RECORD: Darwin, C. R. Torn Apart notebook (1839-1841) Transcribed by Kees Rookmaaker. CUL-DAR-TornApartNotebook (Darwin Online,

REVISION HISTORY: Transcribed by Kees Rookmaaker, corrections by John van Wyhe 6-7.2009. RN1

NOTE: The pages are provided in the order of the Cambridge University Library microfilm. Pages are found in CUL-DAR208 unless otherwise noted. These pages are the remains of a notebook that which directly followed Notebook E.

See the fully annotated transcription of this notebook by Sydney Smith and David Kohn in Barrett, Paul H., Gautrey, Peter J., Herbert, Sandra, Kohn, David, Smith, Sydney eds. 1987. Charles Darwin's notebooks, 1836-1844 : Geology, transmutation of species, metaphysical enquiries. British Museum (Natural History); Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

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Reproduced with permission of the Syndics of Cambridge University Library and William Huxley Darwin.


Bengal Journal Vol 7. p. 658 — Falconer on Sub. Him. fossils — Ruminants. & Tortoises gigantic — hyæna — bear & ruminants all of larger size. — the law of large size established — Australia, S. America — These strange forms., camels, giraffes. Sivatherium & Anoplotherium, with existing, or nearly existing forms of aquatic reptiles most strange, & shows as in shells some forms are long preserved. —
vol VI. p. 539. Dr Cantor's account of fossil frog, 40 inches in length — !
alludes to ancient gigantic salamanders —
Every order (except whales) have great prototype !!. —


Vol II p. 502. Bengal Journal The Taylor Bird uses pieces of thread, picked up- instead of spinning — better case than English birds, using cotton &c instead of natural substances — useful perversion of instincts —
Beechey's Voyage Vol I. p. 499. 4to. Edit — Horses in Lao Choo so small, that person with long legs can hardly ride on them.
Mr Miller — in Zoological Gardens. informs me that a hybrid between ass & Zebra, crossed with pony mare & produced a very pretty little animal, showing something of Mule in its ears — ((this is good case as showing gradations,


Gleanings of Science Vol III. p 320. Mr Hodgson on Musk Deer — young spotted like in "prettty much as we see in the young of the wild hog & of several species of deer, which are altogether immaculate when grown up".

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Saw at Mr Bell's at Hornsey the offspring of a black & white duck of pecu drake with the penguin duck. it took after the Penguin in the form of its body & in the manner of walking but not waddling; its colour was darker than the penguin & the bright feathers on its wing resembled the drake. — another of same half breed resembled the plumage of drake still more. — So Penguin impresses its form both on vars & species
The male swan-gander with common goose produce full as many eggs as pure bred common. — the half of the cross, as above, take generally after the swan-gander. one of these half-bred ganders. crossed with common goose to has produce offspring with so much of the swan-goose in appearance
Bell at Hornsey

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(though only ¼ of blood). that it appears about half way between swan-goose & common goose. — the stripe down back pretty plain in in these half ¾ bred ones — The brothers & sisters half-breed showed no sexual inclination for each other —

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Aug. 20th
The Echnida & Hedgehog Tenrec both having spines, is the effect, partly of the same external conditions (ie. analogical structure) & partly the laws of organization (ie those laws which prevent infinite variation in every possible way. — the laws which determine the kinds of monstrosity, & determine the kind of variation & sporting in flowers & domestication of animals

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Aug. 26th
When it is said that there is evidence in the organic world of infinite & growing complexity from a few types, it must not be supposed that this refers to time. — Marsupial in Oolite. — insects, of do orders — cheiroptera & cætacea in Eocene — dicot. plants in coal measures. — Shells in Cambrian & Crust show how long since present forms existed, but if it be asked how this complexity from a few types originated, we must go to the first origin of the world. — our present organic beings are the descendants, slightly a good deal modified & Many Forms lost; if of this old stock (which from action & reaction grew more complex) some perhaps rendered more complex & some simplified. —

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Annals of Natural History. no. XII. Vol. 2. p. 96 1 & p. 451. 1839 —
Translation of P. Fries most curious paper on the Pipe-fish — which he divides into two divisions, one of which are marsupial & the other have young which undergo metamorphosis & are provided with fins, & hence do not require sac. — but the male in these hatch young — are there not some. Marsup. Mammalia, which do have not sack, — Most curious facts & this paper deserves fresh study & whole order of the fish. — Embryology


p. 97. for Man Chapt see Yarrell Syngnathus


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I presume, from my theory, as long as any structure can be handed down without being absolutely injurious (or requiring nutrition) to a certain amount it will be so handed down (. as mammae of men callosities on Camels & Horses —. —) & therefore probably any structure would rather become accomodated to new circumstances than it would be eliminated, & hence, the application of structure to purpose after purpose would tend to render complex the series. —
Ch 6

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Upland geese would transplant seeds very far. —

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Sept 31. The identity of (or only closeness) of some species — (especially of mammifers) in old beds & existing species is valuable because it shows no innate power of change & it also shows, what enormous changes of conditions, some species will undergo & yet remain adapted. — it does away with difficulty of rabbits of England remaining same (if so) with those of Spain & such facts — This unequal duration is exactly same as some species extending much further geographically than others.

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Hensleigh objects to transmut. theory, on the grounds of similarity in condition in Java & Sumatra & dissimilarity of forms — yet how valueless this objection, when one thinks of different kinds of cattle in every part of England. &c &c

NB. In botanical geography, there can be no sharp division of partition as between Mammalia in cases such as that of Java & Sumatra

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Nov 15th
Waterhouse showed me the component vertebræ of the head of Snake wonderful!! distinct!! — He would not allow such series showed passages — yet in talking, constantly said as the brain spinal marrow expands, so do the bones are created expand — instead of saying as brain is created &c &c
Bats are a great difficulty not only are no animals known with an intermediate structure, but it is not possible to imagine what habits an animal could have had with such structure. — perhaps greatest

Could anyone. have foreseen, sailing, climbing & mud-walking fish?

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difficult — yet suggested. (vipers tooth also a difficult), the whole mind is constituted that a difficulty makes greater impression, than the grouping of many facts with laws & their explanation will probably reject this theory — (I must answer it by rooting out curious cases of intermediate structure, & supposing much extinction. give a parallel case)
Waterhouse remarked, that any argument for transmut, from one organ graduating into other is lost, be (as vertebræ into skull, two bones of tibia into one. —) because if the animals were taken from which these series were drawn they would not be intermediate, but this is not required. —

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Waterhouse says perhaps animals of Fernando Noronha are found on unknown coast in front of it. —

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Cuvier has grand sentence about the Animaux fossiles — being a mere fragment of the discoveries to come — Owen in his description of my fossils makes same such remark & before the conclusion of his work — Lund makes his wonderful discoveries = negative facts are valueless = monkeys =

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Owen has described a greatt Struthonidous Bird from New Zealand — so not an Apteryx, yet it shows the Apteryx is not quite isolated in its present locality — there have been at least other birds, with small wings, & surely the Apteryx is more closely allied to the Struthonidae than any other forms —

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In S. America. it appears from Lund more Mammals, than at present
in Europe we know there has been several successions of Mammals. —
yet only two monkeys, there are now have been found fossil in S. America, there are now — — species in S. America. — so see what a mere vestige, is preserved in this country — same argument to India & Europe — & Africa!, — any negative argument against — monkey-man, valueless. —
May not several generations have been confounded in the caves?
It is highly important, to bear in mind that enormous periods may elapse, even in situations apparently favourable for the preservation of shells; where land broken, rivers entering. — & yet no shells — now look


at Scotland — coasts of Chile, excepting Concepcion — Patagonia — Beds of La Plata. (except close to B. Ayres). — If we may take this as guide, the shells preserved must be as much a casualty as, bones of Mammalia in caves: — argue first case of bones (New Red Sandstone) & then go on to shells —


A profound consideration of method by which races of men have been exterminated (see Pritchards paper) (Ed. Phil. Journ. end of 1839) very important. it seems owing to immigration of other races, so it is with domestic breeds. (though in this case crossing has had somewhat to do with it. mem. dogs & pigs in Polynesia; & dogs in S. America Rengger.
— now it is this very immigration which tends to make the destroyers vary; so that we here see reasons — why no perfect gradation can be expected in any one country. — in a descending series of strata
This again shows how much forms depend on other forms

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Lyell's Paper, in Taylor's Journ. — Phil. Mag. May. 1840 p. 362. — some Mammals of Norfolk Crag. mentioned — allied Beaver to present forms. — —
How many tertiary estuary & Lacrustine formations contain fossils, — mammals — a few only — & how many estuary formations are there in old Secondary Series — few —

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Maer June /41/, observed 3 plants of Caltha Palustris alone together. one had seed-pods turning brown, whilst both others were in nearly full flower

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Maer June /41/
Rhododendrum — nectary marked by orange freckles on upper petal; bees & flies seen directed to it — The Humbles in crawling out brush over anther & pistil & one I saw impregnate by pollen with which bees a bee was dusted over.
Stamens & pistils have curve upwards, so that anthers & stigma lie in fairway to nectary. — Is not this so in Kidney Bean. How is it generally. —
In Azalea do it is so
Though I saw no Bees several visiting it. — In yellow day lily, the Bees visit base of upper petal, though not differently coloured — & stamens bend up a little


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In a wild purple Geranium, I see Bees visit always base of (a) upper petal from facility of alighting? which is not differently coloured & to which stamen & pistils have no relation. In Monk's Hood, a bee entering long nectary, would necessary cross directly over the bunch of anthers & pistils, but these do do not bend up — In Lark-spur, if Bees put proboscis within nectary they do they must disturb all anthers, wh otherwise lie protected by the hairy black lip of lower division of nectary: wh. itself resembles a Bee, but does not prevent bees visiting it. In Columbine nectaries are placed all round flower as they are in Crown-Imperial Lily & many other flowers —


My view of variety acquired character of characters being inherited at corresponing age & sex, opposed by cantering horses having colts which can canter — & dogs trained to pursuit having puppies with the same powers instinctive & doubtless not confined to sex. — Is not cantering a congenital peculiarity improved. Probably every such new quality becomes associated with some other, as pointing with smell. = These qualities have been given to fœtus fr before sex developed — Double flowers & colours breaking only hereditary characters, wh. come on in


after life of Plants — also goodness of flavour in fruit — all affected by cultivation during life of individual.


[page now in CUL-DAR109.16]

June 1st 1841. Maer Examined the Lemon-thyme. — equally abortive as it was in autumn: filaments united in whole length to corolla —anthers minute, distinctly doubled, brown, but with no pollen. — Common Thyme growing close by is equally abortive —and both growing within Kitchen Garden. — As we see in Hybrids that although anther nor filaments shrivel, yet stigma does not, so we may feel somewhat but little less surprised at Henslow's remark that pistil does not become abortive.


[page now in CUL-DAR109.16]

Examined in microscope — some of the stigmas of [sketch] shape of ordinary Labiatæ —the chief part with ordinary divisions, & a few with one lobe again divided Have dried some. — some with no division in young flowers. The abortive stamen are of useful height. —


[page now in CUL-DAR77.62]

In Lupine, Bees frequent & seem to act, something like on Kidney Bean, they go to nectar at foot of upper petal standing on
I saw Bee go to two species of Lupine,
two wings. & when the Lupine flower is perfectly ripe & pollen abundant filaments & stamens all protrude there is a brush at end of stigma, which forces out from extremity pollen, or pollen comes out with anthers & stigma in slit — As I think they do in Broom & certainly when over-ripe & half withered — I saw Bees going to clover & once this happened. — (a) And in common Beans it is wonderful how the Humbles force down the wings most violently: in Beans the wings seem beautifully to protect sheath


[page now in CUL-DAR77.62]

In all these nectar seems to be at base of upper petal & the curvature of an pistil, &c lies in gangway = In Lotus corniculatus saw Humble press down wings which ejects pollen from tip of sheath. — Also in Lathyrus pratensis yellow saw stigma project In common Pea saw Humble so press down sheath, that stigma covered with pollen was pressed & rubbed along whole breast — pressing either one or both of Pea's wings, stigma & mass of yellow pollen protrudes at sheath. — At last I saw Bee collecting pollen from sheath Keel of Lupine —
Seen Bees on Potato &c several times on Beans


[page now in CUL-DAR49.144]

Rough. — green-cabbage in flower — swarmed with meligethes & small Staphylinidæ on all their bodies pollen — on a sulphur Broccoli not many do — pollen not very abundant. not very small — Saw one small Bee; saw another on Cabbage — white Butterflies suck nectar:
Maer June 41
Rhubarb. pollen very minute — not excessively abundant flowers not attractive, very small — stigma rather large & rough — flowers common — many winged thrips, covered with pollen — Thrips about as large as bit of chopped horse hair with legs & take flight — Yet we have crosses — I see Bees almost


[page now in CUL-DAR49.144]

every flower — Blue-bells — wild-raspberry — leeks — Flowers which thought very unattractive — Found Rhubarb blossom swarming with small Staphylinidæ — Anapsis, Melegethes, Leptuse —Diptera & small Hymenoptera


[page now in CUL-DAR46.2(ser.3).5]

Saw Humble go from great Scarlet Poppy to Rhododendron — from Larkspur to Lupine two species of Larkspur — two varieties of Cistus Speedwell to Rhododendron — Loasa Anchusa — speedwell Iris — Azalea. Rhodendron. Fraxinella to Anchusa never once
P on Fraxinella Heartease small. Humble alighted on base of filaments & reached nectar = again = between them, hence quite below stigma. & so avoided it.
On certain days Humble seem to frequent certain flowers, to day early, the great scarlet Poppy —


[page now in CUL-DAR46.2(ser.3).5]

So that, finally Fraxinella. with respect to nectary is same case as Azalea or Rhododendron


xx after several gloomy days. hot one, Bees almost P every minute to Fraxinella & from flower plant to plant. — to my grt surprise — I found all, stamens straightened pollen profusely shed; lengthened &turned up more than stamens, so that all were brushed by Bees & especially stigma after bee had brushed over the anthers of long stamens
as stamens grow old & shed some pollen. they turn upwards & bend over stigma: — but stigma is almost roofed by united filaments. —
This flower hostile to intermarriage!! xx


In Phil Transact. about year 1778. Paper by Camper on Ourang-outang, has examined 7 says one specimen had on one foot, a toe-nail & two joints — as it is on one foot probably monstruous & not a second species. —

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Saw Maer. June 15./41/. Watched plants of Fraxinella, with seven flower stalks for ten minutes, it was visited by 13 Bees — & each examined very many flowers. = 22d — /during several succeeding days many most numerous bees visited this same bunch & on this day in five minutes eleven Humbles came & each visited many flowers —
Saw Bees frequent these flowers till late in evening — On rough calc. 280 flowers — allowing each Bee visits 10 flowers in minute
each flower will be visited in 28 minutes — say then each flower is visited 30 times a day is considerably under mark, & this has now gone on 14 days. (except some wet ones/ & wd go on longer —

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Woodfords Marrow fat, Early frame, Groom's Dwarf. planted in rows close to each other & seeds gathered al» came up in 1840 true. Shrewsbury. — Abberley —
Early Magazine — &c. double-blossomed & dwarf-fan Bean bean, were planted in rows, & seeds gathered same year came up true in 1840: All in together blossomed together
The seeds of these plants will be collected & resown. —

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Humble 22 flowers of Egg Tree in one minute
Great Humble 17 flowers of Larkspur on two plants in do
Humble 24 flowers of small Linaria in do
Domestic do 6 Campanula (two species) — in do —
do 3 of do in about in ¾ of minute
These latter were pollen gatherers & they seem slow =

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Maer 1840
My Father formerly planted Turkey or Palmated and English, planted within few yards of each other actually produced hybrids — My Father remembered when in the gardens, he knew there was none but English, — the Palmated was introduced about 65 years ago — & soon after mules abounded — so that palmated has now nearly disappeared. & old English But these mules in our garden show no trace of palmation !!?


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Bees at Wild St Johns Wort — Scabies, Cyanoglossum — Reseda wild very many Bees & Humbles —on Thistles many (curious because a Composite)
Asparagus very small flowers & as much shut up, frequented by many Bees & Humbles — Humbles & common On silene, many plants of wh. have abortive stamens = Many Humbles on hedge Linaria =
(Plenty of Humble Bees on Phlox Down, 1854, Sept.)


[page now in CUL-DAR46.2(ser.3):29]

In Spanish Broom by pulling back Wings, pollen is ejected with violence in shower
On many Papilionaceous; all wh. are in flower I saw Bees; — on Monk's Hood, brushing over stamen Egg Tree — I think never on the Galeum saxatile & other common kind — I think not on Phlox though they examine it. — Little Dusty & Blue Butterflies at Clover, — Veronica —, Ranunculus in numbers = what insect can get honey out of long, curved nectar of Butterfly Orchis & Listera?
Bryony saw common Bee on:

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[Page now in CUL-DAR205.3:61]

Boteler's Narrative Voyage East coast of Africa —
Vol II. p. 256 — wild cattle at Madagascar — p. 121 No beasts of Prey.

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any country should during
conditions — every spot is occupied & has been occupied
some species, which has undergone all the changes.
ortant view,

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Gleanings of Sciences. Vol. III p. 83. Paper translated from Meckel. Comp. Anat. — From Buffon cross of he-goat & sheep, it seems male gives form. admitted by Linnæus. — seems to doubt its applicability to common mule & hinnus — in one case bastard of wolf & dog had more form of male, & another of both progenitors — the hinnus, resembles horse in its head ears, tail limbs — in the mules, these parts resemble ass. (& part of body mare) — — this may be, perhaps. squeezed into Mr Walker's law

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Phillips (Lardner's E. vol. II p. 18.) capital list of all the fossil Mamm. of Europe —

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Large Lizards in Navigatores. Williams. Narrative of Missionary enterprises

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Linn. Trans. 18. p. 163. "D. Dod on two new genera of coniferæ". — referring to the 3 main divisions & speaking of their similarity in structure he says "indeed it w d be difficult to point out a family so completely natural & one whose groups pass so insensibly into each other".

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Athenæum 1839 p. 772 — A curious theoretical French book review on politics in relation to the different races of men, some more intellectual than others — is incidentally said that a mongrel man may lose all traces of his parentage in about seven 7generations. — so many!!

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Linn. Trans 18. p. 133 Westwood on the Fulgoridæ enumerates the strange forms which the thorax & head displays. — most fantastic & use unknown. — "when we find such an endless variety of form in the same organ "manifestation of divine power"?. — "of their use difficult to conceive any idea"

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Dr Andrew Smith says in the larks from S. Africa he can almost make series from end to end — so that he is almost led to doubt. whether there is such a thing as a species —

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Athenæum 1839. p. 708. — Shrew, found by M. Lartet same as existing species.

We see the same object gained by the Mataco-armadillo & the woodlouse — — a good analogy — sea-Crustacea — Tulus.

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Athenæum p. 605
Mr Macgillivray says "A Thrush & Blackbird have been known in their its natural state to mate with a thrush" —

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Lund's Antilope in Brazil another point of agreement with. N. America & S., ( ؟ is the peculiar. N. American form) — ؟ Hunting leopard, how strange, anyone, would have thought isolated species Mr Blyth, however, believes in the existence of Molina's Pudu — or goat

There is ibex of Alp Pyrenees &c — (see Blyth's work on Ruminants, — these species must have migrated to these mountains, when the cold was intense just like the alpine plants —

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