RECORD: Darwin, C. R. 'I believe in single creations because (1) as a general rule species have' (11.1855) CUL-DAR205.3.174 Transcribed by Kees Rookmaaker (Darwin Online,

REVISION HISTORY: Transcribed by Kees Rookmaaker, corrections and edited by John van Wyhe 11.2010. RN1

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Reproduced with permission of the Syndics of Cambridge University Library and William Huxley Darwin.



Novemb 28 /55
18 22

I believe in single creations because (1) as a general rule species have not intermingled or scarcely intermingled ranges, such is often no difficulty whatever in [oceanic] transportal.

(2). because when we know means of transportal same species is not found in different localities, (3), as quadrupeds

(3) because same species (Lyell) do not appear & reappear in time.—

(4) because under apparently similar conditions same species do not appear under as has [Jutland] & parts of Europe

(5) because extension of species as general rule bears relation to obstacles, purity immigration. — which wd not be case if created independantly. look at shells of W. Amer. & [Pacific]

with respect to (1) quote De Candolle. — most frequent exceptions explained by Forbes, extended to S. Hemisphere, extended by me to world, so explaining Crustacea of New Zealand. —

Lastly we might expect exceptions to continuing of geographical range to chance introduction, & still more to extinction of species in intermediate points. —


[174 verso]

Then go on to whether created in single pairs or in crowds. — Agassiz argument of no force in some cases, as shown by introduction, & as shown by Beavers. — Bees different cases — My theory grants that whole body of individual being slowly altered. —

NB. J. Lubbock tells me that some of the Alpine Beetles are thought to be only vars. of the lowland Forms. —

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