RECORD: Darwin, C. R. 1827-1829; 1837-1839, 1842. Edinburgh notebook. CUL-DAR118.- Edited by John van Wyhe (Darwin Online,

REVISION HISTORY: Transcribed by Kees Rookmaaker from microfilm and the manuscript, corrections and editing by John van Wyhe 5-9.2008. RN3

NOTE: See record in the Darwin Online manuscript catalogue, enter its Identifier here. Reproduced with the permission the Syndics of Cambridge University Library and William Huxley Darwin.

This 208 x 136mm quarter leather bound notebook has 218 pages, or 109 folios, with marbled end pages. There is a label on the front cover, on which some archival annotations were made. The folios in the notebook are labelled by an archivist in pencil from 1 to 109 (recto only).

The notebook is almost entirely written in ink. Pages 1-21 were numbered by Darwin, although he skipped 20. The notebook was filled in from both ends. The first sequence starts at the front cover and consists of12 folios [= pp. [i-ii], 1-21, [1] (reverse of folio 12 is blank)]. This is followed by folios 13 to 94 which are blank. The second sequence starts at the back cover and is written on folios 109 to 95, numbered in the order from the front cover by the archivist. The folios were apparently numbered by an archivist after Smith & Barrett (1987) wrote their introduction.

The Edinburgh notes on marine life in this notebook were transcribed and published in Barrett 1977. The zoology notes written after the Beagle voyage (second sequence from the back cover) were transcribed by Paul H. Barrett with an introduction and ample editorial notes in Notebooks. This transcription does not include the pages of Cambridge beetle records.

The present transcription is the first complete transcription of this notebook to be published. It includes a list of fifty-six species of insects compiled by Darwin between 1828-1829 and botanical notes while a student at Christ's College, Cambridge. The notebook was microfilmed first from the front cover inwards and then from the back cover inwards, to facilitate reading the two sequences of entries.

[front cover]

DAR 118

35 ... TX] on label.

[inside cover]


[1 ]

Charles Robert Darwin

March. 1827.



[2 ] 1)

March 1827. —

(1) Procured from the black rocks at Leith a large Cyclopterus Lumpus (common lump fish). Length from snout to tail 23 ½ inches, girth 19 ½. It had evidently come to the rocks to spawn & was there left stranded by the tide; its ovaria contained a great mass of spawn of a rose colour. Dissected it with Dr Grant. — It appeared very free from disease & had no intestinal worms; its back however was covered with small crustaceous animals. — Eyes small. — Hence probably does not inhabit deep seas? Stomach large. Liver without gall-bladder. Kidneys situated some way from the Vertebrae: an unusual fact in cartilaginous Fishes. — Air bladder was not seen. Brain very small; the optic nerves being nearly as large as the spinal cord, neither the brain or spinal matter

[2v] 2)

nearly filling its cavity. — The valves in the heart were very distinct; the peduncle strong. The body was not covered with skin scales, but slimy & remarkably thick. The sucker on its breast was of a white colour. I believe it is generally a reddish yellow? The plebs differ whether it is edible. —

(2) Procured a small green Aolis1 & a Tritonia.

(3) Examined the ova of the Purpura Lapillus & found them out of their capsules & of this shape [sketch]


(4) Found these [sketch] growing out of an Alcyonium.—?

(5) Some ova from the Newhaven rocks said to be that of the Doris, was in every respect similar to that of the Univalves & in rapid motion, & continued so for 7 days.


(6) Observed ova in the Flustra Foliacea & Truncata, the former of which were in motion. —

1 = Aeolis

[3 ] 3)


(7) Adhering to the Fuci one frequently finds whitish circular masses of Ova, of an extremely viscid consistence,—

& have the appearance represented at A [see sketch], when magnified however, it appears to be a mass [of] capsules P containing animals d, united together by a transparent gelatinous matter. In this species I believe I was the first to observe both the animal d & its ciliae, x, in most rapid movement. By the aid of these ciliae it could revolve in its capsule & when freed from it moved so quickly, as to be discernible to the naked eye at some distance. — To what animal these ova belong. I am ignorant? —

(8) I found also another mass of ova, larger & of a browner colour, the capsules also being considerably larger. I could perceive no motion in these [sketch]. —

(9) Found some ova (I believe that of the Doris Argo) resembling a piece of tape. —

[3v] 4)

the capsules were rather irregular, containing from 1 to 3 angular shaped bodies, — in which I could perceive no motion.—the capsules had the appearance of being united, & of an oblong shape [sketch]. These capsules were arranged in regular rows—in this manner. [sketch]

(10) April 15th

One frequently finds on the Fuci a gelatinous mass of this appearance [sketch] containing a number [of] ova, which when magnified consist of A [sketch] an outer capsule. B a gelatinous mass, & c the young animal on which at its anterior end are situated numerous ciliae. these by their constant motion cause the young animal to turn rapidly round within the capsule,—& when freed from its capsule to move to & fro in the water with the greatest ease. — I kept some of these ova in a bottle of the same

[4 ] 5)

water & at the end of 30 days were yet in motion. —

(11) — 20th

Having procured some specimens of the Flustra Carbacea (Lam.) from the dredge boats at Newhaven; I soon perceived without the aid of a microscope small yellow bodies studded in different directions on it. — They were of an oval shape & of the colour of the yolk of an egg, each occupying one cell. Whilst in their cells I could perceive no motion: but when left at rest in a watch glass, or shaken they glided to & fro with so rapid a motion, as at some distance to be distinctly visible to the naked eye. When highly magnified, the ciliae, which were chiefly distributed on the broader end, were

[4v] 6)

seen in rapid motion; the central ones being the longest. I may mention that I have also observed ova of the Flustra Foliacea & Truncata in motion. That such ova had organs of motion does not appear to have been hitherto observed either by Lamarck Cuvier Lamouroux or any other author: — This fact although at first it may appear of little importance, yet by adducing one more to the already numerous examples will tend to generalise the law that the ova of all Zoophites enjoy spontaneous motion. —

This & the following communication was read both before the Wernerian & Plinian Societies.

[5 ] 7)

(12) One frequently finds sticking to oyster & other old shells small black globular bodies, which the fishermen call great Pepper-corns. These have hitherto been always mistaken for the young Fucus Lorius to which it bears a great resemblance. Having opened some of these they at first appeared only to contain an extremely viscid fluid without any traces [of] organisation; but on examining some others I found that this fluid by degrees acquiring a vermicular shape, when matured was the young Pontobdella Muricata (Lam.) which were in every respect perfect & in motion. Each ovum

[5v] 8)

consisted of two parts, the outer capsule being coriceous & of considerable thickness, whilst the inner consisted merely of a thin black membrane. This bag never contained more than one animal, in which it differs remarkably from that of other Molluscous animals such as the Doris Buccinum Purpura &c. &c., for in these one capsule generally contains numerous ova. — At each end there is a prominent orifice, which appears to be the outlet of the young animal, but hitherto mistaken for the branches of the Fucus. — The adult animal bears a considerable analogy to the Leeches

[6 ] 9)

& was even placed by Linnaeus in his genus Hirudo with the specific name of Muricata. — Most of the leeches are viviparous & therefore the fact of the Muricata being oviparous, besides on its own account, is of value as it shows to what a great extent the mode of generation differs in the lower animals. —

(13) Procured on 15th of April from deep water in Frith of Forth a good many specimens of the Pennatula Mirabilis. The Polype were situated on one side of the bony axis in alternate lunate fillets in number from 70-80. Each fillet consisted of about 12 polype. Towards one end of many of the

[6v] 10)

longest specimens a yellowish appearance, which upon examination turned out to be numerous ova. They were situated between the fillets towards the bare side of the stem. They were easily separated in great number from the gelatinous axis upon its being torn. But I could perceive no motion. —

(14) 23rd

Procured from the Frith of Forth numerous specimens of the Pennatula Phosphorea. differs from the Mirabilis in there being only 20 rows or Fillets of polype, & in these rows about 12 Polype. These fillets are opposite & decrease in size towards both end of the axis.

[7 ] 11)

The bony axis does not appear at either end of the Zoophite as it does in the Mirabilis, but gradually tapers into two filiform soft & flexible points embedded in the fleshy matter. Inclosed in & at the base of the fillets were several ova. of a large size & of a yellow colour could perceive no motion. I may remark that each fillet is broardest in the middle & tapers toward both ends. The whole Zoophite has a soft glu slimy feel, & of a red colour. The long axis in both of the above-mentioned species effervesced rapidly with nitric acid. —

[7v] 12)

15. —
Observed, with Mr Coldstream at the black rocks at Leith, an Asterias rubens doubled up as it were, so that the disk part formed pouch, in which were numerous loose ova; which the animal was in act of discharging from its mouth. The double Ovaria in each of the animals limbs. contained a mass of ova of a small size & of an orange colour. —

16. — [no text]

[8 ] 13)

Having taken a grain of pollen out of the Anther in an unopened Geranium flower: I placed it in spirits of wine: it was of a sphaerical shape & of a yellow colour: after remaining a minute in the Spirits three transparent cones were protruded from its side: these in the course of a few minutes burst, & sent, with great violence, from one of the cones numberless granules: By the next morning (the Geranium being kept in water)

[8v] 14)

the Anthers had deshisced & the pollen was scattered about. — A grain now being placed in water Spirits, emitted its contents with such force that the grain itself moved very rapidly in the liquid so rapidly indeed, that I could not follow with the microscope: When placed in water it exploded almost instantly but not with quite such force. —

[9 ] 15)

The Epidermis of the Petals in the Geranium was is very curious; it consists of 6 (or occasionally 7) sided cells) on the sides of these cells; these [had] 12 small projections which alternate with those of the neighbouring cells: it has the same appearance, both on upper & under side: no stomata: In the Stamina, the cuticle of the Filament were Rhomboidal: in the covering of the Antherii the cells had knobbed sides: The pistil full of Tracheae. Cuticle with Rhomboidal cells. Sepals full of Tracheae. cuticle with oblong cells. —

[9v] 16)

The cells in the cuticle of the Bracteae very irregular oblong: in the Pedicel rather more regular: — A Transverse section of this latter part gives a star-like appearance, this is owing to about 10 groups of ducts set within a ring of them: by dissecting a portion of the pedicel vertically these ducts were very easily seen: without this darkish ring came a circle of rather irregularly celled parenchymatous matter: then ring of green matter: then cuticle. —

[10 ] 17)

Examined the grain of pollen in Orchis morio. they are of a green colour. & of a wedge shape with the sharp end truncated. They are fastened at their narrow ends one to the other by a highly elastic thread. —

This is the end of the fair written papers on Flustra. It is supplemented by pages of more roughly written notes numbered in the same sequence. These are written in pencil.

[10v] 18

It would be curious experiment to put box with boiled earth on top of house & see how soon any plants would come there

[11 ] 19

F. Hope. Carabidae

F. Hope. Australia
            Van Diemen's Land
            King George's Sound

Waterhouse minute insects from do


Babington water insects from all parts of the world


[12 ] 21

I suspect some curious experiments might be made by tying bladder over bottle with different kinds of salts & observing whether vapour does not carry them up? mem bottles with salt from Patagonia after having been kept for some time —

[12v] [blank]

[Second sequence starting at back cover begins here.]

[back cover]

marbled, blank.

[inside back cover]

Dar 118

December 1856

skimmed through & extracted



Some excellent references in L. Jenyn's introduction to Mag of Zoology and Botany.

Philosoph. Transacts. 3. papers connected with transform of crust — Westwood & Thompsons. — Part II — 35. Phil Tran

Burrowing & boring marine animals. CXVI. P 111 do

Observation on Planariae by Johnson CXII. & CXV do1

page in pencil. Lower quarter of page is cut off.

1 Barrett et al 1987, p. 477, located the excised fragment of this page in DAR205.2.30 with this text:
Azara Voyage Vol I p. 196. According to Charpentier de Cossigny. only 10 years ago no snail was introduced to Mauritius. 18


8. Dermes: taken out of a case of Chinese insects, which had however been for some time in England. —

17. Streatham. garden behind the Alehouse.

18 Bought of a man had a collection <some words excised> for exhibition in Cam:2

Lower quarter of page is cut off.

2 Barrett et al 1987, p. 477, located the fragment of this page in DAR205.2.30. The image on the microfilm does not provide a view of the reverse.



1 Harpalus tardus }[1-3] Southend
2 . . . . . rubripes (2 specimens) male & female
3 . . . . rufimanus
4 [Bryphillus.][=? Biphyllus]   Gloucestershire
5 Hydroporus lineatus  
6 . . . . . picipes } [5-6] Southend
7 Berosus aericeps
8 Dermestes vulpinus  
9 Omaseus anthracinus ? Hope
10 Hydroporus humeralis  
11 Harpalus anxius  
12 [Ptinus] Fur [Ptinus] lichenum. Mr Waterhouse
13 Donacia proteus. Waterhouse
14 Philochthus biguttatum  
15 Helophorus tri viridi collis  
16 Hydrobius substriatus. Hope
17 Cassida ferruginea.  
18 Tarus basalis.  
19 Panagaeus 4 pustulatus. (Hope)
20 Hydroporus areolatus  
21 Dromius. fasciatus. Southend
22 Rhyzobius    
23 Cryptophagus    


32. Cryp: always taken on the sea shore near or upon a creeping sort of wild rose. — early in July . — 29.

33. Cryp: on Barmouth rocks. August. — 29

36 Nitid. on old bones. Summer. — 29

38 Rhy: taken together with some Nitidulae in a wild Bees nest. June. — 29

39 & 40. Anth: taken chiefly on umbelliforous plants.

41. Ips. May. 1829


24 Scolytus destructor Cam
25 Engis rufifrons  
26 Gryphus equiseti  
27 Cateretes    
28 Notaphus    
29 Haliplus obliquus. Cam
30 Lopha poecila. Cam
31 Silvanus.   Cam:
32 Cryptocephalus minuta. Barmouth
33 Cryp: ... bipustulatus Do
34 Cryp. gracilis.? Weaver
35 Nitidula punctatissima. Woodhouse June. 29
36 . . . . . sordia. Shrewsbury
37 Meligethes rufipes (rose blossoms)
38 Rhyzophagus . . .  
39 Anthemus varius. Shrew.
40 An: . . verbasii Shrew.
41 Ips ferruginea? Shrew. (taken flying)
42 Byrrhus dorsalis. Gravel pits May. —28
43 Malachius ruficollis. Cam. Summer. — 29
44 Elater segetis. Passim
45 Hylesinus sulcatus. June. Shrew: — 29
46 Callidium bagulum. Hope
47 Dromius bifasciatus Weaver


49. Het. creeping in great profusion together with laevigatus. & Cillenum laterale on a muddy bank which was daily overflowed by the tide. we only found it on the opposite side of the river to Barmouth

51. Gal: in great profusion


48 Ocys melanocephalus Cam. Summ: — 29
49 Heterocerus obsoletus. Barmouth
50 Callidium alni. Kent
51 Galeruca lineola. Barmouth. July. — 29
52 Gal. crataegi. Cam. — 28
53 Crysomela
quinquejugis. Barmouth
54 Cercyon quisquilius. Shrews:
55 Platysma niger  
56 Chaetophora? Maer. stone quarries


Azara Voyage vol. I p. 279

Think the Moruffetes of Chile different from those of La Plate or Paraguay.

do. p. 365. 3 cats (mbara caya, le negro et le pajero). l'yaguare, the zorilla or skunk, le quiya (coipu) viscacha. — A. Patagonicus

les tatous (pichye, pelud, mulita, et mataco) are all found south of 26˚ 30'. Lat. —

do. p. 207. La punaise was not known amongst Indian introduced in Paraguay in 1769 in Governors train !?



Las Vinchuca or Benchuca "Les individus ailés peuvent avoir quatre cinq lignes de long et volent p. 208

Fleas only appear in winter in Paraguay. p. 207

Slight notice on habit of Iguana, not pass Lat. 28˚ north. p. 239

In ocean between Lat.56˚ and 57˚ any inhabitant crust Entomost of the genera Cyclops. p. 134 and p. 115

In white Cape Pidgeon's stomach small shells (patella) sea weed & many pebbles

Mentions stinging Millepora. Quoy.

Freycinets Voyage Vol. p. 597

(Many descriptions about lower animals of Falklands &c &c )


Bennett on Chincillidae

Zoolog Transacts worth reading

Cuvier's Memoire in 1803 on Pennatula showing it to be one animal

In Australia I was assured wild dog copulates freely with tame: comes to houses on purpose

Mr J. Murray has given paper to Royal Soc. on glow worm luminous property. —

Curious arrangement of animals in rays Par un officier du Roi

Rapid growth of coral. RN. p. 24

RN. p. 24] encircled.


Bougainville voyage round the worl

no land animal besides wolf or jackal at Falkland ∴ black rabbit not indigenous p.112

M. Lesson Voyage of Coquille

with limits of Mullipora

Discussion good on Falkland birds

Discussion of Firola, — Salpa Analiss without shells. ! p. 442 — Planariae p. 451 — many molluscs.

Under the name of Sagitta Triptera M. D'Orbigny has described my animal with teeth [small sketch, or deleted word] p. 140

Fleche of Quoy et Gaimard

Ulloa shell fish Purple die

Marvellous stones Ulloa's Voyage Vol I p 168


Ceratophytes common in Northern sea. Chamisso in Kotzebue p. 312

Leaches on leaves in Sumatra. Marsden p 311

D'Orbigny considers Dasypus villosus is true Peludo

Cavia Australis. Dorbigny vol II p 24

Proceedings of Zoolog Soc. Important account of habits of Tubularia. p 52 May 1836

dimensions of immense Tortoise p. 81 & p 113 of 1834

On the passeres of S. America, D'Orbigny. L'Institut. No 221

Good account of Condor by Humboldt Zoologie. Receuil.

Meyen has written account of Guanaco. In the transactions of Bonn Society.


M. Edwards on Corallines L'Institut 1837 no.212

Observations on the Raptores of S. America translated from D'Orbigny no. IV Mag. of Zoology & Botany p. 356

Lesson on Berre. do —

Magazine of Zoology & Botany Vol I p. 358 D'Orbigny considers states that young birds of prey have longer tails than old ones — in America & sexes not of different size — How does this apply to pale brown Caracara


Krauss on Corallines from S. Sea, written in German. — Stuttgart. ranks these bodies amongst vegetables in Linn. Soc. — Mr Donn

Carmichael Linn. Transact. Vol XII. p. 496. Birds at Tristan d'Acunha. —

(Turdus Guayanensis ?) Emberiza Brasiliensis (?) Fulica Chloropus.

says some of the species of smaller petrels are night birds agree with [word deleted] nocturnal habits of Crustacea.

Mr Broderip says that Voluta found in not less than 7 fathoms water Mem Bahia Blanca

De la Beche theoretical researches

Compare land shells of Galapagos different islds


Waterhouse remarks that no insectivore in S. America or Australia.

very curious. replaced by Didelphidae.

Skunk inhabitant of Polynesia. Mem. —

S. Cruz

Molina Vol. I. p. 244. Bacalao migratory fish. — See Kings drawings. — for real name

Birds of Iceland. Mackenzie p. 345 for comparison with Falkland. good also for Journal. 18

admirable engravings in Meyen Zoology on animal of Campanularia.

18] added red pencil.


Alcedo stellata. Meyen p. 92 — great kingfisher of Tierra del Fuego killed in Chile.

Dobritzhoffer. Vol I p. 310 History of the Abipones says it the Condor is found in the Tucuman mountains.

The fourth Vol. in Lyell's possession of Zoology of Voyage of Astrolabe must be studied for anatomy of corals — nevertheless the details appear very trifling. Also Berre p. 8 (I think Planariae) Sagitella or Fleche p. 8 my little animal with horns. Madrepores p. 26 Nullipora p. 29. —

In Meyen Voyage round the world German a reference to a luminous Sertularia


Lesson Zoolog. Coq. p. 120 Coati Roux. Tatous and perhaps Yagouarundi near Concepcion !!! (no species mentioned)

p. 205 only 9. Terrestrial birds of Falklands Isd 8 waders. 22 palmipedes: out of the first 9: 4 raptores

Falco poliosoma

— novazelandiae

— histrionicus

Vultus aura

Saw a Chouette a huppe cruste

Turdus falklandii

Excessively inaccurate. talks of nine terrestrial, & then 9 passeres!

Says the thrush & another species! birds of passage !! sylvia macloviana 2d like sylvia cisticola. — — Emberiza

elanodera. — — a linnet not caught — Troglogdytis

Furnarius — Sturnus magellanicus. —

p. 210. Scolopax very close to ours

Rengger's work of Mammalia of Paraguay must be most important

a discussion of geographical distribution of Mammalia. &c &c &c —

Excessively inaccurate] encircled.


The French [word deleted] Bibron, coworker of Dumeril who is working with Dumeril says that two species of Tortoises come from Galapagos !!!

Azara. Voyage dans l'Amerique Merid. Tatia noir abundant from Paraguay to 27˚, then the Mulita from 4˚ to 26˚ to closely allied species. therefore interlock. —

Testudo Indicus not fossil at isle of France: [word deleted] Bibron

Zool. Journ. vol. I p. 125 owls seen crossing atlantic. fact taken from Jenner (1825) Phil: Transact. — "on migrations of Birds". 18

do. vol. III p. 422 Letter from Capt. King on birds of St. of Magellan. very inaccurate

& vol. IV p. 9. —

Vol IV p. 388 Domestic mouse of Egypt is Mus Cahirimus of Geof. — reference from Rüppel travels

18] added red pencil.


All Owens papers on Intestinal worms must be studied in Vol. I Zoolog: Transact. before writing on Planaria or polypi — is especially grand paper p. 387 "on Classification of such animals." —

Voyage Coquille's Voyage p. 302 Vol. II p. 302 Vaginulus of Lima described "Arion" of Ascension p. do

Some S American Reptiles are described

Shells from Tahiti and Chile

The North & S. Range of shells might perhaps be worked out with advantage with Cumms collection & my own: & Capt. Kings

p. 453 Planaria vitella (Less.) parasitical on Vitellae in Atlantic Ocean.


Gould agrees with D'Orbigny, that serpent eater — or secretary is S.African representative of Caracaras of America — manner of walking, foot, bill crest feathering on legs

Does the Secretary make noise & throw head back

Mr Edwards on polypi of Tubulipores

L'Institut, 1838 p. 75

A detailed comparison of production without Tropics in Northern & Southern America — a valuable & practicable &c &c

Caricaridae wanderers. — ?? in N. America. ??

Wilson N. American Ornithology must be studied before writing my general account —


؟ Do not the Penguins replace the Auk Guillemots of the northern hemisphere, & the Puffinuria the auks. — What structure do the auks bear trace of. — like Puffinuria does of Petrel?

Study Birds of Europe for other representatives of this class.

Pyrocephalus & many Tyrannulae — replace warblers of Europe

Study profoundly shells of Bahia Blanca & Southern Hemisphere


It is most interesting the way Synallaxis lead into Furnarius by Patagonian Furnarius. —

into Oxyurus, by Maldonado creeper of same plumage. — general red mark on wings of all — Spix has described Philedon allied to some of my birds —

these groups strictly American colouring on under side of wings

It would be interesting comparison to find how many of the small finches walk at Maldonado & Patagonia compared with those of England. —

On ground birds — rather indefinite letter

Mem Orpheus becoming tyrant — flycatcher ∴ shown by habits & plumage so very similar to some of the Fluvicola ? —


The Birds seem to be more much further north on West coast of S. America than on East — not being replaced by Brazilian species —

Mem. Turdus magellanicus —

C. Chingolo Chimango —

Dinca ? ?

See Report by on D'Orbigny on species of Mephitis

4 distinct Camelidae do not breed together

Mag: of Zoology & B. Vol. II. p. 127.

List of submarine insects Staphylinidae &c &c with reference to those of mine from T. del Fuego

p. 141. How comes it salt water so soon putrifies ? ?

p. 319. on Hydra-polypi —


Rep do p. 324 Polypi shorter duration than cells reproduced. —

Milne Edwards p. 138 on Polypi. — Berenica &c &c
L'Institut 1838

p. 46 Macleay Horae: Entomolog..

insects swarm in Lapland & Spitzbergen wherever there is extreme heat, the tropical forms extend further north, because during winter they can bear the cold when torpid. — On this principle tropical forms in N. America extend much further N. in N. America than in Europe — Coleoptera especially require a greater duction of Heat, hence mosquitoes & knats abound during short summer far N. where the other order is comparatively rare. — These views clearly explain rarity of insects in T. del Fuego. — Hence it is odd that amber insects of Europe have Tropical forms


See p 256 of Note Book (C) for comparison of singing powers of birds of N. America & Europe

Entomolog. Transact. vol. I p. 130 Col Sykes on balls made by dung beetles, like those from Chiloe

Amblyrhyncus de Marlin James Isd

Lutke Voyage Vol. III p. 322

Dr Martens says only one Reptile in Kamtchatka (Salamandra aquatica)

compare with T del Fuego

Compare birds of do with [letter deleted] N. America & T. del Fuego & Iceland


Spix & Martius talk of birds singing in the forests of Brazil

H. Wedgwood says in 14th 13th vol. of Archaeologia arrowheads described in Suffolk as lying under strata of gravel & clay about 10 feet in thickness (March 1842)



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