.

The antients celebrated the great quickness of its fight; and seigned that its urine was converted into a precious stone†.

Ovid. Met. xv. 413.

Victa racemifero Lyncas dedit INDIA Baccho:
E quibus (ut minor ant) quicquid vesica remisit,
Vertitur in Lapides, et congelat Aere tacto.

DRYDEN.

India when conquer'd, on the conquering god,
For planted vines, the sharp ey'd Lynx bestow'd,
Whose urine, shed before it touches earth,
Congeals in air, and gives to gems their birth.

204. BAY L.

C. with a short tail; irides yellow: ears upright, and sharp-pointed, tusted with long black hairs: color of the head, back, sides, and exterior parts of the legs, bright bay, obscurely marked with dusky spots: down the face marked with black stripes, pointing to the nose: each side the upper lip three rows of minute black spots, with long stiff hairs issuing out of them: orbits edged with white: from beneath each eye certain long black stripes, of an incurvated form, mark the cheeks; which, with the upper and under lip, whole under side of the body, and insides of the legs, are white: the upper part of the inside of the fore legs marked with two black bars: upper part of the tail barred with dusky strokes; and next the end, one of a deep black;

* Ritchkoff's Qrenb. Topog. i. 296.

Plinii lib. viii. c. 381 xxviii. c. 8.

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its tip and under side white. About twice the bigness of a large cat: the hair shorter and smoother than that of the last.

Inhabits the inner parts of the province of New York.

205. CASPIAN L.

Chaus animal seli assine. Nov. Con: Petrop. xx. 483. tab. xiv.

L. with a round head, a little more oblong than that of the common cat: shining reflects eyes, with a most brilliant golden pupil: nose oblong: the upper lip bifid: whiskers scarcely two inches long: ears erect, oval, and lined with white hairs; their outside reddish; their summits tusted with black.

Hairs coarser than those of the cat or common Lynx, but less so than those of the wolf: shortest on the head; on the top of the back above two inches long: the color of the head and body a yellowish brown, or dusky: the breast and belly of a bright brown, nearly orange: in the inside of the legs, near the bending of the knee, are two transverse obscure dusky bars: the feet like that of a cat, cloathed with hair, black below.

The tail reaches only to the flexure of the leg, is thick and cylindric, of the same color with the back, tipped with black, and thrice obscurely annulated with black near the end.

In general appearance it has the form of the domestic cat: its length is two feet six from the nose to the base of the tail: its tail little more than eleven inches: its height before nineteen inches; behind twenty. It is sometimes found larger, there being instances of its reaching the length of three feet from the nose to the tail.

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PLACE.

We are indebted to Mr. Gueldenjlaedt, who very ably fills one of the professor's chairs in the academy at Petersburgh, for the discovery of this animal. It inhabits the reeds and woods in the marshy parts that border on the western sides of the Caspian sea, particularly about the castle Kislar, on the river Terek, and in the Persian provinces of Ghilan and Masenderan, and frequent about the mouth of the Kur, the ancient Cyrus.

MANNERS.

In manners, voice, and food, it agrees with the wild cat. Conceals itself in the day, and wanders over the slooded tracts in search of prey: feeds on rats, mice, and birds, but seldom climbs trees: is excessively fierce, and never frequents the haunts of mankind: is so impatient of captivity, that one which was taken in a trap, and had one leg broken, refused for many days the food placed by it; but in its rage devoured the fradlured limb, with pieces of the stake it was fastened to; and broke all its teeth in the phrenzy of its rage.

207. PERSIAN.

Siyah-Ghush, or BIack-ear. CharletonEx. 21.tab. pag. 23. Raii syn. quad. 168. Ph Trans. vol. Ii. part ii. 648. tab. xiv.

Le Caracal. De Buffon, ix. 261.tab. xxiv. Schreber, ex. LEV. MUS.

C. with a lengthened face, and small head: very long, slender, black ears, terminated with a long tust of black hairs: inside and bottom of the ears white: nose white: eyes small: the upper part of the body is of a very pale reddish brown: the tail rather darker: belly and breast whitish: limbs strong, and pretty long: the hind part of each marked with black: tail about half the length of the body.

Inhabit Persia, India, and Barbary*: are often brought up

* Shaw's travels, 247. The mouth of the Earbary variety is black, and the face fuller.

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tame, and used in the chace of lesser quadrupeds, and the larger fort of birds, such as cranes, pelicans, peacocks, &c. which they surprise with great address: when they seize their prey, hold it fall with their mouth, and lie for a time motionless on it: are said to attend the lion, and to feed on the remains of the prey which that animal leaves*: are fierce when provoked: Dr. Charleton says, he saw one fall on a hound, which it killed and tore to pieces in a moment, notwithstanding the dog defended itself to the utmost.

The Arabian writers call it Anak el Ard: say that it hunts like the panther; jumps up at cranes as they fly; and covers its steps when hunting†.

β. LIBYAN.

C. with short black tusts to the ears, which are white within; of a lively red without: tail white at the tip, annulated with four black rings, with the same black marks behind the four legs.

Greatly inserior in size to the former; not larger than a common cat. Inhabits both Libya and Barbary ‡.

* Voy. de Thevenot, iii. 204. The Arabs, according to Thevexot, call it Kara-Coulac, or Blackear.

† Dr. Thomas Hyde, in Ulugh Beigh, tab. p. 36. The figure is from an original drawing by Mr. Edwards.

De Buffon, Supplem. iii. 232. from Mr. Bruce.

END OF THE FIRST VOLUME.


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