RECORD: Darwin, C. R. 1832-1836. 'Shells in Spirits of wine'. (Beagle specimen list) CUL-DAR29.1.D1-D8 Transcribed by Kees Rookmaaker. (Darwin Online,

REVISION HISTORY: Transcribed by Kees Rookmaaker and edited by John van Wyhe, corrections by Gordon Chancellor 8.2009. RN2

NOTE: See R. D. Keynes ed. 2000. Charles Darwin's zoology notes & specimen lists from H.M.S. Beagle. Text

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Reproduced with permission of the Syndics of Cambridge University Library and William Huxley Darwin.


1832. Janr Shells in Spirits of wine

1. Lat; 22. North. Jan. 7 10sh chiefly. Pteropodous animals. viz Cleoclera. Atlanta peronii. Agaelea. Orthocerae. (?) or Cresis. Rang.
16. Patellae. C. Verd Isd
23. Patella. Archa. Quail Island. do
48. Lymnea & Physa. St Martin. do
57. Bulla. V. 7.(c) do
59. Containing Crustaceae, Echiura, Sepunculus and white animal allied to it: Actinae, Fissurella, Chiton. W of Quail Island.
72. Cyraea. with Ova (?). Porto Praya. do
76. Fissurella and Patella. Do
78. Echiura: snow white asterias, several sipunculus. Chitons. from Do
79. Bulla, same as (57) Nitidula (Doris, as 51 & 53. Worm as 58. Ascidea: aggregate tunicata dirty orange:) St Jago
97. Bulla Nitidula. Do
99. Caryophyllia with Pyrgoma. Do
88. Bulla. animal with fine red with edges greenish white. from Do
91. Crustaceae. Chiton. Bulla. Fistularia. Echiura. Doris, same as 51. 52. 54. 55. Do
104. Bulla Nitidula &c: Chiton fine orange colour; Worm same as 58: Caralina same 56: Annelidæ. from Do
107. 2 species of Cresis, V. 19 & 18 Limacina (Violet) V: 19(a)
116. Patellas (very flat)
125. Lepas (and Crab) St Jago. Feb. or March
127. 128. 129. Caryophyllae and upon them Pyrgoma. St Jago. Do
140. Murex (for dissecting) Bahia. Do Brazil
141. Fissurella and Astrea. Do Do

1 'do' and 'Do' = ditto.

This page is in Syms Covington's handwriting.


1832 Shells in Spirits of Wine
145. Shells. Crustacea and Fish) Bahia March
155. Atlanta (pinkish shell). Lat 17° 12' S Long 36° 23' W. March
158. Janthina. (Crust. small fish) Lat 18°6′ S 36 6 West March
169. Phasianella. Do Abrolhos
170. Minute Multilocular shell. Do
173 Coronula. on rocks in profusion high water mark. March 29th Abrolhos
187. Land shell. Socêgo. April Rio de Janeiro
188. Fresh water shell Do Do
189. Two species fresh water shell Campos Novos. April Rio
199. Physa. Rio de Janeiro. April. do
223. Cyclostoma, roots of trees on the wooded hills. May. Rio de Janeiro.
236. Chiefly fresh water shells as Planorbis. Chondruis Physa Suecinea, Cyclades & Bulimus (Chondrus in water in great numbers.) from Do Do
240. Bulimus (with animal) May Do Do
Animal with coarse reticulations, colour brownish yellow, becoming darker and forming a band on each side, back white with central band, tail broad flat pale. Feelers yellowish, superior long mouth of the shell with anterior and flattened animal protrudes itself in the same line as this. was found in the Botanic Garden closely adhering to the species of fir which was originally brought from New South Wales.
244. Ampullaria. The animal when kept in a basin is continually absorbing & expelling with noise air. Can live very well

This page is in Syms Covington's handwriting.


1832. Shells in Spirits of wine

several days out of water & all probability is buried in the mud when the small ditches in which it now abounds are dried up. When first taken, forces quantity of air out: as the animal retracts itself. in shell. May. Rio de Janeiro.
250. Ampullaria. same as (244). June Do
257. Land shell with animal. Do Do
Animal crawling on the dry ground; shell destitute of an umbelicus. (it is young Bulimus ??). body 4 inches long .5 wide: superior feelers .9 long: inferior .2: foot very broad, thin at edges: back rugosely reticulated, colour dirty lead coloured; scales & tail more yellow.
280. Bulia. animal speckled all over with green and dots. Do Do
322. Land shell. hybernates in chinks of rock; with pellucid membrane in mouth of shell: animal pale nankeen colour. M. Video. July 29th
323. Creusia & Mollas: Bivalve living in fresh running brook. In case of Bivalve it is not perhaps impossible the water may occasionally be brackish: & from situation of Creusia not improbable: the water was at the time perfectly fresh; & at no time can be very salt as the partial communication at high water was only with Rio Plata and that is brackish. The Creusia being brought home next day were placed in fresh water and for some hours expanded and retracted regularly their plumose cirrhi.— This fact is curious, showing change of habits. M. Video. August

This page is in Syms Covington's handwriting, two minor insertions appear to be in Darwin's handwriting.

[3 verso]

(a) The R. Plata was not at the time low, & the fall & rise of tide is very trifling.

Note in Darwin's handwriting.


1832. Shells in Spirits of wine

337. Chondrus. Helix. Bulimus, under stones on mount. Chondrus animal "wood brown" colour M: Video. August.
412. Bucanum. (with ovules) Crawling on the sand banks and living on dead fish; foot oblong, rounded anteriorly, the yellow operculum is placed obliquely on the upper part of the extremity. Siphon lead colour, not closed; tentacula same colour pointed; mouth projecting over foot and between tentacula when closed with small longitudinal divisions; from this there can be protruded a very long red coloured proboscis, terminal orifice with cartilaginous rim. Very commonly found on the shoals there are several ovules. these are about 1/12th in diameter, rounded, conical, with broader base, semi-transparent, on the summit is a circular lid, which falls.
The situation of the ovules or eggs on the shell must be almost necessary, as the animal inhabits extensive sand banks, where there is no hard substance to fix them on. Bahia Blanca. Sept
417. Mya: dug out of the mud on arenaceous clay bank; 6 inches within; in numbers Do Do
429. Crapidula, adhering to the anchor, sounding 10 fathoms; shells with curved grooved spines: The young shells adhere to the old one. in these places the spines are absent: animal with foot rounded, posterior half lying, on the diaphragm of shell. Tentacula pointed with minute black eyes situated near the base & on them: between these the mouth opens

This page is in Syms Covington's handwriting.


1832. Shells in Spirits of wine

on each side there being a rounded lobe, having a forked like appearance. Within mouth is very short proboscis. Neck long. On each side there is a membrane which when animal contracts itself closes the respiratory orifice: Branchiae long, delicate, most regular, parallel, forming together apparently a rounded membrane. this adheres to the superior mantle by a longitudinal line. The opening extends whole width of the shell.— From the appearance of faeces the anus must be on the right side: (429) There is another smaller & smooth species. in this the foot anteriorly is crescent shaped with a horn at each corner:— also in some these on the right side near behind tentaculum was a long vermiform, tapering, generative organ. B. Blanca. Sept
430. Chiton
490. Anatifa. Lat 45°S.— on same Fucus in (489). Decbr Good Success Bay.
501. Various shells. Asterias and Crustacea. 30 fath. 53° S Lat. Decr 15th off G.S. Bay
509. Crepidula, with animal. Do Do
574. Creausia. V. 159 1833 March. Falkland Island.
575. Patella. two beautiful species, and Fissurella; and Chiton &c. from Do Do
590. Balanus (Linn.) V. 160 (1) East. Do Do
591. Balanus (Linn.) V. 167. Do Do Do
600. Patelliform shells, on Fucus gigant. Do Do
634. Patellæ (?) fresh water grassy pool with stream of water. May. Maldonado.
726. Patelliform and Balanidae. Guritti Island. Maldonado. June
795. Balanus. (for dissection) Hab. as (782) June 1834. 5 miles from shore. 19 Fathoms. Lat 48° 56'.

This page is in Syms Covington's handwriting. 'Lat 48° 56'.' was inserted by Darwin.


1834. Shells in Spirits of wine

824. Balani, adhering to wood picked up on beach. Port Famine. same as not spirits (  )
831. Small shells, 20 fathoms. St. of Magellan.
845. Balanida. Wollaston Island. abundant Feb.
858. Shells. Hab. roots of Kelp. Tierra del Fuego. Do
864. Crepidula. The ovules or young shells were on a stone beneath the parent shell; were contained in 9 oblate sphaeres or sacks which were connected by tubes in a circle to a common base.— There were about 12 to 15 in each sack, sometimes more or less: the young shells were crawling about in the interior; every part seemed perfect. the bars or lines of the Branchiae were very much developed in superior part of shell.— Body large in proportion to shell: anterior part of foot much produced.— Eye black dots: general colour, yellowish white. East end of Beagle Channel. March
872. Shells. Hab. as (871). T. del Fuego. Do
879. Terebratula; deepish water; Ponsonby Sound for dissection. I imagine the depth to be between 20 & 50 fathoms. March
908. Bivalve. dirty yellow: caught in deep mud in 3 fathom water: Body dirty yellow, one end with long siphon: other with oval foot. fringed on edges folding up longitudinally & seated on foot stalk. March. E. Falkland Island.
944. Balanidae. Ships bottom. Santa Cruz. April
965. Shell. Hab. (as 964) off East mouth of St of Magellan. May
982. Shells 10 to 20 fathoms. (The number is loose in the bottle.) Port Famine. May

This page is in Syms Covington's handwriting. 'roots of Kelp', 'off East mouth of St of Magellan' and presumably '1514' were inserted by Darwin.


1834. Shells in Spirits of wine

988. Shell fish. for dissection, curious internal plates, &c. &c. Chiloe. June
998. Shell fish, for dissection, in soft stones, 3 or 4 fathom water. Do July
1032. Animal of the Conchilepas. This is a littoral shell; after being once detached, does not willingly reattach itself. Valparaiso. August.
1033. Chiton Do Do
1028. Tubinicellae, from Whale (Spermacetti?) Lat 44°30′. Janr 1835. Chonos Archip.
1131. 1132. Balanidae. V. 305. Do Do
1155. Balanae, buried in a stick, (and Crustaceae Macrouri? Janr Chiloe
1267. Marine shells for dissecion. Chonos Archip. Jan.
1174. Great Balanus (for dissection) Chiloe
Are esteemed very good eating. grow to 5 or 6 times the size of specimen; sometimes at the lowest spring tides can be seen, generally grow in deeper water.
1243. Bulla, body yellowish. Lima S. Lorenzo. July.
1289. Balanus. one common on the rocks. the other on the green Turtle. (Capt. FitzRoy sends specimen of this animal). for dissection. Sept Galapagos Chatham Island
1314. Balanidae. bottom of yawl. St James Isd. Do
1356. Oyster: small pool: muddy almost separated from the sea. New S. Wales. Janr 1836.
1357. 3 species of Balanus. Van Diemens. Hobart Town. February.
1387. Balanus (for dissection). Some Specimens have numerous eggs or Larva, each of which is when immature and is a sharply pointed oval, afterwards a small animal with six (?) legs furnished with setae. King Georges Sound. March

This page is in Syms Covington's handwriting.

[7 verso]

(a) Lives chiefly in the pools left by the tides & not on uncovered rocks: does not adhere with more force than a Buccinum of equal size: siphon projects a short distance: foot trails after the shell for a little length: and this part is covered by the Operculum, the chief orifice of which appears to be to complete the covering afforded by the shell. This animal abounds over whole extent of rock coast of Chile & it is said to be so in West part of Sts of Magellan.

This page is in Darwin's handwriting.


1836. Shells in Spirits of wine

1426. Bivalve adhering to branching stony Corals in the Lagoon. when young, bright green. Keeling islands. April.
1434. Oysters for dissection. NB Mr Liesk informs me that Cypraea hatches its young, if removed will return to its eggs: that there is considerable difference between certain male and female shells: that certain kinds go in pairs. from Do Do
1466 Balanus. on sandstone reef. Pernambuco. Brazil
1469. Lithodomus Shell in recent calc: stone. do do
1514 in place of 982.

This page is in Syms Covington's handwriting. '1466 Balanus...982' added in Darwin's handwriting.

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