RECORD: Darwin, C. R. On the Banda Oriental side near to the dos Hermanas. (nd) CUL-DAR42.140 Transcribed by Kees Rookmaaker, edited by John van Wyhe (Darwin Online,

REVISION HISTORY: Transcribed by Kees Rookmaaker, corrections and editing by John van Wyhe 3.2011. RN1

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Reproduced with the permission of the Syndics of Cambridge University Library and William Huxley Darwin.


On the Banda Oriental side near to the dos Hermanas, there occurs a precipitous mass of Horn-stone

(Mr Hughes)1

At R San Antonio de Areco. large small bones are converted into large ones ! i.e. large bones occur there

(Mr Lumb)2

At Agraciado, 15 leagues from Martin Garcia, small shells are burnt for lime

A small. Rodentia, without a tail. of a grey colour: is called either Coney del campo. or Aperia

Limestone occurs at Mercedes (Mrs Lumb & Hughes). —

Also at las Vacas. very soft. (Mr Tweedees)3

Mr Tweedies notes on sailing up Rio Parana for about 50 miles before arriving at [Barradero] or San Pedros. — the river is bounded on its Western side by a low cliff about 4 feet high: From San Pedros to Rozario. the cliff is about

1 Charles Hughes, a school fellow of Darwin's, attended Shrewsbury School, 1818-1819 and resident in Buenos Ayres, 1832-1833.

2 Edward Lumb (1804-75), English merchant in Buenos Ayres.

3 John Tweedie (1775-1862), Scottish gardener and plant collector based at Buenos Ayres, who owned a garden at Retiro. We are grateful to Jeff Ollerton for providing this information.

140 verso

40 feet high. — From this point to Santa Fe the banks are inclined & wooded. —

On the East bank. —

At Punta Gorda, the cliff is broken at Bajada. the cliff is from 40 to 50 feet high & composed of beds of reddish clay about 6 feet thick alternating with thicker beds of oysters shells. adhaering together. — These shells are of great diameter. & nearly one inch thick. not quite circular: the water of river causes masses to fall down & these are burnt for lime.

There is a calera. or lime kiln north of Salto. —

Mr Tweedie mentions the death of vast numbers if cattle, who during a long draught came to drink. fell rushed down the low cliff were exhausted & could not rise: may not this account for the number of [Mastadon] bones found in one bed of river

Look to D'Orbigny list of fossils, when making out list

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Citation: John van Wyhe, editor. 2002-. The Complete Work of Charles Darwin Online. (

File last updated 2 July, 2012