RECORD: John van Wyhe ed., Darwin's 'Journal' (1809-1881). CUL-DAR158.1-76 (Darwin Online, http://darwin-online.org.uk/)
REVISION HISTORY: Corrected transcription of the entries up to 1867 appears in the first 15 volumes of the Correspondence (1985-2005). These, together with a working transcription of the entries following 1868, were kindly provided as ascii text by the editors of the Correspondence. Re-encoded by John van Wyhe, corrected against the manuscript by Kees Rookmaaker 12.2005, corrections and editing by van Wyhe 1.2006, 3.2007, 8.2009, further corrected and edited against the manuscript by van Wyhe 6.2010 RN17
NOTE: This 11 x 7.5cm notebook is bound in beige paper covers with
a green paper spine. The front cover bears a 6 x 4 cm label of cream-coloured
paper with clipped corners reading: 'Journal / Charles Darwin / August 1838'. The notebooks is written mostly in greyish brown ink. Where pencil or blue ink was used instead this is given in the textual notes at the bottom of each page. Some sheets bear watermarks dated 1832. The leaves in the notebook are numbered consecutively 1-76.
The page numbers were added by an archivist after microfilming. Only the front
of the leaf is numbered, hence there are 152 pages, but many blank.
Reproduced with permission of the Syndics of Cambridge University Library, The Correspondence of Charles Darwin and William Huxley Darwin.
See also Emma Darwin's diaries.
Editorial symbols used in the transcription:
[some text] 'some text' is an editorial insertion
[some text] 'some text' is the conjectured reading of an ambiguous word or passage
[some text] 'some text' is a description of a word or passage that cannot be transcribed
< > word(s) destroyed
<some text> 'some text' is a description of a destroyed word or passage
Text in small red font is a hyperlink or notes added by the editors.
Introduction by John van Wyhe.
[scroll up to see introductory matter]
[Pages 1 and 2 (recto) are blank and were not microfilmed.]
[Small cutting from Nature 1873. Darwin's annotations are in parentheses.]
*The first paper contributed by him (C. Darwin) entitled "On the Ova of the Flustra," in which he announces that he has discovered organs of motion, and, secondly that the small black body hitherto mistaken for the young of Fucus loreus is in reality the ovum of Pontobdella muricata, exhibits his early habits of minute investigation.
(An account of the Plinian Soc. of Edinburgh; Nature, Nov. 20, 1873, p.38)
My first paper 2d year in Edinburgh.1
1 'On the Ova of the Flustra' was read 27 March 1827.
1809 Feb 12th. Born at Shrewsbury. Parish of St. Chad
1813 summer. Went to Gros near Abegele for sea-bathing, some of my earliest recollections dates from this.
1817. Went to Mr Case's1 school in the Spring. (8 years old)
— July. My mother died.2
1 Rev. George Augustus Case (1798-1831) of the Unitarian Chapel, Shrewsbury. See Autobiography, p. 22.
2 Susannah Darwin (1765-1817), daughter of Josiah Wedgwood I. Married Robert Waring Darwin in 1796.
1818 July Went with Erasmus1 on party of pleasure to Liverpool.
— Midsummer.— Went to Dr. Butler's school.2
— September. Ill with scarlet Fever
1819 July. Went to sea at Plas Edwards & staid there three weeks.
1820 July. Went tour with Erasmus to Pistol Rheyadur.3— on horseback
1 Erasmus Alvey Darwin (1804-1881), Darwin's brother.
2 Samuel Butler (1774-1839), Head Master of Shrewsbury School. Grandfather of Samuel Butler (1835-1902).
3 Pistyll Rhaiadr, falls on the Rhaiadr river, Denbighshire.
X] added pencil.
1822 June. Tour with Caroline1 to Downton.—
July — to Montgomery & Bishops Castle, with Elizabeth.2
September.— To old Mr Cotton.3 —
1824. November.— Marianne4 was married to Dr Parker5
1825 June 17th. Left Shrewsbury school for ever.— 16 years old
— October. Went with Erasmus to Edinburgh.—
1 Caroline Sarah Darwin (1800-1888), Darwin's sister, who married Josiah Wedgwood III in 1837.
2 Susan Elizabeth Darwin (1803-1866), Darwin's sister, who lived at the Mount until her death.
3 Richard Cotton (d. 1839), Shrewsbury naturalist. He told Darwin the erratic boulder in Shrewsbury, known as the 'Bell Stone', was unlike any rock nearer than Cumberland or Scotland. LL 1: p. 41 and Autobiography, p. 52. See also Geikie 1909.
4 Marianne Darwin (1798-1858), Darwin's eldest sister.
5 Henry Parker (1788-1858), physician who married Darwin's sister Marianne in 1824.
X] added pencil.
My first recollection of having some pleasure in scenery date as far back as this.— 13 years old.—1
1 Referring to a June 1822 tour with Caroline Darwin to Downton.
1826 June 15. Walking tour into North Wales with Hubbersty1
— Oct. 30th. Riding tour with Caroline Vaynor Park, Bala &
— November 6th. Went to Edinburgh by myself
1827 In Spring went to Dublin & Portran, & then to London & Paris with Uncle Jo2
1827. In the Autumn paid many visits to Woodhouse3
— September. Maer4 & Sir J. Mackintosh5
— Christmas. Went to Cambridge6
1828 Summer. Went to Barmouth (with Herbert7 & Butler8) to read with Butterton9
1 Probably Nathan Hubbersty (1803-1881), Assistant Master at Shrewsbury School 1826-8.
2 Josiah Wedgwood II (1769-1843), Darwin's maternal uncle.
3 Woodhouse, near Shrewsbury, home of the Owen family.
4 Maer Hall, near Stoke upon Trent, Staffordshire, home of Josiah Wedgwood II.
5 Sir James Mackintosh (1765-1832), philosopher and historian.
6 The admissions books at Christ's College show Darwin was admitted on 15 October 1827, and that he did not come up to Cambridge until 26 January 1828.
7 John Maurice Herbert (1808-1882), barrister and judge.
8 Thomas Butler (1806-1886), son of Samuel Butler Head Master of Shrewsbury School.
9 George Ash Butterton (1805-1891), clergyman and headmaster.
1827 In Spring ... Uncle Jo] added in blue ink.
[Attached is a cutting from Transactions of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh 11: 17. The parenthetical comments are Darwin's annotations.]
† The first paper contributed by him (Mr. Darwin.) entitled "On the Ova of the Flustra" in which he announces that he has discovered organs of motion, and secondly that the small black body hitherto mistaken for the young of Fucus loreus is in reality the ovum of Pontobdella muricata, exhibits his early habits of minute investigation.
([From minutes of Plinian Soc.] These 2 papers were read by me at close of 1826 or early in 1827 before Plinian Soc. in Edinburgh & when first read by me, I was then 18 years old.)
1826/1827 winter. Examined marine animals on shores of Frith of Forth with Dr. Grant1 & Coldstream.2
In Spring went tour. Dundee St. Andrews Sterling. Afterwards Glasgow. Belfast Dublin.— Then London. Paris.—
1827/1828 Became acquainted with Fox3 & Way4 & so commenced Entomology.
1828. Very keen in collecting insects in the spring at Cambridge & at Barmouth in the Autumn.
1 Robert Edmund Grant (1793-1874), Scottish physician and zoologist.
2 John Coldstream (1806-1863), Edinburgh physician.
3 William Darwin Fox (1805-1880), Darwin's second cousin and clergyman naturalist.
4 Albert Way (1805-1874), antiquary, artist and traveller.
1828. Sept. Maer. & thence to Osmaston Hall1 for Music Meeting.
1829. Summer. Paid Barmouth a visit.—
— October. Bermingham. Music Meeting with Wedgwoods.
1830 Christmas vacation spent at Cambridge (?)
1 Osmaston Hall, near Derby, home of Samuel Fox (1765-1851), father of William Darwin Fox.
1830. Continued to collect insects: to hunt, shoot & be quite idle.
Christmas passed my examination for B.A. degree, & kept the two following terms.
— August. Went on Geological tour by Llangollen, Ruthven Conway, Bangor & Kapel Curig. where I left the Professor Sedgwick1 & crossed the mountains to Barmouth.
Returned to Shrewsbury at end of August.— refused offer of Voyage —
Sept. Went to Maer — returned with Uncle Jos to Shrewsbury.— thence to Cambridge & London.
— Sept. 11. Went with Capt. FitzRoy2 in steamer to Plymouth to see the Beagle
— 22d returned to Shrewsbury, passing through Cambridge.
1 Adam Sedgwick (1785-1873), Professor of Geology at Cambridge.
2 Robert FitzRoy (1805-1865), naval officer.
09/... x] added pencil.
During these months lived much with Prof. Henslow,1 often dining with him, & walking with. became slightly acquainted with several of the learned men in Cambridge. which much quickened the little zeal, which dinner parties & hunting had not destroyed. In the Spring, paid Mr Dawes2 a visit, with Ramsay,3 Kirby4 & Henslow & talked over an excursion to Teneriffe.—
In the Spring, Henslow persuaded me to think of Geology & introduced me to Sedgwick.— During midsummer geologized a little in Shropshire.
1 John Stevens Henslow (1796-1861), Professor of Botany at Cambridge.
2 Richard Dawes (1793-1867).
3 Marmaduke Ramsay (1795-1831), B.A., Jesus College, Cambridge, 1818; Fellow and tutor, 1819-1831.
4 Possibly Henry Kirby (d. 1858) or William Kirby (1759-1850).
1831 Oct. 2d. Took leave of my home.
Staid in London.
— Oct 24th. Reached Plymouth
— December 10th Sailed. but were obliged to put back
— 21st. Put to sea again & were driven back
— 27th. Sailed from England on our circumnavigation.—
October & November. These months very miserable.—
1832. Jan. 16th. First landed on a tropical shore. St. Jago
Feb 29th. Landed at Brazil
Dec. 2d.— Tierra del Fuego
1833 Dec 6th. Sailed for last time from Rio Plata.
1834 June 10th. Sailed for last time from Tierra del Fuego
St. Jago] added pencil.
1835 Sept. 5th Sailed from West shores of South America
1836 May 31. Anchored at the Cape of Good Hope
1836 October 2d. Anchored at Falmouth.
Oct.— 4th. Reached Shrewsbury after absence of 5 years & 2 days.
Oct— 14th. London
— 15th Cambridge
— 20th London
— 28. Beagle arrived at Woolwich. was paid off November 17th.—
November 12th. Maer
— 16th Shrewsbury
December 2d London
— 13th. Cambridge
X] added pencil.
Jan: Cambridge — time spent in arranging general collection; examining minerals, reading, & writing little journal in the evenings Paid two short visits to London. — & read paper on elevation of coast of Chile.1
March 6th. Left Cambridge to reside in London
— 13th. Entered my lodging in 36 Grt. Marlborough Stt.—
June 26th. Short visit to Shrewsbury.
Septemb. 25th. Shrewsbury.— returned by Maer & reached London Oct. 21st
Oct 21st. London
Novemb. 20th: Two days Isle of Wight to see Fox.—
1 Darwin 1837.
In July opened first note Book1 on "transmutation of Species". — Had been greatly struck from about month of previous March on character of S. American fossils — & species on Galapagos Archipelago. — These facts origin (especially latter) of all my views.
From March 13th to end of September entirely employed in my journal.
May. paper on Coral formations to Geolog. Soc.2
do on deposits in Pampas.3
October - November. — preparing scheme of Zoology of Voyage of Beagle.4 Commenced geology5 —& finished proofs of Journal.6— Paper on worms. forming mould.—7
1 Notebook B.
2 Darwin 1837.
3 Darwin 1837.
7 Darwin 1838.
Jan: 17th. I finished my account of the geology of the Galapagos Arch. & of Ascension.
Feb. 25 — finished St. Helena & small isls in Atlantic: Also speculated much about "Existence of Species & read more than usual.
March.— Part. Mammalia in Zoology. Paper on earthquakes for Geolog.Soc.1
April. Part. Birds for Zoolog: much time thus lost.
— 16th. Began geolog. Cape of Good Hope, King George Sound, Sydney.
May.— 1st Unwell, working at Geolog. as named & "Species".—
1 Darwin 1838.
May 10th. Went to Cambridge for 4 days
— 15th. Began geolog. of Hobart town & New Zealand
— 22d. Began geology of St. Jago. Cape de Verds
June - (beginning). Preparing 1st Part of Birds — St Jago geology — some little Species theory, & lost very much time by being unwell.—
— 23d Started in Steam boat to Edinburgh (one day Salisbury Craigs). Spent eight good days in Glen Roy. returned by sea through Greenock & Liverpool, slept at Overton
& reached Shrewsbury July 13th.
July 29th. Set out for Maer
August 1st. London. Began paper on Glen Roy & finished it1
September 6th. Finished paper on Glen Roy — one of the most difficult & instructive tasks I was ever employed on
Sept. 14th. Frittered these foregoing days days away in working on Transmutation theories & correcting Glen Roy. Began craters of Elevation Theory
Octob 5th. Began Coral Paper: requires much reading
25th Went to Windsor for two days' rest.— glorious weather.— delightful.
1 Darwin 1839.
Very idle at Shrewsbury, some notes from my Father.1 & opened note book, connected with Metaphysical Enquiries.2
August. Read a good deal of various amusing books, & paid some attention to Metaphysical subjects.
All September. read a good deal on many subject; thought much upon religion.— Beginning of October do.
1 Robert Waring Darwin (1766-1848).
2 Notebook M.
Octob. 27th. Preface & Addenda on Theory of Erratic Blocks to Journal.1
November 9th. Started for Maer.
— 11th. Sunday. The day of days!2 Went to Shrewsbury next day — returned to Maer on the 17th. & to London on the 20th.—
December 6th. Emma came up to Town: — most fortunately for me.
December 21st. Emma Went to Maer
December 31st. Entered 12 Upper Gower Stt.—
1 The preface and addenda of Journal and remarks.
2 Darwin's marriage proposal accepted by his cousin Emma Wedgwood (1808-1896).
Lost 6, 7, 8th of Novemb. unwell.
Wasted entirely the last week of November.— Beginning of December prepared number of Birds. From 6th to 21st busy about House & domestic concerns.— To the end of year. House hunting, read a little, & wasted sometime by being unwell. —
Jan 11th. Went to Shrewsbury.
15th Went to Maer
29th. Married at Maer & returned to London 30 years old
Feb 7th. Recommenced Coral Paper. —
End of February & first week in March Earthquake paper, then a little work on Species & the Coral Paper
April 26th. Went to Maer
May 13th. to Shrewsbury
— 20th to London.
Aug 23d to Maer & thence on the 26th to Bermingham for the Meeting of the Brit. Assoc.
1839 X] X in pencil.
Married at Maer...30 years old] 'at Maer' and '30 years old' added pencil.
First week January correcting Glen Roy. Paper.— Did nothing during the rest of Month.—
Feb. 5th. Began. German.—
End of March & nearly all April Coral Paper.—
Maer visit. some reading connected with species, but did very little on account of being unwell.
May 20th to July 30th. Map for Coral islds— ornithological part of Beagle's Voyage— lost some time unwell— read little for species: to 23d of Aug.—coral-map. & Horticult. Transact.
Septem 12th. to Shrewsbury & staid there ten days.
Oct. 2d. Arrived in London.
Decemb 27th. A boy1 born at 1/2 past 9.A.M.
1 William Erasmus Darwin (1839-1914).
During my visit to Maer, read a little, was much unwell & scandalously idle.— I have derived thus much good, that nothing is so intolerable as idleness.
The last week corrected Earthquake paper.— Begin of Octob. correcting do — Ornithology.— Octob 10th. recommenced coral paper.
December 24th. became unwell, & with the exception of two or three days remained so till the 24th of February. In this interval read a little for Transmutn theory, but otherwise lost these whole months.
Again became unwell & did not commence Coral volume till March 26th.—
April 3rd went to Shrewsbury for a week by myself.
did Coral Volume
June 10. Went to Maer & paid visit to Shrewsbury.
Aug.4 Taken ill.
Nov 14 came up to London
During this summer when well enough did a good deal of species work.
Dec 15th. Commenced last number of Birds for Zoology of Beagle's Voyage
Finished. Feb. 20th. 1841.— Commenced
April 3rd...for'] in Emma Darwin's handwriting over erased pencil: 'April 3d to Shrewsbury for a week'. 'April 3rd...species work' Emma Darwin's handwriting. 'did Coral Volume' is in Darwin's handwriting.
1842 (March 2d. Annie1
paper on Boulders & Till of S. America.2— finished April 4th.— Was idle & unwell—sorted papers on Species theory.
May 28th. Went to Maer. & Shrewsbury. read very little. returned to London July 23d.— July 26th. Commenced Coral work. after more than 13 months interval.
Jan. 3d 1842 Sent M.S. of Coral to Printers.
March. 7th. Went to Shrewsbury for 10 days:
May 6th 1842 corrected last proof of Coral volume.3— I commenced this work 3 years & 7 months ago. Out of this period about 20 (besides work during Beagle's voyage) months has been spent on it, & besides it, I have only completed the Bird Part of Zoology: Appendix to Journal Paper on Boulders & corrected papers on Glen Roy & Earthquakes
1 Anne Elizabeth "Annie" Darwin (1841-1851).
2 Darwin 1841.
3 Coral reefs.
March 2d. 1841 Annie born. —
Reading on Species & rest all lost by illness.—
May 18th. Went to Maer, June 15th to Shrewsbury; & on 18th to Capel-Curig, Bangor, Carnarvon to Capel-Curig; altogether ten days, examining glacier action. During my stay at Maer & Shrewsbury, 5 years after commencement wrote pencil sketch of my species theory.1— July 18th returned to London.—
Wrote paper on Glaciers.2 Copied notes on Species— Employed about Down.—Emma came to Down. September 14th. & I followed on 17th.— Mary Eleanor.3 Sept 23rd. born.— Ob. October 16th.—
October 14th. began on Volcanic islands—to shorten & rearrange Covington's M.-S.—
1 Later published in Foundations.
2 Darwin 1842.
3 Mary Eleanor Darwin (born and died 1842).
5 years after commencement] added pencil.
1842. Sept. 14. came to Down.
1843. July 8th. to Maer & Shrewsbury for a week
July 12. J. W.1 ob: Previous to this did little in the Spring from building; except some species work, & returned to volcanic islands on my return.
October 12th to Shrewsbury. for 12 days.
Paper on Sagitta2 & on seeds, preservation of.3
1844. Jan 5th sent M.S. of Volcanic Islands4 to Printers. Feb. 13th. finished correcting. In intervals & previously slowly enlarged & improved pencil sketch in 35 pages (written in midsummer of 1842) of Species Theory.
April 23d to Maer & Shrewsbury; returned May 30th
July 5th. Sent a written sketch of species theory5 (seven years after commencement in about 230 pages to Mr. Fletcher6 to be copied. Corrected it, last week in Sept: Paper on Atlantic Dust: on Planariae. Sorted my collections.
July 27th.—/44/— Began S. America
1 Death of Josiah Wedgwood II, Darwin's uncle and father-in-law.
2 Darwin 1844.
3 Kemp 1844.
5 Later published in Foundations.
6 Mr Fletcher n.d., schoolteacher at Down.
September 25th. Henrietta Emma. D.1 born.
1843 July 12th
My Josiah Wedgwood died. —
Sixteen months about Volcanic Isls Book
October 18th to 29th at Shrewsbury.
1 Henrietta Emma Darwin (1843-1929).
1843 July 12th.
Wedgwood died. —] blue ink.
April 24th. Finished first time over S. America.1— (9 months)
April 25 Began 2d Edit of Journal.2
August 26th. Finished.—do — (4 months) Rested idle for a fortnight
Oct. 29th. Recommenced Geolog. of S. America
4000 copies of New. Edit of Journal sold at Jan 1. 1847
Went to Shrewsbury for a week 11 days on May 10th
April 29th to Shrewsbury, returned on May 10th.—
George Howard1 born July 9.
Sept 15th. to Shrewsbury; Lincolnshire; York: the Dean of Manchester:2 Waterton:3 Chatsworth:4 Camp. Hill:5 returned home Oct. 26th.
1846. Feb. 21 to Shrewsbury; March 3d home.
July 31 to Shrewsbury. Home Aug. 9th.
1 George Howard Darwin (1845-1912).
2 William Herbert (1778-1847).
3 Charles Waterton (1782–1865).
4 Chatsworth, the estate of the Duke of Devonshire, located in the parish of Edensor, Derbyshire, where Darwin viewed the great conservatory, 300 feet in length, completed in 1840.
5 Camp Hill, the home of Sarah Elizabeth (Sarah) Wedgwood.
11 days on May 10th] added pencil.
1846. Feb. 21 ... Home Aug.] cancelled in pencil.
1846. Oct 1st. Finished last proof of my Geolog. Obser. on S. America; This volume, including Paper in Geolog. Journal on the Falkland Islands1 took me 18 & 1/2 months: the M.S., however, was not so perfect as in case of Volcanic Islands. So that my Geology has taken me 4 & 1/2 years: now it is 10 years since my return to England. How much time lost by illness!
Oct 1st. Paper on new Balanus. Arthro balanus
10 days in London, during 2 visits
& visitors here & some days unwell
November, December Conia & Megatrema
1 Darwin 1846.
during 2 visits] '2' in pencil.
Feb 21st. to Shrewbury. March 3d. Home
July 31st to do, Augt 9th. Home
September 9th with Emma to Brit Assoc: at Southampton, on the 12th to Portsmouth & coast of Isle of Wight on 13th to Winchester & S. Cross, on 14th Netley Abbey & Southampton Common. 17th Home
Sept. 22d. With Em. & Susan to Knole Park
1847. Jan. Conia
March. Acasta & Clisia
April 14th Lost several weeks by Boils & unwellness—
Tubicinella Coronula —
Dec 18th. Anat. of Pedunculated Cirriped
From Jan 1st 1847 to Jan 1848. 236 copies sold of my Journal by Murray. Total up to Jan 1. 1848— 4100.—
Tubicinella Coronula —] added in blacker ink.
Feb: 19th to Shrewsbury, March 5th. Home
June 22d to Brit. Assoc. at Oxford; Blenheim, Nuneham; Dropmore, Burnham Beeches, home July 1st.—
October 22d to Shrewsbury, Nov. 5th. Home
[a line of writing was here erased by abrasion and is now totally illegible.]
1848.— March 20. Finished Scientific Instructions1 & Transportal of Boulders from Lower to Higher Level.—2
April 19th. Paper read on Transportal of Boulders Both these done in intervals of work.
About Nov. 1. Began species of Anatifera
Jan 13. 49. finished o.
From July to end of year, unusually unwell, with swimming of head depression, trembling—many bad attacks of sickness..—
1 Darwin 1849.
2 Darwin 1848.
May 17th to Shrewsbury. June 1st Home.
July 22d to Swanage by Wareham & Corfe Castle
Home 29th by Sir W. Symonds1 yatch, Poole, spending a morning in New forest.—
Oct. 10th to Shrewsbury. Oct. 25th. Home.—
Nov. 17 to do. Nov. 26th Home
My Father died in morning of Nov. 13th. in his 83d. year. Born at Lichfield on May 30th. 1766. He was 3d son of Erasmus Darwin, who born at Elston in 1731. Settled in Shrewsbury about 1786.—
1 William Symonds (1782-1856), Surveyor of the Navy 1832-47, Rear-admiral, 1854.
1849. Jan 1st to March. 10th. Health very bad with much sickness & failure of power—worked on all well-days.—
March 10th to June 30th. at the Lodge Malvern: perfectly idle. health greatly improved.—
July 15th Recommenced systematic part of pedunculate Cirripedia.— Recent & fossil
Sept 11th to 21st. Brit: Assoc: at Birmingham, going to Malvern on the Sunday.
1850. Ap. 28th. Commenced systematic Sessilia.—
Dec.30. finished Balanus & Pachylisma
June 11 to 18th. Malvern
Augst 10 to 16 Leith Hill1
Oct. 14th. Hartfield.2 18th to Ramsgate, 22d Home
1 Leith Hill Place, near Dorking, home of Josiah Wedgwood III (1795-1880), brother of Emma Darwin; married to Darwin's sister Caroline.
2 Hartfield Grove, Hartfield, home of Charles Langton (1801-1886), Darwin's brother-in-law.
1851. Early part finished fossil Lepadidae.— prepared for press recent Lepadidae
Aug. 18th. began proofs X
Nov. 12. Finished do & began Genus Conia—(or Sessile Cs.) & Elminius
X] 'X' added pencil.
March 24th to Malvern with Annie & Etty. returned home 31st.— April 16th. started for Malvern. April 23d our dear child expired:1 24th. I returned to Emma. Our darling was born March 2d. 1841.—
July 30th to London. Aug. 10th returned Erasmus' House for Exhibition. &c
1 Anne Elizabeth "Annie" Darwin.
our dear child expired:] ':' added pencil.
Whole year Sessile Cirripedes
Genera, Acasta, (Pyrgoma & Creusia 41 days). Coronula (19 days) Platylepas, ubicinella, Xenobalanus, Chelonobia (Chthamalus 36 days), Chamoesipho, Octomeris, Catophragmus, Balanus recommenced; Mr Sowerby1 drawings Balanidae. Began Verruca
1852.— March 24 to Rugby for a day, thence to Shrewsbury, home April 1st.—
— Sept 11. to Leith Hill. 16th Home again — Drove in carriage by Godstone & Reigate
1 George Brettingham Sowerby (1812-1884), conchologist and illustrator. See Sowerby's illustrations here.
Drove in carriage by Godstone & Reigate] in pencil.
Whole year preparing M.S of Sessile Cirripedes for press.—
viz Verruca, Alcippe, Cryptophialus, Alcippe; X Mr. Sowerby for drawing. Sept. 20. Class. Cirripedia
Alcippe; X] 'X' added pencil on facing page.
1853 July 14th to Eastbourne: visited Brighton & Hastings. Home Augt 4th.—
Aug 13th to Hermitage1 for Chobham 17th home
Nov. 30th Royal Medal given to me.
1 The Hermitage, near Woking, not far from Chobham Camp, home of Jessie and Harry Wedgwood (1779-1885), brother of Emma Darwin. See Emma Darwin 2: 154.
1854. Feb. 3. First Proof of Sessile Cirripedia.— X
— July 15th. Final Revise of do.
Sept. 9th. Finished packing up all my cirripedes.1 preparing Fossil Balanidae distributing copies of my work &c &c.— I have yet a few proofs for Fossil Balanidae2 for Pal: Soc: to complete, perhaps a week's more work. Began Oct. 1 1846 On Oct. 1st. it will be 8 years since I began! But then I have lost 1 or 2 years by illness.
Sept. 9th. began sorting notes for Species Theory.—
Sessile Cirripedia.— X] 'X' added pencil.
1854. March 13th to Hartfield on account of Franky's1 illess. returned the 17th.—
— July 13-15 — Hartfield.—
— Oct. 9th-14th. Leith Hill
Decr. Lenny2 & Franky ill.—
1 Francis Darwin (1848-1925).
2 Leonard Darwin (1850-1943).
Decr. Lenny & Franky ill.—] in pencil.
March & April. Employed chiefly in comparing seeds—trying experiments in salting seeds.— & reading.—
Jan. 18th. Went to 27 York Place, Baker St1
Feb. 15. Returned Home.—
Sept. 10th Started for Glasgow Brit: Assocn., Sleeping at Carlisle with Emma. 19th. return sleeping at Carlisle, & reaching Shrewsbury on 20th; & I returned home on 22d.
1 A London holiday home rented by the Darwin's.
May 14th Began by Lyells1 advice writing species sketch.—2
Oct 13th Finished 2d. Chapt. (& before part of Geograph. Distr.)
Dec 16th " [finished] 3d Chapt.
1 Charles Lyell (1797-1875), Scottish geologist.
2 This became Natural selection.
before part of] pencil insertion.
Dec 16th " 3d Chapt.] in pencil. '16th' appears to be written over '14th'.
Sept 13th Leith Hill, returned 19th.—
November At. Sarah1 died
Dec 6th Charles Waring Darwin2 Born
1 Sarah Elizabeth Wedgwood (1778-1856).
2 Charles Waring Darwin (1856-1858).
Dec 6th Charles Waring Darwin Born] in pencil.
Jan 26th Finished Ch. 4. Var. Natural
March 3d. Find Ch. 5 Struggle for Existence
March 31st finished Ch. 6. Nat. Selection
Sept. 29th. finished Ch. 7 & 8; but one month lost at Moor Park.
Sept. 30th-to December 29th on Hybridism.—
April 22d. Moor Park. Returned May 6th Did me astonishing good
June 16th to Moor Park: returned on 30th— Etty there On 27th went to Selbourne
In latter part of Sept. for about week, Lenny had very intermittent Pulse, but now Oct 6th seems quite well; latter part of Oct. occasionally poorly. Nov. 13th seems quite well
(Nov. 5th-12th Moor Park)
March 9th Finished Instinct Chapter
April 14th. Discussion on large genera & small & on Divergence & correcting Ch. 6. (Moor Park) finished June 12th.— & Bees cells.
June 14th Pigeons: (interrupted)
July 20th to Aug 12th at Sandown, begun abstract of Species book1
Aug 17th. recommenced skeleton & Pigeon M.S.
Sept 16th Recommenced Abstract. Sect III & IV.
Oct 8th. Began Sect V on Laws of Variation of Abstract: finished 22d
Oct. 23rd Sect VI. Difficulties finished Nov 13 (Moor Park)
Nov. 13th Instinct 30th Hybridism.
Dec 11th Geological Succession
1 This became Origin of species.
April 20th Moor Park. Returned. May 4th.—
Etty very ill.
June 28 Poor dear Baby1 died.
July 9th to Hartfield 16th to I. of Wight
17th Sandown 27th Shanklin. August 13th Home.—
Oct 25th Moor Park. Returned Nov. 1st.—
Marianne Parker died in July
1 Charles Waring Darwin (1856-1858).
Jan 15th. Abstract. Geograph. Distrib:
Feb. 28. Affinities & Classification
March 19th Began relooking over first MS. Chs. & finished last Chapter.
May 25. Began Proof sheets
Oct 1. Finished proofs— 13 months & 10 days. of Abstract on Origin of species.— 1250 copies printed.
During end of November & beginning of December employed in correcting for 2d. Edition of 3000 copies.
Multitude of Letters.
The 1st. Edit was published on Novr. 24th & all copies ie 1250 sold first day.— X
X] in pencil on facing page.
(medal from Geolog. Soc.)
Feb 5th-19th Moor Park. did not do me so much good as usual.
May 21st-28th— Moor Park.
July 19th to 26th Moor Park.
Augt 20 - 23d Leith Hill.
Oct. 2d started for Ilkley, Returned Home (staying in London two days) on Dec. 9th.
(staying...two days)] parentheses in pencil.
Jan. 9th. Began looking over M.S. for Work on Variation (with many interruptions)
Letters & preparations for foreign Editions
March 24th Began Introduction to Vol. on Variation
June 10th Finished 2d Ch. on Pigeons. arranged papers for next Ch. & Experiments.
Aug 11th. Began Ch. III
During July at Hartfield & afterwards & at Eastbourne, worked at Drosera
Jan. Murray1 says 6000 copies of my Journal now sold.
Jany 7th The 2d Edition, 3000 copies of Origin was published
May 22. The 1st Edit of Origin in U. States was 2500 copies.—
June 28th to July 7th Sudbrook Park
July 10 to Aug 2d Hartfield (Etty long ill)
Sept. 22d to Eastbourne. Returned Nov. 10th seven weeks, owing to Etty illness.
May 28 1st Edit 180
July & Oct. 2d Edit 636.13.4
May. American Edit 21.17.6
— (61) do 1861. 10.10
1861 April. 30 3d Ed 372
1 John Murray (1808-1892), Darwin's publisher from 1845.
March 20th. Finished Ch. III on Variation Under Domestication & began Ch. IV
(In December last & Jan. prepared new & Third Edit of Origin: 2000 Copies
May 16 Finished Fowls (8 weeks)
— 31st Ducks
July 1 During stay at Torquay did paper on Orchids all rest of year Orchid Book1
July 1] added pencil.
The new Edit. of Origin 2000 copies. was published in April.
July 1. Started for Torquay & returned Aug 27th 8 weeks & a day
April 28th finished Orchis Book
Besides odd times for several years, this Book has cost me 9 months, if I do not count Torquay; but in this time I did Primula paper:1
2d Edit German of Origin & experiments &c. Say 10 months counting 1/2 time at Torquay.
May 15th. Orchid Book published. X
Much time wasted June & July from Leonards illness.
Finished Silk-worms Geese &c
Oct. 7th Facts of variation of Plants;
Dec. 11. finished long Chapter— Paper on Linum.
Dec. 21. Bud-Variation
1 Darwin 1862.
X] in pencil on facing page.
Feb. March & April. Horace ill
May 15 to 22d. Leith Hill Place
June, July Augt Leonard very ill Scarlet Fever
Aug 12 to Southampton, Emma Scarlet Fever
Sept 1 to Bournemouth. Sept. 30 Home
Jan 23d Chapt. on Inheritance.
finished April 1st— took me 6 1/2 weeks
time lost by illness & London—
April 1st Ch. on Crossing & Sterility; finished June 16th.— took me 8 weeks; time lost by Hartfield & illness &c.—
June 16th. Selection.— July 20th finished
Feb 4 to 14th Stayed with Erasmus
April 27th to May 13th Hartfield & Leith Hill Place
Sept. 2d. Malvern Wells; returned Oct. 14th— Ill, there.— Ill to end of year
April 13th last sick
April 10th Dr Jenner1
May 22nd Dr Jenner
1 William Jenner (1815-1898), physician at University College Hospital. These notes evidently refer to 1864. See Correspondence vol. 12, p. 493, note 1.
April 13th...Dr Jenner] in pencil.
Began to count seeds of Lythrum about April 20th. Finished Lythrum paper1 about May 25th. Began Tendril paper2 & finished it on Septr 13th but afterwards had about a fortnight for additions. Hence this paper on climbing plants took 4 months!!
Sep. 14. Began Laws of Variation for "Domestic Animals & Cult: Plants" & finished this Ch. on Novr 16th. I then began going over again the earlier chapter of Book on "Domestic Animals &c."
1 Darwin 1864.
2 Darwin 1865.
Ill all Jan. Feb. March. Last sickness April 13th.
Augt 25. to Elizabeth for one week to Chester Place.1
The severe illness lasted Seven Months.
1 Chester Place, Regent's Park, home of Sarah Elizabeth Wedgwood [II] (1793-1880), Emma Darwin's sister.
The severe...Copley Medal] in pencil.
Jan. 1. I continued on "Domestic Animals &c." Ch X till April 22d when (with exception of one subsequent week) I became ill & remained so & unable to do anything (except read Origin for 2d French Edit.) till early in December when I began counting Homomorphic seeds
On Dec 25 began again on Chapt X of Domestic Animals.
Fell ill on April 22d — got a little better in middle of September —
On Nov. 8th went to Erasmus & staid ten days & fell ill again with cold; but got better in the beginning of December
Continued correcting Chapts of Domestic Animals.—
March 1st Began on 4th Edit of Origin of 1250 Copies:— (Received for it 238 £
making 7500 copies altogether.
May 10th Finished Origin except Revises & began going over Ch. XIII. of Dom. Animals.
Nov 21. Finished Pangenesis.
Dec. 21. Finished regoing over all Chapters, & sent them to Printers
Dec. 22. Began Concluding chapter of Book.
April 21st to May 2d to Erasmus.
May 29th to June 2d Leith Hill Place
Nov. 22 to 29th to Erasmus.
Febr. 2 Catharine1 died
Oct 3. Susan2 died.
1 Emily Catherine Langton née Darwin (1810-1866), wife of Charles Langton and Darwin's youngest sister.
2 Susan Elizabeth Darwin (1803-1866), Darwin's sister.
Last chapter of "Variation under Domestication" & beginning of Man Essay.
First proof arrived March 1st. Revises finished Nov. 15th.
I began this book1 beginning of 1860 (& then had some M.S.). but owing to interruptions from my illness, & illness of children: from various editions of Origin & papers, especially Orchid book & Tendrils, I have spent 4 years & 2 months over it —
1200 copies sold at Murray's sale.
The book not actually published till Jan.30. 1868 —
Feb.13 to 21 to Erasmus. —
June 17th to 24th. do. do.
Oct.18th to 24th. do poorly at times
Nov.28 to Dec. 7th. do. very well
New Book on Var. under Domestication published on Jan. 30. 1500 cop On Feb. 19th a new edition to be printed of 1250 copies.
Received for this edition 720 £.
Began middle of December 1867 On illegitimate Offspring of Dimorphic & Trimorphic Plants1 & on specific difference of Primula2 & finished Feb. 1.
Feb. 4th Began on Man & Sexual Selection.
May 17th Birds—Sexual Selection.
Decr 26th Fifth Edition of Origin Edit. of 2000 Copies.
1 Darwin 1868.
2 Darwin 1868.
1500 cop] added pencil.
March 3 for a week to Erasmus & then for 3 weeks to Aunt Elizabeth House. Returned home April 1st. —
June 23rd unwell & continued so to July 16th & did hardly anything.
July 16th to Isle of Wight. Freshwater
Aug 21st Returned to Down having slept at Southampton.
Novr 7th-16th Erasmus.
Freshwater] added pencil.
Feb. 10th Finished 5th Edit of Origin: has taken me 46 days.
Feb. 11th Sexual Selection of Mammals & Man & Preliminary Chapter on Sexual Selection (with 10 days for notes on Orchids) to June 10th when I went to
On Augt 4 recommenced going over all chapters on Sexual Selection.
Feb. 16th - 24th to Erasmus.
June 10th started for Caerdon, Barmouth sleeping at Shrewsbury. Returned July 31st having slept at Stafford. Weak & unwell.
Novr 1st to 9th Erasmus. —
I find Murray has printed 9000 copies of my Journal of Travels & Colburn 1500 = 10,500 copies.
The whole of the year at work on the Descent of Man & Selection in relation to Sex.1 I began this work on Feb. 4th 1868; but many interruptions.
Went to press Augt 30 /70/ & finished last proof.
March 5 - 10 Erasmus.
May 20 - 24 Cambridge.
June 24 to July 1. Erasmus.
Aug 13 - 26 Southampton at William's.
Oct 13 - 20 Leith Hill & I got home late
Dec. 8 -14 Erasmus.
I began "Descent of Man & S. Selection" on Feb. 4th 1868. & I have on Jan 15th corrected last sheet; so it has taken me nearly 3 years, but the 5th Edit. of Origin took up 46 days & notes on Orchids 10 days; & health compelled many visits & rests.
Descent of Man published on Feb. 24th. At first 2500 copies printed
& 2000 reprinted.
& I received 630£ Received 1470
Jan 17. Began Expression1 & finished final rough copy on April 27. Many interruptions.
June 18th Began 6th Edit. of Origin; Oct 29th finished M.S. but lost 2 months by illness Nov. & Dec.
Proofs of do & Expression &c. & illness & visits.
& I received 630£]
cancelled in pencil.
'2000' and 'Received 1470 £.' added pencil over previous erased writing.
Feb. 23 to March 2nd Erasmus.
April 1 to 5 do
May 11 - 19 Southampton.
June 24 - 30 Erasmus.
July 28 to Haredene Albury, Home Aug 25.
Aug 31. Henrietta married.
Nov. 3 - 10 Leith Hill Place.
Dec. 12 - 22 Erasmus.
Jan 10th Finished Proofs of Origin & again rewriting expression. —
Aug 22. Finished last Proofs of Expression which I began on Jan 17th last year. — Has taken me about 12 months:)
Aug 23rd Began working at Drosera.
Nov. 3rd Began writing on do.
Nov. 8th At Murrays Sale 5267 Copies of Expression book sold to London Booksellers.
The Edition consists of 7000 published November,
2000 at end of year additional.
Feb. 13 to March 21. London, 9 Devonshire St. Portland Place (5 weeks).
June 8 to 20 Southampton.
Augt 13 to 21 Leith Hill Place.
Oct 5 - 26 Sevenoaks Common.
Dec17 to 23 Erasmus (unwell all time).
Jan 15 Finished Drosera 14th & recorrected Climbing Plants.
Feb. 3d Began on evil effects of inter-crossing.
June 14th Began Drosera again.
Oct. 20 Began correcting Drosera M.S.
Nov. 20 Began correcting 2nd Edit of Descent of Man; & continued for rest of year & next year.
March 15th to Apr 10th at 16 Montague St.
June 4th to 12th Leith Hill Place
Aug 5th to 9th at Abinger, from 9th to 21st at Basset.
Nov. 8th -18th Bryanston St (very pleasant).1
Copies sold in Germany of Translations, Feb.1, 1874
Origin 6500, Descent of M. 5000. Var. 1700, Expression 3000, Orchids 600.
1 4 Bryanston Street, London, was the address of Darwin's daughter Henrietta Emma Litchfield.
Second Edit. of Descent and of Coral Reefs. The Descent took 3 months.
April 1. Began Insectivorous plants1—(interruptions from proof sheets) & went on whole rest of year, writing & some observations.
Jan 10th to 17th to Erasmus.
Ap. 21to 29th Henrietta
July 25th to Abinger, 30th to William. Aug 24th to Home
Dec 3d -12 Henrietta's.
Frank married July.
Frank married July.] in pencil.
March 29th finished M.S. of Insectivorous & recorrecting Climbing Plants. Began correcting June 3rd.
Began writing, with some observations on April 1st on Insectivorous Plants.
May 23rd finished slips of Insectivorous Plants
July 2nd Insectivorous Plants published. 2700 sold immediately.
— 6 Correcting 2nd Edit. of Var. under Dom.
Oct 3rd Finished about Var under Dom; but shall have nearly month of more work with proofs &.
Therefore I may say I began "On advantages of Crossing" on Sept. 1st.
March 31st to 17th to Eras: & Litchfields. Home April 12th. —
June 3rd to July 5th Abinger Hall.
July 2nd Insectivorous Plants Published.
3000 copies printed.
Aug. 28th to Sept 11th Southampton, William.
Nov. 4th & 5. Erasmus, for Vivisection Commission.1
Dec. 10th to 20th Bryanston St.
1 Darwin 1876.
May 5 Finished M.S. first time over of Effects of Cross Fertilization.1 Began correcting 2nd Editn of Orchid Book, much labour
at Hopedene began my little Autobiography.
June 11th Began going over for 2nd time M.S. of effects of Cross Fertilisation.
Aug. 19th First proofs of do. Oct 21Finished proofs. Published on November 10th & 1500 copies sold by end of year. —
In intervals I worked at 2nd Edit. of Orchids. Novr 14 finished first proofs, published at end of year.
Nov 15th Began on Heterostyled Plants but in intervals I have done 2 or 3 weeks work. Say Nov. 1st I began work on the book. —
[This section continues on second half of page 55 recto]
Feb. 3rd - 5th at Erasmus.
Ap. 27th to May 3 do.
May 24th to Hopedene. June 7 Hollycombe. 10th Home.
Oct 4th Leith Hill. 7th Southampton. 20th Home.
Sept 11 Poor Amy died; a most dreadful blow to us all. —
So during last 14 months I have done Effects of Cross Fertilisation & 2nd Edit. of Orchids; but then I had rough M.S. written out of the experimental parts of "the Effect &c."
All the early part of Summer at work on "Different forms of Flowers"1
1000 1250 copies) middle of July.
From that time to end of year working on Bloom — Spontaneous Movement of Plants & Heliotropism & a little on Worms.
1000 1250] cancellation
and '1250' added pencil.
Jan. 6 to 15. Henrietta.
April 12th to 28 do & Erasmus
June 8 Leith Hill, 13th to Southampton, Stanhope &c. returned home July 4th. —
Aug. 20th - 25. Abington, delightful.
Oct. 26 - 29. Erasmus.
Nov.16 - 19. Cambridge L.L.D. Degree
The whole of this last year on the circumnutating Movements of plants & bloom.
Jan. 17 - 23 at Erasmus.
Feb. 27 to March 5. Bryanston St on account of Giddiness. 7
April 27 to May 13th Southampton.
Aug 7th Leith Hill, Abinger, & Barlaston. Home Aug 22nd. —
Nov. 19 - 27th Bryanston St.
Giddiness. 7] '7' added pencil.
The whole of this year on circumnutating movements of plants except about 6 weeks on Life of Erasmus Darwin.
Feb.27 to March 5 at Erasmus on account of Elizabeth's illness. —
May 6th Worthing. 8th Southampton. 21 Leith Hill. 26th Home.
June 26th Erasmus, Baly Medal, 28th Laura Forster. July 1. Home. —
Aug 1 to 27 Coniston, sleeping at Erasmus.
Dec 2d to 11th Henrietta & Erasmus.
Dec 2d...Erasmus.] in pencil.
All Spring finishing M.S. of "Power of Movement in Plants"1 & then Proof Sheets — Began in Autumn on Worms.
Nov. 6th 1500 Copies of Power of Movement sold at Murray's Sale
All Spring...Murray's Sale] in blue ink.
March 4th - 8th Erasmus
April 8 - 13 Abinger, Horace & Ida
May 25 to June 8 Southampton.
Aug 14th to Cambridge, 19th Erasmus, 21st Home
Oct 28 to Nov. 2nd Henrietta's House
Nov. 8th Eliz. Wedgwood died.
Dec. 7 Erasmus. 11th Leith Hill Place. — 15th Home. —
Aug 14th...21st Home] in blue ink.
Nov. 8th Eliz. Wedgwood died.] in pencil.
Dec. 7...Home. —] in blue ink.
All early part of year Worm-Book.1
published Oct 10th - 2000 copies sold immediately— 5000 printed by December & corrected a new Edit.
November on the action of C. of ammonia on Chlorophyll2 & on roots of Euphorbia. & other Plants
2 Darwin 1882.
published...immediately] in blue ink.
November...Euphorbia.] in blue ink.
Feb. 24th to March 3rd Bryanston St.
June 2d to July 4th Patterdale
August 3d to 5th to Erasmus
— 26th Erasmus died at night
Sept. 8th to 10th to A. Rich. Worthing
Oct. 20 - 27 at Horace at Cambridge
Dec. 13th to 20th Bryanston St.
[Darwin died on 19 April 1882.]
Sept. 8t ...Cambridge] in blue ink. 'Sept. 8th to 10th to A. Rich. Worthing' encircled in blue ink.
[Pages 60 (verso)-74 (recto) are blank and were not microfilmed.]
Robert Darwin my great-grandfather is described in the Philosop. Transactions for 1719 as a person of curiosity who discovered near Elston a skeleton of some large animal. —1
1 Darwin quoted from this article in Erasmus Darwin, p. 4: "Dr. Stukeley, in 'An account of the almost entire Sceleton of a large animal,' &c., published in the 'Philosophical Transactions,' April and May 1719, begins his paper as follows:—"Having an account from my friend, Robert Darwin, Esq., of Lincoln's Inn, a Person of Curiosity, of a human Sceleton impressed in Stone, found lately by the Rector of Elston," &c."
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Citation: John van Wyhe, editor. 2002-. The Complete Work of Charles Darwin Online. (http://darwin-online.org.uk/)
File last updated 17 September, 2012