RECORD: Darwin, C. R. Notebook B: [Transmutation of species (1837-1838)]. CUL-DAR121.- Transcribed by Kees Rookmaaker. (Darwin Online, http://darwin-online.org.uk/)

REVISION HISTORY: Transcribed by Kees Rookmaaker 1-2.2007 based on Barrett, P. H. ed. 1960. A transcription of Darwin's first notebook [B] on 'Transmutation of species'. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard 122: [245]-296, for 1959-1960 (April). [Text] and corrected against the microfilm. Deletions, punctuation and page numbers were added. Corrections by John van Wyhe. RN6

NOTE: This 17 x 9.7 cm notebook is bound in brown leather with the border blind embossed: the brass clasp is intact. Both covers of the notebook have labels of cream-coloured paper with 'B' written in ink. It comprises 280 pages, all numbered consecutively by Darwin. Twenty-seven pages were excised by Darwin, of which twenty-three have subsequently been found.

Footnotes are taken from three publications. The provenance is indicated at the end of each note. There is some overlap in the bibliographic contents of the footnotes, in which case only those by De Beer have been used. Footnote numbers have been changed.

[deB] Footnotes from:
de Beer, G. ed. 1960. Darwin's notebooks on transmutation of species. Part I. First notebook [B] (July 1837-February 1838). Bulletin BMNH (Hist.) 2, No. 2 (January): 23-73. Text Image PDF F1574a

[deB67] Footnotes from:
de Beer, G. ed. 1960. Darwin's notebooks on transmutation of species. Part I. First notebook [B] (July 1837-February 1838). Bulletin BMNH (Hist.) 2 (2) (Jan.): 23-73. Text Image PDF F1574a

[Ba] Footnotes from:
Barrett, P. H. ed. 1960. A transcription of Darwin's first notebook [B] on 'Transmutation of species'. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard 122: [245]-296, for 1959-1960 (April). Text Image F1575

See the fully annotated transcription of this notebook by David Kohn in Barrett, Paul H., Gautrey, Peter J., Herbert, Sandra, Kohn, David, Smith, Sydney eds. 1987. Charles Darwin's notebooks, 1836-1844: Geology, transmutation of species, metaphysical enquiries. British Museum (Natural History); Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Editorial symbols used in the transcription:
[some text] 'some text' is an editorial insertion
[some text] 'some text' is the conjectured reading of an ambiguous word or passage
[some text] 'some text' is a description of a word or passage that cannot be transcribed
< > word(s) destroyed
<some text> 'some text' is a description of a destroyed word or passage
Text in small red font is a hyperlink or notes added by the editors.

Reproduced with the permission of Wilma M. Barrett, the Syndics of Cambridge University Library, The Natural History Museum and William Huxley Darwin.


[front cover]

B

[inside front cover]

C. Darwin

All useful Pages cut out December 7th. /1856/
(& again looked through April 21 1873).

p. 26 30 41 46 50 54 56 67 69 76 79 91 93 107 Ireland 113 117

1

This book was commenced about July, 1837.
p. 235 was written in January 1838.
Probably ended in beginning of February.

ZOONOMIA

Two kinds of generation1
the coeval kind, all individuals absolutely similar, for instance fruit trees, probably polypi, gemmiparous propagation, bisection of Planaria, &c., &c.
T the ordinary kind, the which is a longer process, the new individual passing through several stages (؟ typical of the or shortened repetition of what the original molecule has done). This appears

1 generation, i.e., reproduction

2

highest office in organization (especially in lower animals, where mind, and therefore relations to other life, has not come into play) — see Zoonomia1
arguments, fails in hybrids where everything else is perfect;
mothers apparently only born to breed. — annuals rendered perennial, &c., &c.
(Yet Eunuchs nor cut stallions nor nuns are longer lived.
Why is life short, Why such high object generation. — We know world subject to cycle of change, temperature and all circumstances which

1 Erasmus Darwin. Zoonomia; or, the laws of organic life, London 1794, vol. I, p. 487: "This paternal offspring of vegetables, I mean their buds and bulbs, is attended with a very curious circumstance: and that is, that they exactly resemble their parents, as is observable in grafting fruit-trees, and the propagating flower-roots; whereas the seminal offspring of plants, being supplied with nutriment by the mother, is liable to perpetual variation." [deB]

3

influence living beings. —
We see living beings the young of living beings, become permanently changed or subject to variety, according to circumstances, — seeds of plants sown in rich soil, many kinds, are produced, though new individuals produced by buds are constant, hence we see generation here seems a means to vary, or adaptation. Again we believe (know) in course of generations even mind and instinct become influenced. —

4

child of savage not civilized man. — birds rendered wild through generation acquire ideas ditto. V. Zoonomia. —
There may be unknown difficulty with full grown individual with fixed organization thus being modified; — therefore generation to adapt & alter the race to changing world. —
On other hand, generation destroys the effect of accidental injuries, on which if animals lived forever, would be endless

5

(that is, with our present systems of body and universe
therefore final cause of life
With this tendency to vary by generation, why are. species are constant over whole country? Beautiful law of intermarriages separating partaking of characters of both parents, and these infinite in number. In man it has been

6

said, there is instinct for opposites to like each other.
Ægyptian cats and dogs, ibis same as formerly, but separate a pair & place them on fresh isld. it is very doubtful whether they would remain constant; is it not said that marrying in deteriorates a race; that is alters it from some end which is good for man. —

7

Let a pair be introduced and increase slowly, from many enemies, so as often to intermarry who will dare say what result
According to this view animals on separate islands ought to become different if kept long enough apart with slightly differing circumstances. — Now Galapagos Tortoises, Mocking birds, Falkland Fox, Chiloe fox, — Inglish and Irish Hare -

8

As we thus believe species vary, in changing climate, we ought to find representative species; this we do in South America] closely approaching. — but as they inosculate, we must suppose the change is effected at once, — something like a variety produced (every grade in that case surely is not

9

produced? —
Granting Species according to Lamarck1 disappear as collections made perfect. — truer even than in Lamarck's time.
Gray's remark2, best known species (as some common land shells) most difficult to separate.
Every character continues to vanish: bones, instinct &c. &c. &c.

1 Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck. Philosophie Zoologique, Paris 1809, vol. I, p. 75: " à mesure que nos collections s'enrichissent, nous voyons presque tous les vides se remplir et nos lignes de séparation s'effacer … plus nous rencontrons de preuves que tout est nuanceé, que les différences remarquables s'évanouissent." [deB]
2 Gray, John Edward. 1835. Remarks on the difficulty of distinguishing certain genera of testaceous Mollusca by their shells alone, and on the anomalies in regard to habitation observed in certain species. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London: 301-310. [Ba]

10

nonfertility of hybridity &c. &c.
assuming all If species (a) (1) may be derived from form (2), &c., then (remembering Lyell's1 arguments of transportal continents) island near continents might have some species same as nearest land, which were late arrivals

1 Charles Lyell. Principles of Geology, vol. 2, London 1832, pp. 96–104. [deB]

11

others old ones (of which none of same kind had in interval arrived) might have grown altered.
Hence the type would be of the continent though species all different.
In cases as Galapagos and Juan Fernandez
when continent of Pacific existed, might have been monsoons, when they ceased, importation ceased, &

12

changes commence
or intermediate land existed, — or they may represent some large country long separated. —
On this idea of propagation of species we can see why a form peculiar to continents, all bred in from one parent
why Myothera several

13

species in S. America
why 2 of ostriches in S. America. —
This is answer to Decandolle1 (his argument applies only to hybridity), — genera being usually peculiar to same country,
different genera, different countries.

1 Augustin-Pyramus de Candolle. Essai élémentaire de géographie botanique, Strasbourg 1820, p. 60: "Les différences constantes des végétaux nés dans diverses régions ne semblent sa rapporter ni à l'une ni à l'autre de ces classes [ = produites par les élémens extérieurs + formées par l'hybridité] on ne peut les attribuer aux circonstances externes, … on ne peut les attribuer à l'hybridité … [Les] espèces sont distribuées sur le globe en partie d'aprés des lois qu'on peut immédiatement déduire de la combinaison des lois connues de la physiologie et de la physique, en partie d'après les lois qui paroissent tenir à l'origine des choses et qui nous sont inconnues." (This question was discussed by Lyell, Principles of Geology, vol. 2, London 1832, p. 56.)[deB]

14

Propagation explains why modern animals same type as extinct which is law almost proved. —
We can see why structure is common is common [sic] in certain countries when we can hardly believe necessary, but if it was necessary to one forefather, the result would be as it is. — Hence Antelopes at C. of Good Hope, —

15

Marsupials at Australia. —
Will this apply to whole organic kingdom when our planet first cooled. —
Countries longest separated greatest differences — if separated from immense ages1 possibly two distinct type, but each having its representatives — as in Australia.
This presupposes time when no Mammalia existed; Australian Mamm. were produced from propagation from different set, as the rest of the world.) —

1 Francis Darwin transcribed "immense ages" as "immersage," see: Darwin, Francis. 1898. Life and letters of Charles Darwin, vol. 1, p. 367. New York, Appleton. [Ba]

16

This view supposes that in course of ages, & therefore changes
every animal has tendency to change. —
This difficult to prove
cats, &c., from Egypt.
no answer because time short & no great change has happened.
I look at two ostriches as strong argument of possibility of such

17

change, as we see them in space, so might they in time.
As I have before said, isolate species, & give them even less change
especially with some change, probably change vary quicker.
Unknown causes of change. Volcanic isld? —
Electricity.

18

Each species changes.
does it progress?
Man gains ideas.
the simplest cannot help — becoming more complicated; & if we look to first origin there must be progress.
If we suppose monads are constantly formed, ؟ would they not be pretty similar over whole world under

19

similar climates & as far as world has been uniform at former epoch].
How is this Ehrenberg?1
every successive animal is branching upwards,
different types of organization improving as Owen2 says,
simplest coming in and most perfect and others occasionally dying out; for instance, secondary terebratula may

1 Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg. Die fossilen Infusorien und die lebendige Dammerde, Berlin 1837.[deB]
2 Richard Owen. Probably personal communication.[deB]

20

have propagated recent terebratula, but Megatherium nothing.
We may look at Megatherium, armadillos & sloths as all offsprings of some still older type
some of the branches dying out. —
With this tendency to change (& to multiplication when isolated requires deaths of species to keep numbers

21

of forms equable)
but is there any reason for supposing numbers of forms equable? — this being due to subdivisions and amount of differences, so forms would be about equally numerous
Changes not result of will of animal, but law of adaptation as much as acid and alkali.
Organized beings represent a tree irregularly branched
some branches far more branched — Hence Genera. —)
As many terminal buds dying as new ones generated

22

There is nothing stranger in death of species than individuals
If we suppose monad definite existence, as we may suppose in this case, their creation being dependent on definite laws, then those which have changed most owing to the accident of positions must in each state of existence have shortest

23

life. Hence shortness of life of Mammalia.
Would there not be a triple branching in the tree of life owing to three elements
air, land & water, & the endeavour of each one typical class to extend his domain into the other domains, and subdivision three more, double arrangement. —

24

if each main stem of the tree is adapted for these three elements, there will be certainly points of affinity in each branch
A species as soon as once formed by separation or change in part of country repugnance to intermarriage increases it settles it

25

؟ We need not think that fish & penguins really pass into each other. —
The tree of life should perhaps be called the coral of life, base of branches dead; so that passages cannot be seen. — this again offers

26

contradiction to constant succession of germs in progress
no only makes it excessively complicated.

[sketch]

Is it thus fish can be traced right down to simple organization. — birds — not?

[sketch]

27

We may fancy according to shortness of life of species that in perfection, the bottom of branches deaden,
so that in Mammalia, birds, it would only appear like circles, & insects amongst articulata. — but in lower classes perhaps a more linear arrangement. —

28

؟ How is it that there come aberant species in each genus (with well characterized parts belonging to each) approaching another.
Petrels have divided themselves into many species, so have the Awks, there is particular circumstances to which
is it an index of the point whence, two favourable points of organization commenced branching. —

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As all the species of some genera have died, have they all one determinate life dependent on genus, that genus upon another, whole class would die out, therefore not. —
Monad has not definite existence. —
There does appear some connection shortness of existence in perfect species from many therefore changes and base of branches being dead from which they bifurcated. —

30e

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Type of Eocene with respect to Mioce of Europe?
Loudon. Journal. of Nat History. —
July 1837. Eyton1 of Hybrids propagating freely
In Isld neighbouring continent where some species have passed over, & where other species have come "air" of that place.2 Will it be said, those have been there created there; —

1 Thomas Campbell Eyton. "Some Remarks upon the Theory of Hybridity". Mag. Nat. Hist., N.S. vol. 1, 1837, p. 357: "a hybrid male and female, derived from the Chinese and common goose, had been productive inter se" [deB67]
1A John Hunter, Observations on certain parts of the Animal Oeconomy, with notes by Richard Owen, London 1837, "Observations tending to show that the Wolf, Jackal and Dog are all of the same species". [deB67]

31

Are not all our British Shrews diff: species from the continent
Look over. Bell1 & L. Jenyns.2
Falkland rabbit may perhaps be instance of domesticated animals having effected. a change whi the Fr. naturalists thought was species
Ascensi Study Lesson Voyage of Coquille.3

1 Thomas Bell. A History of British Quadrupeds, London 1837. On p. xviii there is a notice pointing out that the Sorex araneus of British authors is not the S. araneus of the continent. Ellerman & Morrison-Scott (Checklist of Palaearctic & Indian Mammals, London 1951, p. 51) accord the status of a geographical race to the British Sorex araneus castaneus Jenyns 1838.[deB]
2 Leonard Jenyns, afterwards Blomefield. A Manual of British Vertebrate Animals, London 1835, p. 17: "incisors deep feruginous brown* * This circumstance together with one or two others, induces me to suspect that the S. araneus of the continental authors may be distinct from ours." This suspicion was verified by Jenyns in his paper "Further remarks on the British shrews", Ann. Nat. Hist., vol. I, p. 417; especially p. 424.[deB]
3 René-Primevère Lesson & Prosper Garnot. Voyage autour du monde … sur … la Coquille, pendani … 1822–1825. Zoologie, Paris 1826–30.[deB]

32

Dr. Smith1 says he is certain that when White men & Hottentots or Negros cross at C. of Good Hope
the children cannot be made intermediate. The first children partake more of the mother, the later ones of the father. Is not this owing to each copulation producing its effect; as when bitches puppies are less purely bred owing to first having once born mongrels. he has thus seen the black blood come out from the grandfather (when the mother was nearly quite white) in the two first children
How is this in West Indies?
Humboldt.2 New Spain: -

1 Dr, later Sir Andrew Smith. Personal friend of Darwin who met him in South Africa in June 1836.[deB]
2 Friedrich Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt. Political essay on the Kingdom of New Spain, transl. from the original French by John Black, New York 1811.[deB]

33

Dr. Smith1 always urges the distinct locality or Metropolis of every species: believes in repugnance in crossing of species in wild state. —
No doubt C.D.2 wild men do not cross readily, distinctness of tribes in T. del Fuego. the existence of whiter tribes in centre of S. America shows this. — If Is there a tendency in plant's hybrids to go back? — If so, men & plants together would establish Law, = as above stated. — No one can doubt that less trifling differences are blended by

1 Andrew Smith. Report of the expedition for exploring Central Africa from the Cape of Good Hope, June 23 1834, under the superintendence of Dr. A. Smith, Cape Town, 1836. Appendix, p. 39: "most of the species we met with, appeared to have each a natural or chosen domicile, where an evident congregation of its members existed." [deB]
2 Charles Darwin. Journal of Researches, (London 1839), p. 236: "each [tribe] is surrounded by other hostile ones, speaking different dialects." [deB]

34

by intermarriages; then the black & white is so far gone, that the species (for species they certainly are according to all common language) will keep to their type: in animals so far removed with instinct in lieu of reason, there would probably be repugnance, & art required to make marriage. — As Dr. Smith1 remarked, man & wild animals in this respect are differently circumstanced.

1 Andrew Smith. Probably personal communication. [deB]

35

؟ Is the shortness of life of species in certain orders connected with gaps in the series of connections?
If starting from same epoch certainly
The absolute end of certain forms from considering S. America (independent of external causes) does appear very probable: —
Mem: Horse, Llama, &c., &c. —
If we suppose grant similarity of animals in one country owing to springing from one branch, and the monucle has definite life, then all die at one period which is not the case, ∴ monucule1 not definite life.

1 I am not sure to what Darwin has reference here. He spells the word "monucle" in this line and "monucule" in the next. I have not found either word in such context in any other writings by Darwin or his contemporaries. Perhaps he means "monocule" and is suggesting that the progenitor of all animals was a cyclops-like creature or perhaps he means to say "molecule," as he did previously on page 249. Possibly he meant to use "minuscule," or even "monticule." [Ba]

36

I think

[sketch]

Case must be that one generation then should be as many living as now. To do this & to have many species in same genus (as is) requires extinction.
Thus between A & B immense gap of relation. C & B the finest gradation, B & D rather greater distinction. Thus genera would be formed. — bearing relation

37

to ancient types. — with several extinct forms
for if each species an ancient (1) is capable of making 13 recent forms1, twelve of the contemporarys must have left no offspring at all2, so as to keep number of species constant. —
With respect to extinction we can easy see that variety of ostrich, Petise may not be well adapted, and thus perish out, or on other hand like Orpheus being favourable

1 In the diagram there are 13 lines that have a perpendicular line at the end. [Ba]
2 In the diagram there are 12 lines that are without a perpendicular line at the end. [Ba]

38

many might be produced. — This requires principle that the permanent varieties produced by inter confined breeding & changing circumstances are continued & produced according to the adaptation of such circumstances, & therefore that death of species is a consequence (contrary to what would appear from America)

39

of non-adaptation of circumstances. —
Vide two, pages back.
Diagram
The largeness of present genera renders it probable that the many contemporary, would have left scarcely any types of their existence in the present world. — or we may suppose only each species in each generation only breeds; like individuals in a country not rapidly increasing. —

40

If we thus go very far back to look to the source of the Mammalian type of organization; it is extremely improbable that any of his relatives shall likewise the successors of his relations shall now exist — In same manner, if we take a man from any large family of 12 brothers & sisters in a state which does not increase

41

it will be chances against any one of them having progeny living ten thousand years hence; because at present day many are relatives, so that by tracing back the descen fathers would be reduced to small percentage. — & in therefore the chances are excessively great against any two of the 12. having progeny after that distant period.1

1 In this and in the preceding paragraphs Darwin to all intents and purposes formulates the postulates of his theory of natural selection, viz., the survival of the fittest and the constancy of populations generation after generation.[Ba]

42

Hence if this is true, that the greater the groups the greater the gaps (or solutions of continuous structure) between them. — for instance, there would be great gap between birds and mammalia, Still greater between

43

Vertebrate and Articulata, still greater between animals & Plants.
But yet, besides affinities from three elements, from the infinite variations, & all coming from one stock & obeying one law, they may approach, — some birds may approach animals, & some of the vertebrates invertebrates —
Such a few on each side will yet present some anomaly & the g bearing

44

stamp of some great main type, & the gradation will be sudden.
Heaven know whether this agrees with Nature: Cuidado.1
The above speculations are applicable to non progressive development
which certainly is the case at least during subsequent ages. —

1 Cuidado — Be careful! [Ba]

45

The Creator has made tribes of animals adopted [adapted?] preeminently for each element, but it seems law that such tribes, as far as compatible with such structure are in minor degree adapted for. other elements.
every part would probably be not complete, if birds were fitted solely for air & fishes for water.
If my idea of origin of

46

Quinarian System1 is true, it will not occur in plants which are in far larger proportion terrestrial, — if in any, in the Cryptogamic flora (but not atmospheric types. Hence probably only four. Is not this Fries2 rule — What subject has Mr Newman3 the (7) man studied
The condition of every animal is partly due to direct adaptation & partly to hereditary taint; hence the

1 Darwin no doubt has reference to the Quinary System of classification described by Macleay, William Sharp, in Horae entomologicae; or, essays on the Annulose animals, etc., vol. 1, pts. 1, 2, London, 1819, 1821. William Swainson also described the system in A treatise on the geography and classification of animals, London, Longman, etc., in Lardner, D., The Cabinet Cyclopaedia. 1835. The system was based on the postulate that the animal kingdom may be classified into five major divisions and that these divisions have such a relation to each other that they form a circle when grouped together according to morphological similarities. Thus each division includes some taxonomic forms which bear a close resemblance through affinities or analogics to two of the other major divisions. Since each of the five major divisions is related by some of its members to two of the remaining divisions, the entire group of five must have a circular arrangement amongst themselves. Also each of the five major divisions itself was thought to be composed of five smaller taxonomic units, each of which similarly was circularly related to two of the five units within its division. [Ba]
2 Elias Magnus Fries. Fries's rule is given in John Lindley: "Some account of the Spherical and Numerical System of M. Elias Fries," Phil. Mag. & Journ., vol. 68. Aug. 1826, p. 81: "the founder of the system of quaternary arrangement … opinions are contained in the Introduction to a work published by M. Fries in 1825, under the title of Systema Orbis Vegetabilis." - p. 86: "When the members of a bipartite section are again dichotomously divided upon analogous principles, four sections are created, of which the first and second, and the third and fourth, are in affinity; but the first and third, and the second and fourth, are in analogy. But when this method of division becomes circuitous, a more direct path is undoubtedly to be discovered: hence other numbers are admitted, especially the quaternary (or double dichotomy), and also others in which dichotomy is understood." (Reference kindly supplied by W. T. Stearn). [deB]
3 Swainson, A treatise on the geography and classification of animals, London, Longman, etc., in Lardner, D., The Cabinet Cyclopaedia. 1835, p. 220, mentions Newman (Edward), author of Sphinx Vespiformis: An Essay. London, 1832. Newman, according to Swainson also supported the circular theory of classification, but believed the "magic" number of circles to be seven. [Ba]

47

resemblances & differences for instance of finches of Europe & America. &c., &c., &c.
The new system of Natural History will be to describe limits of form (& where possible the number of steps known). for instance among the Carabidae. — instance in birds.
Examine good collection of insects with this in view. —

48

Geogr. Journal Vol. VI P. II, p. 89. — Lieut. Wellsted1 obtained many sheep from Arabian coast. "These were of two kinds, one with white with a black face, & similar to those brought from Abyssinia, & others dark brown, with long clotted hair resembling that of goats."

1 Lieutenant R. Wellsted. "Observations on the Coast of Arabia between Rás Mohammed and Jiddah," Journ. Roy. Geogr. Soc., vol. 6, 1836, p. 51 [-96], especially p. 89.[deB]

49

Progressive developement gives final cause for enormous periods anterior to man. difficult for man to be unprejudiced about self, but considering power, extending range, reason & futurity it does as yet appear clim

[lower half of page torn off and missing]

50

[top half of page torn off and missing]

In Mr Gould's1 Australian work some most curious cases of close but certainly distinct species between Australia & Van Diemen's land.2 & Australia & New Zealand.
Mr Gould says in subgenera they undoubtedly come from same countries. — In mundine genera,

1 John Gould. The Birds of Australia and the adjacent Islands, London 1837. [deB]
2 Van Diemen's Land is Tasmania. [Ba]

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the nearest species often come very remote quarters.
(NB. if Plata Partridge or Orpheus was introduced into Chili. in present states they it might continue & thus two species be created) & live in same country.
How is propagation of wolf & Dog. (because being believed same species) if they do not breed readily. point in view. — ؟ whether highly domesticated animals like races of man. —

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M. Flourens.1 Journal des Savants. — April 1837. p. 243 it is said as well known fact that "serin avec le chardonneret, avec la linotte, avec le verdier" &, fr silver gold & common pheasants & fowls. —
"On sait que le "métis" du loup et du chien, que celui de la chevre et du belier, cessent d'être feconds. dès les premières generations" go back to type of either animal when crossed with it. —

1 Marie-Jean-Pierre Flourens. Review of Cuvier's Recherches sur les ossemens fossiles, in Journal des Savans,avril 1837, p. 243. [deB67]

53

؟ Whether extinction of great S. American quadrupeds part of some great system acting over whole world the period of great quadrupeds declining as great reptiles must have once declined. —
Cuvier1 objects to his propagation of species,
Read his Theory of the Earth attentively
by saying, why not have some intermediate forms been discovered between paleotherium, Megalonyx, Mastodon, & the species now living. — Now according

1 Georges Cuvier. Essay on the theory of the earth, with geological illustrations by Professor Jameson, Edinburgh & London 1817. p. 102: "Why may not the presently existing races of land quadrupeds, … be modifications of those ancient races which we find in a fossil state; … If the species have changed by degrees, we ought to find traces of these gradual modifications. Thus, between the palaeotheria and our present species, we should be able to discover some intermediate forms; and yet no such discovery has ever been made." [deB]

54

to my view, in S. America parent of all armadilloes might be brother to Megatherium — uncle now dead.
Bulletin Geologique April 1837, p. 216
Deshayes1 on change in shells from salt & F. water — on what is species. very good. (Has not Macculloch2 written on same changes in Fish
Mem.: Rabbit of Falklands described by Q and G as new species.3 Cuvier examined it.

1 Gérard-Paul Deshayes. Bull. Soc. Geol. France, vol. 8, 1836 à 1837, Paris 1836 [1837], p. 216: "Dans les espèces tertiaires de la Crimée, les modifications dans les caractěres des dents de la charnière sont encore beaucoup plus nombreuses. On y observe une multitude de combinaisons dans la forme, la position, la présence ou l'absence, comme dans le plus ou moins de développement des dents cardinales et latérales, variations que M. Deshayes attribue à un changement de milieu; il pense que d'abord marines, ces coquilles auront continué de vivre dans les eaux douces qui ont remplacé les eaux salées." [deB]
2 John MacCulloch. "On the possibility of changing the residence of certain fishes from salt water to fresh", Quart. Journ. Sci., vol. 17, 1824, p. 209.
3 Jean-René-Constantin Quoy & Joseph-Paul Gaimard. Voyage Autour du Monde … Zoologie, Paris 1824, contains no description of the Falkland Islands rabbit. But Prosper Garnot: "Remarques sur la Zoologie des fles Malouines, faites pendant le Voyage autour du monde de la Corvette la Coquille," Ann. Sci. Nat., vol. 7, p. 39, contains on p. 42 a description of a rabbit" que nous croyons pouvoir considérer comme une espèce nouvelle bien distincte, et que nous proposons de nommer lapin magellanique. (Lepus magellanicus Garnot)." [deB]

55e

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There certainly appears attempt in each dominant structure to accomodate itself to as many situations as possible. — Why should we have in open country a ground do. w. parrot — woodpecker — a desert. Kingfisher. — mountain tringas. — Upland goose. — water chionis water rat with land structures: — carrion eagles. — This is but carrying on, attempt at adaptation of each element. —
law of chance would cause this to have happened in all. but less in water birds
May this not be explained on principle, of animal having come to island. where it could live — but there were causes to induce great change. like the Buzzard which has changed into Caracara at the Galapagos.

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Fernando Norinha Ophyressa bilineata (Gray) new liza species, belonging to true. American genus.
Waterhouse1 says he is certain, that in insects, each family, however many there may be, represent every other; for instance in Heteromera, you have representatives (which at first would be mistaken for) Carabidae, Crysomela, Scarabadae, & longicornes. — Again taking a subdivision of Heteromera

1 George Robert Waterhouse. "Description of some new species of exotic insects", Trans. Entom. Soc. Lond.,vol. 2, pp. 188-196. On p. 189:—"This collection consists chiefly of Coleopterous insects, and among them I had most of the curious formsobserved in the section Heteromera,—my object being to show that the species thus selected were analogous representations of other groups of beetles ; that is to say, that they departed from their own group in certain characters of form, colour, &c, and that in these respects they appear to have borrowed (if I may use such a term) the characters of other groups of the same order, to which they bear such a resemblance that they might at first sight be mistaken for species belonging to those groups". [deB67]

57

same thing occurs with regards to other tribes in that same family.
(NB. I see Waterhouse1 thinks Quinary only three elements.)
How far Does Waterhouse's representatives agree with breeding in irregular trees. & extinction of forms?? It is in simplest case saying every species in genus resembles each other. (at least in one point, in truth in all excepting specific character); and in passing from species to genera, each retains

1 George Robert Waterhouse. "Description of some new species of exotic insects," Trans. Entom Soc. Lond., vol. 2. 1837. p. 188. On p. 190 [His views] "may go a great way to prove or disprove an exceedingly ingenious and favourite theory — I mean the circular and quinary system: for it may happen that in the formation of this theory analogies may in some instances have been mistaken for affinities. [deB]

58

some one character of all its family; but why so? I can see no reason for these analogies; from the principle of atavism where real structures obliged to be altered, I can conceive colouring retained; therefore probably in some heteromera colouring of crysomela1 may be going back to common ancestor of Crysom. and Heterom, but I cannot understand the universality of such law. —

1 Heteromera is a division of beetles including darkling and blister beetles; the Chrysomelidae are leaf beetles. [Ba]

59

It would be curious to know in plants, (or animals) whether, in races have tendency to keep to either parent, (this is what French call (atavism). Probably this is first step in dislike to union, offspring not well intermediate.
Lyell Vol. III, p. 379.1
Mammalian type of organization same from one period to another, preeminently Pachydermata, less so in Miocene & so on.

1 Charles Lyell. Principles of Geology, 5th edition, London 1837, vol. 3. p. 379. [deB]

60

As I have traced the type great quadrupeds to Siberia, we must look to type of organization. — extinct species of that country parents of American. — Now Genera of these two countries ought to be similar.

61

؟ Law: existence definite without change, superinduced, or new species; therefore animals would perish, if there were nothing in country to superinduce a change ?

62

Seeing animal die out in S. America, with no change, agrees with belief that Siberian animals lived in cold countries & therefore not killed by Siberia & more cold countries. —
Seeing how horse & elephant reached S. America. — explains how Zebras reached South Africa. —
It is a wonderful fact, Horse, Elephant & Mastodon dying out

63

about same time in such different quarters. —
Will Mr. Lyell1 say that some circumstance killed it over a tract from Spain to South America — [encircled] Never
They die, without they change; like Golden Pippens2 it is a generation of species like generation of individuals. —

1 Charles Lyell. Principles of Geology, 5th edition, London 1837, vol. 3. p. 142: "Successive extinction of species consistent with their limited geographical distribution" (cross-heading) … "They must die out", to borrow an emphatical expression from Buffon; "because Time fights against them." [deB]
2 Pippin, a variety of apple. [Ba]

64

Why does individual die, to perpetuate certain peculiarities (therefore adaptation), & to obliterate accidental varieties, & to accomodate itself to change (for of course change even in varieties is accomodation). Now this argument applies to species. — If individual cannot procreate, he has no issue, so with species. —

65

I should expect that Bears & Foxes, &c., same in N. America and Asia, but many species closely allied but different, because country separated since time of extinct quadrupeds. — Same argument applies to England. — Mem.: Shrew, Mice. —

66

Animals common to South and North America. — Are there any?

67

Rhinoceros peculiar to Java, & another to Sumatra. — Mem.: Parrots peculiar, according to Swainson1, to certain islets in East Indian archipelago.
Dr. Smith2 considers probable true northern species replace no southern kinds.
(1) Gnu reaches Orange River and says so far will I go and no further.

1 William Swainson. A treatise on the geography and classification of animals. Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopaedia, London 1835. p. 52: "The suctorial cockatoos of Malacca, the elegant ring-necked parrakeets of the continent, and the crimson-coloured lories of the islands, are appropriated solely to these regions." [deB]
2 Andrew Smith. Probably personal communication. [deB]

68

Prof. Henslow1 says. that when race once established so difficult to root out. — For instance ever so many seeds of white flax, all would come up white, though planted in same soil with blue.
Now this is same bearing with Dr. Smith's fact of races of men

1 John Stevens Henslow. Probably personal communication. [deB]

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tendency to keep to one line1
Dr Smith says very. close species generally frequent slightly different localities, so that they become useful to know what is species. —2
In proof that structure is not simple adaptation, armadilloes &

1 Andrew Smith. "Observations relating to the Origin and History of the Bushmen ",The South African Quarterly Journal.No. 1, 1830, pp. 171-189. [deB67]
2 Andrew Smith. "A description of the birds inhabiting the South of Africa ",S. Afr. Quart. Journ., No. 3, 1830, pp. 225-241 ; on p. 237:— "when a doubt can justly exist as to identity, to consider the objects, especially if their habitats be very far apart, as distinct species ". [deB67]

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& Megatherium, each with same kind of coat. — If we could tell, I do not doubt even colour hereditary in time as in space. (Mem: Galapagos).
Little wings of Apteryx
Dacelo & Kingfisher same colours

71

Strong odour of negroes, a point of real repugnance. —
Waterhouse1 says there is no true connection between great groups.

1 George Robert Waterhouse. Probably personal communication. [deB]

72

Speculate on land being grouped towards centre near Equator in former periods, & then splitting off.
If species generate other species, their race is not utterly cut off; — like golden pippen, if produced by seed go on. — otherwise all die. — The fossil horse generated in S. Africa Zebra — & continued. — perished in America.

73

All animals of same species are bound together just like buds of plants, which die at one time, though produced either sooner or later. —
Prove animals like plants. — trace gradation between associated and nonassociated animals, — & the story will be complete. —

74

It is absurd to talk of one animal being higher than another. — We consider those, when the intellectual faculties [/] cerebral structure most developed, as highest. — A bee doubtless would when the instincts were —

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relation of type in two countries direct relation to facilities of communication
Have races of Plants, ever been crossed really, if there is any difficulty in such marriages or offspring show tendency to go back — there is an end to species. —

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Brown Appendix1
A most remarkable observation of Mr Brown, about peculiarities of Flora, on East & West, ends of New Holland, diminishing towards centre (p. 586) — Parallel 33°-35°, source of forms, reduce towards Northern Eastern end & die away, & partake of Indian character

1 Robert Brown. Appendix No. III in A Voyage to Terra Australis.by Matthew Flinders, vol. 2, 1814, PP. 533-613; General Remarks, geographical and systematical, on the Botany of Terra Australis ; p. 586:— "nearly half the Australian species of plants, at present known, have been collected in a parallel included between 33° and 35° latitude ; and it appears from the preceding observations on the several natural orders, that a much greater proportion of the peculiarities of the Australian Flora exists in this, which I have therefore called the principal parallel…Within the tropic at least on the East coast, the departure from the Australian character is much more remarkable, and an assimilation nearer to that of India than of any other country takes place ". [deB67]

77

There appears in Australia great abundance of species of few genera or families (long separated. —
Proteaceae & other forms (?), being common to Southern hemisphere, does not look as if S. Africa peopled from N. Africa.

78

An originality is given (& power of adaptation is given by true generation through means of every step of progressive increase of organization being imitated in the womb, which has been passed through to form that species. Man is derived from Monad each fresh

79

Mr Don1 remarked to me, that he thought species became obscurer as knowledge increased, but genera stronger. — Mr Waterhouse2 says no real separ passage between good genera. — How remarkable spines, like on a porcupine, on Echidna. —
Good to study Regne Animal3 for Geography.

1 George Don. Probably personal communication. [deB]
2 George Robert Waterhouse. Probably personal communication. [deB]
3 Georges Cuvier. Le Règne animal, Paris 1829. [deB]

80

The motion of the earth must be excessive up and down. — Elephants in Ceylon — East India archipelago — West Indies, — Opossum & Agouti same as on continent —
3 Paradoxusi1 are common to Van Diemen's Land and Australia. —
From the consideration of these archipelagos ups & downs in full conformity with European formations —
England & Europe, Ireland, common animals — +++
for instance tertiary deposits between East Indian islets, —
(+++ Ireland longer separated; Hare of two countries different. — Ireland and Isle of Man possessed Elk, not England. Did Ireland possess Mastodons?? (Negative facts tell for little.)

1 i.e., platypus (Ornithorhynchus paradoxus). [deB]

81

Geographic distribution of Mammalia more valuable than any other because less easily transported — Mem plants on Coral islets. Next to animals, land birds, & life shorter or change greater. —
In the East Indian Archipelago it would be interesting to trace limits of large animals. —

82

Owls transport mice alive?
Species formed by subsidence: Java & Sumatra Rhinoceros: Elevate & join, keep distinct, two species made. Elevation & subsidence continually forming species.
Man and wife being constant together for life is in accordance with
The male animal affecting all the progeny of female insures of the mixing of individuals.

83

South Africa proof of subsidence & recent elevation: Pray ask Dr Smith1 to state that most clearly.
Fox2tells me that beyond all doubt seeds of Ribston Pippin produce Ribston Pippin, & Golden Pippin, goldens, hence sub-varieties, & hence possibility of reproducing any variety, although many of the seeds will go back. Get instances of a variety of fruit tree or plant run wild in foreign country.
Here we have avitism3 the ordinary event and succession the extraordinary.

1 Andrew Smith. "1836 June 1–15 … with Dr A. Smith who has lately returned from his most interesting expedition to beyond the Tropic, I took some long geological rumbles." Charles Darwin's Diary of the Voyage of the Beagle, edited by Nora Barlow, Cambridge 1934, p. 409. [deB]
2 William Darwin Fox. Probably personal communication. [deB]
3 Avitism = atavism.

84

When one sees nipple on man's breast, one does not say some use, but no sex not having been determined, — so with useless wings under elytra of beetles. — born from beetles with wings & modified. — If simple creation surely would have been born without them. =

85

In some of the lower orders a perfect gradation can be found from forms marking good genera by steps so insensible that each is not more change than we know varieties can produce. — Therefore all genera may have had intermediate steps. —
Quote in detail some good instance.
But it is other question whether there

86

have existed all those intermediate steps especially in those classes where species not numerous. (N.B in those classes with few species greatest jumps strongest marked genera? Reptiles?)
For instance there never may have been grade between pig & tapir yet from some

87

common progenitor. — Now if the intermediate ranks had produced infinite species probably the series would have been more perfect. because in each there is possibility of such organization
Spines in Echidna & Hedgehog.
As we have one marsupial animal in Stonefield slate.1 The father of all

1 Stonesfield slate, a geological formation of the Jurassic. See Lyell, Charles. 1850. Principles of geology, 8th ed. p. 143. London, Murray. See also Lylell,Principles of geology, 5th ed. (in vol. 1, p. 237). [Ba]

88

Mammalia in ages long gone past, & still more so known with fishes and reptiles. —
In mere eocine rocks. we can only expect some steps. — I may ask whether the series is not more perfect by the discovery of fossil Mammalia than before

89

& that is all that can be expected. This answers Cuvier.1
Perhaps the father of Mammalia as Heterodox as ornithorhyncus. If this last animal bred — might not new classes be brought into play. —

1 Georges Cuvier. Essay on the Theory of the Earth, Edinburgh and London 1817, p. 102.[deB]

90

The father being climatized, climatizes the child. ؟ Whether every animal produces in course of ages ten thousand varieties (influenced itself perhaps by circumstances) & those alone preserved which are well adapted. This would account for each tribe being acting as in vacuum to each other.

91

p. 306. — Chamisso1 on Kamtschatka quadrupeds
Kotzebue first voyage.2

Entomological Magazine paper3 on Geographical range. Copied into list
Richardson Fauna Borealis.4
It is important the possibility of some isld not having large quadrupeds. —

1 Adelbert von Chamisso. In A Voyage of Discovery into the South Sea and Beering's Straits, etc. by Otto von Kotzebue, (Remarks and Opinions of the Naturalist of the Expedition Chamisso) vol. 3, London 1821, p. 306. [deB]
2 Otto von Kotzebue. A Voyage of Discovery into the South Sea and Beering's Straits etc., London 1821. [deB]
3
"Delta". "Thoughts on the Geographical Distribution of Insects", Entomol. Mag., London 1835, vol. 2, pp. 44, 280. [deB]
4 Sir John Richardson. Fauna Boreali-Americana; or the zoology of the northern parts of British America, London, 1829–1837. [deB]

92

Humboldt1 has written on the geography of plants. Essai sur la Geographie des Plants, I Vol. in 4°. —
I have abstracted Mr Swainson's trash at beginning of volume on Geographical distribution of animals.2

1 Friedrich Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt. Essai sur la géographie des plantes, Paris 1805. [= Vol. 2 Part V of Humboldt, F. H. A. von. & Bonpland, A. J. A.:— Voyage aux régions équinoxiales du Nouveau Continent, fait en 1799–1804. Paris 1805–1837]. [deB]
2 William Swainson. A Treatise on the Geography and Classification of Animals. Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopaedia, London 1835, chapter I. [deB]

93

Brown Geograph. Journal, Vol. I, p. 17 21,1 says from Swan river long South coast all the remarkable Australian genera collected together.
Man has no heredetray prejudices or instinct to conquer, or breed together: —
Man has no limits to desire, in proportion instinct more, reason less, so will aversion be

1 Robert Brown. "General view of the botany of the vicinity of Swan River," Journ. Roy. Geogr. Soc., vol. 1, [1832] p. 18; "this portion of the shores of New Holland, extending from Swan River on the West coast to Middle Island … on the south coast, may be said to contain the greatest proportion of those genera which form the chief peculiarities of New Holland Vegetation." [deB]

94

L'Institut1 1837, no. 246 a section of fossil "singe," it cannot be made to approach the Colobes2 which in South Africa appears to represent the semnopitheque of India — Tooth of Spi Sapajou.3
NB. Sapajou is S. American form: therefore it is like case of great rodent edentate
has been doubted

1 William Martin. L'Institut, Paris vol. 6, 1838, No. 246. p. 300. [This paper was not published until 13th September 1838. It refers to a paper read before the Zoological Society of London on 11th July 1837: "Mr. Martin then laid before the meeting the following observations on the Proboscis Monkey, or 'Guenon à long nez'" Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., Part V, 1837, p. 70. There is no number 246 of the Institut in 1837. Darwin's reference therefore must be incorrect. The paper referred to here contains no reference to fossil monkeys. There are several references to fossil monkeys in L'Institut in 1837, but none on page 246, and none refers to Colobus. [deB]
2 "singe," ape or monkey. — Colobus, a genus of African monkey. [Ba]

3 Semnopitheque, a name now technically invalid for the Old World langur monkeys. — Sapajou, a monkey of the genus Cebus of S. America. [Ba]

95

& opossum found in Europe now confined to southern hemisphere. — If these facts were established it would go to show a centrum for Mammalia. —
I really think a very strong case might be made out of world before zoological divisions.
Mem. Species doubtful when known only by bones.
Mem.: Silurian fossils. ؟How are South American shells?

96

؟ Do not plants which have male & female organs together, yet receive influence from other plants. — Does not Lyell1 give some argument about varieties being difficult to keep on account of pollen from other plants because his may be applied to, show all plants do receive intermixtures. — But how with hermaphrodite shells.!!!?

1 Charles Lyell. Principles of Geology, London 1832, vol. 2, p. 33: varieties of cultivated plants cannot originate nor be maintained without the intervention of man, because "it is only by strong manures that these varieties have been obtained, and in poorer soils they instantly degenerate." But even if the manure supply were kept up by herds of wild animals the varieties could not be maintained because of cross-pollination. [deB]

97

We have not the slightest right to say there never was common progenitor to mammalia & fish. when there now exists such strange forms as ornithorhyncus.
The type of organization constant in the shells. —

98

The question if creative power acted at Galapagos it so acted that birds with plumage & tone of voice purely American, North & South;
+ geographical distri divisions are arbitrary and not permanent. This might be made very strong, if we believe the Creator created by any laws, which I think is shown by the very facts of the Zoological character of these islands
so permanent a breath cannot reside in space before island existed. — Such an influence must exist in such spots.
We know birds do arrive, & seeds.

99

The same remarks applicable to fossil animals same type; armadillo-like covering created. — passage for vertebrae in neck same cause, such beautiful adaptations, yet other animals live so well. — This view of propagation gives a hiding place for many unintelligible structures. it might have been of use in progenitor, or it may be of use — like mammae on man's breast. —

100

How does it come wandering birds such sandpipers not new at Galapagos. — did the creative force know that these species could arrive — did it only create those kinds not so likely to wander. Did it create two species closely allied to Mus. coronata1, but not coronata. — We know that domestic animals vary in countries without any assignable reason. —

1 Muscicapa coronata? Lath., a tyrant-flycatcher of the Galapagos Islands. See Darwin, Charles, 1839. Journal of researches into the geology and natural history of the various countries visited by H.M.S. Beagle, p. 461. London, Colburn.

101

Astronomers might formerly have said that God ordered each planet to move in its particular destiny. — In same manner God orders each animal created with certain form in certain country, but how much more simple & sublime powers let attraction act according to certain law such are inevitable consequen[ces].
Let animals be created, then by the fixed laws of generation, such will be their successors. —

102

Let the powers of transportal be such, & so will be the forms of one country to another. — Let geological changes go at such a rate, so will be the number & distribution of the species!!

103

It may be argued representative species chiefly found where barriers
& what are barriers but
interruption of communication. or when country changes. Will it said that volcanic soil of Galapagos under equator that external conditions would produce species so close as Patagonian Chat1 & Galapagos Orpheus. — Put this strong. so many thousand miles distant. —

1 This word is crossed out, but looks as if it might have been "Chat" or "Chais." Perhaps Darwin meant "Calandria" a mocking-bird of Patagonia. See Darwin,1839. Journal of researches into the geology and natural history of the various countries visited by H.M.S. Beagle, pp. 62-63, where Orpheus modulator and O. Patagonica D'Orbigny are mentioned; see also p. 475, where various species of the Galapagos' Orpheus are mentioned. Possibly Darwin intended to write "Chatham" for Chatham Island. [Ba]

104

Absolute knowledge that species die and others replace them — two hypotheses fresh creations is mere assumption, it explains nothing further. points gained if any facts are connected.1 — No doubt in birds, mundine genera (Bats, Foxes, Mus) are birds that are apt to wander & of easy transportal. — Waders &

1 This is an early appearance of the argument frequently used by Darwin to the effect that the value of a hypothesis increases with the number of facts which it explains. [deB]

105

Waterfowl. — Scrutinize genera, & draw up tables. — Instinct may confine certain birds which have wide powers of flight; but are there any genera mundine, which cannot transport easily
it would have been wonderful if the two Rheas had existed in different continents -
In plants I believe not.

106

It is a very great puzzle why Marsupials & Edentata should only have left off springs ne in or near South Hemisphere. Were they produced in several places & died off in some? Why did not fossil horse breed in S. America — it will not do to say period unfavourable to large quadrupeds — horse not large

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Ed. New. Philosop J. No 3. p. 2071 "It is not generally known that Ireland possesses varieties of the furze, broom, & yew very different from any found in great Britain, British varieties are also found in Ireland —

1 Robert Jameson, editor of Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal, vol. 2, 1826, Scientific Intelligence — Botany, p. 207:— "Irish Furze, Broom, and Yew". [deB67]

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There must be progressive development; for instance none — ?, of the vebtetrata vertebrates could exist without plants & insects had been created; but on other hand creation of small animals must have gone on since from parasitical nature of insects & worms. — In abstract we may say that vegetables & mass of insects could live without animals

109

but not vice versâ. (could plants live without carbonic acid gaz) — Yet unquestionably animals most dependent on vegetables, of the two great Kingdoms. —

110

Principes de Zool. Philosop.:1 — I deduce from extreme difficulty of hypothesis of connecting mollusca & vertebrata, that there must be very great gaps. — yet some analogy.
The existence of plants, their passage to animals appears greatest argument against theory of analogies.

1 Etienne Geoffroy-Saint-Hilaire. Principes de Philosophie Zoologique. Paris 1830, pp. 54 ff. (hypothesis that Cephalopod molluscs provided a link between invertebrates and vertebrates).[deB]

111

States there is but one animal:1 one set of organ: — the other animals created with endless differences: — does not say propagated, but must have concluded so — Evidently or hints considers generation as a short process, by which man one animal passes from worm to man highest, as typical of sa changes which can be traced in same organ in different animals in scale. — In monsters also organs

1 Etienne Geoffroy-Saint-Hilaire. Principes de Philosophie Zoologique. Paris 1830, p. 22: "il n'est plus d'animaux divers. Un seul fait les domine, c'est comme un seul étre qui apparait." Ibid. p. 214: "Il n'y a donc pas plusieurs animaux, à proprement parler, mais un seul animal, dont les organes varient dans la forme, l'usage et le volume, mais dont les materiaux restent toujours les mėmes, au milieu de ces surprenantes métamorphoses." [deB]

112

of lower animals appear. — yet nothing about propagation = I see nothing like grandfather of Mammalia and birds, &c. //
p. 32 reference to M. Edwards1 law of crustacea, with respect to mouth, those beautiful passages from one to other organ. — Cuvier2 on opposite side; V. Vol. of Fish
p. 59 Cuvier3 has said each animal made for itself does not agree with old & modern types being constant. Cuvier's4 theory of Conditions of existence is thought to account resemblances, &c. ∴ quinary system, or three elements p. 64 p. 66

1 Henri Milne-Edwards. "Sur l'organisation de la bouche chez les crustacés suceurs (1830) Ann. Sci. Nat., vol. 28, 1833, p. 78: transformation of normal mouth with mandibles and maxillae into sucking tube, elongated, but "la composition organique décrite est toujours restée analogique. Les mėmes élémens constituans sont retrouvés dans l'un et l'autre cas; c'est une tendance remarquable à l'uniformité de composition." [deB]
2 Georges Cuvier. Darwin made this note from E. Geoffroy-Saint-Hilaire's Principes de Philosophie Zoologique, Paris 1830, p. 57, where Cuvier is quoted as saying "Tout nouvellement encore, dans le premier volume de mon Histoire des Poissons,j'ai exprimé mon sentiment à ce sujet, sans doute avec le ton modéré que les sciences réclament, et avec la politesse qui appartient à tout homme bien élevé." [deB]
3 Georges Cuvier. Darwin made this note from Geoffroy-Saint-Hilaire; Principes de Philosophie Zoologique, Paris 1830, p. 59 where Cuvier's earlier article on "Nature", in Levraut's Dictionnaire des sciences naturelles is quoted:— "Ces vues d'unité sont renouvelées d'une vieille erreur née an sein du panthéisme, étant principalement enfantée par une idée de causalité, par la supposition inadmissible que tous les êtres sont crées en vus les uns des autres; cependant chaque ètre est fait pour soi." [deB]
4 This reference appears to be to Etienne Geoffroy-Saint-Hilaire, Principes de Philosophie Zoologique p. 66 on which there is a footnote by St Hilaire (referring to Conditions) on Cuvier's argument about resemblance. [deB]

113

With unknown limits, every tribe appears fitted for as many situations as possible (conditions will not explain states) for instance take birds animals, reptiles fish. — (Perhaps consideration of range of capabilities past & present might tell something)

p. III G. St. Hilaire

Insects & Molluscs allowed to be wide hiatus: states in one the sanguineous system, in other nervous developed.1 (Owen's idea) states these class approach on the confines? Balanidae? —
I cannot understand whether G. H. thinks development in quite straight lines, or branching

1 Etienne Geoffroy-Saint-Hilaire. Principes de Philosophie Zoologique, Paris 1830, p. 111: "Le systėme sanguin est en excès et au contraire le systême nerveux est frappé d'atrophie chez les mollusques; c'est l'inverse chez les insectes." Loi de compensation. [deB]

114

S. H.
What does the expression mean used by Cuvier1 that all animals (though some maybe) have not been created on the same plan
(Second resumé well worth studying)
H. says2 grand idea god giving laws & & then leaving all to follow consequences. —
I cannot make out his ideas about propagations
His work: Philosophie Anatomique (2d Vol. about monsters worth reading).3

1 Georges Cuvier. Darwin appears to be quoting from E. Geoffroy-Saint-Hilaire Principes de Philosophie Zoologique, Paris 1830, p. 56 where Cuvier is quoted as saying: "j'ai toujours soutenu que le plan, qui jusqu'à un certain point est commun aux vertébrés, ne se continue pas chez les mollusques." Cf. also Le règne animal, Paris 1829, vol. 1 p. 48: "on trouvera qu'il existe quatre formes principales, quatre plans généraux, si l'on pent s'exprimer ainsi, d'après lesquels tous les animaux, semblent avoir été modelés." [deB]
2 Etienne Geoffroy-Saint-Hilaire, Principes de Philosophis Zoologique, Paris 1830, p. 219: "La puissance créatrice, par des combinaisons aussi simples a produit l'ordre actuel de l'univers, quand elle eut attribué à chaque chose sa qualité propre et son degré d'action, et qu'elle eut réglé que tant d'élémens, ainsi sortis de ses mains, seraient éternellement abandonnés au jeu, ou mieux, à toutes les conséquences de leurs attractions réciproques." This concept appears in the Sketch of 1842, (p. 86), Essay of 1844 (p. 253), and the Origin (World's Classics Edition p. 559). [deB]
3 Etienne Geoffroy-Saint-Hilaire. Philosophie anatomique. Des Monstruosités humaines, Paris 1822. In referring to "2nd vol.", Darwin was regarding the work Philosophie anatomique, Paris 1818 as vol. 1. [deB]

115

NB Well to insist upon (different animals), large Mammalia not being found on all isld (if act of fresh creation why not produced on New Zealand?); if generated an answer could can be given. No.
It is a point of great interest to prove animals not adapted to each country. — Provision for transportal otherwise not so numerous: quote from Lyell:1

1 Charles Lyell. Principles of Geology. vol. 2. London 1832, chapters VI and IX, 5th edition, London 1837, chapters VIII and IX. [deB]

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assuming truth of quadrupeds being created on small spots of land, of the same type with the great continents, we get a means of knowing of movements. —
How can we understand excepting by propagation that out of the thousands of new insects all belong to same

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types already established. why out of the thousands of forms should they all be classified. — Propagation explains this.
Ancient Flora thought to more uniform than existing.1 Ed. N. Philosp. J.,p. 191 191 No. 5, Ap. 1827

1 Anonymous. "Scientific intelligence. 9. On the distribution of living and fossil plants." Edin. New. Phil. Journ. vol. 3, April–June 1827, p. 190. On p. 191: "the same genera and species [of fossil plants] are found in the most remote regions where the plants now in existence are entirely different." [deB]

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F. Cuvier1 says. "But we could only produce domestic individuals & not races, without the occurrence2 of one of the most general laws of life, the transmission of3 a fortuitous modification into a durable form, of a fugitive want into a fundamental propensity, of an accidental habit into an instinct." Ed. N. Phi. J. p. 297 No. 8, Jan.-Ap 1828.
I take higher grounds & say life is short for this object and others, viz not too much change.

1 Frédéric Cuvier (1773–1838, brother of Baron Georges Cuvier). "Essay on the domestication of mammiferous animals …" Edin. new. Phil. Journ., vol. 4. April 1828, p. 297. [deB]
2 The correct quotation is "concurrence." [Ba]
3 Darwin, apparently inadvertently, omitted this portion of the quotation: "the organic or intellectual modifications by generation. Here one of the most astonishing phenomena of nature manifests itself to us, the transformation of" [Ba]

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In Number 6' of Ed. N. Philo. Journ. — Paper by Crawford1 on Mission to Ava.
account of hairy man because ancestors hairy, with one hairy child, and of albino disease being banished & given to Portuguese priest. — In first settling a country. — people very apt to be split up into many isolated races ؟Are there any instances of peculiar people banished by rest? — ∴ most monstrous form has tendency to propagate, as well as diseases.

1 John Crawfurd. "Account of Mr. Crawfurd's Mission to Ava." Edin. new. Phil. Journ., vol. 3. July–September 1827, p. 359. On p. 368: "a man covered from head to foot with hair … The hair on the face of this singular being, the ears included, is shaggy, and about eight inches long … has two daughters … the youngest is covered with hair like her father … Albinos occur, now and then … We saw two examples: one of these, a young man of twenty … They were ashamed of him, and considered him little better than a European, they made him over to the Portuguese clergy man." [deB]

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In intermarriages, smallest differences blended, rather stronger tendency to imitate one of the parents; repugnance generally to marriage before domestication; if offspring not fertile, but producing) before domestication, a fterwards none or little, with fertile offspring fertile offspring;
marriage never probably excepting from strict domestication, offspring not fertile, or at least most rarely and perhaps never female. — no offspring: physical impossibility of marriage. —

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؟ Whether those genera which unite very different structure as petrel & alk. do not show the possibility of common branching off?
Accra.1 Coast of Africa. Clay slate. Strike SSW & NNE, dip 30°-80° (?). — Ed. Phil. N. J. p. 410 Nov 1828.

1 Thomas Park. In "Scientific intelligence: Mr. Thomas Park's journey into the interior of Africa," Edin. new Phil. Journ., vol. 4, March–April 1828, p. 410. [deB]

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It is daily happening, that naturalist describe animals as species, for instance Australian dog; yet when this or Falkland rabbit. There is only two ways of proving to them it is not; one, when they can proved descendant, which of course most rare, or when placed together they will breed. — But what a character is this?

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Race permanent, because every trifle heredetary, without some cause of change,, yet such causes are most obscure, without doubt: — Vide cattle:
The grand fact is to establish whether in crossing very opposite races, whether you would expect equal fertility — ditto in Plants.

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It will be well to refer to Chamisso1 Vol III p. 155. about quantities of seeds in sea; also Holman2: at Keeling these are most important facts. — As soon as island large enough for land birds, seeds picked from the beach by the birds; most seeds germinating.

1 Adelbert von Chamisso, in Otto von Kotzebue, A Voyage of Discovery into the South Sea and Beering's Straits… translated by H. E. Lloyd, London 1821. [deB67]
2 James Holman. Voyage round the World,London 1834. [deB67]

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It would be curious experiment to know whether soaking seeds in salt water &c has any tendency to form varieties?
Ed. N. Phil. J. Morse found in Virginia p. 325. July 1828.1 Animal now confined to extreme North. — || do p. 326.2 2 Fossil species of ox in N. America; as well as 2 recent

1 Edinburgh New Philosoph. Journ. vol. 5, 1828, p. 325, "Discovery of a fossil walrus or sea-horse, in Virginia. [deB67]
2 J. E. Dekay. "On a fossil ox from the Mississipi ", Edinburgh New Philosoph. Journ., vol. 5, 1828, p. 326. [deB67]

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See Geolog. Proc. p. 569. 1837.1 Account of wonderful fossils of India. — & p. 545 gnat monkey2
Mr Johnston3 says Mag of Zooly & Bot. p 65 Vol II talking of annelidae. — "The fact is an additional illustration ofthat axiom in Natural History that all aberrant & osculant groups are not only few in species, but every two or three these form genera — this is from unfavourable conditions there are many gaps. & those forms which nevertheless have produced species, have produced fe[w]

1 Sir Proby T. Cautley & Hugh Falconer. "On the remains of a fossil Monkey from the Tertiary strata of the Sewalik Hills in the north of Hindostan ", Proc. Geol. Soc., vol. 2, No 51, 1837, p. 568. [deB67]
2 Sir Proby T. Cautley & Dr Royle: in an extract from a letter in Proc. Geol. Soc. Lond. vol. 2, No. 51, p. 545 "… The animal must have been much larger than any existing monkey …" [deB67]
3 George Johnston. "Miscellanea Zoologica. The British Ariciadea ". Mag. Zool. Bot. vol. 2, 18., p. 65:— "not only comparatively few species, but at the same time these species so dissimilar among themselves that each, or every two or three of them, will be found to have characters which are properly generical ". [deB67]

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The relation of Analogy of Macleay1 &c., appears to me the same, as the irregularities in the degradation of structure of Lamarck2, which he says depends on external influences. — For instance he says wings of bat are from external influence. —

1 William Sharp MacLeay. Horae Entomologicae, London 1819–1821. The "relations of analogy" are conceived as "existing between corresponding points of the two contiguous circles which pass through a perfect change of form" (p. 391) e.g. the Decapoda in the Crustacean circle have "relations of analogy" with the Araneidea of the Arachnid circle, while the latter's Acaridea have "relations of analogy" with the Diptera of the Haustellata circle. [deB]
2 Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck. Philosophie Zoologique. Paris 1809, vol. 1, p. 153: degradation is the result of less progress in the perfection and composition of the organization, and must be distinguished from the effects of environment and contracted habits. E.g., seals owe their imperfect limbs to the water in which they live, as do whales; but seals are less degraded than whales because their organization is less degraded in its essential parts. [deB]

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Hence name of analogy, the structures in the two animals bearing relation to a third body,1 or common end of structure.
A Race of domestic animals made from influences in one country is permanent in another. Good argument for species not being so closely adapted.

1 Thus the wings of birds and bats are related to the air. [Ba]

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Near the Caspian (Province of Ghilan) wooded district cattle with humps1 as in India. Geograph. J. Vol. III P. I p. 17. (Lat. about 37°)
Vol. IV P. I Geograp. Journal Voyage up the Massaroony, by W. Hillhouse.2 — Demerara. In note, Demerara, 10 (12) feet beneath surface, forest. trees fallen kind well known, carbonized. clay fifty feet. then forest 120 feet, micaceous rocks; subsidence appears indicated. —

1 Colonel William Monteith. "Journal of a tour through Azerdbijan and the shores of the Caspian," Journ. Roy. Geogr. Soc., vol. 3, 1834, p. 1. On p. 17: "Their features more resemble Indians, and the cattle are small, having also the hump peculiar to that country." [deB]
2 William Hillhouse. "Journal of a voyage up the Massaroony in 1831." Journ. Roy. Geogr. Soc., vol. 4, 1834, p. 25. [deB]

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Geograp. Journ. Vol. IV P. II p. 160 Melville Isld "The buffaloes, introduced from Timor, herded separate from the English cattle, nor could we get them to associate together."1

1 Major Campbell. "Geographical memoir of Melville Island, and Port Essington on the Coburg Peninsula Northern Australia …" Journ. Roy. Geogr. Soc., vol. 4, 1834, p. 129 (160).

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There is long rigmarole article by S. Hilaire1 on wonder of finding monkey in France. — of genus peculiar to East Indian islands. — Compares it to fossil Didelphis (S. American genus) in plaster of Paris. — Now this is exception to law of type. like horse in S. America. or like living Edentata in Africa &c., &c. — Now if suppose world more perfectly continental, we might have

1 Etienne Geoffroy-Saint-Hilaire. "Singe fossile de Sansan", L'Institut, 5, 1837, p. 242: "Ce n'est point un singe généralement parlant que M. Lartet a découvert dans notre Europe, mais précisément l'analogue de l'une de ces formes qu'on ne rencontre que dans cette région décidément à part, où la spécialité d'essences animales propres aux Indes Orientales et soumises à l'influence d'un milieu ambiant d'une sorte déterminée." [deB]

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wanderers (as Peccari in N. America) then if it is doomed that only one species of family has offspring the chance is that these wanderers would not but where original forms most numerous then would be wanderers. — Some however might have offspring, & then

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we should have anomalies. as Cape Anteater V. L'Institut p. 245 1837.1 — This supposes world divided into Zoological provinces — united — & now divided again. — Weakest part of theory death of species without apparent physical cause. — Mem: Mastodon all over S. America. Hilaire2 does not seem (?) to consider the monkey as a wanderer, but as produced by climate? —

1 Darlu. L'Institut, Paris 5, 1837, 218, p. 245. This paper deals with fossil mammals in deposits of gypsum near Meaux and contains no reference to the wanderings of mammals, nor to their anomalous distribution. Darwin's reference must therefore be incorrect, and should read p. 243: cf. next footnote. [deB]
2 Etienne Geoffroy-Saint-Hilaire. L'Institut, vol. 5. 1837. p. 243: "n'allez pas conclure qu'en recourant à l'accumulation hypothétique des siècles, vous finiriez par construire une route géographique bien servie par la nature des diverses températures, immédiatement à ce propices, afin que les espèces, Sarigue et Gibbon, aujourd hui vivantes en leur contrée respective, aient fourni des voyageurs vers un point voisin de leur antipode et soient venus ainsi déposer en France les débris, juste sujet de notre admiration, que nous avons cités dans cet écrit; non, il n'en est point ainsi. Je m'en tieus pour dénégation, quant à ce sujet, aux principes et aux données philosophiques de mes mémoires sur les milieux ambians …" [deB]

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M. Baer1 (thinks) the Auroch was found in Germany & thinks even now in central & Eastern Asia beyond the Ganges & perhaps even in India, p. 261 L'Institut 1837.
Mem: Sir F. Darwin2 cross-breed boars were wilder than parents, which is same as Indian Cattle, ∴ tameness not hereditary? having been gained in short time.

1 N. Baer. "Aurochs du Caucase" L'Institut, Paris, 5, 1837, 218, p. 260. [deB]
2 Sir Francis Sacheverel Darwin (1786-1859). For biographical notes, see Pearson, Karl. 1914. The life, letters and labours of Francis Galton, vol. 1:22-25. Cambridge Univ. Press. [Ba]

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Milvulus forficatus has a wide range, is a Tyrant flycatcher doing the service of a swallow
I think we may conclude from Australia & S. America that only some mundine cause has destroyed animals over the whole world. — For instance gradual reduction of temperature from geographical or central heat. But then shells —

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Mr Yarrell1 says that old races when mingled with newer, hybrid variety partakes chiefly of the former.
Eyton's2 paper on Hybrids Loudon's Magazine.
Gould3 on Motacilla, Loudon Mag. September or Octob 1837
Species peculiar to Continent & England.

1 William Yarrell. Probably personal communication. [deB]
2 Thomas Campbell Eyton. "Some remarks upon the theory of hybridity", Mag. Nat. Hist. N.S., vol. 1, 1837, p. 357. [deB]
3 John Gould. "Observations on some species of the genus Motacilla of Linnaeus." Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. 1, September 1837. p. 459. Distinction between Motacilla flava Ray of Britain and M. neglecta of France and Holland. The pied wagtail of Britain, Norway and Sweden, has its place taken in France by M. alba L. M. Iugubris Pallas is restricted to eastern Europe. [deB]

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Westwood1 has written paper on affinity and analogy in Linnaean Transactions.
Mr Wynne2 distinctly says that the mixture between Chinese & English Breed. decidedly exceedingly prolific, & hybrid about half-way. Eyton3 says hybrid about half aways & result the same
Indian cattle & common produced very fine

1 John Obadiah Westwood. "On Diopsis, a Genus of Dipterous insects", Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. vol. 17, 1837, p. 283. On p. 285: "as these instances" involve in some degree the doctrine that every affinity is connected with, and must be tested by, a corresponding analogy …" (* footnote: lateral prolongation of the head into ocular peduncles). [deB]
2 Wynne. Untraced. [deB]
3 Thomas Campbell Eyton. "Some Remarks upon the Theory of Hybridity", Mag. Nat. Hist., N.S., London 1837, vol. I. p. 357. [deB]

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Hybrid offspring, much larger than the dam, from those imported by Ld Powis.1
Hybrid dogs offspring seldom intermediate between parents. — How easily does Wolf & Dog cross?
Mr Yarrel2 thinks oldest variety impresses the offspring most forcibly, Esquimaux dog & Pointer.
Game fowls have courage independently of individual force.

1 Undoubtedly Lord Powis. See Darwin, Charles. 1868. Variation of animals and plants under domestication, vol. 1, p. 83; vol. 2, p. 45. London, Murray. [Ba]
2 William Yarrell. Probably personal communication. [deB]

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Mr Wynne1 has crossed Ducks & Widgeon & offspring, either amongst themselves or with parent birds.
W. Fox2 knew of case of male Widgeon, winged, & turned on pool, first season bred readily with common ducks. —
Kirby3 all through Bridgewater errs greatly in thinking every animal born to consume this or that thing. — There is some much higher generalization in view.
In marsupial division do we not see a splitting in orders, carnivora, rodents, &c. just commencing.

1 Wynne. Untraced. [deB]
2 William Darwin Fox. Probably personal communication. [deB]
3 William Kirby. On the power, wisdom, and goodness of God, as manifested in the creation of animals and in their history, habits, and instincts, (The Bridgwater Treatises) London 1835, vol. I, p. 141: "There is another function which is devolved upon animals with respect to the vegetable kingdom: to keep the members of it within due limits" vol. 2, p. 496: "the vegetable tenants of the ocean require to be kept within due limits, … amongst other creatures to whom this province is assigned, are some Crustacea.' vol. 2, p. 514: "The general functions of this Order [Carnivora] are to check the tendency to increase not only in their own Class, the Mammalians, but in most of the other Classes of Animals." [deB]

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Kirby1 says (not definite information) West of Rocky Mountains Asiatic types discoverable. —
Bridgewater Treatise p. 852 Parasite of Negroes different from European. — Horse & ox have different parasite in different climates.
Humbt Vol. V P. II p. 565.3 Consult. Says types most subject to vary where intermixtures precluded. —

1 William Kirby.On the power, wisdom, and goodness of God, as manifested in the creation of animals and in their history, habits, and instincts, (The Bridgwater Treatises) London 1835, vol. I, p. 52: "On the Rocky Mountains, and in the country westward of that range, Asiatic types are discoverable, both in the vegetable and animal kingdoms." [deB]
2 William Kirby.On the power, wisdom, and goodness of God, as manifested in the creation of animals and in their history, habits, and instincts, (The Bridgwater Treatises) London 1835, vol. I, p. 85: "Little stress will be laid on the parasite of the negroes (Pediculus Nigritarum), being specifically distinct from that which infests the whites, when we reflect that the horse and the ox have different parasites and assailants in different climates." [deB]
3 Friedrich Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt. Personal Narrative of Travels to the Equinoctial Regions of the New Continent, during the years 1799–1804, translated by Helen Maria Williams, London 1821, vol. V, p. 565: "The exclusion of all foreign mixture contributes to perpetuate varieties, or the aberrations from a common standard." [deB]

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Kirby,1 Bridgewater Treatise
There are some good accounts of passages of legs into mouth-pieces of Crustacea. Vol. II. p. 75. A Fish which emigrates over land is a silurus, p. 123.2
A climbing fish, p. 122.3
A Terrestrial annelidous animal4 p. 347. Vol. I —
compare with my planaria5
Leaches out of water

1 William Kirby.On the power, wisdom, and goodness of God, as manifested in the creation of animals and in their history, habits, and instincts, (The Bridgwater Treatises) London 1835, vol. 2, p. 75: "in this Order of the Myriapods we see the first tendency towards employing what in Hexapods wear the form and perform the functions of legs as auxiliaries of the mouth. [deB]
2 William Kirby,On the power, wisdom, and goodness of God, as manifested in the creation of animals and in their history, habits, and instincts, (The Bridgwater Treatises) London 1835, vol. I, p. 122: "Another migrating fish was found by thousands in the ponds and all the fresh waters of Carolina, by Bosc; and as these pools are subject to be dry in summer, the Creator has furnished this fish, as well as one of the flying ones (Exocoetus), by means of a membrane which closes its mouth, with the faculty of living out of water, and of travelling by leaps, to discover other pools." [deB]
3 William Kirby.On the power, wisdom, and goodness of God, as manifested in the creation of animals and in their history, habits, and instincts, (The Bridgwater Treatises) London 1835, vol. I, p. 123: "Another fish (Perca scandens), found by Daldorff, in Tranquebar, not only creeps upon the shore, but even climbs the Fan palm in pursuit of certain Crustaceans which form its food." [deB]
4 William Kirby.On the power, wisdom, and goodness of God, as manifested in the creation of animals and in their history, habits, and instincts, (The Bridgwater Treatises) London 1835, vol. I, p. 347: "My late indefatigable and talented friend, the Rev. L. Guilding once found a land species, in an ancient wood in the Island of St. Vincent's, which from its soft body he regarded as a Molluscan, but from its figure, and annulose structure, its jointed antennae, and seemingly jointed legs crowned with bristles, it (Peripatus juliformis) certainly belongs, as Mr. Gray has remarked, to the present class [Annelida]." [deB]
5 Charles Darwin. Journal of Researches, London 1839, p. 30: "The terrestrial Planariae, of which I have found no less than eight species, occur from within the tropic to lat. 47° south, and are common to South America, New Zealand, Van Diemen's Land, and Mauritius." [deB]

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Does the odd Petrel of T. del F. take form of auk because there is no auk in Southern Hemisphere
does this rule apply?

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A Treatise on Form of animals by Mr Cline1 "The character of both parents are observed in their offspring, but that of the male more frequently predominates." p. 20 do "If hornless ram be put to horned ewe almost all the lambs will be hornless."
Does this apply to where same animal breeds often with same female?
p. 28, "It is wrong to enlarge a native breed of animals, for in proportion to their increase of size they become worse in form, less hardy, and more liable to disease."

1 Henry Cline. On the form of animals, London 1805. Observations on the Breeding and Form of Domestic animals, London 1829. [deB]

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If population of place be constant (say 2000) and at present day every ten living souls on average are related to the (200th year) degree. then 200 years ago there were 200 people living who now have successors. — Then the chance of 200 people might be being related within 200 years backward might be calculated & this number eliminated. say 150 people four hundred years since were progenitors of present people, and so on backwards to one progenitor, who might have continued breeding from eternity backwards.

147

If population was increasing between each lustrum, the number related at the first start must be greater, & this number would vary at each lustrum, & the calculation of chance of the relationship of the progenitors would have different formula for each lustrum. —
We may conclude that there will be a period, though long distant, when of the present men (of all races) not more than a few will have successors. At present day in looking at two fine families one will

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successors for centuries, the other will become extinct. — Who can analyze causes: dislike to marriage hereditary disease, effects of contagions & accidents: yet some causes are evident, as for instance one man killing another. — So is it with varying races of man. then races may be overlooked; many variations consequent on climate, &c. the whole races act towards each other, and are acted on, just like the two fine families no doubt a different set of causes must act in the two cases.
May this not be extended to all animals first consider species of cats, & other tribes. — &c., &c. Exclude mothers and then try this as simile

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In a decreasing population at any one moment fewer closely related; ∴ (few species of genera) ultimately few genera (for otherwise the relationship would converge sooner) & lastly perhaps some one single one. — Will not this account for the odd genera with few species which stand between great groups which we are bound to consider the increasing ones?
N.B. as illustrations, are there many anomalous lizards living; or of the tribe fish extinct, or of Pachydermata, or of coniferous trees, or in certain shell cephalopoda — Read Buckland1

1 William Buckland. Geology and Mineralogy considered with reference to Natural Theology, London 1836. [deB]

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L'Institut 1837, p. 319. Brongniart1— no dicotyledonous plants & few monocot. in coal formation?
p. 320 think states Cryptogam. Flora formerly common to New Holland?!
p. 320. Says Coniferous structures intermediate between vascular or Cryptogam. (original Flora) and Dicotyledonous, which nearly first appear (p. 321) at Tertiary epochs.
p. 330, Fossil Infusoria found of unknown forms, a circumstance undiscovered by Ehrenbergh.2

1 A. Brongniart. "Végétaux fossiles", L'Institut, Paris 5, 1837, 220, p. 318. [deB]
2 Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg, L'Institut, Paris 5, 1837, p. 330: "Paléontologie: infusoires fossiles du tripoli d'Oran. M. Ehrenberg communique l'extrait d'une lettre de M. Agassiz de Neuchâtel sur le tripoli d'Oran qu'il a reconnu être formé de corps organisés microscopiques et silicifiés." [deB]

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Marcel Serres p. 331. L'Institut — considers that mercu
Geo. Journ. p. 325. Vol. IV. Ducks on rivers in Guiana, build top of trees carry duckling to the water in their beaks, & the young one inland directly by instinct, can dive & conceal themselves in the grass. —
Beatson St. Helena says no trees succeed so well at St. Helena, as. Pineaster & Mimosa called Botany Bay Willow
V. Dr Royle introductory remarks to Himalaya Mountains —

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Bory St. Vincent Vol. III. p. 164. L île de la Reunion présente elle seule plus d'espèces polymorphes que toute la terre ferme de l'ancien monde" —
Considers forms in recent volcanic islets not well fixed.
Peron thinks Van Diemen's land long separated from Hobart Town — from difference of races of men and animals

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See R. N. p. 130 Speculations on range of allied species. p. 127. p. 1321
There is no more wonder in extinction of individuals than of species
Paris Tertiary Shells in India!?2 A p. 283
Dr Beck.4 & Lyell,5 most curious law of species few in Arctic. in proportion to genera: agrees with late production of those regions, & consequently

1 Sir John Richardson. Report on North American Zoology (6th Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, 1836). An offprint was given by the author to Darwin and was heavily annotated by him ; now in Cambridge University Library. Information kindly supplied by Dr Sydney Smith. [deB67]
2 Sir Charles Lyell. Principles of Geology, 5th ed. Loudon, 1837, vol. 3, p. 378-379:— "The Recent Strata form a common point of departure in all countries … Thus, for example, if strata should be discovered in India or South America, containing the same proportion of recent shells as are found in the Paris Basin, they also might be termed Eocene ". [deB67]
3 Reference untraced. [deB67]
4 Heinrich Henrichsen Beck. "Notes on the Geology of Denmark ", Proc. Geol. Soc. vol. 2, 1838, p. 217. [deB67]
5 Sir Charles Lyell. Principles of Geology, 5th ed., London 1837, vol. 3. See also Alexandre de Humboldt, Dictionnaire des sciences naturelles, Paris 1820, tome 18, p. 422 ; table: "Sur les lois que l'on observe dans la distribution des formes végétales ". [deB67]

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not many, yet multiplied: NB How does this bear with law referred to by Richardson1 in Report about each genus having its parent type in hotter parts of world
Is monkey peculiar to C. de Verd's? No Macleay Name given in Congo Expedition2
We need not expect to find species varieties, intermediate between every species. — Who can find trace or history of species between

1 Sir John Richardson, Report on North American Zoology, (Rep. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci. [Bristol 1836] vol. 5, 1837, pp. 121-224. [deB67]
2 Reference uncertain. Capt. Tuckey's Narrative of an expedition [to explore] The River Zaire usually called the Congo, in South Africa in 1816. John Murray 1818. p. 36. "The only species here is the green monkey (Cercopithecus sabaeus)." [deB67]

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Indian cow with hump & common; — between Esquimaux & European dog? Yet man has had no interest in perpetuating these particular varieties.
If species made by isolation, then their distribution (after physical changes) would be in rays — from certain spots. —
Agrees with old Linnaean1 doctrine and Lyell's2 to certain extent.

1 Carolus Linnaeus. "Oratio de telluris habitabilis incremento", reprinted in Amoenitates Academicae, vol. 2, contains a hypothesis of diffusion of plants and animals from the Island of Paradise. It is probable that Darwin's source was the English translation by F. J. Brand: Select dissertations from the Amoenitates Academicae, London 1781. (Information kindly supplied by W. T. Stearn; cf. his "Botanical Exploration to the time of Linnaeus", Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond., 169 Session 1956–7, London 1958, especially pages 193 and 194). [deB]
2 Charles Lyell. Principles of Geology, vol. 2, London 1832, p. 126. [deB]

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Von Buch.1 — Canary Islands, French Edit. Flora of Islds very poor. (p. 145) 25 plants. St. Helena without ferns, analogous to nearest continent: poorness in exact proportion to distance (?) & similarity of type (?) (Mem.: Juan Fernandez2). From study of Flora of islands; "ou bien encore on pourrait au plus en conclure quels sont les genres qui, sous ce climat, se divisent le plus aisément en espèces distinctes et permanentes." p. 145. In Humboldt3 great work

1 Leopold von Buch. Description physique des Iles Canaries, par Léopold de Buch traduite de l'Allemand par C. Boulanger, Paris 1836, p. 144: "Le célèbre naturaliste français Du Petit-Thouars ne trouve, sur l'Ile de Tristan d'Acunha … pas plus de 25 différentes espèces de plantes phanérogames, dont les unes rappellent la végétation du Cap, les autres celle de l'Amérique, à peu prés également distante, et leur nombre à Sainte- Hélène, d'après le Catalogue de Risburgh, ne monte pas à plus de 36 espèces." [deB]
2 Charles Lyell. Principles of Geology, vol. 2, London 1832, p. 154 has a reference to the introduction of goats into Juan Fernandez. [deB]
3 Friedrich Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt. De Distributione geographica plantarum secundum coeli temperiem et altitudinem montium, prolegomena, Lutetiae Parisiorum, 1817, p. 39: "si, in singula zona, specierum numerum cum numero generum confers, cui illae adscribuntur, tum versus polum, tum versus cacumina montium, longe plura genera invenies, quam locis planis et calidioribus. Sic alit Gallia inter 3645 species phanerogamas 683 genera, cum in Laponia 487 Phanerogamae ad 212 genera referuntur; unde rationes fiunt 5. 7: 1 et 2, 3: 1. [deB]

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de distribut. Plantarum, relation of genera to species in France is 1:5.7 in Laponia 1:2,3 ∴ Mem. Lyell on shells.1 — .

  genera
In: North Africa 1:4,2
Iles Canaries 1:1,46
St. Helena 1:1,15

Calculate my Keeling case: Juan Fernandez
Galapagos = Radack Islds? = ∴ islands and arctic are in same relation. We find

1 Charles Lyell. Principles of Geology, vol. 3, London 1833. Appendix I. M. Deshayes's Table of Shells, gives the number of species in each genus of selected living and Tertiary shells, in various localities. [deB]

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species few in proportion to difficulty of transport. For instance the temperate parts of Teneriffe. the proportion of genera 1:1.
I can understand in one small island species would not be manufactured. but why they should be manu Does it not present analogy to what takes place from time? Von Buch1 distinctly states that permanent varieties become species p. 147, p. 150, not being crossed with others. —
Compares it to languages. But how do plants cross? — — admirable discussion.

1 Leopold von Buch.Description physique des Iles Canaries, traduit de l'allemand par C. Bourgeois, Paris 1830, p. 148: "Un lieu se trouve-t-il isolé par des obstacles naturels, par des chaines de montagnes qui établissent une séparation plus effective que des espaces considérables de mer interposés, on peut toujours s'attendre à y trouver des espèces de plantes entièrement nouvelles, et ne croissant pas dans les autres parties de I'IIe. Un hasard favorable a peut-être porté, par un enchainement particulier de circonstances, des semences pardessus les montagnes. Abandonnée à elle-même, la variété qui résulte des nouvelles conditions auxquelles elle est soumise, y formera, avec le cours du temps, une espèce distincte, qui s'èloigne d'autant plus de sa forme primitive, qu'elle reste plus longtems dans cette région isolée, exempte d'autres influences." [deB]

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Von Buch1 says from Humboldt.2 in Laponia. genera to species: 1. 2,3 — From Mackenzie3 Iceland there 144 genera & 365 species of plants not cryptogamic but 1 . 2,53. —
In know varieties, there is analogy to species & genera. — for instance three kinds of greyhound. — In plants, do the seeds of marked varieties produce no difference, if they do, there probably will be this relation also. // Yes //
Fox4

1 Leopold von Buch. Description physique des Iles Canaries, traduit de l'allemand par C. Bourgeois, Paris 1830. Proportion of genera to species: in North Africa 1 to 4·2 ; in Canary Islands 1 to 1·46; on St Helena 1 to 1·5. According to Humboldt, in France 1 to 5·7 ; in Lappland 1 to 2·3. [deB67]
2 Alexander von Humboldt. De distributione geographica plantarutn secundum coeli temperiem et altitudinem montium, prolegomena, Lutetiae Parisiorum 1817. [deB67]
3 Sir George Stewart Mackenzie. Travels in the Island of Iceland, Edinburgh 1812, Chapter VIII, Botany, pp. 350-356. [deB67]
4 William Darwin Fox. Probably personal communication. [deB67]

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The creative power seems to be checked when islands are near continent: compare Siicily & Galapagos !! —
Some of the animals peculiar. to Mauritius are not found at Bourbond Zoolog. Proceedings 1832.p. 1111
19

1 Julien Desjardin. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1832, p. 111:— "their animals are not universally the same, some species being met with in the one which never occur in the other " [deB67]

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Mr Owen1 suggested to me, that the production of monsters (which Hunter2 says owe their origin to very early stage) & which follow certain laws according to species, present an analogy to production of species. —
Animals have no notions of beauty, therefore instinctive feelings against other species for sexual ends, whereas man has such instincts very little.

1 Richard Owen. Probably personal communication. [deB]
2 John Hunter. Observations on certain parts of the Animal Oeconomy, London 1837, with notes by Richard Owen. P. 26[":] I should imagine," he writes, "that monsters were formed monsters from their very first formation, for this reason, that all supernumerary parts are joined to their similar parts, as a head to a head &c. &c." [deB]

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In Zoology Proceedings, Jan. 1837. by Eyton1 account of three kinds of pigs: difference in skeletons very good
Apteryx, a good instance probably of rudimentary bones: — As Waterhouse2 remarked Mere length of bill does not indicate affinity with snipes indicate affinity because similar habits produce similar structures. — Mem: Ornitho Rhyncus.
Would not relationship express a real affinity, & affinity. whales & fish. —

1 Thomas Campbell Eyton. "Notice of some Osteological Peculiarities in different skeletons of the Genus Sus", Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1837, pt. V. p. 23. [deB]
2 George Robert Waterhouse. Probably personal communication. [deB]

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Progeny of Manks cats without tails; some long & some short, therefore like dogs. —
Ogleby1 says Wolves at Hudson bay breed with dogs. — the bitches never being killed by them, whilst they eat up the dogs. —
L'Institut. Curious paper by M. Serres on Molluscous animals representing foetuses of vertebrata, &c.2
1837, p. 370 Owen says nonsense3

1 William Ogilby? The reference has not been traced, but John Wandesford Ogilby was Assistant Secretary to the Hudson's Bay Company from 1777 to 1780. At the London Office of the Company, Beaver House, there is a MS by Andrew Graham who was on the staff from 1750–1775: "Observations on Hudson's Bay", in which the following passage occurs: "a she-wolf copulated with a husky dog …" [deB]
2 Antoine-Etienne-Renaud-Augustin Serres. "Anatomic des mollusques", L'Institut, Paris 5, 1837, 221, p. 370. [deB]
3 Richard Owen. Probably personal communication. [deB]

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The distribut of big animals in East Indian Archipelago, very good in connection with Von Buch Volcanic chart & my idea of double line of intersection.
Dr. Horsfield1
At India House collection of Birds from Java, at Leyden series from several islands. — Bear peculiar to Sumatra & not found on Java — Monkey peculiar to latter, not to former. —

1 Thomas Horsfield. Zoological researches in Java and the neighbouring islands, London 1824. Semnopithecus pyrrhus = Presbytis cristatus, Java. Ursus malayanus = Helarclos m., Sumatra. [deB]

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Mr Martens of Zoolog Soc told me an Australian dog he had, used to burrow like fox. — a sort of internal bark, would remain for long time together in tub of water with only nose projecting. — would pull the garden bell, & then run into Kennel to watch who would come to the door — would constantly do this, so was obliged to be removed. — In L.' Institut. 1837: p. 404. account of instinct of dogs. — agreement & reason

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Some animals common to Mauritius & Madagascar. —
Proceedings of Zoolog. Soc June 1837
p. 53 — an Irish Rat— — different from English.
Waterhouse has information respecting the Water Rat. —

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Consult Dr Smith History of S. African Cattle1
Phillips Geology, p. 81 in Lardner's Encyclop.2 Proportion between fossils & recent shells, between herbivorous & zoophagous mollusca according to periods. — NB., was Europe desert (like S. Africa) after Coal Period. —

1 Andrew Smith. Cf. Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication, vol. I, p. 88: "Sir Andrew Smith several years ago remarked to me that the cattle possessed by the different tribes of Caffres, though living near each other under the same latitude and in the same kind of country, yet differed, and he expressed much surprise at the fact." [deB]
2 John Phillips. Treatise on Geology. Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopaedia, London 1837. [deB]

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In those divisions of molluscs. where species now least in number (as Cephalopods,) in last tertiary epochs most genera dead? — Examine into this (in Phillips).1 — According to this, formerly there would have been many genera of monobranchous animals. — p. 82.
There are many tables in Phillip's of numerous genera in fossil & recent state, well worth consideration.

1 John Phillips. A Treatise on Geology. Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopaedia, London 1837, p. 83: "Most of the fossil cephalopoda belong to extinct genera. [deB]

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Tabulate Mammalia on this principle.
Varieties Races man in savage state may be called species races. in domesticated species races. — If all men were dead, then monkeys make men. — Men make angels —

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Those species which have long remained are those ؟Lyell?,1 which have wide range and therefore cross & keep similar. But this is difficulty: this immutability of some species
In Phillips p. 90 it seems the most organized fishes lived far back.2 fish approaching to reptiles at Silurian age. —

1 Charles Lyell. No reference to this subject in Lyell's published works has been traced. [deB]
2 John Phillips. A Treatise on Geology. Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopaedia, London 1837, p. 90. Fishes with placoid and ganoid scales are shown dating back to the Silurian. [deB]

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How long back have insects been known?
As Gould1 remarked to me, the "beauty of species is their exactness,' but do not known varieties do the same, May you not breed ten thousand greyhounds & will they not be greyhounds? —
Yarrell's remark2 about old varieties affecting the cross most well worthy of observation. —

1 John Gould. Probably personal communication. [deB]
2 William Yarrell. Probably personal communication. [deB]

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I think it is certain strata could not now accumulate without seal-bones & cetaceans: — both found in every sea. from Equatorial to extreme poles. —
Oh, Wealden, — Wealden. — 1
Do the N. American Tertiary deposits present analogies to shells of living seas?

1 Darwin's exclamation probably refers to the problem presented by the apparently estuarine nature of the Wealden deposits and the embedding of freshwater species in them. (Cf. Lyell, Principles of Geology, vol. 1, London 1830, p. 134; vol. 2, London 1832, p. 275; vol. 3, London 1833, p. 325). Information kindly supplied by Mr. S. C. A. Holmes of the Geological Survey. [deB]

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Roxburgh,1 list of plants in Beetsons St.Helena.2 — 20 Galapagos — Juan Fernandez Falkland Islds — Kerguelen land. —
Phillips.3 Lardner Encyclop. insists on analogy between Australia and fossils of Oolitic Series
does not appear to me very strong
what is Osteopora platycephalus. (Harlan) found on Delaware is it Edentate?
Phillips.4 Lardner p. 289

1 William Roxburgh. List of Plants relative to the Island of St Helena, in Alexander Beatson, vide infra., following footnote. [deB67]
2 Alexander Beatson. Tracts relative to the Island of St Helena, [London], 1816. [deB67]
3 John Philips. Treatise on Geology, in Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopedia, London 1837. [deB67]
4 John Philips. Treatise on Geology, in Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopedia, London 1837. [deB67]

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It is certain, that North American fossils bear the closest relation to those now living in the sea. — See Rogers1 report to Brit Assoc to on N. American Zoology —

1 Henry Darwin Rogers. "Report on the Geology of North America ", Rep. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci. Edinburgh 1834 [1835], vol. 3, pp. 1-66. [deB67]

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A breed of Blood Hounds from Aston Hall1 close to Birming ham, and supposed to be descended from a breed known to be there since the time of Charles, — and now in the possession of Mr Howard Galton have one of the vertebra, about 2/3 from base of tail, enlarged two

1 For further citations on Aston in the literature see: Pearson, Hesketh. 1930. Doctor Darwin (p. 180). London, Dent and Sons; Oswald, Arthur. 1953. Aston Hall, Warwickshire—I. The property of the Corporation of Birmingham. County Life, London, 114: 552-555, 620-623, 694-697; Historic Houses and Castles in Great Britain and Northern Ireland (1959 Edition), Index Publishers Limited, London, 1959. [Ba]

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very considerably, so that any person would say the tail was broken. —
This came so often that it was difficult to obtain a litter without this defect. Very curious case = W. D. Fox.1
When dogs are bred into each other the females loose desire, and it is required to give the cantharinides

1 William Darwin Fox. Probably personal communication. (Cf. Variation in Animals and Plants, 1868, vol. 2, p. 121. [deB]

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and milk — Fox1 tells me that it is generally said.= How came first species to go on. — There never were any constant species
Both males & females, lose desire.
Native dog not found in V. Diemen's land
J. de Physique. Tom 59. p 467. Peron2
19

1 William Darwin Fox. Probably personal communication. [deB67]
2 François Péron, "Sur quelques faits zoologiques applicables à la théorie du globe, lu à la Classe des Sciences physiques et mathématiques de l'lnstitut National ". Journ. de Physique, de Chimie, d'Histoire naturelle et des Arts, tome 59, 1804, p. 463 ; Première section: observations zoologiques qui peuvent faire douter de la réunion primitive de la Nouvelle-Hollande à la Terre de Diemen. On p. 466:— "Le chien … n'existe pas sur la Terre de Diemen ". [deB67]

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G. St. Hilaire1 has written "opuscule" entitled "Paleontographie" developing his ideas on passage of forms. — Deshayes2 states Lamarck3 priority refers to introduction to Animaux Sans Vertèbres as latest authority. —
The case of the tailess cat of Isle of Man mentioned in Loudons4 (analogue of Blood hound —

1 Etienne Geoffroy-Saint-Hilaire. See following footnote. The basic idea is contained in his Principes de philosophic zoologique, Paris 1830, p. 214. [deB67]
2 Gérard-Paul Deshayes. Bull. Soc. géol. France, tome 4, 1833-4. P- 99:— "M. Deshayes répondant à ce que M. Geoffroy-Saint-Hilaire a exposé dans la séance précédente en présentant son opuscule intitulé: Paléontographie, réclame en faveur de notre célèbre Lamarck la priorité de cette idée, que les animaux sont modifies dans leur organisation par les circonstances ambiantes ". [deB67]
3 Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck. Philosophie zoologique, Paris 1809 ; also Histoire naturelle des animaux sans vertèbres, Paris 1815-1822. [deB67]
4 Edward Blyth. "An attempt to classify the 'Varieties' of animals, with observations ", Loudon's Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. 8, 1835, p. 40. On p. 47:— tailless cats … are other striking examples of true varieties ". [deB67]

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Bull. Soc. Geolog. 1834, p. 217 Java.1 Fossils 10 out of twenty have analogues in the Indian sea. — Deshayes. —
Mr McClay2 is inclined to think that offspring of Negro & white will return to native stock (the cross often whiter than white parent) The mulattos themselves explain it by intermarriages with people either a little nearer black

1 Gérard Paul Deshayes. Bull. Soc. Geol. France, vol. 4, Paris [1834], p. 217: "M. Deshayes fait connaître à la Société que M. Hardie lui ayant fait voir les fossiles qu'il a recueillis dans l'Inde, à l'lle de Jave, dans un terrain tertiaire très moderne, il a reconnu que, parmi les vingt espèces environ qui lui ont été communiquées, dix sont rigoureusement déterminables, et ont certainement leurs analogues dans les mers de l'Inde." [deB]
2 William Sharp MacLeay. Probably personal communications. [deB]

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or white as it may happen. Dr Smith1 says he is sure of the case at Cape. — McClay argues from it Black & White species. — For says he seeds of hybrid lillies, &c., &c., &c., (V. Herbert2 on hybrids thus act. — Now the point will be to find whether known varieties in plants do so, — as in cacti, &c., &c. — as in dogs
investigate case of pidgeons, fowls, rabbits

1 Andrew Smith. Probably personal communication. [deB]
2 Herbert, William. 1822. On the production of hybrid vegetables; with the result of many experiments made in the investigation of the subject. Transactions of the Horticultural Society of London, 4:15-50. In this article Herbert proposes that new species are formed by divergence and hybridization. [Ba]

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cats, &c., &c. — When black & white men cross some offspring black others white which is more closely allied to case of cross of dogs. — See paper in Philosoph. Transactions on a quagga & mare crossing, by Ld. Moreton1 where mare was influenced in this cross to after births, like aphides. — Case of boy with foetus developed in breast — looks as if many ova impreg

1 George, Earl of Morton. "A singular fact of natural history. Peculiarities of the progeny of an Arab horse from a mare that had previously bred with a Quagga." Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc., 1821, p. 20 [deB]

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nated at once. — Dr Smith1 considers the Caffers (like Englishmen) men of many countenances, as hybrid race. Is not this contradiction to his view of races not mingling? —
In Foxes2 case of Blood Hounds. — a little mingling would probably have been good, namely such as blood hounds from other parts of England.

1 Andrew Smith. Probably personal communication. [deB]
2 William Darwin Fox. Probably personal communication.[deB]

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Mr Bell1 of Oxford St. had a very fine blood hound bitch which would never take the dog. But at last a rough-haired shepherd dog lined her & produced a very large litte — never afterwards went in heat. This is good instance of same fact in Mr Galton's case. It explains the loss & expense must probably have occurred to everyone of rare breeds of dogs from owners great care of them. Fox says when two dogs of opposite breeds are crossed, sometimes offspring quite intermediate

1 J. Bell, "of Oxford Street", Bell, Thomas: A History of British Quadrupeds, London 1837, p. 209: "The race [of blood-hounds] has been gradually diminishing, and is now very rarely to be met with in its purity. Amongst the very few instances of its present existence, I may mention a fine breed in the possession of Mr. J. Bell, of Oxford Street, who retains them in great purity." Darwin's information was no doubt transmitted personally by Mr. J. Bell. [deB]

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sometimes take strongly after either parent, about half & half tim as often one way as other. — He has known case of good pointer & rough water spaniel produce litter like both parents & Mr Bell has half bloodhound & grey hound. —
Where two dogs have lined bitch directly one after the other, puppies differ, & like both parents. — Fox told me of case of mare covered by blood horse & carthorse, two folds

[185] [excised]

[186] [excised]

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Mr Don gave me instances of one species of Australian genus being found in Sumatra; again another of other Genus in Sandwich islands — A genus with
species in Van Diemen's land and Tierra del Fuego. — Araucaria, species.
Brazil [small sketch] Chile, Norfolk Isl. — Isle of Pines —
Australia. — A South American form of Lathyrus has one species in Europe
Madagascar has several American forms — The above facts evidently show that Mr D. wonders

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at these species being wanderers. —
Iceland no species to itself, a remark common to all northern islds. — This is interesting, because Iceland, must have been all ice in time of ice transported. — This gives room to fine speculation. — Are there many Northern genera peculiar to itself —

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on hybrids between grouse & pheasant — Magazine. Zoology & Botany Vol 1 p. 4501
There is in nature a real repulsion amounting to impossibility, holds good in plants between all different forms; therefore when from being put on island. & fresh species made, parents do not cross — we see it even in men); the possibility of Caffers & Hottentots coexisting, proves this — but when Man makes variety these are vitiated. — This barely applies to plants

1 William Thompson. "On hybrids produced in a Wild state between the Black-Grouse (Tetrao tetrix) and Common Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) ", Mag. Zool. Bot., vol. 1, 1836-1837, p. 450. [deB67]

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Female pig apt to produce monsters in Isle of France.1 — Madagascar oxen with hump.2 — p 173. Voyage par un Officier du Roi
Mem. Capt. Owen's story of cats on West coast of Africa.3 — changing hair —
The Edinburgh. Journal of Natural History4 — Preface appeared good with facts about changes when animals transported.

1 Jacques-Henri Bernardin de Saint-Pierre. Voyage à l'Isle de France, à l'Isle de Bourbon, au Cap de Bonne-Espérance, &c, A vec des Observations nouvelles sur la mature & sur les Hommes, par un Officier du Roi, Amsterdam 1773, tome 1, p. 247:— ".. celle du cochon … La femelle de cet animal est sujette dans cette Isle à produire des monstres ". [deB67]
2 Bernardin de Saint-Pierre, Voyage à l'Isle de France, à l'Isle de Bourbon, au Cap de Bonne-Espérance, &c, A vec des Observations nouvelles sur la mature & sur les Hommes, par un Officier du Roi, Amsterdam 1773, tome 1, p. 246:— "des boeufs dont la race vient de Madagascar. Ils portent une grosse loupe sur leur cou ". [deB67]
3 William Fitzwilliam W. Owen. Narrative of a Voyage to explore the shores of Africa, Arabia, and Madagascar … London 1833. [deB67]
4 Edinb. fourn. Nat. Hist. No 2, 1835, p. 5:— "We are astonished when we study their geological relation in any particular district or country ; their geographical distribution, relatively to the world itself, or their migration from one country to another ; their connection with climate, there being domestic plants, which follow man in his improvement and change of soil, or wanderers seeking to inhabit distant regions, formerly uninhabited by their kinds, or by their being social and living, like man, in large communities ; their abundance or rarity ; their mode of propagation ; their natural enemies, or more kindly friends." [deB67]

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Mr Herbert's papers1 are in the Horticultural Transactions and a distinct work on Hybridity under title of Amaryllidae & Narcissus. (Mr Donn2 considers Mr H. rather wild.)
Mr Donn remarked to me that give him a species from Ireland, England, Scotland, & other localities & each one will have a peculiar constant aspect. That is varieties though of trifling order are formed by nature.

1 William Herbert. "Instructions for the treatment of the Amaryllis longifolia, with some observations on the production of hybrid plants." Trans. Hort. Soc., vol. 3, 1820, pp. 187–196: and "On the production of hybrid vegetables, with the result of many experiments made in the investigation of that subject". Trans. Hort. Soc., vol. 4, 1822, p. 15. [deB] - An interesting quotation from p. 196 of this article is the following: "Considering the wide field that is open for the creation of new species of plants, by hybrid intermixture, some mode of naming them must be adopted, or the art of cultivators will break down all the landmarks of the botanist." See also Herbert, William. 1837. Amaryllidaceae; preceded by an attempt to arrange the monocotyledonous orders, and followed by a treatise on cross-bred vegetables, etc. London. [Ba]
2 George Don (junior). Probably personal communication. [deB]

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Carmichael.1 Tristan D'Acunha, a list of its Flora is given. Mr Don2 remarked to me that some good African & some good S. American forms (& daresays some of these African forms forms would have some peculiarity. — Now when we hear that the whole island is volcanic surmounted by crater & studded with others, we see a beginning to isld. Graham Isld. — We know many seeds might be transported, some blown, — floating trees.

1 Captain Dugald Carmichael. "Some account of the Island of Tristan da Cunha and of its natural productions". Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., 12, Part II, 1818, p. 483. [deB]
2 George Don (junior). Probably personal communication. [deB]

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Thrushes (Turdus Guyanensis?) & bunting (Emberiza Brasiliensis?), and coots (Fulica chloropus) might bring in stomach, &c., &c. (Mem.: discover what kinds of seeds, then plants.) Mem.: Fact stated by Mr Don1 in island Teneriffe. St. Helena, J. Fernandez. Galapagos. Many trees compositae, because seeds first arrived Ferns ditto & hence formed trees, & would creator on volcanic island make plants grow closely when this volcanic point appeared in the great ocean, have made

1 George Don. Presumably personal communication or perusal of Don's manuscript Journal in Royal Horticultural Society of London (cf. A. W. Exell: Catalogue of the Vascular plants of S. Tomé, London B.M. (N.H.), 1944, p. 8.

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plants of American & African form merely because intermediate position. — We cannot consider it as adaptation because volcanic isld, whilst neig Africa sandstone & granite (that is genera near Cape) see if there are any species same as T. del Fuego & C. of Good Hope show possibility of transport: If some cannot be explained more philosophical to state we do not know how transported. —

195

(Glaciers might have acted at Tristan d'Acunha. — Carmichael1 Linn. Transact., Vol. XII. —
The Alpine plants of the Alps must be alpine new formations because snow formerly descended lower, therefore species of lower genera altered or northern plants.
No. Mem.: The antarctic flora must formerly have been separated by short space from mountains low down, therefore plants common. Take an example from T. del. Fuego. —

1 Captain Dugald Carmichael.

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Ellis1 (?) says Tahitian kings would hardly produce from Incestuous intercourse, a parallel fact to Blood Hounds.
Before attract. of gravity discovered, it might have been said it was as great a difficulty to account for movement of all, by one law, as to account for each separate one, so to say that all Mammalia were born from one stock, & since distributed by such means as we can recognize, may be thought to explain nothing. — it being as easy to produce (for the creator) two quadrupeds at S. America Jaguar & Tiger.2

1 William Ellis. Polynesian researches, during a residence of nearly eight years in the Society and Sandwich Islands, London 1831.[deB]
2 This is the first appearance of the argument used by Darwin in the Sketch of 1842, p. 84; and the Essay of 1844, p. 250. [deB]

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& Europe, as to produce same one. Although in plants, you cannot say that instinct perverted, yet organization especially connected with generation certainly is. =
The dislike of two species to each other is evidently an instinct — & this prevents breeding, now domestication depends on perversion of instinct (in plants domestication on perversion of structures especially reproductive organs) & therefore the one distinction of species would fail. But this applies only to coition & not production. But who can say, whether offspring does not depend on mind or instinct of parent.
Mem Lord Moreton's Mare. The fact of plants going back

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hybrid plants; analogous to Men. & dogs.: Now if we take structure as criterion of species Hogs different species, dogs not, but if we take character of offspring. Hogs not different, some dogs different. —
Henslow says. (Feb 1838) that few months since in Annales des Sciences, paper on Botany of Tahiti
In Charlesworth Magazine Jan: 1830. most curious paper on heredetary fear (like rooks with guns) of the

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Bustards in Germany. — R
Athenaeum. No. 537. Feb. 1838. p. 107. Mr Blyth1 states that all genera of birds in N. America & Europe, which have not their representative species in each other, are migratory species from warmer countries. When will this paper be published it will be curious. — Some general statements about mundine & confined genera. —
19

1 Edward Blyth. Athenaeum, No. 537, February 1838, p. 107:— "… that those North American birds which have no generic representative in Europe, and those European genera which have no species proper to America are, almost without exception, migratory, belonging to types of forms characteristic of those regions where they pass the winter ". [deB67]

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Lyell1 has remarked about no confined species in Scicily.
Jan: 1838 L'. Institut2
Bats, in Eocene beds, very like present species., p 8.
؟ Are mundine forms, longest persistent??
do. — The most perfect Plants Composites. —
!!good those which have undergone most metamorphosis3
Is this applicable to insects &c &c? — (p. 23
do. — On animal — Confervae — p. 234

1 Sir Charles Lyell. Principles of Geology, 5th ed. London 1837, vo1.3, P. 444:— "The newly emerged surface, therefore, must, during the modern zoological epoch, have been inhabited for the first time by the terrestrial plants and animals which now abound in Sicily … The plants of the flora of Sicily are common, almost without exception, to Italy or Africa, or some of the countries surrounding the Mediterranean ; so that we must suppose the greater part of them to have migrated from pre-existing lands". [deB67]
2 Henri-Marie de Blainville. L'lnstitut, 1838, p. 6, Zoologie, Chauve-Souris. On p. 8:— "ces families existaient avant la formation des terrains tertiaires … si anciennes ne différaient que fort peu, si même elles différaient des espèeces actuellement vivantes dans les mêmes contrées ". [deB67]
3 J. Meyen. L'lnstitut, tome 6, 1838, Physiologie végétale ; on p. 23:— "M. Fries décide que les Composées sont les plantes les plus complètement développées ". [deB67]
4 ibid." M. Mohl a fait connaÎtre d'abord ses observations sur le Conferva". [deB67]

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p. 267. Dela Beche.1 Geolog. Researches. facts of salt-water shells living in absolutely fresh water. — origin of Fresh-water genera?
19
The absence of lime in Plutonic & Volcanic rocks, most remarkable. — ؟Have the changes been so slow., that all have existed for ages as metamorphic; & therefore according to Lyells doctrine removed??2

1 Sir Henry Thomas de La Bêche. Researches in Theoretical Geology. London 1834, p. 267:— "Voluta magnifica is known to live high up in the brackish waters near Port Jackson in Australia, and an Area inhabits the freshwater of Jumna, near Hamirpur, 1000 miles from the sea ". [deB67]
2 Sir Charles Lyell. Principles of Geology, 5th ed. London 1837, vol. 3, p. 302:— "The constant transfer, therefore, of carbonate of lime from the inferior parts of the earth's crust to its surface, must cause at all periods and throughout an indefinite succession of geological epochs, a preponderance of calcareous matter in the newer, as contrasted with the older formations ". [deB67]

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Is the prevalence of Coniferous Woods before Dicotyledenous a fact analogous to reptiles before Mammalia
Think about Miocene fossils some species being recent agreeing with Senegal. whilst Crag agrees with according to Beck1 has none recent, yet genera same. — —
Speculate on multiplication of species by travelling of climates & the backward & forward introduction of species. —

1 Heinrich Henrichsen Beck. "Notes on the Geology of Denmark ", Proc. Geol. Soc., vol. 2,1835-1836, pp. 217-220. [deB67]

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When species cross & hybrids breed, their offspring show tendency to return to one parent, this is only character, & yet we find this same tendency (only less strongly marked) between what are called varieties.
NB. one mother bringing forth young having very different characters is attempt at returning to parent stock. I think we may look at it so, —??
It holds good even with trifling differences of expression, one child like father, another like mother.

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Has Lowe1 written any other paper besides one in Latin, one of on Madeira. any general observations.
Difference of species between land shells of Porto Santo and Madeira. I believe very curious.
My idea of propagation almost infers what we call improvement. — All Mammalia from one stock, & now that one stock cannot be supposed to be most perfect (according to our ideas of perfection), but intermediate

1 Richard Thomas Lowe. "Primitiae Faunae et Florae Maderae et Portus-Sancti; sive Species quaedam novae vel hactenus minus rite cognitae animalium et plantarum in his insulis degentium breviter descriptae", [1830] Trans. Camb. Phil. Soc., vol. 4, 1833, p. 1.[deB]

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in character. The same reasoning will allow of decrease in character (which perhaps is case with fish, as some of the most perfect kinds, the shark, lived in remotest epochs. — ؟Lizards of secondary period in same predicament. It is another question, whether whole scale of Zoology may not be perfecting by change of Mammalia for Reptiles, which can only be adaptation to changing world. — I cannot for a

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moment doubt but what cetaceae & Phocae now replace Saurians of Secondary epoch: it is impossible to suppose such an accumulation at present day; & not include Mammalian remains. The Father of all insects gives same argument as father of Mammalia, but have improvement in system of articulation. ؟Whether type of each order may not be supposed that form which has wandered least from ancestral form. If so are present typical

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species most near in form to ancient; in shells alone can this comparison be instituted.
People often talk of the wonderful event of intellectual man appearing. — the appearance of insects with other senses is more wonderful; its mind more different probably, & introduction of man nothing compared to the first thinking being, although hard to draw line. —

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not so great as between perfect insect, & forms hard to tell, whether articulata, or intestinal, or even mite. — a bee compared with cheese mite with its wonderful instincts might well say how
The difference is that there is a wide gap between man & next animals in mind, more than in structures. —
If the skeleton of a negro had been found, what would Anatomists have said. — ؟Where is Pentland's1 account of

1 Joseph Barclay Pentland. Probably "Decription of fossil remains of some animals from the northeast border of Bengal". Proc. Geol. Soc., vol. 1, 1834, p. 76.[deB]

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Bolivian human species? — 1
Small new animal mentioned from Fernando Po. Zoolog. Proceedings October (?) 1837 2
Contrast: New Zealand with Tasmania
The reason why there is not perfect gradation of change in species as physical changes are gradual, is this if after isolation (seed blown into desert) or separation by mountain chains &c) the species have not been much altered they will cross (perhaps more fertility & so make that sudden step, species or not.

1 Joseph Barclay Pentland. "On the Ancient inhabitants of the Andes ", Rep. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci, 1834, P- 624:— "The remains of this race are found in ancient tombs among the mountains of Peru and Bolivia ". [deB67]
2 Proc. Zool. Soc, vol. 5, 1837, p. 101:— "Mr Martin exhibited a new Bat from Fernando Po ". (Probably William Martin). [deB67]

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A plant submits to more individual change, (as some animals do more than others, & cut off limbs & new ones are formed)
but yet propagates varieties according to same law with animals??
Why are species not formed, during ascent of mountain or approach of desert? — because the crossing of species less altered prevents the complete adaptation which would ensue

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A. B. C. D. (A) crossing with (B), and (B) being crossed with (C) prevents offspring of A becoming a good species well adapted to locality, but it is instead a stunted & diseased form of plant, adapted to A. B. C. D. Destroy plants B. C. D. & A will soon form good species!
The increased fertility of slightly different species & intermediate character of offsprings accounts for uniformity of species & we must confess that we cannot tell, what is the amount

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of difference which improves & checks it. It does not bear any precise relation to structure.
Mem.: Eyton's Hogs & dogs.1
The passage in last page explains that between species from moderately distant countries there is no test but generation (but experience according to each group) whether good species, & hence the importance naturalists attach to Geographical range of species. —

1 Thomas Campbell Eyton. "Some Remarks upon the Theory of Hybridity", The Magazine of Natural History, N.S., vol. 1, London 1837, p. 357. [deB]

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Definition of species: one that remains at large with constant characters, together with other animals beings of very near structure. — Hence species may be good ones & differ scarcely in any external character; — For instance two wrens forced to haunt two islands, one with one kind of herbage & one with other, might change organization of stomach & hence remain distinct.

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Where country changes rapidly we should expect most species —
The difference intellect of man & animals not so great as between living things without thought (plants) & living things with thoughts (animals).
∴ my theory very distinct from Lamarck's,1
Without two species will generate common kind which is not probable,2 then monkeys will never produce man, but

1 Darwin's point appears to be that Lamarck placed a great distinction between the higher animals which possessed a "sentiment intérieur", and the lower animals which do not. (Philosophie Zoologique, Paris 1809, vol. 2, p. 256). [deB]
2 I believe Darwin means that under his theory two distinct species would not independently evolve into a single species. [Ba]

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both monkeys & man may produce other species. man already has produced marked varieties & may someday produce something else, but not probable owing to mixture of races. — When all mixed & physical changes (؟intellectual being acquired alters case) other species or angels produced,

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Has the Creator since the Cambrian formation gone on creating animals with same general structure — miserable limited view. —
With respect to how species are Lamarck's "willing" doctrine absurd (as equally are arguments against it — namely how did otter live before being modern otter — why to be sure there were a thousand intermediate

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forms. — Opponent will say. show them me. I will answer yes, if you will show me every step between bull Dog & Greyhound)1 I should say the changes were effects of external causes, of which we are as ignorant as why millet seed turns a Bullfinch black, or iodine on glands of throat, or colour of plumage altered during passage of birds (where is this statement, I remember L. Jenyns2 talking of it?), or how to make Indian cow with hump and pig's foot with cloven hoof.

1 Darwin means that arguments against the formation of species are absurd. The argument about the evolution of the otter through intermediate forms is developed in the Essay of 1844, p. 152. [deB]
2 Leonard Jenyns, afterwards Blomefield. Probably personal communication. [deB]

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Ask Entomologists whether they know of any case of introduced plant, which an insect has become attached to, that insect not being called Phitophagous omniphitophagous.
But it will be said there are latent insects, — as crows against man with gun, & Bustards, &c., &c.!!!
An American & African form of plant being found in Tristan D'Acunha may be said to deceive man. as likely as fossils in old rocks for same purpose!!

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Can the wishing of the Parent produce any character on offspring? Does the mind produce any change in offspring? if so adaptation of species by generation explained?
NB. Look over Bell1 on Quadrupeds for some facts about dogs &c. &c. NB. Animals very remote, ass & Horse produce offspring exactly intermediate. — Reference to pig & dogs.
My theory will make me deny the creation of any new quadruped since days of Didelphis in Stonefield ∴ all lands united (Falkland Fox, ice). Mauritius what a difficulty, — where elevation, subsidence near is only hope. New Zealand compare to Van Dieman's land glorious fact of absence of quadrupeds.
East India Archipelago very good on opposite tendency. —

1 Thomas Bell. A History of British Quadrupeds, London 1837; pp. 194 to 251 are devoted to the breeds of dogs. [deB]

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Study Ellis1 & Williams Zoology of South Sea islds. any animals? I believe none. — Canary islds? Madeira? Tristan d'Acunha? Iceland?
The Connection between Mauritius & Madagascar very good. — Fernando Po & Coast of Africa equally good. — Small isld off New Guinea same fact. see Coquille's Voyage. — Galapagos mouse brought by canoes (?). Ceylon & India. — Van Diemen's land Australia. England & Europe. — It will be well worth while to study profoundly the origin & history of every terrestrial Mammalia: especially moderately large ones.

1 William Ellis. Polynesian researches, during a residence of nearly eight years in the Society and Sandwich Islands, London 1831. [deB]

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Is the Flora of S. America Tierra del Fuego like that of North Europe, many genera & few species.
The number of genera on islands & on Arctic shores evidently due to the chance of some ones of the different orders being able to survive or chance having transported them to new station. — When the new island splits & grows larger species are former of those genera & hence by same chance few representative species. This must happen, and then enquiry will explain representative Systems. Of this we see example in English & Irish Hare, — Galapagos shrews & when big continent many species belonging to its own genera

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Therefore if in small tract we have many species, we may insure mass continental or many large islands. — Hence this must have been condition of Paris basin land. —
How is this with Fernando Po, with plants of St. Helena and Tristan D'Acunha
Resolves itself into question of proportion of species to genus.
If on one isld several species of same genus subsided land, — Mauritius? In plants where do most species occur. Although the Horse has perished from S. America, the jaguar has been left & Fox. & bear. — If I had not discovered

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channel of communication by which great Edentata might have roamed to Europe & Pachydermata from Europe to America, How strang would presence of Jaguar been in S. America —
East W. Coast of Africa & West E. of America ought to present great contrast in forms.
India intermediate, see how that is. —
؟are shell-boring molluscs, like Carnivorous Mammalia in their wide range & in their duration of species (؟are carnivorous Mamm. in Paris basin allied to present, more like present Carnivora than Pachydermata

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If my theory true, we get (1) a horizontal history of earth within recent times & many curious points of speculation; for having ascertained means of transport, we should then know whether former lands intervened. — (2d) By character of any two ancient fauna, we may form some idea of origin under connection of those two countries
hence India, Mexico, and Europe, one great sea (coral reefs; ∴ shallow water at Melville isld
(3d) We know that structure of every organ. in A.B.C. three species of one genus can pass into each other by steps we see: but this cannot be predicated if genus structures in two genera. — we then cease to know the steps although D.E.F. follow close to

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A.B.C. we cannot be sure that structure (C) could pass into (D). — We may foretell species. limits of good species being known. — It explains the blending of two genera. — It explains typical structure. — Every species is due to adaptation & hereditary structure. latter far chief element, ∴ little service habits in classification, or rather the fact that they are not far the most serviceable. We may speculate of durability of succession from what we have seen in old world. & on amount changes which may happen. — // It leads you to believe the world older than geologists think. It agrees with excessive inequality of numbers of species in divisions. look at articulata!!! —

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It leads to nature of physical change between one group of animals & a successive one. — It leads to knowledge what kinds of structure may pass into each other; now on this view no one need look for intermediate structure between say in brain between lowest Mammal & Reptile (or between extremities of any great divisions) thus a knowledge of possible changes is discovered, for speculating on future.

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∴ fish never become a man. — does not require fresh creation: — If continent had sprung up round Galapagos on Pacific side, the Oolite1 order of things might have easily been formed. —
With belief of change transmutation & geographical grouping we are led to endeavour to discover causes of change, the manner of adaptation (wish of parents??) instinct & structure become full of speculation & line of observation. — View of generation being condensation, test of highest organization intelligible. — may look to first germ —

1 Oolite, or Jura Limestone Group. See Lyell,vol. 4, p. 303.

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— led to comprehend two affinities. [illeg] My theory would give zest to recent & fossil Comparative Anatomy, it would lead to study of instincts, heredity & mind heredity, whole metaphysics — it would lead to closest examination of hybridity & generation, causes of change in order to know what we have come from & to what we tend —
to what circumstances favour crossing & what prevents it;
this & direct examination of direct passages of species structures in species, might lead to laws of change, which would then be main object of study, to guide our past speculations

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with respect to past and future. The grand question which every naturalist ought to have before him when dissecting a whale or classifying a mite, a fungus, or an infusorian is, "What are the Laws of Life." —
Where we have near genera far back, as well as at present time, we might expect confusion of species. — Important. For instance take Valvata1 & Conus (??) which now run together; were not both genera formerly abundant.
Seed of Ribston Pippin tree go producing crab is the offspring of a male & female animal of one variety going back ? Whether this going back may not be owing to cross from other trees????

1 Valvata, a genus of freshwater snails; Conus, a genus of marine snails. [Ba]

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Do the seeds of Ribston Pippin1 & Golden Pippin &c produce real crabs, & in each case similar or mere mongrels?
It really would be worth trying to isolate some plants under glass bells & see what offspring would come from them. Ask Henslow2 for some plants whose seeds go back again, not a monstrous plant, but any marked variety. — Strawberry produced by seeds?? —
Universality of generation strongly shown by hybridity of ferns — hybridity showing connexion of two plants.

1 Probably the Ribston Pippin apple occasionally produced a crab apple. [Ba]
2 John Stevens Henslow. [deB]

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Animals whom we have made our slaves we do not like to consider our equals. — Do not slave holders wish to make the black man other kind — animals with affections, imitation, fear of death, pain, sorrow for the dead. — respect.
We have no more reason to expect the father of mankind, than Macrauchenia1 yet it may be found. — We must not compare chances of embedment in man in present state with what he is as former species. His arts would not then have taken him over whole world. —

1 Macrauchenia, an extinct three-toed, long-necked ungulate of the South American Pleistocene. [Ba]

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The soul by consent of all is superadded, animals not got it, not look forward. if we choose to let conjecture run wild then our animals our fellow brethern in pain, disease, death & suffering, & famine, our slaves in the most laborious works, our companions in our amusements. they may partake from our origin in these one common ancestor; we may be all netted1 together.
Hermaphrodite animals couple: argument for true molluscs coupling. —

1 Francis Darwin transcribed this word as "melted" rather than "netted" [Ba].

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Dr. Smith's Information1
Long Horned (very) aboriginal at Cape: crossed with English Bull, offspring very like common English. —
Hottentots say great tailed sheep aboriginal at Cape & a thinner-tailed kind further inland. —
NB. There is division of snakes, with hinder teeth perforated for poison channels, but not having them, instance of useless structure —
Smith2 thinks several species of Rhinoceros range from Abyssinia to extreme South coast. Elephant he believes is mentioned by old writers on extreme Northern Coast.

1 Andrew Smith. Personal communication. [deB67]
2 Andrew Smith. Illustrations of the Zoology of South Africa. I. Mammalia, London 1838, gives the range of the rhinoceros. [deB67]

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Hippopotamus do. — Giraffe do. —
Range of East Indian Rhinoceros (?)— Some paper in Institute on range of Bos in India. — Range of Zebra? —
The Crocodile & Tortise former inhabitants of Mauritius 1
Freycinet Voyage2 agrees with several mammalia being peculiar (?)
If. Henslow3 discusses possibility of seeds of Keeling standing transport. — but Get him to discuss those mentioned by Lesson4 & Chamisso.5

1 reference untraced. [deB67]
2 Louis de Freycinet. Voyage autour du monde … Paris 1825–1839. Freycinet also edited the 2nd edition of François Péron's Voyage de découvertes aux Terres Australes, Paris 1824, referred to above by Darwin in connexion with Mauritius. [deB67]
3 John Stevens Henslow. "Florula Keelingensis. An Account of the native plants of the Keeling Islands "., Ann. Nat. Hist. vol. 1, 1838, p. 337:— "Mr Darwin … presented me with the plants which he collected, together with his memoranda respecting them, I have thought that a list of the species, accompanied by a few remarks, might be of interest; and chiefly as serving to point out a set of plants whose seeds must be provided in a very eminent degree with the means of resisting the influence of sea water ". It is interesting to note this early date at which Darwin was interested in the viability of seeds immersed in sea water, on which he made experiments twenty years later. [deB67]
4 René Primevère Lesson. In Louis Isidore Duperrey, Voyage autour du Monde … Paris 1826-1830, Zoologie is by Lesson and P. Garnot, tome 1, 1826. [deB67]
5 Adelbert von Chamisso. In Otto von Kotzebue, A Voyage of Discovery into the South Sea and Beering's Straits, London 1821. [deB67]

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Geograph. Journal Vol. V P. I, p. 67. Dr Coulter1 on decrease of population in California, cessation of female offspring: applicable to any animal.
Athenaeum p. 154, Jan. 1838. Hybrid Ferns.2
It may be argued against theory of changes, that if so in approaching desert country or ascending mountains you ought to have a gradation of species, now this notoriously is

1 Thomas Coulter. "Notes on Upper California", Journ. Roy. Geogr. Soc., vol. 5, 1835, p. 59. On p. 67: "It is a very extraordinary fact that their [the Indians] decrease is greatly hastened by the failure of female offspring, — or the much greater number of deathe amongst the females in carly youth than in the males." [deB]
2 Martin Martens. "On hybridity in ferns", (Paper read before Botanical Society on 16th February 1838). The Athenacum, 1838, p. 154. [deB]

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not the case. you have stunted species, but not such as would make species (except perhaps in some plants & then a chain of steps is found in same mountain). — How is this explained by law of small differences producing more fertile offspring. —
1st All variation of animal is either effect or adaptation, ∴ animal best fitted to that country when change has taken place. nature

[237] [excised]

[238] [excised]

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Any change suddenly acquired is with difficulty permanently transmitted. — It will admit a plant will admit of a certain quantity of change at once, but afterwards will not alter. This need not apply to very slow changes, without crossing. — Now a gradual change can only be traced geologically (& then monuments imperfect) or horizontally, & then cross breeding prevents perfect change. —

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It is scarcely possible to get evidence of two races of plants run wild — (for we know that such can take place without impregnating each other), for if they are different then they will be called species, & mere producing fertile hybrids will not destroy that evidence, as so many plants produce hybrids, or else whole fabric will be overturned. — Hence extreme difficulty, argument in circle. — Falkland Isd case good one of animals not soon being subjected to change in Americas perhaps merely gone back previous

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to fresh change.
Get a good many examples of animals & plants very close (take European birds. Mr Gould's1 case of Willow wren) & others varying in wild state to show that we do not know what amount of difference prevents breeding; — or as others would express it, amount of varying in wild state. —
When breaking up the primeval continent. Indian Rhinoceros. Java, & Sumatra ones all different.— Join Sumatra and Java to together by elevation now in progress and you will have two

1 John Gould. The Birds of Europe, London 1837, vol. 2, (pages unnumbered). P. 131: "A little variation frequently occurs in the size of each of the birds". [deB]

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Tapirs existing in East Indian seas. Marsupial animals all show greater connexion in quadrupeds, but plants do not follow by any means. — Ostriches. — Hippotomus only African. — American & African forms maybe in India & East Indian Islds — Monkeys different, not travellers??
Royles1 case of Himalayan plants. ؟migratory birds
he told me some story of crane from Holland!!!
in stomach, or in feathers — seeds.

1 John Forbes Royle. Illustrations of the Botany and other Branches of the Natural History of the Himalayan Mountains, London 1834–1835. [deB]

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Two inhabitants of the Tropics (whether one fossil or not) are related by real relationships, as well as effect of similar temperature; now those of temperate regions & tropics are only related by one connection, viz. descent. — Hence far greater discordance in latter. Hence change in form. — This probably explains crag1 & miocene. — The descendants left in cooling climate might change twice over, whereas those which migrated a little to the southward would merely be specifically different, if so. — Now this is difficult to explain by creation, so we must suppose a multitude of small creations.

1 Crag, a geological formation of the Pliocene of England. [Ba]

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Will Dromedaries and Camels breed? —
As man has not had time to form good species so cannot the domesticated animals with him! —
Modern origins shown by only one species far more than by non-embedment of remains. — ؟agrees with non-blending of languages? —
Till man acquired reason. he would be limited animal in range, & hence probability of starting from one point. —

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In the crag we see the process of change of those forms, which have succeeded in becoming habituated to colder climate whilst others died out; or moved toward equator or some species might then have been wanderers.—
There ought to be fewer species in proportion to genera than in present seas. All The one species which survive any change may undergo indefinite change ., (marking in their history an eocene miocene & pliocene epoch), whilst others may die out or move southward. : .. species must be compared

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to neighbouring sea. — For change of species does not measure time but physical changes (we assume like weather on long average tolerably uniform). — Comparing fossils with whole world would be like in a Meteorologic table in comparison of temperature of two countries, finding a very hot day (in one); .. oh, we will take a day from the equator to add to the mean of the other.

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If the world had cooled by secular refrigeration in chief part instead of change from insular to extreme climate, more northern Iceland would have possessed a most peculiar Flora. — & north of Europe. As European forms have travelled towards Equator, it so would the plants from extreme north, which according to all analogy would have been very unlike southern European ones, — "a variation played on secular refrigeration."
The Phenomena of the S. Hemisphere look as if heat gained but

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Experimentise on land shells in salt water & lizards do. — Ask Eyton1 to procure me some
Get Hope2 to give me an account of parasitic animals of beasts varying in different climates
Those will not object to my theory, those the philosophy who soar above the pride of the savage, they perceive the superiority of man over animals, without such resorts

1 Thomas Campbell Eyton. [deB]
2 Frederick William Hope, author of: Descriptions of some species of Carabidae, collected by Charles Darwin, Esq. in his late voyage. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London, 2:128-130, 1837-40. [Ba]

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Mr Waterhouse1 has most curious facts about the distribution of Lemurs in Madagascar, on neighbouring islets & a sub-genus in Southern Africa
19 R
In same manner. Cuscus, (a sub genus of Phalangista New Holland form) is found in many island Celebes Waggiou &c &c. (See Lyell.2 Vol III p. 30) different species in different isld. (as far East as New Ireland, see Coquilles3 Voyage). Waterhous4 remark Australia Fauna so far. Indian all the rest. Timor according to Mountain chain ought to be Australian.? —
Mr Gould5 has been struck with similar extension of form in birds. —

1 George Robert Waterhouse. Probably personal communication. [deB67]
2 Sir Charles Lyell. Principles of Geology, 5th ed. London 1837, vol. 3. P- 30:— "Phalangista vulpina inhabits both Sumatra and New Holland, the P. ursina is found in the island of Celebes ; P. chrysorrhos in the Moluccas ; P. maculata, and P. cavifrons, in Banda and Amboyna ". [deB67]
3 Louis Isidore Duperrey, Voyage autour du Monde, … Zoologie par MM. Lesson et Garnot, tome 1, Paris 1826, p. 158:— "Couscous blanc, Cuscus albus … Kapoune des Nègres du Part-Praslin, à la Nouvelle-Irlande ". [deB67]
4 George Robert Waterhouse. Probably personal communication. [deB67]
5 John Gould. A Synopsis of the Birds of Australia and adjacent Islands, London 1837–1838. [deB67]

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Waterhouse1 thinks two main divisions of cats. Tortoise shell — & grey-banded ؟species? — thinks offspring of cats sometimes heterogenous. — Australian dog jumped into tub leaving only nose above it — pulled bell. — —
It was most curious to observe, that all the species of mice in S. America, which were hard to distinguish came from closely neighbouring localities.2
Institute 1838. p 38. account of fossils of Sewalick India3
Monkeys of old World. Crocodiles. Anoplotherium. —

1 George Robert Waterhouse. Probably personal communication. [deB67]
2 Reference untraced. [deB67]
3 Hugh Falconer & Sir Proby T. Cautley. "Sur de nouvelles espèces fossiles de l'Ordre de Quadrumanes ", L'Institut tome 6, 1838, p. 37. Also Proc. Geol. Soc. vol. 2, 1837, p. 544:— "extract of a letter, dated Saharumpore 18th November 1836 … Captain Cautley and Dr Royle … of the finding of the remains of a quadrumanous animal in the Sewaliks, or Sub-Himalayan range of mountains. An Astragalus was first found, but latterly a nearly perfect head, with one side of the molars and one orbit nearly complete. The animal must have been much larger than any existing monkey, and allied to Cuvier's Cynocephaline group". [deB67]

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M. Jarred & Dumeril1 great work on Reptiles. M. J. says some reptiles same from Maurice — Madagascar — C.of Good Hope. — His book probably worth studying. —
Wingless birds S. Continents. Ostriches. Dodo. Apteryx. Penquin — Loggerheaded Duck — Larger proportion of water & small of land — & a few quadrupeds —
Study Productions of great Fresh Water Lakes of North America.

1 André-Marie-Constant Duméril. Expétologie générale on Histoire complète des Reptiles. Paris 1836, p. 278: "Parmis ces cinq dernières espèces Africaines [de Platydactyles], une a pour patrie commune le Cap de Bonne Espèrance, Madagascar et Maurice." [deB]

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If parasites different whilst man & his domesticated quadrupeds are not so. greater faculties of change in the articulata than Vertebrata. But how does this agree with the longevity of species in Molluscs!!!
When we talk of higher orders, we should always say intellectually higher. — But who with the face of the earth covered with the most beautiful savannahs and forests dare to say that intellectuality is only aim in this world.

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T. Carlyle1, saw with his own eyes, new gate, opening towards pig. — latch on other side. — Pigs put legs over, & then with snout lift up latch & back. —
Frogs attempted to be introduced lisle of France2 p. 170 Fish introduced Hump backed race of cows from Madagascar— p 173. Vol I. Voyage à France — Par un Officier du Roi. —3
Mackenzie4 Travel, p. 280. says cattle in Iceland, "are very like those of Ice Highlands of the largest sort of our highland Sort, except in one respect, that those of Iceland, are seldom seen with horns" — p. 341. Black Fox sometimes introduced by ice

1 Thomas Carlyle. [deB67]
2 Bernardin de Saint-Pierre. Voyage a I'Isle de France … Amsterdam 1773, tome 1, p. 170, fish and frogs introduced to Isle de France (= Mauritius). [deB67]
3 Bernardin de Saint-Pierre. Voyage a I'Isle de France … Amsterdam 1773, tome 1, p. 246. [deB67]
4 Sir George Stewart Mackenzie. Travels in the Island of Iceland Edinburgh 1811, p. 280:— "The cattle, in point of size and appearance, are very like our highland sort, except in one respect, that those of Iceland are seldom seen with horns ". [deB67]

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no only few pigs. — birds mentioned, but few.1 — (There was notice in report of British Association of 1838. (Newcastle) about somebody who had made great collection of birds of Iceland.2 — M. Gaimard,3 however, will settle this.
Waterhouse4 says he is certain there are local varieties of colour & size, but not form of animals. — He says Stephens5 say he can at once tell by general colouring a group of Nebria complanata from. Devonshire, from another from Swansea. — Again Waterhouse6 finds certain varieties of a Harpalus. common at South end, but rare absent from near London. = Dr. Smith7, he says, is deeply

1 Sir George Stewart Mackenzie. Travels in the Island of Iceland Edinburgh 1811, p. 341:— "Two distinct varieties of fox present themselves in Iceland: the arctic, or white fox (Canis lagopus), and one which is termed the blue fox (Canis fuliginosus) and varies considerably in the shades of its fur, from a light brownish or blueish grey … Horrebow mentions the black fox is sometimes brought over on the ice ". [deB67]
2 John Hancock. "Remarks on the Greenland and Iceland Falcons" (Collectors: G. C. Atkinson & P. Procter), Rep. Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci. vol. 7, 1839, p. 106. [deB67]
3 Paul Joseph Gaimard. Reference to work which ultimately appeared as "Liste des oiseaux qui se rencontrent en Islande avec des remarques sur leur présence dans cette île par M. Raoul Angles" in Voyage en Islande et au Groenland … Paris 1851. The voyage took place in 1834. [deB67]
4 George Robert Waterhouse. Probably personal communication. [deB67]
5 James Francis Stephens. Zoological Journal, vol. 1, 1825, p. 448, Art. 57, "Some observations on the British Tipulidae, together with descriptions of the Species ofCulex and Anopheles found in Britain ". A footnote on p. 451 refers to a collection of Nebria made in Devonshire by Dr William Elford Leach. [deB67]
6 George Robert Waterhouse. Probably personal communication. [deB67]
7 Andrew Smith. [deB67]

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261

of all genera in all classes are not a few only cosmopolitan, & in genera peculiar to any one country do not species generally affect different stations? — this would be strong argument for propagation of species. —
Again is there not similarity even in quite distinct countries in same hemisphere more than in others.

262

Are there any cases when domesticated animals separated & long interbred having great tendency to vary? Is not man thus circumstanced: varieties of dogs in different countries a case in point. —
All cases like Irish & English Hare bear upon this. —

263

Why do Van Diemen's land people require so many imported animals? —
At what. part of tree of life, can orders like birds & animals separate, &c., &c.
Work out Quinary system according to three elements.

264

How is Fauna of Van Diemen's Land & Australia

265

R

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272

Falconer's1 remarks on influence of climates, situations, &c., on — 242 Hook
Smellie2 Philos. of Zoology 842
White3 regular gradat. in Man 1024 Poor trash Lyell
Fleming's4 Philosophy of Zoolog
Royle5 on Himalaya Plants —

1 Hugh Falconer. "On the Aptitude of the Himalayan Range for the Culture of the Tea Plant", J. Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta 1834, vol. 3, p. 178. [deB]
2 William Smellie. The Philosophy of Natural History, Edinburgh & London 1790, 1799. [deB]
3 Charles White. An account of the regular gradation in Man, and in different animals and vegetables, London, 1799. [deB]
4 John Fleming. The Philosophy of Zoology, Edinburgh & London 1822. [deB]
5 John Forbes Royle. Illustrations of the Bolany and other Branches of the Natural History of the Himalayan Mountains, London 1834–1835. [deB]

273

Would it not be possible to work through all genera & see how many confined to certain countries
so on with families. —
Ask Royle1 about Indian cattle with humps. —

1 John Forbes Royle. Cf. Illustrations of the Botany and other Branches of the Natural History of the Himalayan Mountains, London 1839, p. lxxiv. [deB]

274

؟To be solved: if horses sent to India & long bred in and no new ones introduced, would not change be superinduced — why is everyone so anxious to cross animals from different quarters to prevent them taking peculiar characters — Indian Bull? —

275

Do species of any genus as American or Indian genus inhabit different kind of localities — R If so change
The grand question Are there races of plants run wild or nearly so, which breed do not intermix, — any cultivated plants produced by seed: — Lychnis. — Flax. —

276

Read Swainson1

1 William Swainson. A Treatise on the Geography and Classification of Animals. Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopaedia, London 1835. [deB]

277

photo p.228 [added in ink by Francis Darwin? Photo reproduced in LL:2 facing p. 5]
R

278

In production of varieties is it not per saltum. —
Isld bordering continents same type collect cases. — African Isld — How is Juan Fernandez — Humming Birds
types of former dogs. character of Miocene Mammalia of Europe

279

Mem. Mr Bell's1 case of Sub Himalayan land emys decidedly an Indian form of Tortoise. —
On other hand fresh water tortoises from Germany2 (where Mr Murchison's fox was found3) decidedly next species to some South American kinds. —

1 Thomas Bell. Proc. Zool. Soc. Land., Part II, 1834, p. 17. "Specimens and drawings were exhibited of a freshwater Tortoise, forming part of the collection of Mr. Bell, by whom it was described as a type of a new genus, for which he proposed the name of Cyclemys." "Mr. Bell regards the Tortoise which he has thus characterized as supplying a link in the connecting series of the land with the freshwater families which has hitherto been wanting. …" [deB]
2 Thomas Bell. "Zoological observations on a new Fossil Species of Chelydra, from Oeningen." [1832], Trans. Geol. Soc., vol. 4, 1835, p. 379. [deB]
3 Roderick Impey Murchison. "On the fossil fox of Oeningen, with an account of the lacustrine deposit in which it was found," Proc. Geol. Soc. 1826–1833, vol. 1, p. 167; Trans. Geol. Soc., vol. 3, 1835, p. 277. [deB]

280

Are the closest allied species always from distant countries, as Decandelle1 says? No, he only says sometimes
we might expect disseminated species to vary a little, but such should not be general circumstance. — In insects in England surely it is not; intermediate genera we might expect. —

1 Augustin-Pyramus de Candolle. Essai élémentaire de géographie botanique, Strasbourg, 1820. [deB]

[inside back cover] 281

Lindley Introduct.1
Dict. Science Naturelle2
Geographie Botanique
De Candoelle Geol. Soc.3
Horae Entomologicae4
Linn. Soc.
Geoff. St. Hilaire5
Philosophy of Zoology
Waterhouse

? 12. 14. 16
20. 23. 25
? 35. 86
40. 49
81. 85
137. 141. 14[5]
149. 155, 58. 63. [67]
192. 95. 96. 204
207, 11. 12, 16. 20
224. 27. 36. 35.

1 John Lindley. An Introduction to the Natural System of Botany, London 1830. [deB]
2 Dictionnaire des sciences naturelles, dans lequet on traite méthodiquement des différens Etlres de la nature, edited by F. Cuvier with a prospectus by Georges Cuvier, Paris & Strasbourg 1816–1830. [deB]
3 Augustin-Pyramus de Candolle. Essai élémentaire de geographic botanique, Strasbourg 1820. [deB]
4 William Sharp MacLeay. Horae Entomologicae. London 1819–1821. [deB]
5 Etienne Geoffroy-Saint-Hilaire. Principes de philosophic zoologique, Paris 1830. [deB]

[back cover]

49
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