RECORD: Di Gregorio, Mario with the assistance of N.W. Gill. 1990. Charles Darwin's marginalia. vol. 1. New York; London: Garland.

REVISION HISTORY: Scanned and OCRed 2004. RN3

NOTE: See record in the Freeman Bibliographical Database, enter its Identifier here. The OCRed text of this item has not been corrected and is provided for the time being 'as is' to facilitate electronic searching. The main text of the volume is printed in two columns, each with its own page number. Reproduced with the permission of Mario Di Gregorio, 2004.


[page i]

Key to symbols used in Part one

INDEX
SUFFIX
with the title:  

 

a

CUL

book located at Cambridge University Library

CUL.1900

book donated to CUL in 1900: full list in Cambridge University Reporter 15 June 1900 pp. 1079-80; we have included only those annotated.

Down

book located at Down House, Kent
(other locations are in Cambridge unless otherwise stated)

B

book known to have been on board Beagle

pre-B

book owned prior to Beagle voyage but not known on board

S

book bears CD's autograph

I

book bears inscription to CD

 

  notes and slips:  

 

b

NB

note written on back cover of book

NF

note written on front cover of book

SA (pp...)

sheet of notes attached between pp. . .

SB

sheet of notes pasted into back of book

SF

sheet of notes pasted into front of book

 

  type of marking:  

c

 

 

 

d

 

 

 

 

e

 

 

 

 

 

 

g

 

 

 

 

h

m

score-mark in margin; md doubtfully intended score-mark

(eg 14-16m means 'score-mark against lines 14-16')

u

underlining
(eg 21u "organsmind" means 'underlining in line 21 between the word "organs" and the word "mind"')

w

word(s) written by CD: wt, at top of page; wb, at bottom

x

CD places an 'x' or 'X' in the margin

o

CD places an 'o' or 'O' in the margin
(other kinds of shapes are reported as accurately as possible)

z

drawing or other marking

c CD crosses out part of text of book
   
other symbols:  
deletion: neat scoring through
0 word(s) erased or faded
* deletion: word(s) obliterated/errors corrected
t CD translates text of book
x CD writes/underlines a species-name in the text
t whole margin
p some pages uncut
  nondescript brown ink
  pale ink
  dark ink
˂ ˃ transcribers' editorial brackets
□ß smooth mid-blue paper
09Î rough grey-blue/mottled paper
» pencil
  brown or reddish pencil
  blue or violet pencil
  CD's editorial markings on text of book
  comment cut or damaged e.g. in rebinding of book
  comment damaged because page ripped away
u<-> whole line/sentence underlined
  more or less all of passage underlined
  count lines from bottom of page
  calculations in margin
word(s) illegible
  part of word illegible
uncertain transcription

 

 

[page ii]

CHARLES DARWIN'S MARGINALIA

GARLAND REFERENCE LIBRARY

OF THE HUMANITIES

(VOL. 783)

[page ii]

I dedicate this book to

David Kohn who sighted the fish in the first place;

Peter Gautrey who kept the nets in perfect repair, while

Nick Gill struggled to land what turned out to be a whole shoal.

M.A.D.G.

[page iii]

CHARLES DARWIN'S MARGINALIA

Volume I

Mario A. Di Gregorio

with the assistance of

N.W. Gill

GARLAND PUBLISHING, INC. • NEW YORK & LONDON

1990

[page iv]

© 1990 Mario A. Di Gregorio All rights reserved

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Darwin, Charles, 1809-1882.

[Selections. 1990]

Charles Darwin's marginalia / [edited by] Mario A. Di Gregorio with the assistance of N.W. Gill.

p. cm. — (Garland reference library of the humanities; vol. 783)

Includes bibliographical references.

Contents: v. 1. Books.

ISBN 0-8240-6639-1 (v. 1: alk. paper)

1. Darwin, Charles, 1809-1882—Quotations. 2. Marginalia. I. Di Gregorio, Mario A. II. Gill, N.W. (Nicholas W.) III. Title. IV. Series. QH365.A1 1990

575'.0092—dc20 90-2970

CIP

Printed on acid-free, 250-year-life paper Manufactured in the United States of America

[page v]

Laudata sii, Diversità

delle creature, sirena

del mondo! Talor non elessi

perché parvemi che eleggendo

io t' escludessi,

o Diversità, meraviglia

sempiterna . . .

GABRIELE D'ANNUNZIO 'LAUS VITAE'

[page] vi

acknowledgments

In the first place I should like to thank wholeheartedly the three people to whom this volume is dedicated, and without whom it would have been impossible. David Kohn conceived the original project - though no-one anticipated the gigantic proportions to which it would grow. Nick Gill, my valued friend and collaborator, has worked as research assistant, general editor and 'typesetter', performing technical feats that baffle me utterly. Peter Gautrey, recently retired from the Manuscripts Room of Cambridge University Library, was always a superb source of warm and knowledgeable support: to this true gentleman, generations of Darwin scholars are deeply grateful.

It is also a pleasure to record our debt to the staff of the Darwin Correspondence project, especially Ann Secord, Janet Browne, Marsha Richmond and Stephen Pocock, who continually sustained us with encouragement and much valued advice and experience. Frederick Burkhardt kindly allowed me to take from the first volume of the Correspondence the list of books Darwin had with him on board the Beagle.

In the early stages my research was funded by the British Academy and later by the Royal Society, for whose support I am duly grateful. The work took us to Down House, where we greatly appreciated the homely efficiency of Philip Titheradge. It is also a pleasure to thank the staff of the University Library, particularly Janice Fairholm of the West Room, and Arthur Owen for granting special privileges of access to the manuscripts.

Last but not least, I should like to record our enormous debt to all the staff, temporary and permanent, of the Manuscripts Room, superintended by our friend Godfrey Waller, and graced by the ever-helpful Jayne Ringrose, and Margaret Pamplin, who found it in her heart to laugh benevolently when my assistant, who shall briefly be nameless, tipped an entire trolley of priceless books and pamphlets across the floor. "Were they in alphabetical order?"

M.A.D.G.

Cambridge

December 1989

[page] vii

contents

Prologue and introduction ix-xxxvii

Part one: catalogue and transcription

table of titles xli-lxi

text 1-895

Part two: index and conceptual concordance lxiii ff

Epilogue

 

[page] ix

prologue and introduction

[page] x

prologue

Some time ago David Kohn had the idea that it would be beneficial to have some kind of outline catalogue to Charles Darwin's marginal annotations. A long story and a number of years later, something rather more complex at last sees the light of day. Like all good stories, ours grew in the telling, and this volume is now intended as the first of three which will provide a complete transcription of the marginalia and a classified map of the whole corpus of annotations. The long story7 by which the original germ has become a projected multi-volume set has involved the gradual addition of new layers, during which the bare catalogue became first a partial transcription and then a complete one, hence now entitled 'Catalogue and transcription'. By a parallel process, what started as a brief conceptual record of the principal content of the annotations in each book eventually gave birth to the huge document which forms Part two of this volume. We felt that the term 'conceptual concordance' would designate our purposes in Part two readily enough; further explanation is given on p. xviii. Finally, however, we concluded that our readers might be unnerved at the thought of a text of this density not having an 'index', and so the hybrid title Index and conceptual concordance' was eventually fixed.

The process has thus in essence been a continuous amplification of an at first very narrowly defined objective - almost echoing CD's request:

"Clean well the pencil marks.- Keep Book Clean. Write smallish on one side, number your pages. " (see p. 227g)

We can fairly claim to have done a little better than that, given the latter-day wonders of camera-ready copy.

CD's instructions here were in fact originally issued to one of his amanuenses, probably Mr Norman, a shadowy figure for whom we came to feel a considerable sympathy. The ground level of our work has been just about as pedestrian as his, in copying everything out to provide the 'Catalogue and transcription' which forms Part one of this volume. At least in Part two, and more especially here in this Introduction, we have the luxury of spreading our wings a little into the realms of interpretation; such joys were not to be for the hapless amanuensis. "Mr Norman end here" (390c), CD instructs whenever the interesting bits seem about to begin.

Having established the foundations of our role, we headed off towards finding our material. The principal locations of Darwin's annotations are the margins around the text of the books, separate sheets or 'slips' of paper, and the front and back inside covers of the books. These different locations, we believe, constitute different layers of annotation emanating in the main from different occasions on which CD paid attention to a book. The 'slips' are now mainly found stuck or pinned inside the back cover - though we believe that is not where they spent the prime of their working lives. The quality and the colour of the paper used for these slips vary, again probably implying different bouts of attention. We have seen fit to distinguish three broad types: smooth blue paper; rougher yellow-mottled grey-blue paper; and the rest (mainly nondescript white or greyish paper). We report the material from these various locations in the following order: notes and/or slips inside the front cover; notes and/or slips inside the back cover; slips attached anywhere else in the body of the book; marginal marks and comments in the body of the book.

[page] xi

As to our presentation of the material transcribed in Part one, we have provided a 'Key to symbols used in Part one' on the sheet at the front of the book. The key is hopefully self-explanatory; the only further detail which needs mentioning is that each column in Part one is numbered, and is referred to as if it were a page.

So much for our code-marks; CD however has some of his own. The capital letters "Q" (for "quote") and "NQ" (sometimes apparently for "not quote", sometimes for "note quote") are frequent. There are also other much more occasional letters, such as "H" (for heredity or inheritance), "S" (for selection), and "D" (usually dichogamy). But others are less fathomable: e.g. brown or reddish pencil crosses: "X means used for 1st volume", he says at a certain point (122c) - but does this apply generally? As with the mysterious coloured ticks (or are they 'V's or 'L's?) which pop up here and there, and the 'O's in the margin in some plant books, we have not thought it part of our job as transcribers to decode these marks, and are indeed thankful to be able to hand such puzzles over to the wider company of Darwinists. It is worthwhile, however, to draw attention to the way these marks run through the craggy mass like thin veins of special little crystals, presumably meaning something.

Our fitful involvement over the years in the production of this material, at computer terminals and in libraries, both in Cambridge and at Down House, has included many hours spent in the U.L. archives themselves - a privilege which facilitated our work immensely, despite the curious effects of the changeless bookstack weather. The project has also survived a double bomb scare, a fire beneath the computer centre which put the tapes out of action for many a long week ('on a shelf gathering dust' becomes in these latter days 'on a tape gathering smoke particles'), and the near-arrest of the assistant author in a certain College library where he was mistaken for the key to a missing case (c/ fn 12). CD's remark to the intrepid Wallace felt at times distinctly pertinent:

"I am astonished you ever returned alive" (842a)

[page] xii

introduction: (i) CD's reading habits

"(from now I shall skip largely)" (812d)

Here we find CD instructing himself to pay only cursory attention to the remainder of the book in question (Vaucher's Histoire physiologique des -plantes d'Europe). What, more generally, has our reading of his marginalia revealed to us about his procedures in reading the scientific books he owned? Given how systematic CD seems to have been, it is not difficult to build a general picture.

CD acquires a book and begins reading. It does not take him long to make his judgment about the quality and usefulness of the book. If, as was quite frequently the case, the verdict was broadly dismissive, he would usually persist, but less intensively and only in the hope of encountering a handful of useful pieces of data: hence the large skipping, or comments to the effect "only skimmed". During this basic reading, intensive or otherwise, the margin is scored and peppered with comments. At the end of the reading, he would now list out the locations of his more important comments and margin-scores on an inside cover (usually the back cover), occasionally adding brief mnemonic notes.

The book will now probably lie fallow - maybe even for a number of years - until the lucky moment arrives for it to participate in the process of data-collection for a CD publication. At this stage, the list of locations is re-examined, and a new, shorter list made on a separate sheet of paper of the most important locations, now with details in the form of long-hand notes about the information to be gleaned at those locations. "I will cease extracting", he says at a certain point (668f), reinforcing our growing impression of him as a kind of intellectual dentist. We have the strong feeling that he hardly ever reread the book itself - a feeling underlined by his exceedingly rare self-instruction to "Read second time" (545c), which would scarcely make sense if he usually did this anyway. However many years later he returned to the book, he was confident that he had already 'extracted' everything of value.

The separate slips containing the vital gems at this point reach the prime of their working lives: we imagine those relevant to the publication in progress now collected in a heap (or in CD's systematic case, no doubt a pile) on the writing table, being finally reviewed. It is at this stage, we presume, that the code-letters "Q" or "NQ" are entered on the slips and/or at the original locations in the text against the items he has decided to use. The set of slips, together with CD's own notes and drafts, combine for a while into 'Portfolios of working notes' for the writing of the publication in question. Once the publication has been pieced together, "slips all put in proper places" (572h) - i.e. stuck for any future reference usually inside the back cover of the now fully-harvested book. A slip may take part in this 'cycle' a number of times - its important underlying content, as we shall see later, being the broad theoretical themes invoked by the data recorded on it.

There are of course exceptions to this general procedure - though not, we feel, all that many; and only two are worth noting specifically. The first concerns books that CD read early in his career, where one is likely to encounter inside-cover comments not referred to page-numbers in the text of the book, making recovery of the original data extremely tiresome. The other, more significant exception is the occasional set of slips stuck into the text of a book - these were quite possibly part of the initial thorough reading, and are there to facilitate understanding of the text, especially anything requiring calculation.

[page] xiii

It is for the wider company of Darwinists to embellish this basic picture of CD's reading habits. Our brief outline here is but the prelude to analysis of his interaction with his scientific library.

We found one annotation particularly evocative as a metaphor of the contents of the marginalia as a whole:

"I suspect reefs of diff strata in diff parts" (536h)

Apart from reminding us of CD's early involvement in geology, this remark suggests a summary of our hypothesis about CD's main mode of 'processing' scientific reading matter: the margins, end-notes and the slips of various different paper types constitute physically discrete strata or layers, corresponding more or less closely to different bouts of attention. Insofar as these bouts imply an accumulation across different 'layers' of time, the metaphor of geological deposition seems quite reasonable.

In fact the layers' concept begins to unlock the inner nature of CD's mode of working with sources: and indeed, we should ideally look upon the whole great corpus of marks and comments not piecemeal, but as a single complex laminate - fused layers not only of time and attention, as we have seen, but also of types of response to the source-material, and also layers of themes reflecting CD's lifelong theoretical preoccupations.

(ii) CD's responses

It is CD's extraordinary single-mindedness, already apparent in his hyper-methodical reading habits, which is reflected in our perception of the marginalia as constituting essentially a single structure. Furthermore, CD had his theory pretty well framed before all but a handful of the books represented in this volume were seriously read. In the main therefore he was not reading to theorise. There are, rather, some half-dozen 'layers of response' we detect in the marginalia.

i) "Many valuable facts referred to proper places" (159c)

CD's principal 'layer of response' to a text, constituting the great bulk of the annotations, was in fact data collection, or 'extracting', to revive the CD term we encountered earlier. At first sight, the sheer detail, quantity and range of these 'extractions' might suggest vicarious activity, but that is absolutely not the case. On the contrary, the whole process was strongly purposive - namely, to assemble a vast store of sometimes tiny points of information in order to illustrate and support the Great Theory. This résumé is, as CD might himself have remarked:

"good but too hasty.-" (578f)

We qualify this résumé to some extent in pointing to the existence of several 'layers of response'; nonetheless we believe the reader will see that 'our man in the margins' appears more relentless, dismissive and self-regarding than his modulated public persona would imply. In a sense this is hardly surprising - anyone's personal notes are likely to have a greater curtness to them than their finished texts. Nonetheless two impressions may merit an airing here.

CD often judged a book on the sole criterion of its relevance to some aspect of his Grand Enterprise: "After p. 109 not one word for me" (675d) he pouts, almost; "This only

[page] xiv

useful for ancient History of Dogs ... I doubt whether any use" (843e-g). There are other not infrequent remarks to the effect that books failing to minister to his need for data are eo ipso pointless - his dismissive sign "O/", meaning "Nothing for me", being tellingly close to the copy-editor's symbol for "delete" (which his sign can also mean when he waxes subeditorial, of which more anon). "Erase from memory" might be the late-twentieth-century translation.

The undercurrent of predation here is notable in itself; but the manner of it - i.e. its near-total absorption in pinning the already-formed Weltanschauung down to fact - leads to the first of our two impressions: that, from quite early on, CD's mind was no longer really 'open' at the level of high theory (however flexible he remained in respect of subvenient principles).

Our second impression is also connected with fixation. As giants of nineteenth-century creativity, two figures in particular make excellent subjects of comparison - Charles Darwin and Richard Wagner.

"What can I have said" (794c), CD might have been prompted to wonder . . .

We shall develop this line more fully later. The Darwin-Wagner similarity of relevance immediately is the power of their obsession with their work. Anything that crossed their paths was to be assessed for its usefulness in the construction of their creative monuments. This is reflected in Wagner's notorious personal exploitation of everyone he encountered. In Darwin's case everything tended eventually to be pressed into the service of the Theory. Thus the parts of his correspondents' letters not dealing with science were crossed out so that they would not distract from his rereading of the relevant parts. Furthermore, when he wanted to study infant behaviour, he began by watching the behaviour of his own son William, whose development, to cite Janet Browne in Kohn 1985,1 he followed "as if it were [that of] a barnacle or a primrose". He even had ladies who obligingly made their children cry so he could watch the infants' reactions. These points tend to amplify our view of Darwin's public persona as a certain modulation of the 'inner man'.

ii) "quite opposed to my views!" (111g)

Connected with the enterprise of data-extraction, and accounting for a large minority of annotations, the second layer of response' we detect is CD's evaluation of an author and his work. These reactions are usually very forthright, again not infrequently self-regarding: "excellent summary of Whole; approves of what I have said" (239b); sometimes rather patronising: "Most interesting indeed quite amusing" (393g); or "Good Boy" (242b); and occasionally downright rude: "if I want to show what rubbish has been written a translation of this will do.-" (485d). There is plenty of generous praise - "all marked wonderful book" (857a) - but on balance negative criticism outweighs the positive variety.

"Unreadably dull" (738b) represents a quite noticeable type of reaction. CD certainly responded to a degree of entertainment - "2d part funny passage" (217d) - and disliked being bored by an author. CD himself is quite often entertaining in his reaction to an author and his work; naturally we will allow the reader to stumble across these little gems. Our own warped sense of humour detects a tendency towards poisonous wit, especially in putting an author down: "ass prevails - one here", he notes on Lucas' Hérédité naturelle (521a), along with a number of other remarks which sound scarcely straight-faced, despite the seriousness with which he took the book as a whole.

However, let us en passant charitably suppose that CD's reference to Haeckel as "Hack" (358d) owes more to abbreviation than to denigration . . .

[page] xv

iii) "World simple" (541a)

CD is evidently more forceful in his marginalia than in his published works, which are the province of what we might call 'Selection with a human face'. He appears aware of this as deliberate: "I must express things diffuse and with a most wearisome pretence to formulas" (516g), he moans, contemplating the requisites of public style. He has to be so to speak 'the Very Model of a Modern Major Scientist' - but in his inmost self he is perhaps convinced that the world is simple, and is quite impatient of all this deference to 'ifs-and-buts'-ism, disclaimers in face of irritatingly incomplete evidence, and openers to the effect 'it is therefore by no means inconceivable that'. CD himself might have thought this comment

"too strong" (425b) —

and it may indeed seem strong in description of someone who after all spent a lifetime reading and writing in meticulous and cautious detail. However, a further example may strengthen the impression; and one basic consideration may help dispel the paradox.

The example is the extraordinary tone of CD's final dismissal of the thrust of "Bronn's criticisms for New Edit of Origin" (181a-182c ) - for example "As I cannot justify my opinions in any one single case, so I need not in any.- is as true as it is severe- Though I can in no single instance . . . explain changes yet the structures &c led me to conclusion.-" (182b-c). And that's that.

The consideration is that CD's 'diffuse and wearisome' complaint (and indeed this last quotation) implies that he had seen more fully and more definitively than he felt able to show. Other evidence for this takes us in the first place back to the Notebooks,2 and specifically to that point where CD, in some apparent haste perhaps propelled by elation, sets down the finally formulated concepts underlying natural selection. He had held the workings of the living universe in his head with a sense of clarity and comprehensiveness hitherto probably given to no-one. He had struggled with the issues for a long while, but now he knew, and knew that he knew: he had the Key.

One probable lasting consequence of these hard-won certitudes of insight was that CD may never have felt in need of an elaborated methodology or philosophy of science, confident enough in his seemingly natural instinct for the relationships between solid evidence, creative intuition, the need for 'wearisome formulas' of ever wider explanatory power and for physically plausible models of the world. That something like this is the case is evident in the marginalia from the near-absence of our third 'layer of response': comment at the level of high theory.

Most of CD's comments at this level are really quite perfunctory, even when he is assessing work he took most seriously, or work by earlier evolutionists. It is as if from the security of his vantage point he would see others working (like Candolle?) on areas too specific to enable an appreciation of the Grand Process: "he has not the Key" (145b) -or attempting (like Chambers or Lamarck?) to scale the heights with an insufficient database and an insufficient respect for physically feasible mechanisms: "It is doubtful whether Lamarck has done more good by awakening subject, or harm by writing so much with so few facts" (477a). CD by contrast had the overview well before he came to the bulk of his reading, in which he was forcing himself by the systematic procedures we outlined before to acquire and retain the detail. He had no great need by this stage to rehearse his case in defence against the theories of others. Even his comments on the higher principles relating to his own theories are in the main quite cursory and matter-of-fact. "The Natural System," he comments during his reading of Herbert (probably during the 1840s), "seeks to know relationship & does not attempt date of separation" (376e), implying that the notion of descent with modification was already to be taken for

[page] xvi

granted, and that any troublesome Grand Concepts found upon the lurk had merely to be pushed into line, or reduced to a purely 'operative' status no longer in control of the debate: "It is succession, not resemblance which makes 'a species'"; and within any one such line of succession "Comes to what I said, amount of difference deserving a name" (630b ; cf 317f). The conceptual pragmatism here sounds almost off-hand. But we should resist seeing it as a kind of opportunistic abdication of the old problems; it is, rather, the considered solution to them. Furthermore, this attitude is applied consistently, in his understanding of scientific method, his whole defence of his theory (see Variation, vol. 1, p. 9), his tiffs with Huxley over experimental proof of natural selection, and so forth. Further thoughts around these issues are to be found in Di Gregorio (1981);3 it can now be added that CD's remarks in the marginalia, and the fewness of them, clarify that his largely unargued philosophical position may owe more to feel, instinct and 'having the Key' than to intellectual decision at a philosophical level. Here the marginalia are the crucial bridge between the raw insights of the Notebooks and his considered but inextensively supported comments on method and theory made many years later.

Such, then, is our third 'layer of response', almost missing. In fact, of course, in a different sense it is there the whole time: it resides, as we shall see, in the thick weave of topics and themes underpinning the whole corpus of annotations, and is thus imprinted

- "diffuse" indeed, and sometimes even "wearisome" - on every comment. However, the thinness of the layer of explicit 'remarks on high theory7 may come as a disappointment to those who turn to the marginalia of a Great Thinker expecting them continuously to overflow with Great Thinks.

iv) "must be a misprint" (295d)

CD may have found formulae tedious, but he was by no means averse to a bit of genteel pendantry now and then. He not infrequently trips a (living) author up on spelling or other detail; more significantly on misquotation of himself. Sometimes these minutiae are noted down alongside more substantial comments which look like scraps of drafts of letters to the authors in question: "Allow me to point out that you have unintentionally misrepresented me . . ." (223g); "I am glad of your somewhat changed views . . ." (838c); "eheu! date wrong" (537h). Our fourth thin but distinct layer is thus a combination of CD waxing subeditorial, and a scattering of footnote fodder for future volumes of the Correspondence* . . .

v) "What I do not understand" (471f)

Here we find CD alluding to a fifth 'layer of response', requiring little comment as such

- a relatively thick vein consisting of translation and/or close paraphrase of the original text, especially prevalent in German books, but not unknown in Italian or even French books either. In the case of German, this may in part have to do with the tribulations of the Gothic script adding themselves to the trials of the language. But in any event, the consequence for the reader is that the number and density of annotations in a book are no clear guide to the importance either of the book or of the marginalia it contains. Hence our annotation of the title page of Part one, taken from CD's annotation of Candolle: "Upon the whole nothing can be inferred from this list" - a light-hearted motto, but intended as a serious caveat. Indeed, any comparison of the entries for Candolle and Gärtner, the latter taking more space, will quickly show that the former is of far greater importance.

[page] xvii

vi) Mention of Gärtner brings us to Darwin's Joke, and thus to our sixth layer, 'general wit and merriment'. It is pleasing to note that CD left a few examples of the art of being serious without being solemn - such as the doubles entendres attending the 'cross foxes' of p. 705h, the 'high fish' of p. 155a, and the Coring sponge' of p. 673d - and that he also shows the tendency of the highly creative mind to put things to itself in a radically offbeat way, as with the comment about the 'man cut in twain' (see p. xxix). However, we will spoil the reader's fun of further discovery only in respect of the aforesaid Joke. It is to the effect that Gärtner, despite the name, was probably not much cop as a Gardener. It is actually more important than its flippancy might lead one to suppose: in the first place, it demonstrates that CD was good enough at German to invent a bilingual pun, and thereby lays to rest the myth of his alleged ineptitude at that language. Furthermore, CD liked his Joke. This we know because he chose to share it with the future mildew of the margins not just once, but twice (374c, 277a-b). 'It is therefore by no means inconceivable' (to coin a phrase) that this implies a simultaneous reading of the books in question. CD was sporadically given to dating his comments; following through the more, and less, serious cross-references may thus eventually enable the making of a workable historical map of the whole of his interaction with his scientific sources. As CD himself remarked, albeit in a rather different context:

"light will be thrown on the origin . . . The meaning of this cd hardly be misunderstood, but I can see is not the period of going into details. " (358f-g)

vii) Nor indeed of going from the marginalia to CD's private life. Our last layer -another almost absent stratum - consists of very rare and insubstantial glimpses (always assuming, of course, that his rapturous "Flora!" of p. 839c does not address a mistress hitherto hidden from history). There are one or two mentions of (genuine) relations, and the occasional name of a pet or other animal. Most of these references analyse details of behaviour - reinforcing our earlier implication that CD was often unable to resist surveying even the domestic scene with the professional eye of a proto-ethologist.

(iii) CD's themes

We meanwhile must now pass back to surveying the world at large. Having provided a brief description of the strata visible in the mass of the marginalia, we need now to look more closely at our first layer, the 'data-processing' to put it crudely, that forms the bulk of the annotations. It is time to investigate its own internal stratification - the layers of themes and topics - and hopefully in so doing to discover what CD might have termed the

"whole key to theory" (164h).

The major layers we are considering here are the great themes and subthemes that CD pursued (or that pursued him) throughout his career. They function like the 'Leitmotive' of a Wagner opera, or, to echo Sloan's not dissimilar analogy:

a complex keyboard instrument with several keyboards and registers, these registers each able to act sometimes in solo, other times contrapuntally, and at times in synchronous harmony.1

A Wagnerian 'Leitmotiv' has a comparable flexibility; the 'Leitmotive' interwoven are the

[page] xviii

constitutive matter of the whole composition, and they are repeated and evoked whenever logically necessary. None of them is ever forgotten or allowed to drop out. Similarly in Darwin's case:

Some themes and registers form dominant melody lines at various times . . . Other themes function more as a basso continuo, often submerged but nevertheless present if one looks closely enough. (Sloan again.)

This procedure enables continuous integration of detail into the whole, and enables detail constantly to refer to the big serious themes - for example the 'Leitmotiv' of the Dragon in Wagner, or that of comparing wild and domesticated animals in Darwin. It is this which makes the exceptional range of research of a figure like Darwin mentally manageable. It also explains the many repetitions and (in)direct references to other parts of their work that both Wagner and Darwin introduce.

We believe we have captured the essence of this continuous state of inter-reference in the structure of the 'index and conceptual concordance' which forms Part two of this volume. The classification headings used in Part two reflect the themes and topics we detected in the marginalia. There is a relatively straightforward list of names of animals (under the category 'fauna', 'fa' in our code), plants (under 'flora', 'fl'), places (under 'geography7, 'grO, populations (under 'humankind', 'h'), and geological epochs (under 'time', 'ti'); and the document is rounded off with a list of people and works cited.5

Interwoven however with these name registers is a classified conceptual index, whose categories were as far as possible inducted cautiously from the annotations themselves, in order to reveal Darwin's 'Leitmotive'. Work on transcribing the annotations in each book was accompanied by noting down the range of themes and topics in play. A brief cipher was developed for each of these topics, and these are recorded for each annotated book immediately beneath its title in Part one. The conceptual index was then prepared by taking each individual annotation and noting down the topics in play there, subcategorising as necessary within the broad categories previously developed, and adding a few new categories relating to CD's other 'layers of response'. The full list of the ciphers denoting these categories and subcategories is recorded on the sheet at the back of the book.

The 'concordance'-like aspect came in when we decided to enter each annotation into the index as a string of topic-ciphers, cross-referenced under each cipher in the string. Thus a statement involving the four ciphers A, B, C and D appears in the document four times, as A-B-C-D, B-A-C-D, C-A-B-D, and D-A-B-C. In this way Part two claims to have preserved intact the entire network of CD's thought.

The resulting document is rather large and very fine-grained. The structure of the entries under each topic-heading is as follows:

A [by itself] [pp.] 12...

and [in combination] 3 4 5 6...

infra:

AB CD5

ACE3 6

ADFGH4

(etc).

[page] xix

This arrangement means that those wishing to do battle with the interplay in its full intensity can work from what one could call the 'infra'-structure . . . Those preferring to take their concepts so to speak lying down and one at a time can work with the same references as collected at the head of each entry.

The reader will no doubt be glad that we resisted the temptation to present the whole of Part two in the form of an irregularly branching tree. We did however fall for the idea of using coral- and tree-like diagrams to punctuate our presentation of the way our analysis of topics-in-play breaks the corpus of annotations down into their elementary strands, the 'Leitmotive' of the Darwinian revolution. Thus those wishing to study the logical interactions of the 'Leitmotive' as it were medium rare might do worse than start from these 'clustergrams'.

For our part, let us begin our presentation of these interactions at CD's own beginning:

"Diversity of organisms first condition of nature" (582a)

Variation (V in our code) just is, basic, unargued: "N.B When many pistils, then number variable [when many of any organs apt to be variable; Why. Hairs &c &c vertebrae of serpents" (253d-e). As we shall see further below, this emphasis on the reality of variation is essential to an understanding of the profound change in perspective away from Platonic notions that the 'Darwinian revolution' is all about. Real variation for CD plays something like the role played for Newton by the distribution of matter - the variable density of the universe, to make the analogy sharper.

All characteristics of organisms are subject to variation, the behaviour of animals and plants Cbeh', 'mhp'), not just their physical structure: "Great diversity of instincts of Bees of same genus: variable in species also" (74e); "has seen axial twisting vary in same plant" (592c). Variation, as this last extract implies, distinguishes every organism at least minutely from its nearest relatives, and thus the primacy of variation brings the notion of the 'individual' ('in') to the fore: "as individuals differ in some respect . . . several must be experimented on.-" (267g). If, as Mayr claims, Darwin introduced "population thinking", then what matters for him is "variable populations consisting of uniquely different individuals".6

Variation occurs both in nature and under domestication, as the first two chapters of the Origin readily remind us; thus annotations on variation need to be related to those comparing the variations of wild with domesticated animals ('wd'): "tame cows more milk than wild: organs adapt themselves" (84g); or wild with cultivated plants ('wdc'): "old cultivated kinds tend to vary loose the hereditary quality of goodness" (595h).

This last extract pushes us onwards to take note of reproduction ('fg7, for fertilisation and generation), and heredity or inheritance Che'). If variation is Darwin's 'matter', then heredity, the passing of characters from parent to offspring which holds the chains of beings together, is perhaps his equivalent of Newton's gravity, the unexplained agency holding the chains of objects together. As we shall see below in mentioning pangenesis, Darwin never quite managed to make variation and heredity cohere conceptually -rather as it was beyond the Newtonian mind to conceive of matter and gravity as co-essential. In remarks which seem to show the shutters partly closing on the fully 'open' mind, he insists: "Contrast of adaptation and inheritance" (359f); or again: "Inheritance cannot be cause of variation has nothing to do with it" (514c) - an annotation which effectively sweeps all before it.

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diagram 1

In this and the following diagrams we attempt to display some fraction of the densely woven threads of themes and topics constituting the bulk of the marginalia. The key to the topic-ciphers is to be found on the sheet at the back of the book. The diagrams summarise the text immediately preceding them.

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"If all species varied equally all wd be in confusion" (430f)

But they don't: variation is itself variable. In the first place, this means that all is not in confusion - groupings of organisms are discernable, which we call varieties, races, species and higher groupings ('var7, 'vc', 'sp', 'sph'); and this will refer us eventually to definition and classification, or systematics ('sy'). We have observed CD's pragmatism in these matters already; he pauses to praise Lamarck's scepticism: "good remark how arbitrary the distinction race and species is" (477h).

In the second place, the variability of variation has its own correlates, and brings into consideration the size of genera ('nos') and their wide geographical ranges Cgdw'): "but this is the very point that we are considering that large Families are wide rangers & most convertible [but that it is only a few which are wide rangers; the others changed into species] . . ." (115d-e). The whole time, we perceive in the background the fundamental questions of modification and speciation.

diagram 2

"Malthus and Franklin saw the law of increase in animals & Plants clearly" (562h)

The other basic condition of nature, again implied by reproduction, is 'increase' - our category 'no' for 'number7 includes increase and decrease, and in its subdivisions wider concepts such as the 'amount of life'. Increase can be discerned directly in special cases like naturalisation ('gdn'), where introduced organisms Cgdi') at first increase swiftly: "Europe/U. States 716 in 26 years 600 miles of Lat. Many other good facts of rapidity/-" (124d); "Dr D. Owen says newly introduced Plants, first overrun the country & then become scarcer (Ask A. Gray)" (545e-f).

The finitude of any natural context means that there are checks on increase, principally struggle between organisms for relatively scarce resources such as food and space. The basic process of nature is thus increase checked by struggle Coos'): "ie as far as food & climate (& enemies preoccupation by other species) ie conditions allow species & genera to range, so they will range . . ." (703e); "Beasts of prey destroyed others increase immensely, & drive others from habitation" (703f); "Every one of such species wd

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cover ground if no other species present: if rarity here is step to exclusion, then the greater importance of other organic beings is shown" (109d).

The relationships of organism to organism Coo') are not all directly antagonistic; and these complexities constitute perhaps the central focus of Darwin's world-model. Without a clear understanding of the place of the relationships between organisms in the model, one cannot understand either the notion of selection or the Darwinian conception of evolution. CD likes Hooker's "Good remarks on strife of Plants" (404d); and ponders Haeckel's "good criticism on my theory of struggle for existence - says ought to be confined to struggle between organisms for same end - all other cases are dependance -misseltoe depends on apple" (356b-c). CD also painstakingly wrote notes concerning the symbiotic relationships between insects and pollen.

In the competition for resources, death and destruction do not only visit themselves upon the old; indeed, the fate of the variably vigorous young Cy') (including eggs 'fge', seeds 'fgs', etc.) is in an evolutionary sense more significant, because dead young do not mature to reproduce, and thus their variations cease to be inherited. "<Young monkeys and humans> Cutting teeth die from fever accompanying" (700a-b). Killing Cook'), prédation Coopr'), and food Cfd') are also of the greatest significance: "Several Pigeons killed by Hawks are white or yellow vars" (430a). External agencies other than disease ('pat', for pathology) complete the picture - the direct action of conditions Ccc'), interwoven with the indirect action of conditions on food Cfd'): "Many wild Pigs die in Hard winters & in very dry summers" (39b, 40f) - some from harsh weather as such, but most from hunger.

These agencies act most tellingly on variations between closely allied individuals and/or species Cspc'), because these are the most near competitors for the same resources: "closely allied species exterminate each other" (629c).

diagram 3

[page] xxiii

"selection wd act on a trifle" (448c)

The 'mere trifle' of the margins became the 'trifling characters' of chapter 4 of the Origin, which are on the contrary of the highest significance, as CD was fully aware in his comment, and in his collection of many details concerning variation in the colour, size and reproductive power of animals and plants ('tmp'). TSFatural selection' ('si'), the heart of Darwin's vision, invites comparison with the effects and contexts of human selective intervention Cbr7, 'ooh'), and thus refers us back to the comparison of wild and domesticated productions: "such selection cd never apply to wild animals, as every parent must be adapted to same conditions" (509e-f).

One especially notable set of variations in not-so-trifling physical characters comprises sex differences ('sxd') and secondary sexual characters ('sxch'), leading to the topic of sexual selection ('ss'), and thence to the topics of breeding Cbehb') and other social/sexual behaviour Cbehs'). "Huia with Beaks different in 2 sexes & aid each other SS" (99b); "Sexual S. use of barb of fishes as exciting organs." "It is clear that characters sometimes go with sex - as sometimes polydactylism &c - Pouting & Wattle, & so if useful to one sex can be selected & returned <does he mean 'retained'?>" (520c-d). This last point, with its passing mention of deformity, reminds us that some naturally occurring sexual characters, developed in the struggle between members of one sex for the attention or possession of members of the other, invite comparison with artificially produced 'monsters' (W): "a breed of <silkworms of> which females had much finer & not so monstrous wings as in the South" (690g-h).

diagram 4

"I fancy not in time" (2370

Au contraire, time is of the essence. Selective pressures act on an organism all its life -invoking our category of 'organic time and age' Cta'): "Curious case of quick deterioration by neglect in Glamorgan Cattle showing some selection always going on" (885f). However as an evolutionary process, selection acts slowly over historical and geological time ('ti') - "Slow geological change important because domestication shows slowness" (88f-g) -struggle leading in the case of the less well adapted parts of populations to rarity and

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extinction ('ex'), especially again amongst closely-allied forms. "Perhaps a decrease or unfavourable conditions might destroy the intermediate vars . . ." (483c). Selection thus leads to divergence Cdv'); distinctions between populations, sharpened by extinction of intermediates ('ig') as against increase of those organisms in favourable stations Cgds'), permit us to speak of varieties, races, species, etc. This is the meaning of 'adaptation' ('ad') and 'descent with modification' ('ds', 'ts'). "So Porcupine & Echidna Orchis & Asclepias Explanation same, in some degree similar constitution acted on same causes, but in latter case selection comes into play very importantly - Both, however, derived from modified pair" (516g-h).

The existence of 'stations' is independently demonstrated by the observation that broadly speaking a particular spot can support a greater amount of life ('noa') the higher the number of species ('nos') involved. "Much life causes much decay makes strata &c &c & many stations, for different times of year will have species all times of year. good. . . There wd not be many species without stations; yes, how many species can be introduced . . . Creations not easy work thus also shown.-" (110d-f).

It is worthwhile pointing out that CD uses 'creations' here to mean 'natural formations' and does not mean to implicate the Almighty. But equally it is worth pointing out that the facts about naturalised introductions often outstripping endemic and indigenous forms Cgde') (because they are able to colonise untenanted stations) is an important argument against those Creationists ('cr') who maintain that God necessarily made each form perfectly fitted for its circumstances, "because there were localities fitted for simplest animals as well as the most complex, therefore some remained simple, if not created. The incidental good that one race performs to others proves adaptation in Universe." (533g).

diagram 5

"It is important to observe no selection cd aid Horse in Falkland ..." Circumstances favouring selection include high numbers of individuals or species in any sizeable area ('grO (because of competition); or isolation ('is') (because any variation in isolation is subject to changes specific to the location) ". . . or Horses in Paraguay except

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strength of constitution & breeding at diff time of year; but that cd be effected only if a little earlier or later was more favourable" (244f-g). "In this case <isolation> we have fewness of number, sudden change (in organism & external conditions), but on other hand not many to select from.- especially changing island.-" (88g).

Crossing also aids selection: it tends to add 'vigour/ and fertility CphyfT, for plant physiology, and T), whilst inbreeding Cbri') tends to reduce it: "The converse of the law ill effects of breeding in & in holds in Plants.- namely crosses being more fertile -" (836c-d). The subject of crossing takes us also to those of reproduction and transmission Chef): "one might fancy that in Ass crossed with Horse there is a greater potency of race, & that this potency is transmitted more by male in this case than in others. Niata cow transmits with more force than Bull - Pouter cock & Hen equally" (515d-e); also to the existence of sexes ('sx'), the symbiotic relationships between the habits of plants and animals, and so forth, which together account for a very sizeable number of annotations. "Nectar is sought eagerly by various insects . . . The real object ... is to ensure occasional cross . . . Think of number of Insects which feed chief on Nectar!" (472e-h, part of an extended comment of considerable range and detail).

"It may be that lower plants have survived owing to having this advantage of separated sexes." (378h) - sex thus being a topic of capital importance in CD's work. It was related by him to variation in his pre-selection theory of evolution (see Kohn 1980)7 It then remains connected with his lifelong preoccupation with generation (see Hodge in Kohn 1985), and continually surfaces in his mature reflections.

diagram 6

Annotations on crossing and its related concepts are frequently interwoven with those on hybrids Chy') and the complex subject of relative fertility and sterility, distinguishing the possible mismatch between fully competent organs and instincts in an attempted cross from the possible inheritance by a hybrid of incompetent organs or instincts, or impaired vigour. "In Hybrids crossed with either parent, & thus assuming fertility & the ancestral form, yet fertility variable in such individuals ... My point that plants often sterile & yet

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not unhealthy not touched on.-" (275g-h) "Q for instinct Migratory & Home Thrushes can be distinguished - probably do not cross" (45d); "Certain that Hybrid Canaries & Goldfinches & Siskins will breed inter se [but first young are weak]" (45c).

diagram 7

"Much intermediate variability" (632d)

Many annotations concern intermediate forms and gradations ('ig'). Again, as with variation, we are talking of gradations in behaviour as well as in structures - often interwoven: "on the exactly intermediate manner in which apes walk on Hands - good it might have been asked how cd there have been transition between hand & foot?" (97h).

The theory of gradual speciation by descent with modifications subject to selective pressure should in principle be able to show change ('ch') and transition over geological time, and grades of affinity Caf) between 'types' of organisms ('tma'). Embarrassingly, it is often unable to do so. This refers us back to extinction, and the fact that the record left by geological time is not perfect ('ir' for imperfection of record), so that the fossil remains ('fo') will never be able to reveal the whole story: "It is evident thus very few exceptions at whatever stage a genus or Family commences it is continued till it becomes extinct. This being capable of in fact strongest fact I turn against Imperfection of Record. Perhaps only shows no enormously long blank intervals" (673g-h). "How isolated would the elephant be without fossils . . . Mastodon older than Elephas & intermediate in structure of teeth" (649h-650e).

An important subtheme here is the 'succession of types' and their distribution Cgd'): "the succession of the genera . . . would be like showing connection in Geographical Range, so in space & time- [I did not think of this, till beginning Gasteropods: easy to see to it in other orders] In Fish the law had better be tested by Families" (669g-670b). Another important subtheme in the study of the record is the relationship between shells Csh'), deposition during subsidence Cse') (partly explaining the imperfection of the record) and thence to to the importance of geology generally Cgeo'). It was probably geology that during the Beagle voyage had alerted CD to questions of distribution, through which he was able to connect geology with his early training in zoology (see

[page] xxvii

Sloan in Kohn 1985). His own experience here was vital background to his reading of L. von Buch and the works of J.D. Hooker.

diagram 8

"This is case of animal being smaller northwards" (307d)

The topic of geographical distribution, both as a fact Cgd') and as a process Cgdd'), accounts for a large and very important set of annotations. The distribution of the representatives of common or widely-ranging forms Cspr', 'gdc', 'gdw') displays networks of affinities and reveals the results of geologically ancient community and subsequent transmutation. "Though we cannot explain same species common to Australia & Fuegoe yet the generic connection is in harmony" (391h); "It has always been my greatest fear that there has been so much modification since Glacial that it would upset view.- Some few genera may formerly have been mundane & Tropical & not now so.-" (3981>-c). Distribution therefore refers us again to geological time and changes in conditions ('cc') and geographical features - a striking example is afforded in the comparison of glacial-period distribution and that of present-day mountain-tops.

By way of the subtheme of migration ('mg') and its near-opposite isolation ('is'), we are led to consider annotations on the manifold means of dispersion of forms Cgdd'): direct or indirect pressure from conditions; the action of wind and weather ('ccwO on seeds; the movement of animals and their capacity to carry seeds; sea-currents, icebergs ('ces'), etc.

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diagram 9

[page] xxix

"Unknown cause prevents man cut in twain from reproducing..." (659h)

Halve a worm, and two may leave the scene of the accident; halve a higher animal, and the result is more likely to be two remnants of a very dead original - what does this imply about the principles governing growth and repair? It used to be said that Darwin did not know enough about physiology CphyO and morphology ('tms') and was therefore left out of the mainstream of nineteenth-century biology (see E.S. Russell in his otherwise fundamental Form and function8). However, the marginalia do not bear this out. He seems to have been especially interested in many aspects of plant physiology ('phyfl'), since they bear on problems related to adaptation: "Movements become so firmly associated with certain external influences such as light & gravity that the latter suffices to cause the same process of growth or movement" (242e). A considerable number of annotations on physiology concern Helmholtz's consideration of the imperfection of the eye, directly relevant to CD's view of adaptations as non-perfect. Furthermore, there are a great number of annotations in Johannes MüUer's Elements of physiology: "Plants going to sleep without the stimulus of darkness strongly analogous to a voluntary action from a diffused nervous system" (615a); "in playing a tune are the fingers connected with brain? or cerebellum" (615f-g).

Physiology leads back to heredity through the hypothesis of pangenesis and the gemmules ('pan'), whose existence CD postulated. This ill-fated hypothesis developed from CD's interest in the 'gemmules', stimulated in studying Flustra under the guidance of Robert Grant at Edinburgh (see Sloan and Hodge in Kohn 1985).1 He retained this interest throughout his life; it surfaced particularly in Variation, and relates in the marginalia to pathology: "on same part attracting same substances, as in Tumours (Pangenesis)" (613h-a); embryology and growth ('em'): "Pangenesis on embryonic limb grafted & developing itself" (225f); cell theory ('ct') and physiology generally: "many gemmules may pass into cells - it certainly appeared in intestines & liver that fat passes into & out of cells" (822h); and monstrosity: "Double monsters Pang" (614a).

diagram 10

"intimate parallelism between the embryonic, zoological & teratological series" (313b)

Embryological resemblance reveals community of descent. Rudiments ('rd') do so also, by implying one-time use falling into disuse ('ud') through adaptive pressures. "Objects there might <be> 100,000 creations as well as one: I agree <but> then these would not have borne signs of common descent in homologies & embryology & rudimentary

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organs." (181g-h). Morphological resemblances and homologies ('horn') demonstrate the affinities of organisms within their 'types': "Tissues of all Vertebrates homologous" (623d).

The concept of descent with modification therefore provides the ground-rules for that holy grail the 'Natural System' - although CD is too cautious to suppose that he could put much flesh on that particular skeleton: "I will not specify any genealogies - much too little known at present" (164a). Although in the Origin Darwin avoided arguing directly against what Russell called 'transcendental morphology' (1916, pp. 103-12), the marginalia throw light on his rejection of Richard Owen's Platonic concept of the 'archetype': "I look at Owen's Archetypus as more than ideal, as a real representation as far as the most consummate skill & loftiest generalizations can represent the present forms of Vertebrata.- I follow him that there is a created archetype, the parent of its class" (655c; italics ours). This annotation focuses Darwin's philosophical emancipation from the Platonic eidos:

According to [this] there are a number of fixed, unchangeable 'ideas' underlying the concept of variability, with the eidos (idea) being the only thing that is fixed and real, while the observed variability has no more reality than the shadows of an object on a cave wall . . . any commitment to an unchanging eidos precludes belief in descent with modifications. (Mayr, 1964, p. xix).9 For Darwin, the 'type' is simply the ancestor of evolving, living forms, and the emphasis is on variety, i.e. the diversity of life, rather than its unity as with Owen.

diagram 11

"How like my Book all this will be" (683e)

we catch Darwin musing quietly. The categories and subcategories of the index were, as we said before, inducted from our attempts to classify the annotations themselves. In our overview here of the principal categories and some of their logical interconnections, we have succeeded, as Darwinists and other conversants will have discerned, in recapitulating the ground-plan of the Origin (with some input from Variation) - i.e. in effect the ground-plan of the Big Species Book 'Natural Selection'.10 Our categories are, it

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would therefore seem, CD's own to a very large extent. "This book is one long argument", CD says (Origin, p. 492): our argument was that CD's whole career is one long argument - and it is therefore useful corroboration that there are very few of our categories still left out in the cold, indicating that CD's reading, whether for 'Natural Selection' or not, did indeed continuously revolve around the same 'Leitmotive'. This, as CD himself might have remarked, is our

"Key-note of Book" (424c)

One senses further confirmation of this in a slightly curious way from those annotations in which CD collects material for particular chapters or volumes of his own publications: they all look exactly the same. He says, as it might be, 'use in ch. 5' - but ch. 5 of what? These notes, in not differentiating one book from another, suggest that the manner in which CD wrote coheres very closely with the manner in which he read - like a practised vintner sampling continually and laying down the selected vintages to support main courses concocted maybe years later. It is as if he experienced his publications as interim extracts from a single, endless conversation with nature.

Those of our index categories not much mentioned in the above overview in fact fall happily into just three groupings: a) reflecting CD's interest in geology and related topics; b) reflecting the reading which surfaced in Descent and Expression; and c) reflecting our own attempt to report CD's critical, reflective and other 'asides'. Our last diagram thus completes the analysis:

 

diagram 12 a.b.c

[page] xxxii

Mention just now of Descent and Expression provides a cue for us to add a few necessary words about the marginalia concerning humankind. Although there are many annotations around this topic, it cannot be said that CD was primarily interested in ethnology or anthropology as such. Their relevance is very frequently to other matters, principally variation and sex (indeed the greater part of Descent is about sexual selection). Humankind is just another test-case for the great Theory: "I am beginning to conclude that it is more difficult to account for small variations of man where there is no adaptation than great differences, where adaptation. Consider cases of Rabbits, mere law of growth . . . Nothing is more odd than similarity of Fuegians and Brazilians. Why puma shd range continent invaried and Monkeys differ in every province ... I may contrast Man with Monkeys, for on my theory, the Monkeys have varied" (604a-c). Another example is provided by Mackintosh's Ethical philosophy; here CD relates conscience to habit, both in man and animals. The moral sense is seen from the viewpoint of what we would call 'animal behaviour' - for example the love of parents for their children is related to adaptation and selection. Such an attitude might be of considerable interest to sociobiologists.

It is instructive to see how CD used the great interplay of themes even in his so-called minor books. In Contrivances (1862) CD started with a specific problem, that of pollination. Consideration of this quickly leads to adaptation, and the vast theme of the relationship of organism to organism (insects and orchids). In the background lurk individual variation and the action of selection, within the framework of evolutionary transmutation, the major theoretical problem in play.

The case of worms is even more interesting: one might marvel that someone whose thought had encompassed the most broad-ranging and revolutionary theory in the history of his science should end on such an apparent low - Vegetable mould (1881). But even here the 'Leitmotive' are fully functioning. CD began observing the action of worms in 1827, 54 years prior to his publication, and continued working on them throughout his life (see Gould's revealing foreword to the 1985 Chicago reprint). The book is based on the relationship of organism to organism (worms and leaves), and touches on individual variation in behaviour. Last but not least, the action of the worm totally alters the face of the earth through small continuous changes (gradualism): we see the result of the process but scarcely the process itself taking place (geological history), on analogy with an annotation made many years earlier: "The glacier is a stream, though one does not see the streaming" (630d).

(iv) influence of particular authors11 a) CD as part of the British tradition

Darwin's theory was an ecological one. The views of both Wallace and Darwin sprang from the established natural science tradition, rather than the relatively new laboratory biology. The still-flourishing tradition had its roots in the works of Ray and Willughby and reached its height immediately before and during Darwin's youth - such authors as Kirby, Spence, Fleming, Strickland, Henslow, Blyth, Bicheno, Westwood, Jenyns and Roscoe were familiar to and influential upon the young Darwin. Darwin's approach focuses on instincts (like Fleming and Blyth) and the relationship of organism to organism (like Fleming, Westwood and Strickland), and therefore tends to be an

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ecological theory in the manner of Strickland. In Ray's Wisdom of God Darwin discerned the ecological approach he made his own in the Origin; in Ray we find annotations concerning behaviour, adaptation, sex, morphology and the relationship of organism to organism.

The relationship between instinct and acquisition by habit is the main topic to be found in Kirby and Spence's Entomology; here Darwin focused on the problem of neuter insects which surfaces in the Origin: "one may suppose that originally many queens were ordinarily thus reared and a few workers and the instinct is thus retained" (454g-h). Much is to be found on reason in animals as related to instinct, along with annotations on the struggle for existence, selection, speciation, and distribution.

Fleming's Philosophy of zoology also prompted CD to analyse instinct: "it is strange according to my theory that habit which results often of intellectual processes ... is related to instinct, which analogy of plants leads one to believe to exist, independently of intellect" (232b-c); and "The individual who by long intellectual study acquires a habit, & can perform action almost instinctively, does, that in his life time, which successive generations do in acquiring true instinct:- instinct is a habit of generations- each step in each generation, being intellectual" (231h-232a) - where CD seems to leave a loophole for backdoor Lamarckism.

Our emphasis on the influence of British natural science requires a mention of Darwin's reaction to Natural Theology, and especially its central tenet of perfect adaptation. CD read and annotated Brougham's Dissertation on natural theology; but here the annotations mainly concern animal behaviour and pigeon-breeding. It is in Henslow's Botany that he distances himself definitively from 'perfect adaptation': "People constantly speak about every organism being perfectly adapted to circumstances, if so how can there be a rare species breeding power being efficient (food not sufficiently abundant is answer" (369d).

It is clear from the quality of annotation that Lyell was of paramount importance to Darwin's development; in fact Lyell is the most heavily annotated author. Other British authors who had a significant impact on Darwin include Blyth, Yarrell, Blackwall, Newman, Newport, Jenyns, Westwood and of course Henslow; and he had a lot of time for books on pigeon-breeding, whether British or continental.

b) CD and continental traditions

By observing the manner of annotation, we may deduce that CD was confident with French, less so but still conversant with German, and occasionally read some Italian and Spanish.

Only a few annotations are found in Cuvier's Anatomie comparée, and all of them concern morphology. There are a few more in Le Règne animal, concerning behaviour, sex, speciation, morphology and variation. Darwin also possessed The theory of the earth in English. Mentions of Cuvier are often marked in other people's books; but to judge by the degree and quality of annotation Isidore Geoffroy St Hilaire was much more important to him than Cuvier, though it seems something of a 'love-hate' relationship: "Believed in change of species . . . 'Modificateurs ambiants' sur l'organisme'. Yes this is his belief . . . Introduce in Preface" (301h-302a); however: "Remarks on small isld having small mammals . . . forgets Java & Sumatra! I contradict his statements flat" (302d).

CD annotated Milne-Edwards' Histoire des crustacées, accusing him in effect of creationism: "How explains this, except by single creations" (581e). On the same page there is an important annotation concerning isolation: "Without regard to anything else -make a Barrier and you will have different species on opposite sides" (581f). Other Milne-

[page] xxxiv

Edwards marginalia, mainly on issues connected with classification, are found in Introduction à la zoologie générale: "Law of 'economy of nature' 'sober in innovations' has not recourse to any new creation of organ" (582a-b); "on value of characters in classification" (582g); and "Best way of putting superiority.- though each perfectly (?) (Can young be said to be perfectly?) adapted to conditions" (583a).

As far as Lamarck is concerned, his Histoire naturelle des animaux sans vertèbres bears very few annotations. More are found in the Philosophie zoologique. Darwin's relationship with Lamarck is very complex, and one should not take the disparaging remarks we partly quoted before as Darwin's only view - ". . . so few facts . . . very poor and useless book" (477a/478a). Basically Darwin charged Lamarck with failure to understand extinction and geographical distribution: "Therefore every fossil species direct father of existing analogies and no extinction except through man!- [Hence cause of innumerable errors in Lamarck]" (478g-h); "Does not pursue this into Geographical Distribution" (480c); but echoes our remark above: "The case of acquired hereditary instincts shows that instincts can be acquired" (478d).

Other important French-language authors are C.L. Bonaparte, especially on the connection between distribution and the struggle for existence; and F. Huber on insect instinct in Nouvelles observations sur les abeilles.

The annotations in German-language books are in the main much closer to translation/paraphrase. Gärtner, Kölreuter, Ehrenberg, Haeckel and others are well represented in his library. Gartner's Kenntnis der Befruchtung is very heavily annotated on variation, fertility, hybrids, and the relation of organism to organism, very often interrelated. Many annotations concern contabescence and refer to Kölreuter: "most important compare Kölreuter experiments and Gaertner's" (253b). Some markings concern dichogamy as seen by Sprengel and Delpino.

Darwin read and annotated Haeckel's Schöpfungsgeschichte, liking its stance enough to mark out passages "good - for the beginning of my Book" (358d); interestingly, there is no annotational evidence that CD thought Haeckel had gone over the top with his 'phylogenies' - rather CD appears keen to play the same game, despite his public caution about 'specifying genealogies': "I shd prefer supposing that both classes descended from forms more intermediate than Dinosaurs & Solenhofen Birds" (359d-e). Incidentally, Haeckel kept sending copies of his publications to CD, who did not pay many of them much attention. Very often in their inscriptions to Darwin in their books German scientists, including Haeckel himself, wrote 'Sir' or 'Professor', not being able to believe that someone as distinguished as Darwin would not be one or the other - or both.

It is interesting too that there is no annotational evidence that Darwin read von Baer's Entwickelungsgeschichte, which is not even in his list of 'Books to read' (see Vorzimmer13). But he certainly read Huxley's translation of the fundamental fifth Scholium. Other German-language authors of some importance to CD include Nägeli, Nathusius and Rütimeyer.

The marginalia suggest that two authors who had an enormous impact on CD were Alphonse de Candolle and Alexander Humboldt.

"I must read some Book on geograph distrib of insects or of one great class" (683e-f), CD instructed himself reading Prichard; it seems that that book turned out to be Candolle's Géographie botanique, probably the most densely annotated work in the whole library, which seems to have been the catalyst for much thinking around distribution, the struggle for existence, isolation, and consequently selection. The annotations in Candolle are difficult, and this is because Candolle is perhaps the only major work in whose

[page] xxxv

company CD is for a while noticeably confused and uncertain at a (quasi)-theoretical level; "A species might abound in some spot and yet be rare over all England, but is this so?" (109g); "Here isolation clearly comes into play; but this does not account for smaller range of plants within Cape District." (118g-h); "As far as I can see (which is very little) isolation of area seems to have little to do with confinement of species!! In this family" (118h); "I never shd look at it under this light; yet perhaps agree with Herbert's views. When there only few species, we must suppose either others extinct, or then few only are yet introduced" (119f); "This bears on few species inhabiting 2 areas, where there are many species - does it not come to this, that widely extended species break into varieties and these become species with confined ranges.- anyhow this shows how complicated a question it is" (120b).

By volume 2 he is beginning to recover his usual slightly declamatory poise: "England formerly connected, hence most plants which could live in England wd have immigrated. If any species had been introduced by Birds within the last century, & was not mentioned by old Books,14 it wd have been thought to have been overlooked.-" (134h-135a); "The more I reflect the more I come to conclusion that antiquity of man one of the most important elements in history of variation.-" (139b).

Finally CD succeeds in 'trumping' Candolle by reference to his own higher-theoretical insights: "He always leaves out struggle with other species.-" (142d); "He looks at extinction as due all to Deluges &cü" (143h). Candolle has approached the 'right' problems, but lacks the focal concept in the understanding of speciation: without the idea of selection it is impossible to make sense of variation, extinction, isolation, distribution and the struggle for existence as forming a single complex nexus. Thus, as we quoted before: "(always this) he has not the Key.-" (145b).

Humboldt, especially in the Personal narrative, got CD thinking about distribution and the relation of organism to organism in the context of isolation, extinction and the breeding of wild and domesticated animals: "Camels abundant in Fortaventura and vegetation different from . . . other Islands - NB Numerous wild asses formerly in Fortaventura" (416f). If Humboldt's almost ecstatic tone excited CD, it seems to have been towards envisioning a raw elementalism incompatible with Humboldt's Panglossian optimism, his falsely a priori harmonious world where adaptations are basically perfect. On the contrary, the raw elementalism is hardly even hidden below the surface: "to show how animals prey on each other - what a 'positive' check . . . Think of death only in Terrestrial Vertebrates . . . Smaller Carnivora - Hawks - what hourly carnage in the magnificent calm picture of Tropical forests . . . Probably two or three hundred thousand Jaguars in S. America What Slaughter! Daily - & as many Pumas" (418f-g).

Thus we end our selection from the marginalia on a rather bloodthirsty note . . .

[page] xxxvi

coda

The basic objective of publishing this 'marginal' material is to contribute to the reconstruction of Charles Darwin's place in his historical and scientific context, and so to facilitate a clear understanding of his importance for modern science. A principal bonus of these volumes will be an enormous increase in the accessibility of CD's primary, unmodulated thinking.

As such the Marginalia are expected to be of interest not only to Darwin scholars, but also to historians of ideas, to biologists, psychologists, naturalists and evolutionists alike. The marginalia show Darwin not only 'alone', but also as part of his historical and social milieu, and as a major protagonist at a vital stage in the development of science. In showing us the material Darwin chose to use or discard, and in recording his assessments of other authors, the marginalia reveal more candidly than any other source the nature of the influences upon his thought, and the methods he used in the formulation and application of his theory.

CD himself was well aware of the potential future importance of the annotations he was making in his personal library. For example, he makes certain, in a letter written to his wife Emma, to prescribe that in the event of his death 'some competent person' should receive 'all my Books on Natural History, which are either scored or have references at the end to pages, begging him carefully to look over & consider such passages, as actually bearing or by possibility bearing' on the subject of the sketch of his species theory, which he had just finished (5 July 1844), when the question of its publication in book form should arise.15

We make no claim to have taken up that challenge as laid down by the Master himself; but it is at least pleasing to feel that he would not have found our exposure of his 'private' scribblings unduly intrusive.

[page] xxxvii

notes

1. Kohn, D. (ed.) The Darwinian heritage Princeton 1985
(chapters quoted:
Browne, J., 'Darwin and the expression of the emotions'
Hodge, M.J.S., Darwin as a lifelong generation theorist'
Sloan, P. R., 'Darwin's invertebrate program 1826-36: preconditions for transformism').

2. Barrett, p. H., Gautrey, p. J., Herbert, S., Kohn, D., Smith, S., Charles Darwin's notebooks 1836-1844 (Cambridge 1987); see Notebook D (especially Inside Front Cover) and Notebook E (especially p. 58).

3. Di Gregorio, M.A. Order or process of nature: Huxley's and Darwin's different approaches to natural sciences Hist. Phil. Life Sei. 3 (1981): 217-42.

4. Burkhardt, F. and Smith, S. (eds) The correspondence of Charles Darwin (Cambridge 1985- ).

5. The University Computer has occasionally had ideas of its own - curious rather than disruptive, fortunately - on where to put items in its sorting of the name registers: the ghost in the machine had to leave its mark somewhere, one supposes. The ghost is clearly no fan of Darwinism, to judge by the capricious appearance of the gooseberry among the place names. This is a genuine accident; we only wish we had thought of it ourselves, in its implication that we do after all materialise under bushes of that ilk, rather than by the agencies of evolution.

6. Mayr, E. The growth of biological thought Cambridge, Mass. 1982.

7. Kohn, D. Theories to work by: rejected theories, reproduction and Darwin's path to natural selection Studies in the history of biology 4 (1980): 67-170.

8. Russell, E.S. Form and function London 1916.

9. Mayr, E. 'Introduction' On the origin of species (facsimile of first edition) Cambridge, Mass. 1964.

10. Stauffer, R.C. (ed.) Charles Darwin's Natural Selection Cambridge 1975.

11. Parts of this introduction, especially this section, are based on a full reworking of Di Gregorio, M.A. Unveiling Darwin's roots Archives of natural history 13 (1987): 313-24.

12. Di Gregorio, M.A. Hugh Edwin Strickland (1811-53) on affinities and analogies: or, the case of the missing key Ideas and production 7 (1987): 35-50.

13. Vorzimmer, p. J. The Darwin reading notebooks 1838-1860 /. Hist. Biol. 10 (1977): 107-53.

14 "old Books": CD had a lively interest in such sources as the Bible, 'classical writers', books on ancient Egypt, and so forth, for information on the antiquity of varieties.

15. Burkhardt, F. and Smith, S. (eds) The correspondence of Charles Darwin vol. 3
(Cambridge 1987), pp. 43-5.

[page break]

[page break]

PART ONE

CATALOGUE AND TRANSCRIPTION

"Upon the whole nothing can be inferred from this list" (134a)

[page break]

[page break]

table of titles

[page break] xli

"You may shorten name" (342a) Thank you.

Full details of author, title, publication and current location are recorded with each entry in the text. These details also record if the book bears CD's autograph, or was inscribed by whomever gave it to CD; if it was m CD's possession before and/or during the Beagle voyage; and if the book contains uncut pages.

Abercrombie Inquiries concerning the intellectual powers 1838 1

Abernethy Physiological lectures 1822 7

Acébla Les Impiétés 1878

Acharius Lichens 1803

Adams Field and forest ramblers 1873

Agassiz, Alexandre Harvard College catalogue - Echini 1872-74 8

Agassiz, A. Harvard College catalogue - Acalephae 1865

Agassiz, A. North American starfishes 1877

Agassiz, A. Zoology of Challenger voyage - Echinoidea 1882

Agassiz, A., & Pourtalès Harvard College catalogue - Echini, crinoids and corals 1874

Agassiz, Elizabeth and Alexandre Seaside studies 1871

Agassiz, Louis Humboldt centennial address 1869

Agassiz, L. Bibliographia zoologia et geologiae 1848-54

Agassiz, L. Natural history of U.S. - Classification n.d. 9

Agassiz, L. De l'espèce 1869 11

Agassiz, L. Lake Superior 1850

Agassiz, L. Methods of study in natural history 1863 13

Agassiz, L. Nomenclatoris zoologici 1848 14

Agassiz, L. Florida reefs 1880

Agassiz, L., & Gould, A.A. Principles of zoology - comparative physiology 1848

Alder & Hancock British nudibranchiate Mollusca 1845-55

Allen, Grant The colour sense 1879

Allen, G. Der Farbensinn 1880 15

Allen, G. Physiological aesthetics 1877

Allen, Joel North American pinnipeds 1880

Allman Fresh water Polyzoa 1856 16

Allman Gymnoblastic or tubularian hydroids 1871-72

Allen, George James Hydroida 1877

Altum & Landois Zoologie 1872

Anderson Yunan expedition 1871

Angelin Iconographia crinoideorum 1878

Archiac Géologie 1834-1845 1847

Argyll Primeval man 1869

Argyll The reign of law 1867 17

Aristotle On the parts of animals 1882

Arnott Elements of physics 1833 18

Askenasy Kritik der Darwinschen Lehre 1872

Aubuisson Basalts of Saxony 1814

Aubuisson Traité de géognosie 1819

Audubon Ornithological biography 1831-39 21

Audubon & Bachman Viviparous quadrupeds 1846 23

Aveling The student's Darwin 1881 24

Ayrault De l'industrie mulassière 1867

Azara Quadrupèdes de Paraguay 1801 25

Azara Voyages dans l'Amérique méridionale 1809 26

B, J.P. Spiritual evolution 1879 27

Babington British botany 1851

Baerenbach Teleologie 1878 28

Baerenbach Naturgeschichte des Weibes 1877 29

Baerenbach Anthropologischen Philosophie 1879

Bagehot Physics and politics 1872

Baildon The spirit of nature 1880

Bain The emotions and the will 1865

Bain The emotions and the will 3rd edn 1875 30

Bain The senses and the intellect 1864

Baird British Entomostraca 1875 31

Baker Botanical geography 1875 32

Balfour Elasmobranch fishes 1878

Balfour Comparative embryology 1880

Ball India 1880

Barclay Life and organization 1822

[page break] xliii

Barker-Webb & Berthelot îles Canaries - Géographie botanique 1840

Barrago L'Uomo 1869 33

Barrande Acéphales 1881

Barrande Brachiopodes 1879

Barrande Céphalopodes 1877

Barrande Defense de colonies 1870

Barrande Distribution des céphalopodes 1870

Barrande Trilobites 1871 34

Barton Geography of plants 1827

Bary Die Mycetozen 1864

Bastian The beginnings of life 1872

Bastian The brain 1880 35

Bastian Evolution 1874

Bastian Origin of lowest organisms 1871

Bate Amphipodous Crustacea 1862

Bateman Aphasia 1870

Bates River Amazons 1863

Baxter Statistics medical and anthropological 1875 37

Beale Structure and growth of the tissues 1865

Bechstein Naturgeschichte Deutschlands 1793-95, 1801-05 38

Bechstein Naturgeschichte der Stubenvögel 1840 44

Beechey Pacific voyage 1832 47

Bell, Charles Expression 1844

Bell, C. The hand 1874 49

Bell, John & Charles Human body 1826

Belt Nicaragua 1874

Beneden Vers intestinaux including Bronn Essay on distribution 1861 50

Bentham British flora 1858 two copies 51

Bentham & Hooker, J.D. Genera plantarum 1862-83

Berjeau Dogs 1863 52

Berkenhout Botanical lexicon 1764

Bernard Animaux et végétaux 1879

Bernard Tissus vivants 1866

Bernhardi Pflanzenart 1834 54

Berzelius The blowpipe 1822 57

Beudant Minéralogie 1830

Bevan The honeybee 1827

Bevington Key-notes 1879

Bianconi La Teoria darwiniana 1875 58

Bianconi La théorie darwinienne 1875

- Bible 1838 59

Bigg Spi'wtfZ curvature 1882

Billing Scientific materialism 1879

Binney Terrestrial air-breathing molluscs of U.S. 1878

Blackley Catarrhus aestivus 1873

Blackley Hay /eoer 2nd edn 1880

Blackwall Spiders 1861-64

Blackwall Zoology 1834 60

Blackwell General science 1869 61

Blainville Actiniologie 1834

Blumenbach Anthropological treatises 1865

Blyth Cranes 1881

Boitard Entomologie 1828

Boitard & Corbié Pigeons domestiques 1824 62

Bolingbroke Political tracts 1748 64

Bolingbroke Upon parties 1739

Bolingbroke Patriotism 1749

Bonaparte Pigeons 1855 65

Bonaparte Birds o/ Europe and North America 1838

Bondi L'Uomo 1873 66

Boner Transylvania 1865

Bonnal Uwe agonie 1877

Bonnet Insectologie 1780

Bonnet L'Usage des feuilles 1754 two copies

Boott Carex 1858-60

Borrelli Vita e natura 1879

Bosquet Crustacés fossiles de Limbourg 1854

Bosquet Entomostracés fossiles de France et Belgique 1852

Bosquet Cirripèdes 1857

[page break] xlii

Bostock Physiology 1824

Boudin Traité de géographie médicale 1857 67

Boue Autobiographie 1879

Bourbon del Monte L'Homme 1877

Bowdler Poems and essays 1819

Bowerbank British Spongiadae 1864-72 68

Boyer French dictionary 1816

Boyer RoyaZ dictionary 1819

Brace Dangerous classes of New York 1872

Brace Races of the Old World 1863

Bradley Husbandry and gardening 1724

Brady Copepoda 1878-80 69

Bree Species not transmutable 1860

Brehm Illustriertes Thierkben 1864-67

Brehm Tierleben 2nd edn 1876-78 71

Brent The canary n.d.

Brent The pigeon book n.d.

Briggs Flora of Plymouth 1880

Briosi Embrioni vegetali 1882

British Association TTu'nZ meeting, report 1834

British Association Eleventh meeting, report 1842

- British aviary n.d. 72

British Museum Marine Polyzoa 1852-54

British Museum Mammalia 1843 73

British Museum British Hymenoptera 1855 74

British Museum Coleopterous insects of Madeira 1857 75

Broca Hybridity in Homo 1864

Bronn Handbuch einer Geschichte der Natur 1841 76

Bronn Morphologische Studien 1858 90

Bronn Entwickelungs-Gesetze 1858 91

Brookes Insects 1763

Brookes Waters 1763

Brougham Natural theology 1839

Broun New Zealand Coleoptera 1880 94

Brown Botanical works 1866-68

Browne West Riding lunatic asylum reports 1871-75

Bruguières Encyclopédie méthodique 1789-92

Brunton The Bible and science 1881 95

Brunton Digitalis 1868

Brunton Pharmacology 1880

Buch îles Canaries 1836

Buch Norway and Lapland 1813 %

Büchner Aus Natur 1862

Büchner La Théorie darwinienne 1869

Büchner Die Darwinsche théorie 1876 97

Büchner Liebe und Liebes-Leben 1879

Büchner Vererbung 1882

Büchner Man 1872

Büchner Mind in animals 1880

Büchner Sechs Vorlesungen 1868

Büchner Sechs Vorlesungen 2nd edn 1872 98

Büchner Stellung des Menschen 1870

Bücke Man's moral nature 1879

Buckley Natural science 1876

Buckton British aphides 1876-83

Buller Birds of New Zealand 1873 99

Burbidge Cultivated plants 1877

Burchell Southern African travels 1822 1OO

Burgess Blushing 1839

Burke The sublime and beautiful 1823 202

Burmeister Rankenfüsser 1834 tfß

Burmeister Histoire de la création 1870

Burmeister Trilobites 1846

Busch Schopenhauer 1878 J04

Busch Schopenhauer - Beitrag 1877

Busch Naturgeschichte der Kunst 1877

Butler Evolution 1879

Butler Geography 1818

Bütschli Infusorien 1876 jqs

[page break] xliv

Cabot Immature Odonata 1872-81 106

Camerano La Scella sessuale 1880

Candolle, Alphonse de Géographie botanique raisonnée 1855

Candolle, A. de Géographie botanique raisonnée vol. 2121

Candolle, A. de Histoire des sciences 1873 153

Candolle, A. de La Phytographie 1880

Candolle, Augustine Pyramus de Mémoires 1862

Candolle, A.P. de Prodromus 1824-25

Candolle, A.P. de Botanique 1819

Candolle, A. de & A.P. de Monographia phanerogamarum 1878-81

Canestrini Origine deïl'uomo 1870 154

Canestrini La Teoria deïl'evoluzione 1877

Canestrini La Teoria di Darwin 1880

Carlier Darwinism 1872

Carneri Gefühl 1876

Carpenter Foraminifera 1862

Carpenter The microscope 1868

Carpenter Comparative physiology 1854

Carpenter Mental physiology 1874 159

Carpenter Researches on the Foraminifera 1855

Carrière Production et fixation des variétés 1865

Cams Geschichte der Biologie 1872 160

Cams & Engelmann Bibliotheca zoolica 1861

Carus & Gerstaecker Handbuch der Zoologie 1875

Caspari Urgeschichte der Menschheit 1873
Catalogue of the Geological Society library 1846
Catalogue of the British Museum Chiroptera 1878 161
Catalogue of the Royal Society library 1839

Caton Norway 1875 163

Caton Antelope and deer 1877

Cattaneo Darwinismo 1880

Chambers Ancient sea margins 1848

Chambers Vestiges 1847

Chapman, Henry Evolution 1873 165

Chapman, John Neuralgia 1873

Chapuis Le Pigeon voyageur belge 1865

Charpentier Glaciers et terrain erratique du Rhône 1841

Chaumont State medicine 1875 166

Child Physiological subjects 1868

Child Physiological subjects 2nd edn 1869

Children Memoir 1853

Chun Ctenophorae 1880

Clarcke Systematic botany and zoology 1870

Clark Lucernariae 1878

Clark Mind in nature 1865

Clarke Cattle 1880 167

Claus Zoologie 1871

Claus Genealogische Grundlage des Crustaceen-Systems 1876

Cleland Evolution 1881

Coan Patagonia 1880

Cognetti de Martis Evoluzione economica 1881

Cohn Die Pflanze 1882

Colin Physiologie des animaux domestiques 1854-56

Collett Zoologi: Fiske 1880 169

Collingwood China Sea 1868

Columbus Selected letters 1847

Comstock Cotton insects 1879

Comstock Report, U.S. Dept. Agriculture 1879 1880
Congrès internationale d'anthropologie, Bologna 1873 770

Conta Théorie du fatalisme 1877
Conversations on vegetable physiology 1829

Conybeare & Phillips Geology of England and Wales 1822

Cook & King Voyage to the Pacific Ocean 1784

Cooke Mycographia 1879

Cotta Geologie der Gegenwart 1866

Cotta Geology and history 1865

Cotta Granit und Quader-Sandstein 1838 777

Cox What am I? 1873

Crawfurd Indian islands 1856

[page break] xlv

Crawfurd Malay grammar and dictionary 1852 172

Croll Climate and time 1875 173

Crookes Psychic force 1872

Cunningham Strait of Magellan 1871

Curtis The botanical magazine 1793

Cuvier Essay on the theory of the earth 1827

Cuvier Leçons d'anatomie comparée 1799-1805 174

Cuvier Le règne animal 1829 175

- Cyclopaedia of anatomy and physiology 1859 176

Dallas Animal kingdom n.d. 178
Dana Crustacea 1853

Dana Corals and coral islands 1872 179

Dana Geology 1863 180

Dandolo Silk-worms 1825

Danielssen & Koren Zoologi: Gephyrea 1881

Dareste Monstruosités 1877

Darwin, Charles translations of his works various

Darwin, C. Zoology of the Beagle voyage 1840-42 182

Darwin, Erasmus The botanic garden 1791 183

Darwin, E. The botanic garden part 2 vol. 2 1789 184

Darwin, E. Phytologia 1800

Darwin, E. Temple of nature 1803 185

Darwin, E. Zoonomia 1794-96

Darwin, Robert Waring Ocular spectra 1786 187

Darwin, R.W. Principia botanica 1810

Daubeny Volcanos 1826

Daubrée Roches cristallines 1860 188

Dawkins Cave hunting 1874

Dawson, James Australian aborigines 1881

Dawson, John Fossil plants of Canada 1871

Defrance Tableau des corps organisés fossiles 1824

De la Bêche Theoretical geology 1834

De la Bêche Annals of Mines selection 1824 189

Delage Crustacés édriophthalmes marins 1881 190

Delamer (Dixon) Pigeons and rabbits 1854

Delgado Terreno siluriano no baixo alemtejo 1876

Delpino Dicogamia 1868-74 191

Denton Is Darwin right? 1881 192

- Descriptive and illustrated catalogue of Mammalia and Aves 1845
Desmarest Mammalogie 1820

Devay Mariages consanguins 1862 194
Dictionary of chemistry (Ure) 1823 195
Dictionary of chemistry (Watts) 1871-72
English dictionary 1770 196
Spanish-English dictionary 1831
Dictionnaire classique d'histoire naturelle 1822-31
Dictionnaire raisonnée des termes usités dans les sciences naturelles 1834 197
Dictionnaire des sciences naturelles: Planches 1830 198

Dillwyn Recent shells 1817

Dippel Das Microskop 1872 199

Dixie Across Patagonia 1880

Dixon, Edmund Dovecote and aviary 1851

Dixon, E. Ornamental and domestic poultry 1848 201

Dixon, Frederick Tertiary and cretaceous Sussex 1850 203

Dobell Vestiges of disease 1861

Dodel Ulotrix zonata 1876

Dodel Die neuere Schöpfungsgeschichte 1875

Doherty Philosophie organique 1881 204

Dohrn Pantopoda 1881

Dohrn Arthropoden 1870

Dolfuss Géologie transformiste-1874

- Domestic mediane 1872

Donders The eye 1864

Donn Hortus Cantabrigiensis 1823

Donnegan Greek-English lexicon 1837

Douglas & Scott The British Hemiptera 1865

Downing Fruits of America 1845 205

Dowson Erasmus Darwin 1861 208

Drayson The last glacial epoch 1873

[page break] xlvi

Dreher Der Darwinismus 1877

Drouët Mollusques marins des Açores 1858 209

Drysdale Protoplasmic theory 1874

Dub Lehre Darwin's 1870

Du Bois-Reymond Johannes Müller 1860

Duchenne Physiologie humaine 1862

Dufrénoy & Èlie de Beaumont Description géologique de la France 1836 210

Duhamel du Monceau Traité des arbres 1755 214

Dumont Haeckel 1873

Duncan, Andrew Dispensatory 1826

Duncan, James Fecundity 1871 215

Duncan, John Analogies of organized beings 1831

Dupont L'Homme 1871

Du Prel der Kampf ums Dasein 1874

Du Prel Planetenbewohner 1880

Du Prel Psychologie der Lyrik 1880

Durand Physiologie philosophique 1866

Durand Les Origines animales de l'homme 1871

Dutrochet Histoire anatomique et physiologique 1837 216

Du val Histoire du pêcher 1850

Du val Histoire du poirier 1849

Du val Histoire du pommier 1852

Eaton Breeding pigeons 1852 217

Eaton Breeding pigeons including Moore Columbarinus 1858 219

Ecker Anatomie des Frosches 1864-82

Edgeworth Pollen 1877

Ehrenberg Mikrogeologische Studien 1873

Ehrenberg Das kleinste Leben im 'Weltmeer 1844

Eichwald Geognostisch-palaeontologische Bemerkungen 1871 220

Eimer Maureidechse 1881

Élie de Beaumont Géologie pratique 1848

Emery Fierasfer 1880

- Encyclopaedie der Naturwissenschaften 1879-82

Engelmann Bibliotheca historico-naturalis 1846 221

- Enten, Schwanen und Gänsezucht 1828

Ercolani Nouve ricerche sulk Placenta 1880

Ercolani Unità délia placenta 1877 222

Erichsen Surgery 1869

Ernest Dictionary, Graecium lexicon 1816

Errera Fécondation des fleurs 1878

Eschricht, Reinhardt & Lilljeborg Cetacea 1866

Eschwege Gebirgskunde Brasiliens 1832

Espinas Sociétés animales 1877 223

Euripides Hecuba 1836 224

Eyton Osteologia avium 1867

Farbre Souvenirs entomologiques 1879 225

Faivre Variabilité 1868

Falconer Palaeontological memoirs 1868 226

Falconer Teak forests of Tenasserim 1852

Farrar Language 1865
Farrier and naturalist 1828-30
Fauna und Flora des Golfes von Neapel 1880-81 227

Fayrer Bengal tiger 1875

Fenwick Medical diagnosis 1871

Ferguson Rare and prize poultry 1854

Fernere Darwinisme 1872 two copies 229

Ferris Origin of species 1871

Fichte Die Seelenfortdauer 1867

Fiske Darwinism 1879

Fiske Cosmic philosophy 1874

Fitton Geology in England 1833

Fitzgerald Australian orchids 1877

Fitzroy & King Adventure and Beagle voyages 1839 230

Fleming History of British animals 1828 231

Fleming Philosophy of zoology 1822

Flourens Examen du livre de M. Darwin 1864 234

Flourens Longévité humaine 1855

Flourens Instinct et intelligence 1845 235

Flower Osteology and dentition of vertebrated animals 1879 236

[page break] xlvii

Flower Osteology of the Mammalia 1870

Flügel German-English dictionary 1838

Focke Die Pflanzen-Mischlinge 1881

Fol Fécondation et hénogenie 1879

Folien Life of Charles Folien 1844

Forbes Asteridae offprint 237

Forbes Naked-eyed Medusae 1848

Forel Fourmis de la Suisse 187'4

Forster, Johann Observations 1778 240

Forster, Thomas British birds 1817

Foster & Balfour Embryology 1874

Foster & Langley Physiology 1876 241

Fournier Phanérogames 1863

Francisque-Michel Haras 1860

Frank Pflanzenphysiologie 1868

Frank Pflanzentheilen 1870 242

Freke Origin of species 1861 244

Fremont Expedition to the Rocky Mountains 1845

Frey Histology and histochemistry of man 1874 245

Frohschammer Das Christenthum 1868

Gallesio Traité du citrus 1811 246

Galton The art of travel 1855 248

Galton English man of science 1874

Galton Tropical South Africa 1853

Garrod, Alfred Baring Materia medica 1869

Garrod, Alfred Henry Collected papers 1881

Gärtner Befruchtung der vollkommeneren Gewächse 1844

Gärtner Bastarderzeugung im Pflanzenreich 1849 256

Gastaldi Lake habitations 1865 298

Gaudry Animaux fossiles du Mont Lébéron 1873

Gaussoin Navassa 1866

Gee Auscultation adn percussion 1870

Gegenbaur Comparative anatomy 1878

Gegenbaur Vergleichende Anatomie 1870 299

Gegenbaur Anatomie compare^ 1874

Gegenbaur Wirbelthiere 1864-72

Geiger Entwicklungsgeschichte der Menschheit 1871

Geikie The great Ice Age 1877

Geikie Prehistoric Europe 1881 300

Gentry Birds of eastern Pennsylvania 1876

Geoffroy St Hilaire, Etienne Philosophie zoologique 1830

Geoffroy St Hilaire, Isidore Zoologie générale 1841 301

Geoffroy St Hilaire, I. Anomalies de l'organisation 1832-37 306

Geoffroy St Hilaire, I. Règnes organiques 1854-62 316

Geoffroy St Hilaire, I. Vie d'Etienne Geoffroy 1847 320

Gérard Des Orchidées 1879 321

Gerland Das Aussterben 1868

Gervais Les trois règnes de la nature 1854-55 325

Giraud-Teulon La famille 1874 327

Girt on Pigeon-fancier n.d.

Glen Poor Law Statutes 1857 328

Gloger Das Abändern der Vögel 1833

Godman The Azores 1870 330

Godron De l'espèce 1859 331

Gönne Das Gleichgewicht 1882 335

Gooch Diseases peculiar to women 1859

Goodsir, John & Harry Anatomical and pathological observations 1845

- Gooseberry growers' register 1862

Gosse Alabama 1859

Gosse Jamaica 1851

Götz Hunde-galerie 1853 336

Gould, Benjamin Military and anthropological statistics 1869

Gould, John Handbook to the birds of Australia 1865 337

Gould, J. Introduction to the birds of Australia 1848 341

Gould, J. Introduction to the birds of Great Britain 1873 342

Gould, J. Trochilidae 1861

Gould, William English ants 1747 344

Graba Reise nach Färö 1830

Graduate from Cambridge Darwinian theory 1867 345

[page break] xlviii

Grant Comparative anatomy 1835

Gratiolet Expression 1865

Graves Naturalist's companion 1824 347

Gray, Asa How plants behave 1872

Gray, A. Darwiniana 1876

Gray, A. Botany and vegetable physiology 1857

Gray, A. Botany of northern U.S. 1856 348

Gray, A. Natural science and religion 1880 351

Gray, George Birds of China 1871

Gray, Henry Anatomy 1869

Gray, John Synopsis reptilium 1831

Green Bacton in Norfolk 1842

Greene Coelenterata 1861 352

Greenwell British barrows including

Rolleston Skulls 1877

Greg Christendom 1863

Greg Enigmas of life 1872

Grobben Dekapoden 1878

Grove Correlation of physical forces 1862

Günther Ceratoden 1871

Günther Land-tortoises 1877

Günther Fishes 1880

Günther Reptiles of British India 1869

Guthrie Mr Spencer's formula of evolution 1879

Guy Forensic medicine 1861

Haast Geology of Canterbury and Westland, New Zealand 1879 353

Haberlandt Schutzeinrichtungen 1877 two copies

Haberlandt Vergleichende Anatomie 1881 354

Haeckel Anthropogenie 1874

Haeckel Anthropogenie 3rd edn 1877

Haeckel Arabische Korallen 1875 355

Haeckel Siphonophoren 1869

Haeckel Evolution of man 1879

Haeckel Freedom in science 1879

Haeckel Freie Wissenschaft 1878

Haeckel Generelle Morphologie 1866

Haeckel Gesammelte Vorträge 1879 557

Haeckel History of creation 1876

Haeckel Die Kalkschwämme 1872

Haeckel Natürliche Schöpfungsgeschichte 1868 558

Haeckel Natürliche Schöpfungsgeschichte 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 7th edns 1870-79 360

Haeckel Les preuves du transformisme 1879

Haeckel Das Protistenreich 1878

Haeckel Die Radiolarien 1862

Haeckel Gastraea-Theorie 1877

Haeckel System der Medusen 1879-80

Hagen Insect deformities 1876

Hahn Meteorite 1880

Hahn Die Urzelle 1879 361

Hall Index fo new general atlas 1831

Hall New general atlas 1829

Hallez Turbellaries 1879

Hancock Brachiopoda 1857

Hansen Adventivbildungen bei den Pflanzen 1881

Harris, George 77ie arts 1869

Harris, Thaddeus Entomological correspondence 1869

Harris, T. Insects injurious to vegetation 1862

Harris, T. Insects of New England 1842

Hartmann Wahrheit und Irrthum im Darwinismus 1875 two copies 362

Härtung Lanzerote und Fuertaventura 1857

Harvey Nereis australis 1849

Harvey Sea-side book 1849

Hasse Elasmobrnchier 1879

Haughton Physical geography 1880

Hawkins, Benjamin Human and animal frame 1860 3^3

Hawkins, Richard South Sea voyage 1847

Head Journeys across the Pampas 1826

Heckel Du mouvement végétal 1875

Hedericus Graecium lexicon 1816

Heer Fossil flora of North Greenland 1869

[page break] xlvix

Heer Flora fossilis artica 1875

Heer Flora fossilis Helvetiae 1876-77

Heer Miocene Flora und Fauna Spitzbergens 1870

Heer Le Monde primitif de la Suisse 1872

Heer Pays tertiaire 1861

Heer Klima des Tertiärländes 1860

Héliu La Loi unique 1878 366

Heller Darwin und das Darwinismus 1869

Helmholtz Popular lectures 1873

Hertfrey Botanical and physiological memoirs 1853

Henfrey Physiological botany 1847 367

Henfrey (ed.) Reports and papers on botany 1849

Henle Anatomie des Menschen 1858 368

Henry Experimental chemistry 1823 369

Henslow Botany 1837 \

Henslow Botanical dictionary n.d. 371

Herbert Amaryllidaceae 1837 372

Hermann, Luclimar Human physiology 1875 376

Hermann, H.C. Italian alp-bee 1860 377

Hermann, L. Handbuch der Physiologie 1881

Herschel, J.F.W. Scientific enquiry 1849

Herschel, J.F.W. Natural philosophy 1831

Herschel, J.F.W. Astronomy 1833

Herschel, Mrs John Caroline Herschel 1876

Hertwig Zahnsystem der Amphibien 1874

Hervey-Saint-Denis Agriculture et horticulture des Chinois 1850

Hewson Works 1846 378

Heyworth Man 1866

Hibberd The fern garden 1872

Higginson Out-door papers 1871

Hildebrand Geschkchter-Vertheilung bei den Pflanzen 1867

Hildebrand Verbreitungsmittel der Pflanzen 1873 379

Hildebrant Verbreitung der Coniferen 1861

Hinds Regions of vegetation 1843

Hitchcock Geology of Massachussets 1841 381

Hochstetter Reise der Novara 1866

Hodge What is Darwinism? 1874 382

Hodgson Theory of practice 1870

Hoek Zoology of Challenger voyage 1881

Hoek Embryologie von Balanus 1876

Hoernes & Auinger Gasteropoden 1879-82

Hofacker Eigenschaften 1828

Hoffmann, Hermann Zur Speciesfrage 1875 384

Hoffmann, L. Thier-Psychologie 1881 385

Hof mann Liebig 1876

Hofmeister Pflanzenzelle 1867

Hofmesiter Cryptogamia 1862

Hogg Experimental and natural philosophy 1861

Holder Schädelformen 1876

Holland Chapters on mental physiology 1852

Holland Chapters on mental physiology 2nd edn 1858 386

Holland Scientific and other subjects 1862

Holland Medical notes and reflections 1839

Holland Medical notes and reflections 3rd edn 1855 387

Holland Recollections 1868 388

Holub South Africa 1881

Holub & Pelzen Ornithologie Südafrikas 1882

Hooke Micrographia 1667

Hooker, Joseph Botany 1876

Hooker, J. Flora antarctica 1844-47

Hooker, J. Himalayan journals 1854 392

Hooker, J. Introductory essay, flora of New Zealand 1853 393

Hooker, J. Geological survey of Great Britain n.d.

Hooker, J. Flora of Australia 1859 394

Hooker, J. Introductory essay, flora of New Zealand reprint 398

Hooker, J. & Ball Marocco and the Great Atlas 1878 403

Hooker, J. & Thomson Flora Indica 1855

Hooker, William Dawson Norway 1838 406

Hooker, William Jackson British flora 1838

[page break] xlx

Hooker, W.J. & Arnott British flora 1855 408

Hooker, W.J. et al. Supplement to Smith & Sowerby 1831-65

Hope Coleopterist's manual 1837 409

Hopkins Geology and terretrial magnetism 1844

Horner Alluvial Egypt 1858

Houghton Natural history of the ancients n.d.

House of Commons Wild birds' protection 1873

Hovelacque Notre ancêtre 1878

Howorth Mongols 1876

Hromada Vorsokratische Naturphilosophie 1879

Huber, François Abeilles 1814

Huber, Pierre Fourmis indigènes 1810 412

Huber, Johannes Die Lehre Darwin's 1871 413

Hubrecht Nervensystem 1882

Hue Journey through Tartary, Thibet and China 1852

- Hühner und Pfauenzucht 1827

Humboldt Cosmos 1846 415

Humboldt Essai géognostique 1826

Humboldt Fragmens de géologie 1831

Humboldt Travels to the New Continent various edns 1819-29

Humboldt Kingdom of New Spain 1811 420

Humphrey Limbs of vertebrates 1860

Hunt Light 1854

Hunter Essays including

Owen Introductory lectures 1861 421

Hunter Vegetation 1860

Hunter Human teeth 1778

Huot Atlas complet 1837

Hussey British mycology 1849 422

Hutchinson Dog breeding 1850

Huth Marriage of near kin 1875

Hutton Chronology of creation 1850

Huxley American addresses 1877 423

Huxley Crayfish 1880

Huxley Critiques and addresses 1873

Huxley Man's place in nature 1863

Huxley Hume 1879 424

Huxley Classification 1869

Huxley Phenomena of organic nature 1862 425

Huxley Lay sermons 1870

Huxley Comparative anatomy 1864

Huxley Anatomy of invertebrates 1877

Huxley Anatomy of vertebrates 1871 426

Huxley Oceanic Hydrozoa 1858

Huxley Phenomena of organic nature 1863

Huxley Physiography 1877

Huxley Science and culture 1881

Huxley & Martin Elementary biology 1875

Hyatt Tertiary species of Planorbis 1880

Ingersoll The oyster industry 1881 427

L'Institut Sciences mathémathiques 1837, 1840
- International horticultural exhibition 1866 428

Irmisch Beiträge zur Biologie 1853

Jaeger Die Darwin'sche Theorie 1869 429

Jaeger Die Darwin'sche Theorie n.d.

Jaeger Contra Wigand 1874

Jaeger Zoologie 1871-78 432

Jaeger Seuchenfestigkeit 1878 two copies 432

Jaeger Zoologische Briefe 1876

James Du Darwinisme 1877

Jameson Manual of mineralogy 1821

Jameson Treatise on minerals 1816 440

Jarrold Anthropologia 1808

Jeffreys & Carpenter The Valorous expedition 1876

Jenyns Memoir of Henslow 1862

Jenyns Meteorology 1858

Jenyns Natural history 1846

Jevons Logic 1881 441

Johnson, Samuel English dictionary 1826

Johnson, Samuel W. How crops grow 1869

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Johnston Botany of the eastern borders 1853

Jones Bermuda 1859 442

- Journal of a horticultural tour 1817 443

Jouvencel Genèse selon la science 1859

Juan & Ulloa Voyage to South America 1806 444

Judd Volcanoes 1881

Jukes Geological survey of Newfoundland 1843

Jukes Student's manual of geology 1857

Jukes Student's manual of geology 2nd edn 1862 445

Jukes et al. Record of the School of Mines 1853

Kaspary Natural laws 1876 446

Kater & Lardner Mechanics 1830

Keir Sketch of the life 1859

Kerner Alpenpflanzen 1864

Kerner Flowers 1878

Key & Retzius Anatomie des Nervensystems 1875-76

Kidd The canary n.d.

- Das Kind 1876 447
Kirby Monographia opium Angliae 1802

Kirby & Spence Entomology various edns 1818-26

Kirchhof Landwirtschaft 1835 457

Klein Lymphatic system 1873 458

Klein et al. Physiological laboratory handbook 1873

Kobell Mineralogie 1838

Kohlrausch PfeysiJfc 1877

Kölliker Alcyonarien 1870

Kölreuter Geschlecht der Pflanzen 1761-66

Koninck & Le Hon CrinoXdes du terrain carbonifère 1854 477

Körner Theirseele und Menschengeist 1872

Kowalewsky Anthracotherium 1873

Krusenstern Reise in das Petschora-Land 1846

Kühl Descendenzlehre 1879

Kühne Anpassungsgesetz 1878 472

Kühne Protoplasma und Contractility 1864

Kuntze Speciesbeschreibung und Rubus 1879

Kuntze Um die Erde 1881

Kurr Bedeutung der Nektarien 1833

Kurtz Dionaea muscipula 1876 475

Labillardière Voyage de la Perouse 1791 476

Lacepède Cétacées 1809

Laing Darwinism refuted 1871

Lamarck Animaux sans vertèbres 1816-17

Lamarck Animaux sans vertèbres 2nd edn 1835-45

Lamarck Philosophie zoologique 1809 477

Lamarck Philosophie zoologique new edn 1873 480

Lambert L'Immortalité 1865

Lambert Monde moral 1862

Lambertye Le Fraisier 1864 481

Lamont Sea-horses 1861

Lamouroux Polypiers 1821

Lanciano L'Universo 1872

Lanessan La Lutte pour l'existence 1881

Lanessan Du protoplasma végétal 1876

Lankester Degeneration 1880

Lankester Comparative longevity 1870 452

Lardner Cabinet cyclopedia - history 1830 453

Latham Man 1851

Latreille Fourmis 1802 4&/

Laugel Problèmes de la nature 1864

Laugel Science et philosophie 1863

Lavater Physionomie 1820

Lawrence, John Tte fcorse 1829 485

Lawrence, William Lectures on man 1822

Lawson Lists of seeds and plants 1851 486

Lawson Treatise on grasses 1851 487

Le Brun Conference 1701

Le Couteur Wheat n.d.

Le Couteur Wheat 2nd edn 1872 488

Lecoq Géographie botanique 1854

[page break] lii

Lecoq Fécondation des végétaux et hybridation 1845 495

Lecoq Fécondation 2nd edn 1862 496

Lees Acoustics, light and heat 1877 497

Le Hon L'Homme fossile 1867

Leidy Fauna of Nebraska 1853

Leidy Fauna of Western Territories 1873 498

Leighton Lichen-flora 1872

Le Maout & Decaisne Botanique 1868

Lemoine, Albert Physionomie et parole 1865

Lemoine, Victor Oiseaux fossiles de Reims 1878 499

Lepelletier Physiognomie 1864

Lesson Mammalogie 1827

Lesson Ornithologie 1828

Letourneau Physiologie des passions 1868 500

Lewes History of philosophy 1867

Lewes Physical basis of mind 1877

Lewes Physiology of common life 1860

Leybold Pampas Argentinas 1873

Liebig Organic chemistry 1840

Lindemuth Bastarderzeugung 1878 501

Lindley Natural system of botany 1836

Lindley First principles of botany 1830

Lindley School botany 1856

Link Urwelt und Alterthum 1821

Linnaeus Philosophia botanica 1783 502

Linnaeus Systema naturae 1789-96

Linnaeus Systema vegetabilium 1797

Lippert Religionen 1881

Lisle Husbandry 1757

Locard Variations malacologiques 1881

Locke Human understanding 1726

Loiseleur-deslongchamps Céréales 1842

Lombardini Cammelli 1841 504

Loudon (ed.) Encyclopedia of plants 1841

Lovén tchinoUes 1875 506

Low Domesticated animals 1845

Lowne Blow-fly 1870 570

Lowne Teratological series 1872

Lowne Philosophy of evolution 1873

Lubbock Reproduction in Daphnia 1857 577

Lubbock Addresses 1879

Lubbock Ants, bees and wasps 1882

Lubbock Collembola and Thysanura 1873

Lubbock Civilisation 1870

Lubbock Metamorphoses of insects 1874 572

Lubbock Ova of insects 1858

Lubbock Prehistoric times 1865

Lubbock Prehistoric times 2nd edn 1869 573

Lubbock Scientific lectures 1879

Lucae Fuchs-Affe und Faulthier 1882

Lucae Quadrupeden 1881

Lucas Hérédité naturelle 1847

Luerssen Bofam'fc 1879-82 523

Lunze Hundezucht 1877

Lyell, Charles Elements of geology 1838

Lyell, C. Elements of geology 6th edn 1865 524

Lyell, C. Antiquity of man 1863 525

Lyell, C. Antiquity of man 3rd edn 1863 527

Lyell, C. Antiquity of man 4th edn 1873

Lyell, C. Manual of elementary geology 1851

Lyell, C. Manual of elementary geology 4th edn 1852 528

Lyell, C. Manual of elementary geology 5th edn 1855

Lyell, C. Principles of geology 1830-33 530

Lyell, C. Principles of geology 5th edn 1837 537

Lyell, C. Principles of geology 6th edn 1840 539

Lyell, C. Principles of geology 7th edn 1847 543

Lyell, C. Principles of geology 9th edn 1853

Lyell, C. Principles of geology 10th edn 1867-68 two copies

Lyell, C. Principles of geology 11th edn 1872 544

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Lyell, C. Second visit to U.S. 1849 545

Lyell, C. Student's elements of geology 1871

Lyell, C. Student's elements of geology 2nd edn 1874 546

LyelL C. Supplement to 5th edn of Manual 1857

Lyell, C. Supplement 2nd edn 1857

Lyell, C. Travels in North America 1845

Lyell, James Fancy pigeons 1881 549

Lyman Ophiuridae and Astrophytidae 1875

Lyman Supplement to Ophiuridae 1871

Lyon Homo versus Darwin n.d.

McAlpine Botanical atlas 1882 550

McAlpine Zoological atlas 1881

Macaulay et al. Vivisection 1881

McClelland Indian Cyprinidae 1839

MacCulloch Classification of rocks 1821

McClintock Sir John Franklin 1859 551

Macgillivray British birds 1837-52

Macgillivray Deeside and Braemar 1855 557

Mcintosh British Annelids 1873-74

Mackintosh Ethical philosophy 1837

Mackintosh History of England 1830 559

Maclaren For and against Darwinism 1876

Maclaren Natural theology 1878

Maclaren Chemical difficulties of evolution 1877

MacLeay Horae entomologicae 1819

McLennan Primitive marriage 1865

McLennan Ancient history 1876 561

Macquart Facultés intérieurs 1850

Magnus Najas 1870 562

Mallery Gestures and signals of N. American Indians 1880

Mallery Sign language among N. American Indians 1880

Mallery Sign language among American Indians 1881

Malm Fauna 1877

Malthus Population 1826 two copies of vol. 2

Mantegazza Fisiologia del piacere 1870 563

Mantegazza Fisionomia e mimica 1881

Mantegazza Rio de la Plata e Tenerife 1867

Mantegazza Studii antropologici 1877 565

Mantegazza H terzo molare 1878

Marchand Voyage autour du monde 1792 566

Marshall, William Minutes of agriculture 1778

Marshall, W. Board of agriculture reports 1808

Marshall, William E. Phrenologist amongst the Todas 1873

Marsham Coleoptera britannica 1802 567

Martin The dog 1845

Martin The horse 1845 568

Martin-Saint-Ange Cirripèdes 1835 569

Marx Das Kapital 1873 570

Masaryk Selbstmord 1881

Maskelyne Nautical tables 1802

Masters Vegetable teratology 1869 577

Matthes Wirbelthiere 1861

Matthew On naval timber 1831

Maudsley Body and mind 1870

Maudsley Body and mind 2nd edn 1873 572

Maudsley Physiology and pathology of mind 1868

Maudsley Physiology of mind 1876 573

Mawe Travels in Brazil 1825

Maxwell Matter and motion 1882

Mazaroz Genèse des sociétés modernes 1877

Medlicott & Blandford Geology of India 1879

Meehan Flowers and ferns of U.S. 1878

Meetkerke Guests of flowers 1881

Meitzen Bhawani 1872

Melia Origin of man 1872

Mengozzi Filosofia della mediana 1869 574

Merriam Birds of Connecticut 1877

Metzger Die Getreidearien 1841

Meyen Reise um die Erde including

Erichson & Burmeister Insekten 1834 576

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Meyen Pflanzen-Physiologie 1837-39

Meyen Geography of plants 1846

Meyer Naturgeschichte der Hausthiere 1792 577

Michell earthquakes 1760 578

Miers Travels to Chile 1826

Miller, Hugh Footprints of the creator 1849

Miller, Philip Gardener's dictionary 1748

Miller, William Inorganic chemistry 1864

Milligan A. Corn. Celsi 1826 579

Milne-Edwards Crustacées 1834-40

Milne-Edwards Zoologie générale 1851 581

Mitchell Rattlesnake venom 1861 584

Mivart Skeleton of primates 1867

Mivart Genesis of species 1871

Mivart Genesis of species 2nd edn 1871 588

Mivart Elementary anatomy 1873 589

Mivart Man and apes 1873

Moggridge Ants and spiders 1873

Mohl, Hugo Vegetable cell 1852

Mohl, H. Bau und Winden der Pflanzen 1827 590

Mohl, Jules Études orientales 1879-80 594

Mojsvâr Dolomit-Riffe 1878

Mojsvâr Gebirge um Hallstatt 1873-75

Mojsvâr Geologische Übersichtskarte n.d.

Mojsvâr Daonella und Halobia 1874

Moleschott Circulation delà vie 1866

Moleschott Kreislauf des Lebens \W7

Moleschott & Fubini SulVinfluenza délia luce 1879 595

Moniez Cestodes 1881

Mons Arbres fruitiers 1835-36

Moore & More Cybele Hibernica 1866 598

Moore, Frederic Indian lepidopterous insects 1879

Moore, George The first man 1866

Moore, Thomas Poetical works 1847

Moquin-Tandon Teratologie végétale 1841

Morgan American beaver 1868 602

Morgan Consanguinity 1871

Morren Congres de botanique horticole 1877

Morren Physiologie végétale 1871

Morris British fossils 1854

Morton Types of mankind 1854 603

Moseley Notes by a naturalist 1879 607

Moseley Oregon 1878

Moseley Peripatus capensis 1874

Mosso Kreislauf des Blutes 1881

Moubray Treatise on breeding 1834

Müller, Ferdinand von Fragmenta phytographiae australiae 1869-71 608

Müller, Freidrich Allgemeine Ethnographie 1873

Müller, Friedrich Reise der Novara 1868

Müller, Fritz For Darwin 1869 609

Müller, Fritz Für Darwin 1864

Müller, Hermann Alpenblumen 1881

Müller, H. Befruchtung der Blumen 1873 610

Müller, H. Wechselbeziehungen zwischen Blumen und Insekten 1879

Müller, Johannes Elements of physiology 1838--42 613

Müller, J. Seeigellarven n.d. 621

Muir Supernatural religion 1874

Murchison Silurian system 1839

Murchison Silurian system reviewed 1841 622

Murphy Habit and intelligence 1869

Murphy Habit and intelligence 2nd edn 1879 623

Murray, Andrew Distribution of mammals 1866 two copies 624

Murray, Lindley English grammar 1831

Nägeli Botanische Mittheilungen 1866 625

Nägeli Die niederen Pilze 1877 630

Nägeli & Cramer Pflanzenphysiologie 1855

Nash Oregon 1878

Nathusius Schweineschädeln 1864

Nathusius Geschichte und Zucht der Hausthiere 1864

[page break] lv

Nathusius Viehzucht und Rassenkenntnis 1872-80 636

Natural history - plates 1824-26 637

Naturalist's library Ornithology n.d.
Natural science, creeds and scripture 1870 638
Natuurkundige Verhandeligen including Fritz Sonnenflecken 1878

Nalidin Hybridité dans les végétaux 1862

Netter De l'intuition 1879 639

Neumayr & Paul Slavonien 1875

Neumayr Fauna des untersten Lias 1879 640

Neumeister Taubenzucht 1837

Newberry Dinichytes 1875 641

Newton Zoology 1874

Nicholson Ophiology 1874

Niemeyer Medicine 1871 642

Nilsson Primitive inhabitants of Scandinavia 1868

Nitzch Pterylography 1867

Nogueira A raca negra 1880

Noire Ursprung der Sprache 1877

Noire Die Welt 1874

Noire Das Werkzeug 1880

Nordenskiöld Voyage of the Vega 1881

Nusbaum Embryologie de Mysis n.d.

Odart Ampélographie 1849 643

Officier du roi Voyage à l'isle de France 1773 644

Ogle Harveian oration 1881

Oken Physiophilosophy 1847

- Our blood relations 1872

O'Neill Refutation of Darwinism 1880

Ontario Province Report on agriculture 1873

Oppert Languages 1879

Ord Colloids 1879

Ordinaire Volcans 1802

Onnathwaite Astronomy and geology compared 1872

Orton Andes and Amazon 1870

Orton Andes and Amazon 3rd edn 1876 645

Osborne Horsebreeder's handbook 1881

Otley English lakes 1830

Ovington Voyage to Suratt 16%

Owen, David Wisconsin, Iowa and Minnesota 1852

Owen, John (ie Butler) The fair haven 1873

Owen, Richard Anatomy of vertebrates 1866-68

Owen, R. Mylodon 1842 648

Owen, R. British fossil mammals 1846 649

Owen, R. Invertebrates 1855 652

Owen, R. Limbs 1849 655

Owen, R. Palaeontology 1860 656

Owen, R. Palaeontology 2nd edn 1861

Owen, R. Parthenogenesis 1849 two copies

Packard Insects 1868 658

Packard Insects injurious to trees 1881

Page Man 1867

Paget Surgical pathology 1853

Paget Surgical pathology 3rd edn 1870 661

Paley Christianity 1822

Palm Winden der Pflanzen 1827 662

Paolucd Uccelli 1878 two copies 663

Paris Medical chemistry 1825

Paris Pharmacologia 1825

Parker Shoulder and sternum in vertebrates 1868

Parkes Practical hygiene 1873

Parkinson Fossil organic remains 1822

Pauchon Rôle de lumière dans génération 1880

Pennant Quadrupeds 1769

Pernety îles Malouines 1763-64 664

Perrier Colonies animales 1881

Persoon Synopsis plantarum 1805-07

Pettigrew Physiology of circulation 1873

Pettigrew Physiology of wings 1871

Philippi Catalogus plantarum 1881 665

[page break] lvi

Phillips, John Geology of Oxford 1871

Phillips, J. Life on earth 1860

Phillips, J. Treatise on geology 1839

Phillips, J. Vesuvius 1869 666

Phillips, William Mineralogy 1823

Phillips, W. Mineralogy 4th edn 1837 667

Pickering R< --s of man including

Hall Analytical synopsis 1850

Pictet Paléontologie 1844-45 668

Pictet Paléontologie 2nd edn 1853-57 670

Piderit Mimik und Physiognomik 1867 675

Pistor Taubenzucht 1831 677

Planck Seele und Geist 1871 678

Planck Darwinismus 1872

- Plans of lakes and rivers between Huron and Ottawa 1857

Playfair Huttonian theory 1802

Pompper Säugethiere, Vögel und Amphibien 1841 679

Porcher Du Fuchsia 1844

Posnett Ethics, jurisprudence and political economy 1882

Pouchet Human race 1864

Pourtalès Deep-sea corals 1871 680

Powell Indian languages 1880 two copies

Pozzi Du crane 1879

Preyer Blausäure 1870

Preyer Blutkrystalle 1871

Preyer Naturwissenschaft 1880

Preyer Seele des Kindes 1882

Price Old Price's remains 1863-64

Pilchard Physical history of mankind 1836

Prichard History of mankind 3rd & 4th edns 1841-51 683

- Principles of organic life 1868 686

Proctor, Richard Science 1879

Proctor, Robert fourney across the Cordillera 1825 687
Psychological enquiries
1854
Public libraries in the U.S. 1876

Pugin Edifices and buildings 1841

Pulteney Linnaeus 1805 688

Pusey Permanence and evolution 1882

Putsche Taubenkatechismus 1830

Puvis Dégénération et extinction 1837

Quadri Teoria Darwiniana 1869 690

Quatrefages Charles Darwin 1870

Quatrefages Maladies du ver à soie 1859

Quatrefages Annelés 1865 691

Quatrefages Métamorphoses 1862

Quatrefages Nouvelles recherches sur ver à soie 1860 692

Quatrefages Physiologie comparée 1855

Quatrefages Souvenirs 1854

Quatrefages Unité de l'espèce humaine 1861 693

Quetelet L'Homme 1835 694

- Rabbit book n.d.695
Radcliffe Nerve and muscle 1871

Radenhausen Osiris 1874-76

Ram Philosophy of war 1878

Rames La Création 1869

Ramsay Rock specimens 1858

Ramsay Physical geology and geography 1863

Ramsay Physical geology and geography 3rd edn 1872 6%

Ramsay Physical geology and geography 5th edn 1878

Rang Mollusques 1829

Ranke Physiologie des Menschen 1875

Ray Correspondence 1848

Ray Wisdom of god 1692

Ray Memorials 1846 697

Reade, Thomas Chemical denudation 1879

Reade, Winwood African sketch-book 1873

Reade, W. Martyrdom of man 1872 698

Rée Moralische Empfindungen 1877

Reeve Mollusks 1863

Reichenau Vögel 1880

[page break] lvii

Reinke Vegetabilische Substanzen 1879

Rendu Intelligence des bêtes 1863

Rengger Säugethiere von Paraguay 1830

Retzius Anatomische Untersuchungen 1873 703

Retzius Finska Kranier 1878

Retzius Wirbelthiere 1881

Reynier Économie publique et rurale 1818 704

Rialle Mythologie 1878

Ribeiro Noticia 1878

Ribot Hérédité psychologique 1882

Ribot Heredity 1875

Richard Analyse du fruit 1808

Richardson, John Pigs 1847

Richardson, J. Fauna Boreali-Americana 1829-36 705

Richardson, J. & Gray, J.E. Zoology of voyage of Erebus and Terror 1844-48 708

Richardson, Samuel Sir Charles Grandison 1781

Riedel Taubenzucht 1824

Riedel Feinde der Tauben 1824 710

Riley, Charles Missouri insects 1871-77

Riley, C. Cotton worm 1880 712

Riley, C. Locust plague 1877

Riley, James Loss of the Commerce 1817

Ritchie Creation 1874

Robinet Vers à soie 1848

» Rolle Darwins Lehre n.d. 713

Rolleston Animal life 1870

Rolph Biologische Probleme 1882 714

Romanes Theism 1878

Romanes & Ewart Echinodermata 1881

Rosenbuch Physiographie der Gesteine 1877

Ross Graft theory of disease 1872

Rossi Darwinisme 1870 775

Roux Kampf der Theile 1881

Royal Commission on live animal experimentation 1876

Royal Society Catalogue of papers 1879

Royer Homme et sociétés 1870 716

Rudolphi Anthropologie und Naturgeschichte 1812

Rütimeyer Fossile Pferde 1863 718

Rütimeyer Fauna der Schweiz 1861

Rütimeyer Grenzen der Thierwelt 1868 726

Rütimeyer Rinder der Tertiär-Epoche 1878

Sabatier Coeur et circulation des vertébrés 1873 727

Sachs Geschichte der Botanik 1875

Sachs Lehrbuch der Botanik 1870

Sachs Lehrbuch der Botanik 3rd edn 1873

Sachs Traité de botanique 187A728

Sageret Cucurbitacées 1826 730

Sageret Pomologie 1830 731

St Bartholomew's hospital Reports 1875 733

St Clair Darwinism and creation 1873

Saint-Hilaire, Auguste Leçons de botanique 1841

Saint-Hilaire, A. Rio de S. Francisco 1847-48 738

St John Highlands 1878

St John Sutherlandshire 1849

Salter The chrysanthemum 1865

Salter & Woodward Fossil Crustacea 1865 739

Samouelle Entomologist's compendium 1819

Saporta Monde des plantes 1879

Saporta & Marion Évolution du règne végétal 1881

Saporta & Marion Végétaux fossiles de Meximieux 1876

Saporta & Marion Flore de Gelinden 1878

Sarmiento Viage al estrecho de Magellanes 1878

Saussure La question du lac 1880

Savage Religion of evolution 1876

Schacht The microscope 1855 740

Scherzer Im tropischen America 1864

Scherzer Smyrne 1873

Schiff Physiologie de digestion 186

Schlegel Physiognomy of serpents 1843 743

[page break] lviii

Schleicher Darwinism 1869 745

Schmidt, Oscar Descendezlehre 1873

Schmidt, O. Descent 1875

Schmidt, O. Descent and Darwinism n.d.

Schmidt, Rudolf Die Darwin'sche Theorien 1876746

Schneider Der thierische Wille 1880

Schouw The earth including

Kobell Animal kingdom 1852

Schübeier Die Pflanzenwelt Norwegens 1873-75

Schufeidt Tetraonidae 1881 747

Schultze Kant und Darwin 1875

Schultze Sprache des Kindes 1880

Schulz Photographs n.d.

Schwann Manifestation 1879

Scientific layman New truth and old faith 1880

Scoresby Arctic regions 1820

Scott, John Poppy gardeners 1876

Scott, J. Opium husbandry 1877 748

Scott, J. Culture of opium poppy 1874

Scott, J. Culture of opium poppy 1878

Scott, W.R. The deaf and dumb 1870749

Scrope Volcanos 1862

Scudder, John Specific diagnosis 1874

Scudder, Samuel Butteflies 1881

Scudder, S. Names for butterflies 1875

Sedgwick Discourse 1850

Sedgwick Geology of the Lake District 1853 752

Sedgwick Cowgill chapel 1870

Seeley Index to fossil remains 1869

Seeley Ornithosauria 1870

Seemann flora vitiensis 1865

Seguenza Cirripedi terziarii 1874-76

Seidlitz Descendenztheorie 1876

Seidlitz Darwin'sche Theorie 1871

Seidlitz Darwin'sche Theorie 1871 second copy 753

Seidlitz Darwin'sche Theorie 2nd edn 1875

Semper Arbeiten aus Würzburg 1876

Semper Natural conditions 1881

Semper Natürliche Existenzbedingungen 1880

Semper Palau-Inseln 1873

Settegast Thierzucht 1868 754

Seward Dr Duncan 1804

Shaftesbury Man 1749

Sharpe Man 1873

Shuckard Indigenous fossorial Hymenoptera 1837

Sidgwick Methods of ethics 1874 756

Sidgwick Methods of ethics - supplement 1877

Siebold Parthenogenesis der Arthropoden 1871

Siebold Parthenogenesis in moths and bees 1857

Siebold & Stannius Anatomie comparée 1850 757

Siegwart Menschengeschlecht 1873758

Skertchly The universe 1878

- Sketch of philosophy 1868

Smellie Natural history 1790

Smith, Alexander Morals 1835 759

Smith, Andrew Zoology of S. Africa 1849

Smith, Charles Hamilton Dogs 1839-40 760

Smith, C.H. Horses 1841 764

Smith, C.H. Human species 1852 766

Smith, James EngZisfc /low 1824-28

Smith, J. Grammar of botany 1821 767

Smith, J. Introduction to botany 1819

Smith, Toulmin Ventriculidae 1858

Snell Schöpfung des Menschen 1863

Sole Positivismo 1881

Sole Sensazione 1882

Solis y Rivadeneyra Mexico 1790 765

Solms-Laubaeh Corallina 1881

Somerville Physical sciences 1834

Somerville Molecufor and microscopic science 1869

[page break] lvix lix

Soret Pictet 1872

Sowerby et al. British poisonous plants 1861

Spencer Classification of sciences 1871

Spencer Data of ethics 1879

Spencer Descriptive sociology 1873

Spencer Education 1861

Spencer Essays, 2nd series 1863

Spencer First principles 1860-62 769

Spencer First principle 2nd edn 1867

Spencer Philosophie 1875

Spencer Principles of biology 1864-67

Spencer Principles of psychology 1855 773

Spencer Principles of psychology 2nd edn 1870-72

Spencer Principles of sociology 1874-77

Spencer Study of sociology 1877 774

Spengel Darwinismus 1874

Spix & Martius Travels in Brazil 1824

Sprengel Entdecktes Geheimnis der Natur 1793

Stainton Butterflies and moths 1857 785

Stebbing Essays on Darwinism 1871

Steenstrup Alternation of generations 1845

Steenstrup Hectocotyldannebsen 1856 786

Steenstrup & Lütken Coprepoder 1861

Stephens British entomology 1828-29 787

Stephens British Coleoptera 1839

Stephens British insects 1829

Sterne (ie Krause) Werden und Vergehen 1876 788

Sterne Werden und Vergehen 2nd edn 1880

Steudel Nomenciator botanicus 1841

Stewart Philosophical essays 1818 789

Stonehenge (ie Walsh) The dog 1867

Strasburger Cellules 1876

Strasburger Zelltheilung 1876

Strasburger Zelltheilung 3rd edn 1880 790

Strauss Der alte und der neue Glaube 1872

Stricker Handbuch der Lehre 1868-72

Strzelecki New South Wales 1845

Sturm Ragen 1825 791

Sully Sensation and intuition 1874 two copies 794
Supernatural in nature
1878
Survival 1877

Swainson Geography and classification of animals 1835

Swainson Birds 1836-37 795

Swammerdam The book of nature 1758 796

Swank Iron and steel statistics 1881

Swinhoe North China campaign 1861 797

Syme Werner's colours 1821

Tasso Gerusalemme 1821 798

Tayler Christianity 1868

Taylor, John Flowers 1878

Taylor, Richard (ed.) Scientific memoirs 1837

Teale Dangers of health 1878

Tegetmeier Poultry book 1856-57

Tegetmeier Poultry book 1866-67 800

Tegetmeier Profitable poultry 1854 803

Tegetmeier Pheasants 1873 804

Thomas Acrididae 1873

Thompson, J. Ready reckoner 1805

Thompson, William Ireland 1849-51

Thomson Flower garden 1871 806

Thorell Études scorpiologiques 1877

Thorell European spiders 1869-70

Thorell Synonyms of spiders 1870-73

Thornton Linnaeus' system n.d.
- Thoughts on mental functions n.d.

Tieghem Traité de botanique n.d.

Tietze Devonische Schichten 1870

Timiriazeff Essay on Darwin 1865 808

Tornae Chemi 1880

[page break] lx

Trémaux Homme 1865 two copies

Treub Orchidées 1879

Trimen & Thiselton-Dyer Flora of Middlesex 1869

Tschudi Nature in the Alps 1856

Tucker Light of nature 1831 809

Tuke Influence of the mind 1872

Turton British fauna 1807

Tuttle Physical man 1866 810

Twining Science 1870

Tylor Anthropology 1881

Tylor Primitive culture 1871

Tylor Early history of mankind 1865

Tylor Early history 2nd edn 1870 811

Tyndall British Association address 1874

Tyndall Imagination in science 1870

Tyndall Glaciers 1858

U.S. Entomological Commission Rocky Mt. locust 1880 812

Vacek Österreichische Mastodonten 1877

Vasseur Terrains tertiaires de France 1881

Vaucher Plantes d'Europe 1841

Veith Haussäugethiere 1856 815

Verity Changes in nervous system 1839 816

Verlot Plantes d'ornement 1865 817

Viardot Libre examen various edns 1871-81 819

Vincent 1875 Yearbook 1876

Virchow Cellular pathology 1860

Virchow Niederer Menschenrassen 1875 823

Virchow & Holzendorff Vorträge n.d.

Vöchting Rhipsalideen 1873

Vöchting Melastomeen 1875

Vöchting Organbildung 1878

Vogt Lectures on man 1864 824

Vogt Lettres physiologiques 1875

Vogt Microcéphales including Quatrefages' Review 1867

Vogt Aufgänge der Organismen 1870 826

Volz Kulturgeschichte 1852

Vries Kanten oan Sicyos 1880 829

Vulpian & Carville Appareil vaso-moteur 1875

Wagner, Moritz Darwinian theory 1873 830

Wagner, Rudolf Vertebrates 1845

Wagner, R. Zoologisch-anthropologische Untersuchungen 1861 831

Waitz Anthropology 1863

Wake Man 1868 two copies 832

Waldner Deutschlands Faune 1879-80

Walker, Alexander Intermarriage 1838

Walker, Francis Monographia Chalciditum 1839 836

Walker, John and Charles Atlas of British Isles 1837

Wallace Natural selection 1870 837

Wallace Natural selection 2nd edn 1871

Wallace Geographical distribution 1876

Wallace Island life 1880 840

Wallace Malay archipelago 1869

Wallace Supernatural 1866 842

Wallace Tropical nature 1878

Wallich Eminent men 1870 843

Waltershausen Klimate 1865

Walther, Alfred & Molendo Die Laubmoose Oberfrankens 1868

Walther, Friedrich Der Hund n.d.

Walther, F. Das Rindvieh 1817 844

- Wanderings at Kew n.d. 845

Ward Investments 1852

Warington Creation 1870

Waterhouse Mammalia 1845-48

Waterhouse Marsupialia 1841 849

Waterton Natural history 1838

Watson, H.C. Cybele britannica 1847-60

Watson, H.C. Compendium of Cybele britannica 1868-70 850

Watson, H.C. Distribution of British plants 1843 852

Watson, Thomas Physic 1857

[page] lxi

Webb Dogs 1876

Weber Taubenfreund 1850

Weddell Bolivie 1853 853

Wedgwood Language 1866

Wedgwood Understanding 1848

Wedgwood English etymology 1872

Weinland Meteoriten 1882 854

Weisbach Reise der Novara 1867

Weismann Daphnoiden 1879

Weismann Descendenz-Theorie I1875 855

Weismann Descendenz-Theorie II1876 856

Weismann Descent 1880-82 857

Weismann Isolirung 1872

Weismann Berechtigung der Darwin'schen Theorie 1868 860

Wells Two essays 1818 861

Westwood Classification of insects 1839^10

Whewell Inductive sciences 1837 866

White Seiborne 1825 868

White Seiborne new edn 1843 870

Whitney Gravels of Sierra Nevada 1879

Whitney Language 1875 871

Whitney Oriental and linguistic studies 1873

Wichura Bastardbefruchtung 1865

Wiesner Bewegunsvermögen der Pflanzen 1881 873

Wiesner Wissenschaftliche Botanik 1881-89 874

Wiesner Heliotropische Erscheinungen 1878-80

Wigand Darwinismus 1874r-77

Wilckens Form und Leben der Hausthiere 1878

Wilckens Naturgeschichte der Hausthiere 1880

Wilckens Rinderassen 1876 875

Williamson Recent Foraminifera 1857

Williamson Microscopical objects 1847

Wilson, John British farming 1862

Wilson, Owen British Lepidoptera 1877

Winkler Poissons fossiles n.d.

Winkler Tortues fossiles 1869

Wollaston Insecta Maderensia 1854

Wollaston Variation 1856 876

Wolstein Paaren und Verpaaren 1836 879

Woodward Shells 1851-56

Wright Darwinism 1871 882

Wright Philosophical discussions 1877

Wundt Physiologische Psychologie 1880

Wundt Physiologie humaine 1872

Würtenberger Ammoniten 1880 two copies

Yarrell British fishes 1836 883

Yarrell British birds 1839

Youatt Cattle 1834 885

Youatt 77ie dog 1845 888

Youatt Tte pig 1860 889

Youatt Steep 1837 590

Young Natural philosophy 1807 595

Zerffi Development of art 1876

Ziegler Atomicité et zoïcité 1874

Zuckerkandl Reise der Novara 1875

* The annotations in Rolle were reconstructed from Martin and Uschmann Friedrich Rolle 1827-87, ein Vorkämpfer neuen biologischen Denkens in Deutschland Leipzig 1969. CD's copy of Rolle seems to have disappeared.

[page break] 1-2

ABERCROMBIE, John Inquiries concerning the intellectual powers and the investigation of truth 8th edn; London; John Murray; 1838 [CUL]

beh, che, fg, h, he, pat, phy, sx, t, ta, ts, y

NB1 Origin of shame & blushing, fear & anger mixed??

NB2 It requires much attention to observe in self an habitual action.

Nothing for Species Book

vi 25m, 26m viii 14r-16m 2 21-22m/21u "organs\mind"/22u "externahbrain" 7 wt/wt* It is clearly common to animals, the dogs * does not doubt, that the smell of a partridge shows partridge there. XX |? 3-6m/w X Is it with animals? Yes. V. p. 8 wb XX His master taking a gun, is to the dog a law of nature that he is going out shooting.- he learns this by his own experience- he learns instinctively, that * |? 8 wt What is cause of difference.- if dogs sees take up hat, it is long before he knows this means to go out of doors.- Association & Causation united somehow. 7-llm/w This applies to animals wb as simple animals must also have causation the conviction of truth may be owing to * simple causes followed by uniform effects, only affecting such beings. 9 4-6m 10 1-Am 12 24-27m 13 4r-5m, 8-13w Hope love joy sorrow 8-llm/w sublime terrible pleasure of imagination 14 19-29m/w do not understand wb Is fear active or passive emotion? 22 4-6m/x/u "wills", wb How far can these be simplefied? 26 2-5m 27 8-llm/w functions of the nervous system, as gravitation of matter. 17-23m/22x, 19-20m/ w 1/2 instincts wb & by these laws, such as of gravity, of crystalline arrangement of particles 28 l-10m/l".../l-10m, wb By Materialism, I mean, merely the intimate connection of kind of thought, with form of brain.- like, kind of attraction with nature of element 29 wt Here organ produces life! - & life & thought intimately related 3-19m, 19-22w ?will my theory apply here? 27w z Generation! 28u "functions", wb Elective Affinity is a thing not analogous to others qualities of bodies, yet is supposed property of * matter, so would I say thought was -from analogy of organs.- 30 l-20m, 21-26m 31 wt/l-9w X From the myriads of animals that have existed We may assume thought as function of matter, & then say, to what function of matter, shall we compare the phenomena of attraction? - This assumption is as justifiable as the other we only know thought, as a phenomenon attendant on structure, & we only know elective attraction, as function of matter. 18x/w X But why should not matter have such function, as plain facts indicate, as well as they have attraction 32 wt What a poor argument, liver continues to secrete bile, & testes same vivifying semen! l-3m, 5-10m/!? 33 wt* a Then animals immortal.- wt xa. As the elective affinity of a salt changes, when its elements unite in composition, so may mind.- 2u "thing mental"/2-4m/w xa 9-29m, 13-29m/22x/wb good 34 l-25m, wb It is sufficient to point out close relation of kind of thought & structure of brain 35 9-13m 39 wt/ 1-llw But some of these impressions may be hereditary.- but they are habitual impressions & therefore * about which there is no consciousness, otherwise, mind could act, without having had perception. & why not? would not simple mind feel lust?- 7-9m/ x, 23-29m/25w emotions? 40 8-14m, 15-17m/ 16u, 17-21m 42 wt whether dog first time smells partridge knows there is something there. 3-7m/? 54 18-29m, wb p. 59 On other hand by attention perception becomes more perfect, & likewise willing does - 55 l-29m, 28-29m 56 14-17m/l-25w ought this not to be expressed as willing becomes unconscious.- as perception becomes unconscious,- so do impressions, & hence ideas, & actions consequent on these ideas.- wb a person whistles - & tricks are wholly unconscious actions.- great effort of attention to perceive them these acts are only unconscious in the steps 57 wt An action becomes habitual if repeated without at same time, without much attention at first as taking off cover to tea-chest. 66 3-21m, 3-4m, 9-llm 67 zt, 21-23m, wb Is Conscience effect of certain lines of action, useful on the large scale having been done on the less scale 80 3u "marvellous", 4-8m/5u "miraculous" 92 18-20m 93 l-9m, 12-26m 94 l-4m 97 28-29m 98 wt X is not an indistinct idea seldom repeated, because unsatisfactory? 2-3m, 11-12X 99 wt like manner we learnt to repeat at school - I think by same association. l-16m/8X, 17u "attention"/w repetition? 101 wt Conception of a view or is a perfect instance of association of many impressions 4-llm, 28x/ u "reverie", ll-29w X As far as the mind is concerned nearly like sleep, the relations of ideas just past not quite so broken - body different state wb argument for mind working always during sleep wb habit must be associated will.- 104 29« "of emotion"/18-24w Does thinking of vexing thing, bring other

[page break] 3-4

ABERCROMBIE

disagreeable thoughts? 105 18-29m 109 24-28m/x, wb Scarcely ever a new thought arises from this process - only old associations 110 ll-13m, 19-29m/29w imbecility of age? Ill l-4m, 23-29m/x/wt x I know from experience * memory of many unconnected facts is far most easy to me by such local associations. 114 ll-14m/?/14u "are little acquainted"/15-16w what difference? 116 wt A dog. when he has had good hunt after any animal in a spot in a hedge recollects it, & always go there with pleasure & eagerness wb Horse sweating, when he hears hunting horn in stable. Euphrates if he guessed he was going to race by little water being given him mad with eagerness all night. 117 wt Horses wonderful local memory 20-24m 122 2-3m 132 19-24m 134 17-19m 143 wt 3 These cases like Miss Cogans, & serve to show that affections of brain will recall facts in * an individual life after long periods.- l-8m, wb 3 These may be adduced as nearly as wonderful a priori as instincts - an habitual action being repeated would be more to my purpose.-144 14-24m 147 17-29m (Prichard) 148 l-3m 149 l-6m 150 3-8m, 19-29m 151 9-13m/x, 26-29m, wb Exactly like my Father's case of Archdeacon Corbet 152 ll-15m 154 3-7m, 22-27m/?, wb Animals minds are influenced by age, like that of man 155 13-16m/14u "Dr. Beattie", wb X What has he written? 156 5-20m, 18-26m 157 ll-15m, 19-28m 158 20-13m/[...]/w (1)(a) 14-16m/[...]/w (2) wb (a) Does not a bird when it builds its nest, use abstraction respecting place, & softness & elasticity of materials, which are not constant in kind, but only in quality.- 159 l-5tn, 10-13m/llw (a) wb animals have ideas of colour.- mad horse (?Cline) dread of scarlet, of any kind- - Smells, do - 161 19-29m 162 wt Peacock has idea of beauty?- 3-8m/[...J, wb Animals sometimes suffer from abstraction. Thus the Casarca which bores through walls, has an abstract idea of vertical surface of hard earth as the requisite, & does not combine, such conditions as imply a çjiff of earth 163 wb/7-24w When cat pounces & runs after feather, it knows it is not mouse, but does it not use imagination or picture to itself it is.- X -» quote Madam Necker. on playing of children- 164 20-22m, wb What are the feelings of a dog, when he bays the moon? 165 wt When two Male birds are rivalling each other in singing is it not a work of imagination? 167 wt Is not imagination, abstraction of several different parts of several ideas & their unions, instead of as in pure abstraction of same qualities (as colour &c) + several ideas? 23-24m/? 168 27-28m/? 172 l-6m/w common to animals 10-13m 173 l-29m/4-18w very Poor 174 26-28m 175 wt If because such combination is observed in an animal, it is called instincts.- there is an end of argument. l-6m 176 8-24«; Yet imagination must be always checked by reason - otherwise dreaming 9-17m, 21u "Reasoning"/22u "reason", 26-27u "Discursive Faculty", wb I suspect the Paper in Zoological Journal will be worth study.- 177 3-7m 179 wt Perhaps mathematical reasoning does not.- each step there does not require the memory & knowledge of all contingencies,- it is merely to find the step, & then to pursue the deep train.- 4-6m/w requires properly arranged memory XX 181 22-23m 185 12-13m*, 24-29m 187 17w All Poor 17-23w But yet must be thought over with regard to Transmutation of species theory 191 wt Would not simple association of ideas lead to this expectation, which would be believed in till contradicted (which it is not) by experience- 13-19m/14x, 21-22m/-+ /wb Surely all this may be resolved into simple fact we trust our memory, until taught to contrary. 199 wt A man may wish to jump from a bridge to save another, but absolutely will not let him.- Makes the muscles fall, & heart sink - 4-22m 202 across whole page.w See following Pages & Copy all this Zw/wt* H believed - pretty world we should be in!- But it could not be believed excepting by intellectual people - if I believed it - it would make no difference in my life, for I feel more virtue more happiness - Believers would * will only marry good women & pay detail attention to education & so put their children in way of being happy. wt* It is yet right to punish criminals for public good, wt * All this delusion of free will, would necessarily follow from mere feeling power of action.- wt* View no more unreasonable, than that there should be sick & therefore unhappy, men wt* What humility this view teaches tw* A man + hearing bible by chance becomes good, this is effect of accident with this state of desire (neither by themselves sufficient) effect of birth & other accidents: May be congratulated, but deserves no credit wb* P For wickedness is no more a man's fault than bodily disease!! (animals do persecute the sick as if were their fault). If this doctrine were. H 203 7u "consideration"/wt Yes but what determines his consideration?- his own previous

[page break] 5-6

conduct - & what has determined that? & so on - Hereditary character & education - & chance (indepdt of his will) circumstances.

3-8w* Changes of character possible from change of organization llu "desires" "conduct"lw What has given these desires & conduct 13a "agent" but not desired 4-27w* When opposed desires are absolutely equal which is possibility. May free-will then decide.- but it must be decided by habit or wish & these all originate as before 15-27w* Then why does not act of insanity give shame?? wb According to all this ones disgust at villain * is nothing more than disgust at some one under foul disease, & pity accompanies both. Pity ought to banish disgust- P-> 204 29"... 205 l-Am/4...", 15-17m/"..." 206 9-12m, 16-20m, wb* A man may put himself in the way of above accidents, but desire to do so arises as before; & knowledge that the effect will be good, arises as before, education & mental disposition.- wb* One feels how many actions, not determined by will, passion -When the motive power feeble & complicated & opposed we may free will (or chance 209 4r-5m/27-28m (Stewart) 210 wt I presume these first truths are something quite distinct from instinctive knowledge, or passion - as fear of death.- sexual desire -pleasure of affection or charity - l-5m/"..."/ w How many of them do animals possess? 212 10-15m 213* 9w The following pages -very poor 217 14-17m 218 8-17c/12u "required''/ll-14w so much the better! Fee-hunting doctor wb In short that your hypothesis shall be real cause with respect one item at least in group of facts - if it be only possible cause, hypothesis of very poor kind. V. M. le Comte 219 18-20w to 256. wretchedly poor - as far as originality goes 221 3-6m 233 wt Main difficulty of judging probabilities multiplied into probabilities. & the alternatives omitted.- present always, except in mathematical reasoning l-20m/w again the chance of several independent proofs from probability tending to one end, if not true 241 l-5m 251 8-12m, 10-12m/z/w yes 257 wt X| In insanity, there is belief, though opposed by many of the senses - in dreaming, mainly passive belief from absence of evidence of senses 29m/X, 26-29w drunkeness more * closely allied than dreaming 258 wt no, a vivid thought neither pleasant nor painful but merely vivid cannot be dismissed even by strongest will,- is insanity an unhealthy vividness of thought. 7-8m/u "is I insanity", 9-19w they ought not to be classed together, * the reality of the thought or absence of doubt in one case being owing to the weakness« absence of contending impressions, & in insanity opposed to many present impressions. 17m/ -* /wb In Spectral illusions, what is history of kind of impssn 259 wt (a) There is some sophistry here: insane man has perfect consciousness - somnabulism has not- 2-5m/w a 7-16m, 12-17m, 21-23w 5th Drunkeness Nitrous oxide 260 21-22m, wb It would be worth while to write down every dream 275 wt & double consciousness & likewise many which from repetition have ceased to be objects of conscious memory -namely all habitual movements 8-17m/12x/ 17? 287 16-19m, 23-28m 289 l-8m, 10-19m, wb I have a distinct recollection of solving some geological puzzles in my sleep - what it was I forget, which I am surprised at for I have so clear an indistinct notion. 291 19u ' dream"/w ? dream - wb Mem: my father's cases of quick oblivion - 311 wt like the memory after apolexy in some cases -"Clubs are trumps" + V. ante l-5m 312 24-29m (A. Comte) 313 18-20m* 314 l-4m/2u "pleasure"/?, 8-19w No account is here taken of the consciousness of people, that they are insane 315 5a "is not corrected" can not be corrected in the one case, dreaming, 6a "would." , & in the other case, is so vivid, that external world is almost wholly neglected. 10a "state" partially 10a "will." ; insane people do to certain extent vary, & forget the insane train ♦ ideas. 25m "higher states" "mania" fw* My father considers the two as wholly different. 27a "some impression has" any impression is 28a "of the mind" by the mind /wb the thinking machinery acting with unequal & praeternatural force 28a "and" accordingly 316 2a "are calculated immediately to" though often rightly perceived (as in D Ashe & in case of man eating porridge) do not immediately 318 14-15m 320 wt Surely as in passion from fatigue, (or fear from sickness) from long habit some object must be fixed on & it scarcely signifies what it is. 2-Am, 26-28m, wb just as passion of the above kind is generally most unreasonable 321 ll-14m 330 wt low spirits is to melancholia : : passion to mania - frame of mind in the state & any idea fixed on.- 4-7m/7u "occasional cause", 12a "constitutional peculiarities" diseased state of brain. 349 19-21m 355 26-29m 356 2-22m, 13-26m 357 22-23m 363 l-5m 375 wt if an idea was called up, with this degree of vividness, like a concepcion - no one would doubt it was a

[page break] 7-8

concepcion 8-llm/w how completely un-governed 379 lm/w All trash 431 ll-15m 433 2-llm

ABERNETHY, John Physiological lectures, exhibiting a general view of Mr Hunter's Physiology, and of his researches in comparative anatomy 2nd edn; London; Longman, Hurst Rees, Orme & Brown; 1822 [CUL; ED; 352pp]

136 25m "trowel"/xv a mistake

in same binding:

Introductory lectures in the year 1814 [publ 1821 & 1823]

The Hunterian oration for the year 1819 part of the Introductory lecture for the year 1815 [publ 1819]

ACÉBLA, Alexandre Les Impiétés Paris; A. Ghio; 1878 [Down] p

ACHARIUS, Erik Methodus qua omnes detectos Lichens 2 vols.; Stockholm; F.D.D. Ulrich; 1803 [Down, ED]

ADAMS, Andrew Leith Field and forest ramblers London; Henry S. King & Co.; 1873 [CUL, I by author] ad, beh, fg, gd, mg, oo, ss, tm, v

NB p60, p69*

Sexual Selection Birds good- p76* Q

Rein-deer Horns - 89*

139 S. Selection - Birds Wax-wings - 153» Q

167, 182, 190, 192

SB «> p. 60. Two differently coloured vars. of sable with fur of qualities live in different kinds of wood, & colours apparently of service to them in each case; but both vars. highly variable

p.69. Racoons first expelled & now returning in numbers to cultivated trails.

p. 139 Dung of Bears almost made up of seeds - Dispersion.

p183 Birds common to America and Europe & vice versa- depends on winds, during periods of migration

[page break] 9

10

p185 - On the Loves of Ants & Aphides 106 4-6m 153 3-4w Reisen omitted 177 "Hamaton.ru "ProcMV'/xv p545 "3"u "ProcAIII", "6"u "JournM", "8"u "Geol.W"/ wb Last Paper.

vol 4 NB p. 419 Temminck on Indian Archipelago-

62 "226"m 186 "Richardson!"u "1823", "6"m, "13" m 187 "19/20/21 "m, "27 "m, "30"m, "31"m, "Richardson & Swainson.V'u "1831", "Richardson, Sivainson & Kirby.V'u "1829\ Quadrupeds" 419 "20"m 532 "Waterhouse.25/ 33/34" m 533 "58"m 534 "85"m 550 "Westwood.22"m 551 "48/49"m 552 "76"m 553 "86/95/103"m 554 "111/117/118/121/122/125"m 555 "135/153"m 590 "Yarrell.23"m 591 "40"m

AGASSIZ, Louis Contributions to the natural history of the United States of North America vol. 1, part 1: Essay on classification n.d. [CUL, I]

af, cc, ch, co, em, fo, gd, geo, in, is, mn, no, oo, or, rd, sp, t, ta, ti, tm, v

SB □ ß, -o-

Agassiz on Classification p. 5 My valuation of Groups 10 Agassiz explanation of Rudiments 15 Ambylopsis very remote affinities, p. 15 Proteus affinities of

24 Admits the Vertebrata p. 31 probably arose with other types. Well may he say what changes (p. 24) has 30 years produced. e> in date of appearance of groups 30 Isolated Fam. of Fishes.- p. 42. do Freshwater abnormals

Admits that conditions do not explain distribution

No class exist without having some cosmopolitan genera

39 On creation of number of individuals

41 Quotes Waterhouse of representation of

all orders by Marsupials in Australia

44 curious tables of relation of Scincus with no relation to geograph. Distribution

49 Aquatic Animals bigger than terrestrial

53 Same species have lived for 30,000

years or 200,000 years as inferred from

coral-reefs.

58 Chelonians much individual variability

61 On Lungs of spiders not really two kinds.

74. Possible explanation of the strange Mollusc within Synapta

82 On Classification of Fishes

100 & 113 & 115 On Embryological & geological Succession 107 to 111 Classificatory rank & Geolog. Succession.-

102 Lund on succession of Types.

117 On combinations of characters in old

Forms

124 Parasites belong to all orders (no Strepsiptera)

(line across page)

162 the sentences from Linnaeus about genera

166 idea of sp. proceeding from single pair almost given up by all naturalists!

172 On the development of parts in order of importance: I suspect * importance applies solely to being important for classification; if so simple case as might be expected.

225 on degrees of resemblance of embryos

3 9-20« "peculiarities I structure", 12-13m/w Geograph Distribution? 4 21-25m 5 2-8w I believe species genera & classes all equally good or false, as one pleases to call it 9-12w Botanists far better authority than Zoologists. 10 22-25m 15 22-22m, 4-26m/25u "Proteus anguinus"/26u "North\Japan" 17 27-31m 23 20-21m/xv Agassiz himself 23-25m 24 4-7m/!, 36-38m 29 13-16m/14a "Classes" in 4 great kingdoms 16-18m 30.a 33-34m/34u "Labyrinthici", wb How large a group 30.b 30u "Goniodonts", 31-34m/31u "Chaca"/wb What? Abnormal? Amblyopsis is so 31 l-4m/ I, 5u "Radiata"/w* Planaria 37 l-6m 38 29-22m/?*/u "class", 22-24m/23u "majority" 39 32-34m/l 40 25-29m 41 12-24m/21u*/w* no 42 19-25m/20u "Labyrinthici"/22u "Cestra-ciontes" 43 27-29m 43.a 27-29m 44 3a/2-13w but is this a natural arrangement? May there not be parallel differences in different countries; those in same countries being really allied.- 45 26-31m 46 8-22m 49 23-25m 53 25-26m 54 8-10m 57.b 32-34m (T.W. Harris) 58 13-15m/13-14u "seen \ identical" 60 9-20m, 18-20!!/19u "tolerable precision" 61 35-36m/m 65 zb 66 6-22z 67.a 31-36m 74.b 26-32 m (/. Müller, De Bosset, Gegenbaur) 75 23-24m 82.a 28-38m 85 2-6m 89 2-2m 94 4-8m 100 2-23m, 24-28m 102.a 29-33m (Lund)/31u "1841 " 104 22-25m 107 25-26m 108 22-25m 109 6-23m, 22-29m 110 9-26m, 30-31m/31u "See\26" 111 29-35m 113 34-36m 114 22-25m, 27-29m 115 4-9m, 25-27m, 20m, 27-29m, 30-34m/".."/31-32u "very I ground" 117 10-14m/14u "Ichthyosauri"/?/w Mere analogy 22-23m, 25c/we 119 29-22m (J. Müller) 120 2-7m 121 wt All rubbish 3-4m/w oldest 22-24w> HEocene Monkey 32-35m 124 7-10m/w Strepsiptera 140 30-36m 148 4-20m 151 13-18m (Cuvier) 162 2-6m (Linnaeus) 163 27-30m 165 6-20m 166 4-9m, 33-36m 167 29-24m, 25-26m, 28-30m 169 23- 18m/w Assumes that these points are not variable

[page break] 11

12

AGASSIZ, NAT. HIST. U.S.

170 31-34m/!, wb All this discussion merely shows that no talent can really plainly define principles of Classification 171 6-8!/6u "suborders", 12u "sub-families", 15-16m/u "subgenera", 20-21u "large\subdivisions", 23-26m/ !, 33-34m, 38m 172 3-5!, 13-17m, 31-35m 173 26-27m/w • 174 22-24m 175 9-llm, 14-15w but the teeth are in gums 15-17m 189 23-26m/25u "successively\ limited" 194 3m 195 31-32m, 37-38m 221 26-29m 225 6-7m, 11-12m, 15-16m 225.a 24-26m (Huxley, von Baer, Baden-Powell) 225.b 27-31m (Huxley, Cuvier, von Baer) 228 26-32m

AGASSIZ, Louis De l'espèce et de la classification en zoologie trans. F. Vogeli; Paris; Germer Baillière; 1869 [CUL] beh, v

NB 97 0 Animals have conscience and soul

Man

♦ 106 Love making of Snails

380 varieties See s*-

97 27-37m 99 ll-15m (Ehrenberg, I. Geoffroy) 100 l-9m 106 13-20m/13-17[...J 380 3-llm

AGASSIZ, Louis Lake Superior: its character, vegetation, and animals, compared ivith those of other similar regions Boston; Gould, Kendall & Lincoln; 1850 [CUL, I] ad, br, ce, ci, dv, em, fo, gd, geo, hl, ig, mn, no, or, si, sp, sy, t, ti, tm, v, y

NB p. 406 Scratches

SB1 p. 13; p. 34; 36; p. 141; p. 142; p. 150;

p.154; p. 186; p. 192 to 200; p. 239; p. 240;

p.241 ; p. 246; p. 252; 255 to 377; 398

SB2 0 91

1.

Gar-pike-Ganoid of F.W. in N. America

Another rather ancient Fish in F.W. 36 on lowness. because like Embryo.

150 On analogy of recent of N. America & Miocene of Europe

175 List of F.W. Plants of Lake Superior; I doubt whether any use

187* 193 On ant. & post, extremities of the Bat, being alike at early age - so in Birds

195 on relation of embryology to geolog succession.

198 on order in Cephalopods – Nautilus simplest

239 - On entomology of * L Superior - No. American forms.- a common Fauna with Europe & N. Asia - species different but most close (Mem. Kirby thought same) admit identity in Arctic, & most close analogies in L. Superior.

240 on greater range of aquatic Beetles

247 F. Water animals under similar latitudes are uniform as vegetation

2.

♦252 On embryonic forms fish not deserving a separate class.

255 Ganoids &c in F.W.

257 on impossibility of making groups of

equal value

260 Reptilian character of Ganoid, "enbodying prospective view of another class"

265 on Families intermediate in character & in space or position.

285. Excellent case of Percopsis of Chalk, which combined characters, which soon diverged, intermediate between Ctenoids & Cycloids.

289. Hardly one Family in which some species are not both Marine & F.W.

292 - case of variability in a Perch, good as for Agassiz

♦317. Esox boreus is made distinct by Agassiz

327. Account for uniformity of Salmonidae by uniformity of conditions

352 Range of Cyprinoids p363

374 Are F.W. Fish of N. America distinct (over) 3.

375. On F.W. Fish being analogous with those of Europe & Asia

377 On shoals created as shoals

13 38-A0m 33 15-16m, 31-34m 34 4-8m, 16-22w Percopsis p. 285 20-23m, 29-32m 36 24-27m, 31-33m, wb * an entomostracous animal is lower than cirripedes 141 36-42m 142 25« "any \ living", 16u "guidance I man", 17-20mllll8u "thelover" 143 18-24m 150 2-6m/!/? 154.a 16m 155.a 3m, 7m, 9m, 11m, 13m, 19m, 20m 156.a 15m, 28m, 30m, 31m 157.a 3m, 5m, 24m, 25m, 27m, 35m 158.a 23m, 25m, 29m, 35m, 36m 151.a 4m, 7m, 8m, 12m, 15m, 16m, 20m, 22m, 29m, 32m, 34m 162.a 3m, 6m, 8m, 10m, 13m, 16m, 18m, 19m, 37m 163.a 8m, 11m, 19m 164.a 9m, 25m 165.a 20m, 32m, 33m 166.a 22m, 23m, 18m, 20m, 24m, 27m, 37m, 38m 167.a 3m, 5m, 11m, 14m, 20m, 22m, 25m, 29m, 30m, 31m, 33m, 37m 175.a 4m, 5m, 7m, 8m, 14m, 15m, 16m, 18m, 20m, 22m, 24m, 25m, 31m, 33m 176.a 8m, 9m, 10m, 17m, 18m, 23m, 27m, 31m, 34m, 38m 177.a 9m, Urn 186 5-9m, 24-27m 187 8-22m, 34-39m 192 25-34m 193 25-28m, 35-AlmH 194 8-18m, 27-29m/28u "equally\fin", 34-37m 195 29-37m 197 2-6m, 14-21m 198 22-26m 199 6-8m, 10-13m, 31-36m 239 7-14m/7-8w see to Plants 10-12-w very singular 14-15w Europe

[page break] 14

13

first cold I4r-I9m, 23u "many genera", 24u "Europe I Asia", 25m/-*, 34-35^> 239* 3-7m, ll-16m, 16-20m/19u "analogous species", 24-27m/25u "equivalent species", 27-31m/zo Subgenera 33« "Arctic circle", 35-36u "Wie I points" 240 ll-15m, 19-22m, 28-31m 240* 32-37m 246 18-23m/! 247 26-27!!, 27-28m 249 7-8m 252 wt X It comes to this that arrested development ought not to weigh with difference of full development; I doubt truth 9-18m/?/X 255 22-27m/?/23u "ten I species", 29-32m, 34-37m 257 6-13m, 13-15m 258 2-6m 259 14r-21m 260 20-22m, 29-31m/"..." 261 13-17m, 17-19m, 28-30m 262 l-7m 263 32-35m 264 l-4m 265 17-19m, 20-21m[w New Law 15-28m, 32-36m, wb insects wd illustrate this or Plants. Mem. Hooker these are a wandering species is often aberrant 266 22-13m 284 IOw F.W. 285 4a "never" with this exception 6-9m/8u "chalk", 10-12m, 14-15m, 19-21m\w I wonder whether this agrees with Müllers classification, as seen in Owen Lectures XX 24-26m/25u "Ctenoids and Cycloids", wb XX if Fish properly classed, whether so related to geologi. formations. 289 22-25m, 24-31m/24-28w opposed 30-33m 292 15-20m, 26-35m/30-35m 293 30-33m 294 19-23m 295 7-llm (Richardson) 297 24-29m 318 2-6m, 9-llm 327 27-30m/? 328 20-24m 329 2-10m, 7-21m, 23-25m, 27-29m, wb The fact of existence proves some advantage in the two types else one wd outbreed the other.- 348 31-34m 352 22w Yes Sir J Richardson 24-28m, 25X, 29-32m/29-30u/30-33w p. 353 353 15-16m 363 36-37m 374 7-12m, 19-22m 375 16-17m, 16-20m, 20-21m, 23-25m, 27-30m, wb I think Behring St. must have been land before Glacial epoch 376 12-25m, 21-23m, 33-37m 377 16-22m/17-18!!H, 25-28m/w Andrew Smith wb argumentum ad absurdum 398 4-9m/w i.e. W. of Lake Superior 31-37m 406 19"...♦, 23u "eastern"/w N 24u "western"/w S 29-34m/"..." 408 wt Why scratches all N. & S. or near it - for any current temporary or permanent from S. wd not tend to scratch.-

AGASSIZ, Louis Methods of study in natural history Boston; Ticknor and Fields; 1863 [Down, I] af, tm

NB p. 105 Snakes and certain Lizards compared & Lizards and Salamanders Excellent cases of Analogy of Form

105 23-29m 106 9-23m 107 23-26m

AGASSIZ, Louis Nomenclatoris zoologici index universalis Soloduri; Jent & Gassmann; 1848 [CUL]

AGASSIZ, Louis Reports on the Florida reefs Cambridge, Mass.; 1880 [Down, I by Alexandre Agassiz]

AGASSIZ, Louis and GOULD, Augustus Addison Principles of zoology: part 1, Comparative physiology Boston; Gould, Kendall & Lincoln; 1848 [CUL] beh, cc, em, gd, hi, sx, sy, t

SB1 p. 5; p. 31; 123; 156; 165; 170; 179; 192

SB2Q ß

Gould & Agassiz

5. On Highness & Lowness.

31. Blind Cavern fishes & Crabs

123 Speaks "if order of formation is in relation to importance" - I infer he think so

106 Male toads carry eggs on Back

157 Admits difference in C. of Good H & S. America, & admits some higher law

165 Arctic Regions not one bright bird or Fish with varied hue proof of action of external conditions.-

179 Rivers of U. States some fish in common, some distinct.

5 21-26m/22u "perfect I proportion", 30-34m 31 21-27m 106 19-22m 123 2-6m, 8-21m/9w (a) 30-34m, wb (a) There is nothing to show this in previous chapter 156 14-21m 157 5-12m 165 4-5m/5u "fish\hues" 170 25-26m, 28-29m 179 25-27m 192 3-20m

ALDER, Joshua and HANCOCK, Albany A monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca parts 1-7; London; The Ray Society; 1845-55 [CUL] em, hi, sh

Part 7 SB

p.25 Larvae in operculated shell

26 ♦

34 * It is sign of lowness an animal undergoing its metamorphosis in a free state - some mollusca undergo a free metamorphosis & in some it is in egg state.-

25 29-32m 26 23-28m 34 27-31m P

ALLEN, Grant The colour sense: its origin and development London; Trübner; 1879 [CUL] ad, beh, cc, cs, fg, hy, oo, phy, ss, t, v

NB1 why shd the exercise of certain gustatory nerves by sugar * give grt

[page break] 16

15

ALLEN, COLOUR SENSE

pleasure & the exercise say of the tactile nerve of the tongue give little or no pleasure NB2 Hybrid - Error This is mere cross fertilisation in Aphys p39*

39? Wiesner - coloured scales of tip of short to moderate height

73 Saaf-maal

131 134?

like Hook.bug new 186

xi 8m, 10m xii 3m 4 wt/l-17w Fritz Müller years ago maintained that surrounding coloured flowers influenced s.s of Butterflies Self Galapagos 12-18m 39 29-22 wz», 19-20? 4, 23-24?, 26u "essentially" 40 13-17m 41 16w ? Lilies 26m "monocotyledons", 28w Pinks 28u 45 29-35w Hazel and PI crimson female flowers 48 3-4m 73 25-28m (Lubbock, Fritz Müller) 131 5-20w I believe specially acquired 18-29m 143 26-32m, 26-28w ValerianO cats 152 5-23w my Copridae magnificent do the splendid Curculid live on flowers 186 l-35m (Wallace) 190 23-24«; Peacock!?

ALLEN, Grant Der Farbensinn introduction by Ernst Krause; Leipzig; Ernst Günther; 1880 [Down] p

ALLEN, Grant Physiological aesthetics London; Henry S. King & Co.; 1877 [Down] beh, phy, t

NB 194; 159 appreciation of colour

vii 2-22m viii l-4m 20 14-28m (Bain) 21 2-11m 22 22-2 6m, 28-29m 23 2-29m 24 2-29m 25 2-29m 26 2-29m 27 2-2Sm 36 17-27m 37 l-4m 39 8-9w association omitted 10-13m/?, ll-12m, 19-29m 40 2-23m 42 23-29m 43 2-29m 44 l-29m/19u "nerves I calibre"/w Why? 46 23-29m 47 2-9m, 19-23m 48 22-22m 49 29-24m 67 5-26m 68 2-29m 69 2-29m 70 2-29m 71 l-18m 72 28-29m 73 2-20m 74 2-29m 75 2-3m, 20-29m 76 1-Am 79 25-29m 81 15-28m 82 2-27m 87 12-29m 90 3-29m 91 2-29m 92 2-23ra 99 2-23m 100 2-2 6m 105 23-2Sm* 106 2-20m* 108 24-29m 109 26-29m 111 6-28m 112 2-2Sm 113 22-29m 119 2-22m, 29-27m 120 2-26m 123 19-29m 124 2-25m 125 4-29m 126 2-23m 128 7-23m 150 2-29m 151 2-27m 152 2-2Sm 153 2-29m 154 2-29m 157 2-26m 159 3-27m 161 18-28m 163 23-29m 164 2-29m 165 2-23m, 25-27m 168 27-28m 169 2-9m 194 22-28m

ALLEN, Joel Asaph History of North American pinnipeds Washington; Government printing office; 1880 [Down]

ALLMAN, George James A monograph of the fresh-water Polyzoa London; The Ray Society; 1856 [Down] p

ALLMAN, George James A monograph of the gymnoblastic or tubularian hydroids 2 vols.; London; The Ray Society; 1871-72 [Down]

vol. 1 NB 0/

105 37-38m

vol. 2 NB 201 like Galls 201 20-27m

ALLEN, George James A report on the Hydroida Cambridge, Mass.; University Press; 1877 [Down, I by A. Agassiz] p

ALTUM, Bernard and LANDOIS, Hermann

Zoologie 2nd edn; Freiburg im Breisgau; Herder'sche Verlagshandlung; 1872 [Down]

ANDERSON, John A report on the expedition to Western Yunan via Bhamô Calcutta; Office of the Superintendent of Government printing; 1871 [Down, I] p

ANGELIN, Nils Peter Iconographia crin-oideorum Holmiae; Samson & Wallin; 1878 [Down] p

ARCHIAC, Etienne Jules Adolphe d'

Histoire des progrès de la géologie de 1834 à 1845 vol 1 (1847) Paris; Soc. Géol. France

[CUL]

fg, geo, phy

NB Possibility that 0

X 287 seeds

a> p. 287 Blocks actually transported from Terres de L. Philipe & Graham Land

^ Self on Mould/223

222 7u "terre végétale", 7-lOm, 10...", 15-19m/ 16-17u++, 21-29m 223 ÏÏ2« "uo/l2S37" 224 6-7Mcs><-> 287 10-20m/w seeds

ARGYLL, (Campbell, George Douglas) Duke of Primeval man London; Strachan & Co.; 1869 [CUL] beh, ds, h, hi, is, t, ta, tm

NB ♦ p60; 66; 70; 100; 130; 162; 165; 172 to 174; 178 to end; Only Man all used I doubt whether low intellectual state & high moral state would ever concur.-♦ If one of the Lower animals cd reason & he heard that man was ashamed of being a co(descendant)0 with him he might laugh with scorn & ask what of * practices ->

[page break] 18

17

♦X Degradation of Man In Partricide -Polyandry * Bloody sacrifice Superstitions causing life to be miserable, & abject fear justice by administering poison & other fatal schemes - Despotic government (& abject obedience) with right of life & death)

60 14-15z 70 10-16m 100 l-5m 130 12-16m 131 10-13m/ll-12u "acquire I knowledge"flO-16w No an old Rat does all but transmit, & perhaps this How transmit by example? 132 wt ie state in which we now see savages 1-3m 136 wt I must rest my conclusion on descent & not on traces of savagedom.- wt Say animal nature - not necessarily like present Barbarians, l-4m 139 3-7m 145 10a "use" the fashioning llu "fashioned I purpose"/ w over 147 3-7a/c/m/u/w/x£ 148 4-6m 156 9-13m 162 la "weaker" or smaller 163 6-7w But not the least civilized 165 6-12m 172 10-Um (Darwin) 173 l-7m 174 14r-17m 175 13-17m, wb & for Islds. man obeys usual law of no mammals, in Isld except by boat building races 178 4-6m 180 l-5m , 8-llm, 8-13w No India N. Africa Syria China New Zealand 181 ll-13m 182 13-17m 185 2-5m (Lubbock) 188 13-17m 189 9-14m 190 9-13m (M. Müller) 194 4-8m 199 2-10m (Lubbock), ll-17m

ARGYLL, (Campbell, George Douglas) Duke of The reign of law London; Alexander Strachan; 1867 [CUL, S] beh, he, sx, t, tm

NB1 187; 196; 198 sexual; 203 Argus Pheasant; 206 Narwhal Sexual; Humming Bird tails 246 do; 253; 324, 326 inherited mind; 256 Correlation of Growth NB2 8; 14; 30; 84; 89; 102; 133; 178 (also attached: p. 590 of The Saturday Review, 15 November 1862); »»To be returned

10 14m 13 8m 14 9-12m 30 19m 84 17m/w see p. 285 102 3-5m 133 7-14m/? 136 4z 142 7-8m 171 10-13m 177 6-9m 187 10-llw WryneckO Creeper 196 4-15m 198 5-15m/wt/ l-13w But there is no such thing as beauty, except to eyes of some living creatures 199 24m 200 8-13m 203 5-12m/8u "a sphere" 206 9-16m 212 19-20z, 23m 217 3- 7m 221 19-24m 228 19-23m 232 4-7m 246 6-24m/24u "central feathers" 247 5u "which\the", 7cjw€, 8u "Tufts I of", 9u "greens\ violets", 12-14m, 16-19m 251 20-22m 253 7-24m 268 10-13m/w no no 279 17-22m 285 15-16m/w See p. 84

ARISTOTLE On the parts of animals tr. W. Ogle; London; Kegan Paul, Trench & Co.; 1882 [Down]

ARNOTT, Neil Elements of physics or natural philosophy 2 vols.; London; Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown and Green; 1833 [Down] geo, ve

vol. 1 279 22-28m, 22-29w Volcanoes offer certainly some counterbalance to the effect of running water though perhaps not one equal to it.-

vol. 2, 5 12-15m 10 22m, 30-32m 11 l-4m, 9-18m, 20-25m 19 16-24m 23 22-24m 24 11-13m 25 22-30m 28 3-10m 29 21m 34 21-29m 135 28-29m 198 30-33m 199 l-5m 266 13-16m

ASKENASY, Eugen Beiträge zur Kritik der Darwinschen Lehre Leipzig; Wilhelm Engelmann; 1872 [CUL] es, fg, gd, in, sx, v, t

NB p. 54

I have only skimmed this Book - too difficult

Supports Nageli on everything

4 11m 7 wt Argues against quite undirected variation l-33w I admit not even individual variation in all directions, as in case of colour of rose - no marked variations is no evidence against some variation in many ways- 8 21m 27 9m 36 11m 53 9m 54 l-15w Yes if strong tendency to vary 12-16m, 13-26w Plants in distant localities remain the same but they cross within same locality 26-32m, wb variation supervenes only by sexual generation 55 2-26m, 2-24w This all in fact explicable 66 25m

AUBUISSON de Voisins, Jean François d'

An account of the basalts of Saxony, with observations on the origin of basalt in general trans. p. Neill; Edinburgh; A. Constable & Co; 1814 [CUL, pre-B] mi

NB p180 Lead volatilised into vesicular cavities of Basalt when used as the wall-stones of a furnace 97 18c/we 180 l-12m 275 8-13z

AUBUISSON de Voisins, Jean François d' raité de géognosie 2 vols; Strasbourg & Paris; Levrault; 1819 [CUL] S: C. Darwin HMS Beagle

co, fo, geo, mi, se, sh, t, ve

vol 1 NF C Darwin

Saussure voyages dans les Alpes Study works of Cordier & Doli men

Strength of salt water diminished on sea coast - Cocos p43

[page break] 19

20

AUBUISSON, GÉOGNOSIE

The Sandstone craters of Galapagos allied to Salses. (salt & mud) but differs in size & some other respects.- p. 189.-

Saussure says laminae & strata of Slates same p291

Cleavage p. 297

Proofs from Orbicular structure of movement in particles of Felspar & Hornblende p. 308

Globular porphyry p. 311

Empty concret. Ferrug. Balls. Chiloe 318

22 (markings signed RF) 28 (some marks signed RF), ÏÏ15-lm 43 5-9ml"..." 61 1Î 8-lm 62 1Ï5-lm 77 ÏÏ9-5m 86 ÏÏ4-Im 189 Zm 291 Ïïl0-3m 297 ÎT25-2m 298 Im 308 ÏÏ27-4m 311 3-lOm 318 til2-lm/wb The* spots* C. of Good Hope 442 table.w 46°-47°lat wbu 443 Xwu

vol 2 NF1 Ma> Hydrate of iron

N.B. I see the only way of describing Porphyrys & Greenstones, is by describing each base. & each crystal

Beyond secondary rocks, no page marks without reference; excepting the Volcanic rocks & Mineral Veins

Voyage Mineralogique en Hongroi et Pais

Beam

Brongniart Traite de Mineralogie

Breislac Voyage physique en Campania

NF2 (bC\\. Darwin

Secondary formations

Coal form: 276 Conglomerates

Porph. base to Conglomerate 309 Maclure

N. America

Angular concretions of Limestone 346 K. George Sound

Cellular limestone rauchwak 345 angular cavities Coquimbo

Stinkstone connected with 390 gypsum beds Andes

Seashells in salt bed 395

Part of tree silicified 452 part Carbon 0

Hydrate of Iron C of Good Hope 456

do 476

Gold watering 479 Valparaiso

Alluvial salt form 483-485

5 14-19m/x/wb X This is remarkable if all rocks are metamorphised 6 l-7m, Ü13-10m/x 7 17-19m 8 2-5m/w Maldonado Portillo V. p. 15 16-20m, xvb X Analogous to sedimentary beds where quartz sand is alone found pure or lime in masses: What would result from calc. Sandstone? Would calc be removed by Volcanic agency? 15 2-8m/x 25 ÏÏ4-2m/w C of G Hope ÏÏÏx 43 IÎ22-8m* IX, lÏ5-lm 44 13-20m/x, wb It is remarkable no tin in such rocks in Cordilleras.- from Cornwall Tin miners at

Copiapô 47 l-10m/x 48 4-5? 49 5-10m, ÏÏ7-lm 50 ft20-lm, wb two cases- 66 Sx, 7-12m/ w Very abundant 72 ÏÏ10-2m/x 73 l-4m 75 Ïïl6-lm/x 79 wt Not in ChonosO grand form l~3m 80 Ïïl5-4m/x/13u "quelquefois" 83 6-12m/w ChonosO No 85 15-24m 95 fal-lm/x/ w turn over wb Therefore materials must be separated by some process: & not layers of siliceous sandstone & less pure layers- 96 l-10m, 15-20m 100 ^\15-lm/xlwb Falkland Isld- 101 10-20m/18-20m/x 102 l-5m 104 Ïïl0-4m/x, wb Mention in T del Fuego the Lydian balls from Laguna 108 Ïïl2-lm/x 109 l-10m/w Maldonado 114 ÏÏ10-3m/x 125 1Î7-3m 132 ÏÏ8-6m/x 133 2-5m, 8-15m 151 l-8m/ w T. del Fuego 154 1\l5-3m/w Andes 155 2-15m 157 tl5-lmlxlw False C. Horn 158 2-7« 189 4-8m/x/x, wb Therefore subsequent action purified it.- 211 tm/x, wb X Ponsonby Sound 212 l-15m 223 l-10m, ft3-2m 224 2-3m 228 Ïïl5-lm 230 14m "druses" 236 6-16m/ 12-16m 276 ÏÏ20-2m 309 6-llm, ÏÏ8-2m, wb Turn over 310 ÏÏ5-2ro 311 l-6m, 15-20m 312 l-llm/6-llm 345 wt Cavities owing to dissolved angular fragments Mem the Coquimbo limestone shows facility or small difference causing redissolution Ïïl5-10m/x 346 13-22m 347 l-8m 389 ÏÏ6-3m 390 l-12m\ 3-6m/5-8m 392 l-10m 395 wt It is clear from fineness of sediment that salt beds true deposits, not Subsided salines 12-20m 452 ÏÏ22-2m 456 ÏÏlO-lm 457 Xm 476 Xm 479 ÏÏ22-1m 483 6-20m 484 ll-15m/m, ÏÏ5-2m/m/w/wb Mem: How universal this character. Copiapo. Galapagos. Patagonea How far is dryness a general characteristic 485 wt NB At Iquique, the fresh water shows that Nit. Soda is not beneath the surface. l-6m, 12-16m, Ïïl5-lm, wb The formation of salt is more probable if the Carb of Soda effervesces. & that may as well as Nitrate of Potash. 520 6>"L'olivine".m, ÏÏ4-lm 523 e»l-9m/w Ascension 7u "globules" 526 A "Uargile".m/w CauquenesO 528 ÏÏ4-lm/wA> Galapagos ÏÏ4-lm/x 529 l-20m/wt These Greystones some of the commonest Volcanic rocks 4-7mi^/m 530A> l-5m/w Ascension 531 10-15mfb>lxi&lmlxlwtb> Ascension 532 5-10m/x/w A 533 wt In Galapagos & Ascension, in Basalts, or at least dark Trachytes 6-12m/x 534 9-15m/x&>, 9-15m/x/ w&> Ascension Ïïl2-lmjzib>lw A 535 wt&> Ascension l-2m/A, 9-18m\m&>lwte 4 Analyses in Beudant 77X ÏÏS-lm/mAi, wb^> Felspar 64 May be taken as percentage of Silica Hornblende 44 Augite 50 536 4-8m/w&> therefore diff. comp. 537 wt (a) Mem The trachyte below wells, decidedly prismatic or irregularly columnar 2-4m, ll-22m/14-17m/w

[page break] 21

22

(a) ÏÏ3-2m, wb Ascension! Phonolite. My felsp. this state 538 wt The basal hills of oldest series, allied to base of Phonolite cones, St Jago l-4m 539 l-4m, 5-8m&>, 7-llm/w At SSt Jago, not slaty from force of pebbles neither decomposes 13-14*/u "habituellement", iïll-lm, wb * Therefore Ascension not Phonolite 540 2-8m/mez/w(& Characteristic of St Helena 6-12w Phonolite same relation to Trachyte as basalt to basaltic lava tÏ22-5m, ÏÏ2-2m 542 ÏÏ10-lm/wA> Ascension 545 ItlO-lm 548 1\l0-lmfl\6-2m&>, wb Mem Ascension 549 wt I think from these descriptions the Galapagos trachytes, must be very singular rocks. 1\15-5m/x 550 ÏÏ22-9m 552 4r-6m/4u "phonolites"/5u "porphyre siénitique", ll-19m&> 560 15-20m/w Steam cause of vesicles 562 7-15m/13-15m/x 563 ÏÏ2 2-2 0m 564 l~4m\wt Does • say that Sapphire are found at the Galapagos?- 565 l-7m 568 3-8m 569 l-4m, 6-llm/8-llm/x/w Van Diemen's land ÏÏ4-2m/w> C. de Verde 573 l-8m 574 15-27/ 575 17-21m 578 3-10m 580 tÏ6-2m/w T. del Fuego 581 wt Wackes being often amygdaloid & therefore porous explains greater decomposition ttll-Sm 582 2-2m 590 1Ï27-2m/m, ÏÏ27-23w Coral Paper ÏÏ23-20zu Coral B Paper wb If trachy, where eruption happen, is generally missing, there is less chance of alternations than if subsiding; agrees with facts in Pacific 591 2-15m/w Is this true? 593 ÏÏ20-2m, wb&> Dolomieu in Voyage to Lipari Isld talks much about effects of Vapour, says deposits crust of oxide of iron or outside fragments. 595 1\8-5z 596 tÏ25-20m 605 l-5m/x 608 l-6m/w St Jago 609 l-6m/w Copiapô wb NB The existence of sea shells on several of the sandstone craters at Galapagos, argument for mud eruptions. 616 ft27-5m 627 ïï22-2m 636 2-20m 637 3-17m/13~17m 645 U-lm 647 ÏÏ25-3m 648 ÏÏ13-5m, 1Î4-lm 649 l-5m, ÏÏ23-6m, ÏÏ4-2m 651 $m/w Mem: YaquitoO Gold Mines 1Î7-6/

AUDUBON, John James Ornithological biography 5 vols; Edinburgh; Adam Black; 1831-39 [CUL, B] beh, br, ch, mg, sp, sx, ta, tm, y

vol. 1, 4 35-37m 5 35-38m 13 36-38m 14 32-37m 15 26-27m, 18-20m, 21m, 22-29m 34 3u "colours]duller" 110 22-28m 113 24-26m 139 22-24m 174 29-32m 175 27u "a\yellow", 34u "fine yellow", 35u "brownish-olive" 193 22-25m, 27-31m/30-31u "equally\sexes", 36-38m, 39u "when \ line" 203 4-9m 216 27m "sides I domestic", 33-36m 221 4-10m, 19-21m, 26-

27m, 30-32m 222 2S-22m, 37-38m 223 22-24m, 16-18m 229 24-27m 233 wt Male all vermilion 2« "male\them", 8-12m, 15-18m 234 32m "whole\vermilion" 235 2m "light brownish-green" 254 19-20m 257 3-4m "Head I blue", 15-16m 280 15-22m 327 27-33m 352 S-22m 377 32-33m 378 7m, 8-10m/8u "brightest I green"'/9u "three years", ll-13m, 14-16m 379 22m "general \ blue" 380 2m* 389 20-23m 393 26m<->, 21-22m 394 19-22m 396 26-27m 486 16-20m

vol. 2 NB 407 Expression Owl puffing out feathers

SB Vol. 2.- Audubon

p10; 22; 51

55 Jay - attend whether young like old in other jays

75, 79 woodpeckers alternately incubating

87 sexes very different & young not like female

89, 92; 143; 153; 170; About sexes of Birds

195 all Thrushes spotted on breast How in Blackbird

198; 202; 326; 364; 407; 420; 450; 475

♦ 493, 497 T. cupido

509; 529; 538; 545

561 do not get mature plumage soon

10 3-5m/3u "allI resembles", 5u "Young\ acquiring" 13 7-9m 22 29-20m 51 23-26m/26u "they\in"/27u "second"\26w sexes alike 55 4-7m, 14-15m/w sexes nearly alike 75 24m "both\incubating" 79 20u "differs from", 26-27m/26-27u "differ I distribution" 87 4-5/20/ llm/u(coburings), 14-15w nest in Hole 25/26/ 17u(colourings) 89 9-17m/10-12w both sexes change 92 6-10m 143 ll-13m/w sexes different & young differ 144 5/23-24/25« (colourings), 20-23m 152 21-23m 170 5-8m, 19-24m 195 29m "female I paler"'/w this common to other species 23-28m/23-24w How are Blackbirds? 198 8-10m 199 20-22u "female \ eye" 202 23-27m\24-25w Sexes differ 275 2-5m, 2-7m 326 8-10m 327 24-25u "generaUwith", 27-32m, 29-30u "generali black''/30m "and a broad", 31u "yellowish", 33m 364 2-3m 407 19-22m 420 34-36m 450 26m "young I orange", 18-21m/21u 474 35m "light \ vinaceous", 36u "hind I part" 475 2m "neck\ blue", 8-9u "lower\red", 16-21m/18u "are", 21-22m 493 l-4m/4u "globular I of", 35-37m 497 21-24m/23u "bird I the"/24u "air \ bladder", 26u "muffled", 27u "refils\receptacles", 31-36m, 38u "than a mile" 498 4m "autumn I much" 509 28m "graduated \ male"/18-20w so with long-tailed Flycatcher 529 9-24m 538 20-23m 545 12u(colourings), 13-24mll4u/16u/21u/ 23u(colourings) 560 25-29m 561 32-34m

[page break] 23

24

AUDUBON

vol. 3 SB Vol 3 Audubon

p133 - Young Birds occasionally breeding 4 years arriving at full characters yet sexes alike

p139; 141 do

174 •» changes in Beak & legs of Ibis during Breeding season

210; 213; 250; 258; 412, 416, 419; 552; 614,

616

All about sexual Plumage

2 24-35m/"..."/30-32ce/34ce 133 18-21m, 21u "are I brown", 22u "covered", 26-27m 139 29-33m, 33-36m 141 22m, 30-33m/30u "at first"/ 31u "begin" 174 29-34m 210 36-38m/38u "sometimes I dress" 211 l-2m, 2-5m, 16-18m 213 18-20m 250 12m "also I speculum", 28u "speculum greyish", 32-34m 258 22-24m 412 18-26m (Bonaparte) 416 10-15m/w change from 15w change later 419 5-7m, 18-20m* 552 1-Am 614 7-10m 616 12-13m

vol. 4, 18 l-2m 22 20-23m 58 ll-16m 66 25-28m, 32-34m 109 32-34m 114 25-27m, 28-29w no speculum 117 116 4-6u "outer \ margin", 31/34/35u(colourings) 117 3-4m 275 29-34m 278 14-19m 294 35-37m 330 9-13m 389 2-3m 392 ll-12u"general] black", 28-30m 424 32-36m 466 33-37m 470 22-27m 507 3m "destitute] for"/2-6m/w I was doubtful on this head 518 21-25m 564 22-24m 566 3-6m 599 6-Sw+>, 19-22m/20-21u "The I bronzed", 22u "rump greyish-brown" 611 2m, 4-5u*+/2-6m/w yet plumage acquired slowly

vol. 5 NB 456 Parasitic Cow-Bird

602 Migration

♦ 601 Noise to cause alarm Q

SB Vol. 5 Audubon

p.11;63; 176; 183; 210 Jay; 308

Only about Plumage of Sexes

519 Tanagra aestivalis female almost as red as male

10 31-35u± 11 25« "upper \ tinged", 16u "loral space" 18u "light greenish-yellow", 30-33m/30u "loral"/31u "black" 63 33-37m 176 4u "tints\ duller"/4-7m/w other cases 183 2u "part\ forehead", 30-31u "bright I extent" 210 20-29m 308 20-22« "broad I eyes", 12u "in a rather", 13u "is I pale", 14u "parts yellowish-green", 24-32m 454 24-33m 519 2-2m 601 12-16m/Q 602 l-6m

AUDUBON, John James and BACHMAN, John The viviparous quadrupeds of North America New York; J.J. Audubon; 1846 [CUL]

ad, beh, br, ex, gd, ig, mg, no, oo, rd, sp, tm, v

SB1 Qß 34; 38; 40; 59; 62; 67; 77; 131; 143; 146; 191; 193; 216; 218; 220; 221; 252; 266; 268; 272; 304; 358; 265 var in Teeth

♦ 365 Sheep Q SB2 Qß A>

Audubon's Quadrupeds

34. Florida Rat great diversities in Habits & Instincts in different districts 38 Squirrel, curious manner of avoiding a fall, spreading itself out 40 subject to many animals of prey

59 on terror caused by Rattle-snake - 62 on do

77 gradation in teeth falling out in one genus, permanent & small in another. Rudiments

131. graduated form in Squirrel & in Habits

143 good discussion of parallelism in diff. Lat. of Europe & N. American animals

191. Black Rat became rare in N. Am. as in Europe 193

216 Flying Squirrel with additional small Bone,

218 Habits of, 220 269. Squirrels fighting at rutting season (a little lively animal)

272 On Migration of Squirrels

304. On a Mouse becoming domestic & inhabiting Houses.

358. Pigeon which used to breed in communities now by persecution seldom 2 nests in same tree-

title page A> 1846 4 5-7u "marking] numerous" 34 4-22m, 25-27m/26u "holbws", 29-30m/29u "clefts", 34-38m 38 27-22m 40 26-37m 59 2-7m 62 9-15m 67 6-10m 76 29-34m 77 l-5m 109 31-33m 131 26-22m 136 32« "beneath I ruff" 137 2-3m 143 21-A0m 146 22-22m 147 4-6m 191 23-27m 193 l-7m 216 30-32m 218 21-25m, 29-31m 220 l-5m 221 29mA> "three\young", 25m, 25-29m, 33m/u "than]young" 252 19-25m 265 24-29m 266 25-20m 268 tt9-3m 269 3-5m 272 4-23m 304 6-24m 358 22-27m 365 8-19m/ll-12Q

AVELING, Edward The student's Darwin London; Freethought Publishing Company; 1881 [Down, I]

AYRAULT, Eugène De l'industrie mulassière en Poitou Niort; L. Clouzot; 1867 [CUL, I] CS, f

NB 178 & 180 K «»Different fertility of ass & Horse when reciprocally crossed.

178 24-30m, 30m 179 2-2m, 4-6m 180 26-2Sm 199 2m, 4m, 11m, 19m, 24m 200 5m, 6m, Urn

[page break] 26

25

AZARA, Félix d' Essais sur l'histoire naturelle des quadrupèdes de la province du Paraguay 2 vols; Paris; Charles Pougens; 1801 [CUL, pre-B, B?]

beh, br, ce, ds, gd, no, oo, sx, ta, ti, tm, wd, y

vol. 1 NB p3 Tapir striped when young

p136 Puma curls tip of tail when young to spring & purs like a Cat, when scratched.-

(Copied)

3 3-6m 136 9-13m/10u " extrémité \ queue"/U- 12w purr

vol. 2 SB1 09Î

p209; 296,298; 306; 319; 332; 339; 349; 359; 363; 364; 368; 371; 376 - 1783-1796

A) References for my 1 st Vol. copied out

SB2 Qß A

296 Date of introduction & increase of Horses in La Plata p298

332 Wild Cattle Horses in Falklands removing snow

339 on Cardoon & Cattle destroying entire pasture

349 Mares which produce mules get old sooner

359 increase of Cattle in Falklands & dates given »- Introduced from La Plata eu» 360 periods at which + Heifers conceive later in hotter country Q

368 Cattle killed by flies - On natural rate of increase of Cattle in the Estancias

372 Rudiment of Horns in Cattle, descended from Hornless Bull.—

209 7-llmlxv so with all sexual charact 296 9u "1535", 18u "1580", 19-20u "trouvèrent Chevaux", wb Mule Zain-clairs 298 14-15m/u "dix\individus", 16-17m 305 8m, 15m 306 17-22m/19u "zain"/x/w set 24-26Q wb M Dictionary says what it is Dunn? V. p350 Mules are Zain-clairs 307 5-6Q/6-8m/7u "quatre \ Chevaux", 9-10m 308 20-26m 313 21Q 318 18-21m 319 l-3m, 6-Um 324 l-8m/ 5-6Q 332 3-5m 333 6Q 7-10m/9u "leur sabot esf'llOu "poils", llu "point \ blancs", 12u "tous", 13m/u "beaucoup I courts", 21u "CetteI reproduit", 24-25m, 26m 334 l-2m, 18u "dans I corne", 24u++ 335 20-26m/24u "Cabril (chevreau)" 339 7-10m/10u "anéanti le pâturage" 349 24-26m 351 7« "zain-clairs" 352 9-10m, 13-Um/13u "1546" 355 9-llm/lOu "1552" 358 3-4m, 20-21m 359 7-llm, 19-21m/20u "1760", 21u "six mille", 22w no wb 800 - in 15 years - increased to about 6000 -> 360 7-llm/9-10Q 361 l-3m/lu "sombre ou rougeâtre"/Q 9-13m 363 8-10m 364 5-9m 368

ISm, 9-12m 371 8-17m/10-14w Horns go with Males 16-18m 372 8-10m, 20-22QA. 12-16m 373 10-13m 376 22-25m/l-26w see life when in S. Amer, see date of Cattle at M. Video p355. Cattle let lose in 1552 377 wb He visited La Plata 1783-1796-

AZARA, Félix d' Voyages dans l'Amérique méridionale 4 vols and atlas; Paris; Denton; 1809 [CUL, pre-B] beh, ex, oo, sp, ti, tm, ws, y

vol. 1 SB Azara Vol I

p.100 - struggle for Existence.

p.165 - Wasps nests - 215 - worms in navels of Beasts 247 - AYoung Tapirs striped

375 £>- Horses
381 Awild Dog Qe>

386 a>- on some species & others rare of same group-

376 White Horses swim best

100 3-7m 101 17-26m, 19-27m/22u "une\ rampant" 102 l-4m 146 *&26-27m/26u "tendre\rôtir" 147 <&17x 165 17-23m (La-treille) 215 25-27m 216 2-8m 247 2-~4m 373 2-7m 376 5-14m 381 14-17m (Buffon), 19-20Q 386 19-27m

vol. 2 S^ Ch. Darwin

NB O June 1860 Much about Indians

11 6-16m 21 20-24m 22 15-18m/x, 19w see

23 l-5m/x/4w& HearnO 25 19-22m 58 ÏÏ4-

lm, wb Guanys* Guaranys 60 l-3m 64 9m

92 22-27m 93 14-16m, 21u "des Iaccouchent",

26-27m 94 16-18m, 21-22Q 23-27m 95 2-5m,

17u "guanas" 105 12-18m/14u "sourcils\poil"I

13-15w Other Indians do the same 115 20-

25m 116 2-2m, ll-13m/12u "déformé \ vieillir"

179 ll-19m/14-16w more men killed

vol. 3 NB pjJ

I have not read the rest, except Introduction .-

p33 Caracara makes * Vulture disgorge prey Lestris take advantage of natural instinct to disgorge 8 25-29m (Buffon) 33 19-25m/20-22u<+

vol. 4 NB p10. Habits of Woodpeckers

Habits of Musk Duck

Measures of do

I have not read all this Book.-

3 20-21m/ 21u "parcourent Igrimpant", 22u "dominicain I guêpes", 23-24m 253 wt Philomachus cayanus 327 19-24m 328 26-29m

[page break] 28

27

B., J.P. An essay on spiritual evolution London; Trübner & Co.; 1879 [Down]

BABINGTON, Charles Cardale Manual of British botany London; John Van Voorst; 1851 [CUL] fg, gd, oo, sp, t, tm, v

NB1 Tragopogon porrifolius (p. 188)

seeds of ray & centre very different Verbascum 5 stamens differ in length & structure - in Veronica only 2 stam - in other Scrophs, 4 & of unequal lengths Penstemon

NB2 «> p. 31 Subularia

p. 120 var.; p. 301

Abstract

120 Similar vars in allied genera

301 Pinus mughus in Scotch Bogs a var. exterminated by present vars?

viiia 30a; p. 65 viiib 17w p148 xi wt This seems all quite artificial 22«; ♦ xiii 29u<->, 21w* xiv 3u<^, 5w Corolliflorae 20u<^ xv 24u^ 4 28u "in I fields" 5 26u "floating", 26w Nor 33m 7 28w Nor 8 26-27m, 34w Nor 9 26m 12 19w Nor 13 14w Nor 27-28m 14 24-15w I. of W. 24w Nor 27m 15 31w Nor 31 2m, 13w& "often I margins", 16w I. of W. 32 4w ? I. of W. 33 lw I. of W. 8w Nor 34 43u^ "spur" 35 ^ lu "the\short", 9u "spur\ straight", 18-19u "spur I end", 34u "cor A cordate" 36 4w Nor «^ 5u "blunt \roundedly", 22u "cor. I blunt", 34u "spur \calycine" 37 3w Nor 4-5u^ "spur \calycine", 27w Hartf 38 24w Nor 43 7w Nor 44 lOw Nor 45 34w Nor 42-43w White Nor 43u "l.\hairy", 44u "calyx\ lanceolate" 46 lu "elongated \ erect", Su "stA calyces", 6w Nor 8-9u<->, 14w Nor 27w Nor? 50 27w Nor 51 lw Nor 20w Nor 54 41w Hartf? 55 22a; Nor 56 7w I. of W. 57 22w Hartf 32w Hartf 39w Hartf 58 15w Hartf 61 29w Nor 62 8«; Nor 15w Nor 32a; Nor 64 lw I. of W. 66 22«; Nor 70 3w Nor, Hartf 18-20w Hartf Down, 37a; Nor 71 27w Nor 72 27«; Nor 73 3m, 40w I. of W. 74 22m 77 7m, 18m, 28m 79 37m 80 35w Down 82 9-23w Down I. of W. 23w Down 29-33w Isle of Wight 87 38w Nor 88 34a; Nor 90 12w Nor 40a; Nor 91 6w Nor 92 19w Mr Norman omit 106 29w Nor 36m; Nor 107 8-9w Mr Norman omit 112 12w Norfolk 113 32a; Nor 114 7w I.W 32a; Hartfield 116 20-23«; Hartf. I. of W. 120 28-32m, 32w I. of W 36-39m, 41w I. of. W 121 2-6m, 2-6w similar vars in allied genera 128 17w Nor 143 32-33w Down everywhere 144 27-29w Down everywhere 32-34w orchis Bank 145 3-7w Below Stonfield Field 22-24«; Down everywhere 33-35w Down everywhere 147 33w Norfolk 151 14w Nor 29a; Nor 152

22a; Nor 35w Nor 153 42w Nor 154 27«; Nor 35w Nor 155 5«; I of W. 28w I of. W 35w I of. W 156 22w I. Of. W? 157 zb 158 z& 159 25m, 29m, 33m 160 3m 166 32«; I. of W. 167 20w I Of W 181 20a; I Of W. 182 16-24m 183 22w I of. W 188 9-lOw I Of. W. 28w I of. W. 192 25w Mr Norman omit 203 33w Hartf. 206 2S-29w Hartf 213 8-22«; Nor. I of. W 29w Nor 215 32w Nor 217 30«; Hartf 221 5w I. of W. 222 22a; Nor 35w Nor 223 20-27a; I think my plants clearly this species 40mfw Nor 224 16w Nor 225 21w Nor 231 26w Nor 232 38w I.W 233 22-25«; I of Wight 234 29w Nor 235 lw Nor 236 3-4w Hartf 30a; Nor 41w Nor 237 38w Hartf 238 22-22«; I of W. 40a; Nor 239 5w Nor 22a; Nor, 24a; Hartfield 240 20a; Nor 241 37a; Nor 244 34-35w 2 vars 245 lm, 6-7m, 37-38w 3 246 4-5m, 23w Nor 248 22-27c, 31w Nor, 38w Hartf 249 7a; Nor 38a; I of W 250 40uj Nor? 251 5a; Nor, 27a; Nor 39a; Nor 252 25a; Hartf 253 18-22c 255 29a; Hartf 256 4a; Nor 28a; Nor 259 5a; Nor 38w Nor 260 2a; Nor 8w Nor 28a; Nor 275 33a; Nor 277 22a; Nor 283 9a; I of W. 285 29-33m, 24-25w I of W. 286 24a; Nor 288 26a; Mr Norman omit 301 26-30m 302 22a; Nor 303 7a; Nor 306 37w Nor 307 6a; Nor 308 25a; Nor 44a; Nor 310 7a; Nor 9w+ Down 22a; Hartf 26a; Nor 28a; Down 25a; Nor 312 9a; Nor 28-32a; Hartf I. of W. 40a; (Var. of dat) 313 24a; (var of d) 26a; I of W 322 3a; Nor 328 4a; Hartf 335 22a; Nor 336 22a; Nor 353 32a; Mr Norman omit 356 28a; var 358 22m, 25m 360 27-28a; omit 365 40-42a; ? var 366 33-34w var 369 24a; var 34a; var 372 20« "flowered\a", Wu "Glumes nearly", 24a/w 1-flowered 373 23m "FIA hairs", 26-27u "l\and", 28u "2\of", 39u "1-flowered" 374 4u "2\fl." 375 22-22m, 22a; water 377 4u "one \flower" 378 26m 379 22-22m, 39m 380 17-18m, 20-23w Down Ch Lane 381 32-34a; Honeygrove Jul 53 382 22-23m, 30-32? 385 24-25m 386 9-20a; Hayes 26-29«; Larch wood 42-42m 387 21~22m, 40-41m 388 7m, 13-14m, 24-25w Hartfield 32-33w orchis Bank 389 3a; Down 20a; =Molica 22a; Hayes 39a; Down 390 42a; Honeygrove 391 33a; passim 39-40w passim 392 5-7a; Larch wood, 24a; wall 44m 394 38-39m 395 2 m, 22-22m, 38m 396 32-32a; Honeygrove 33-34m 397 8-9m, 24m, 30m, 38m 398 32-32m, 42m 399 40m 400 23-24?, 22m 401 6m, 15m 402 27-28a; Beckenham 18-19m, 30-31w Hartfield wb Mr Norman end here 403 wt Mr Norman end here

BAERENBACH, Friedrich von Gedanken über die Teleolgie in der Natur Berlin; Theobald Grieben; 1878 [Down]

[page break] 30

29

BAERENBACH, Friedrich von Das Problem einer Naturgeschichte des Weibes Jena; Hermann Duft; 1877 [CUL, I]

NB Skimmed P

BAERENBACH, Friedrich von Prolegomena zu einer anthropologischen Philosophie Leipzig; J.A. Barth; 1879 [Down, I] p

BAGEHOT, Walter Physics and politics London; Henry S. King & Co.; 1872 [Down, LS]

57 6-28m

BAILDON, Henry Bellyse The spirit of nature London; J. & A. Churchill; 1880 [Down, I]

BAIN, Alexander The emotions and the zvill London; Longmans, Green & Co.; 1865 [CUL] beh, h, si

SB ♦

«3r Bain Emotions & Will

p.5.6 to under qu.

p.111; 119

127, 129 Expression

176

Laughter 247

Moral sense

254 Moral sense

QA) 267 481- good to quote

269 - social instinct apparently denied by Bain

B. seems to think moral sense acquired during life-time - seems to give too deep a feeling for this wd never resist Hunger, Revenge or lust.—

277; 279; 283; 289; 290; 308

p 270 Mohamedan * woman covering her face

♦ <&> 283 imitation of external government !!!

284 obedience (Monkeys slapping their children)

via 8-10m, 9u "Feeling]misery", 32-33m, 32u "Will" ix 17-20m x 26m xi 23m xii 6m xiii 20-21m xiv 33m xv 23m xxv 30m 5 23-26m 6 wt The love of a mother for her child is a strong emotion, but this is hardly shown by any action or expression, but ready to lead, if her child requires assistance, to energetic or heroic actions. 2-37w a mother may be feeling the warmest love for her child, & yet how is it exhibited? When poets * speak of green-eyed jealousy they must find it impossible to give * actions & plain characters. Perhaps Bain calls love a Sensation & not emotion. > No p. 37 9-

13m, 26u "secondarily automatic" 7 31-33m 8 12-15m 9 12-13m, 34~35m, 36-37m 37 17-21m 54 15-30m, 29m 55 5-15m, 5-9w to make appearance dredful 56 28-31m 58 28-34m 65 19-22m 67 32-37m/w/wb Dog when going to fight; Birds erect plumage; Lynx sets up its back & spits 73 19-27m 111 32-37m 119 32-37m(-+ 120 6-9m, ll-12m, 14-17m 127 25-28m 128 21-24m 129 26-28m 176 34-37m 247 7-29m, 35-37m/-+ 248 10-13m 249 7-22m, 23-24m, 32-33^ 250 6-10m 254 26-29m 255 l-2m, 5-llm 267 l-5m 268 26-29m 269 4-6m, 8-91, 8u "rational appreciation", 22-28m, 29-30^ 270 7-11m, 30-34m, 36-38m 271 7-llm 277 10-14m, 10-llw But what the importance 279 12-14m, 13u "to I pig" 283 10-18m, 20-23m, 22u "performance]social", 26-29m, 36-37-> 284 2-4m, 15-17m, 25-30m 285 3-5!, 4-7m 287 5-21m 289 27-30m, 37-38^> 290 22-2Sm 308 2-14xo so the associated state is advantageous 4-7m, 10-14m, 12u "the blood", 34-35m 309 7-23/ 481 2S-22m

BAIN, Alexander The emotions and the will 3rd edn; London; Longmans, Green & Co.; 1875 [Down, card from author]

NB 86

xiii 7m xvi 23m xvii 18w(not CD) 86 32-39m 305 3-5m, 3-4u "initial]generally", 30u "play] accord" 309 15-20m, 16u "central brain", 17u "discharge", 17u "solitary streams" 313 23m, 23u "spontaneous workings", 30u "two", 32m "Emotional", 33u "Volition" 314 2-6m, 5u "selection", 16u "why then", 17u "doctrine of", 18u "commencement", 25-28m, 25u "two views", 30u "think it", 31m, 31u "primordial source" 315 23-25m, 23u "accidentally] pleasure"

BAIN, Alexander The senses and the intellect London; Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts and Green; 1864 [CUL] beh, h, phy, t

SB ♦

p 12 Intellect & size of Brain

50 can this bear on sobbing

52 Expression

96 do - theory of -

121 Expression of Man pain; %> & such movements wd get mingled with true expression of distinct emotions

[page break] 31

32

BAIN, SENSES

152. ♦ effect of imagination on the body admirable 1

225 Muscles of eyebrows

264 Expression

274 a child twisting tongue about in writing, perhaps connected with idea of speaking.-

277 V 279 Expression; 288 do; 292-297 do it is expectation of pleasure when* (a dog wags tail before food given him & while eating in quiet) - so when scratched

332 association

411 The mind is never intently concentrated on a merely pleasant idea

626 expression

Bain the Senses & intellect

50 28-32m 52 37-40m 53 27-30m, 27-29w explains frowning 96 29-41m, 31-34"..."/c/ue 121 19-32m, 36-37-* 122 2-6m, 10-13m, 27-30m 152 33-36m 153 9-llm, 10-llw 169 Odours 225 8-18m 264 12-Um, 34-37m 274 ÏÏ4-2m 277 36-39m 278 "sighing", 12-Um, 15-19m, 34-36m 279 14-16m, 16u "excitement \ trembling", 17-19m, 17-18w Müller, 19m^, 23m<^ 280 16-22m 281 l-9m 288 wb In another place he adds 30-37m/30-33"..."I31-33me 292 l-26w general effects of pleasurable, exciting & painful depressing (except at first) hardly in young child. 18-25m 293 4-9m, 21-23m, 24-25m, 24u "specific", 32-33mH 294 5-27m, 11-Uw oh oh 18-20m 295 28-29m/-*, wb Curious that Dog has acquired bark of pleasure & another bark of anger, & another of demand to be let in at door 297 wt sobbing is convulsive inspiration wt because prolonged screams l-2m, 16-19m 332 14-19m 411 8-10m, lOu; 8-14w crying & concentration. Mem problem or understanding a difficulty 626 41-45m 627 8-11m, 15-17m, 20-22m, 26-29m, 31-33m, 34-37m, 37-45m, 42u "features I pre-eminence", 46m/^> 628 6-9m

BAIRD, William The natural history of the British Entomostraca London; The Ray Society; 1875 [CUL] ci, no, phy, sp, t, tm

NB1 Cirripedia p. 50; p. 74; p. 144; p. 248;

p.250; p. 253

p.265 circulation

p.303 XX cementing organ

NB2 Sp Theory; p85*; p189 Rate of Increase in Cyclops; ♦Synopsis Brit Mus 1842; ♦ p. 244 Diaptomus with worm-like body full of Spermatozoa.-; ♦ Apus Nebulia Chirocephalus Cyclops Canthocamptus Caligus Lerneocera

50 14-17m, 29-34m 74 10-15m 81 32m 85 34-38m 127 9w Holwood 144 12-15m 154 21w Holwood 31-33z 187 ll-14m 189 33-34m 248 8-llm 250 9-llm 253 27-32m 265 21-24m 303 9-12m 321 4m, 38w 38

BAKER, J.G. Elementary lessons in botanical geography London; Lovell, Reeve & Co.; 1875 [CUL, I] cc, gd, gr, ti

NB 46 - Alpine plant on Tropical Mtains

53 - Heat-lovers & cold-fearers

90 - plants which have become widely naturalised

99 - certain wide ranging plants

102 - relationship of S. Africa & S. America & latter with Australia, good

109 - independent of present geographical features

46 16-26m 53 8-13m 90 9-22m 99 21-30m

101 10-19m 102 8-12m, 22-27m 103 6-10m,

10-14m, 23-27m 106 6-llm 109 17-24m

BALFOUR, Francis Maitland A monograph on the development of elasmobranch fishes London; Macmillan & Co.; 1878 [Down, I]

P

BALFOUR, Francis Maitland A treatise on comparative embryology 2 vols.; London, Macmillan & Co; 1880 [Down] (marks by FD)

BALL, Valentine Jungle life in India London; Thos de la Rue & Co.; 1880 [Down]

NB 156, 455

BARCLAY, John An inquiry into the opinions, ancient and modern, concerning life and organization Edinburgh; Bell and Bradfute; 1822 [CUL, pre-B, S] p

BARKER-WEBB, Philip and BERTHELOT, Sabin Histoire naturelle des îles Canaries Vol 3, part 1 Géographie botanique Paris; Béthune; 1840 [CUL] gd, gr, is, no, sp, wd

NB Marked Chapter on Distribution title page wt Barker-Webb 5 7-9m, 9-10m, Ît25w 14. fam 29. spec î\12m/x/u "variai \ autres" 6 16m, ÏÏ7-3w 17 peculiar? 7 8-9m 8 12-15w peculiar species in W. group. î\7-6m, 1Î3-2m 9 1\8-2w broken nature of country species abundant in one isld rare in another 1200 ft of = difference of station = film, zb

[page break] 34

33

12 7-8m 16 4m 17 20m, 12m 22 ll-12m\w Isolated plants - do not know yet, whether indigenous species or not.- 16-17m, 19-20m, tl3-2m/w X does this mean plants found nowhere else? Galapagos ♦, tt2x/u "espèces I propres" 23 Im, 9-13w So then List of plants on Teyde elsewhere? 24 ÏÏ5« "observations analogues", U14-llm/ïïl4x/u "Canada"/1\l3u "représentent", 1Î20-6w I suppose * plants peculiar (?) to high parts of the Canary 25 \t8u*ß7u*/mfw 7,234 ft Palma 26 l-2m 32 9-10m. 12-13m/w (a) 19-20m, 23-24m, ÎT25-13m, »4-2m/w (a) Does this show course of immigration? 33 l-2m, 3m/w whether peculiar or not 37 tïl3m 50 12-14m, 1Ï6m 51 l-3m, 14-15m/w - See Hooker's list of Plants 58 "Plantes alpines".w Is there any fuller list of Alpine plants? 66 7u "Caldera I Palma", 16-18m 68 12-14m 69 ÏÏ18-15m, 1Î5-3m 70 ÏÏ9-8m 71 5-7m 72 9-10m, 18-19m 74 ftlfoo Salvia Canaries ÏÏ4-2m 75 %m, llu "buissons", ll-12u "provenantIgraines", 15u "fades", ÏÏ9!/u "chétif" 76 ÏÏ9-8m 78 ÏÏ3-2m/w> must read 79 3-4m, 1\l2-lm 80 2-3m, 4-5m 82 13-15m/w not from cultivation 95 1\2-lm/w important Read 97 tÎ2u "quatre\bien"/m/w different stations 103 22-23m 104 S-20m 122 ÏÏ23-20m, U-4m 123 1Ï2m 124 6-22m 167 20-27m 175 î\3-2m, ÏÏ2w Galapagos?

BARRAGO, Francesco L'Uomo fatto ad imagine di Dio fu anche fatto ad imagine della scienzia Cagliari; Corveso di Sardegna; 1869 [Down, I]

title page wt (translation of title) 11 zo throughout page (translation of page)

BARRANDE, Joachim Acéphales Chez l'auteur, Prague; 1881 [Down, I to CD erased and replaced by FD] p

BARRANDE, Joachim Brachiopodes Chez l'auteur, Prague; 1879 [Down, I] p

BARRANDE, Joachim Céphalopodes Chez l'auteur, Prague; 1877 [Down, I] p

BARRANDE, Joachim Defense de colonies Chez l'auteur, Prague; 1870 [Down, I] p

BARRANDE, Joachim Distribution des Céphalopodes Chez l'auteur, Prague; 1870 [Down, I]

3 21-25m 15 22-22m, 23-25m 19 25-27m 111 24-29m 117 32-38m 121 31-35m 137 15-20m (Salter) 163 19-23m, 40-43m 164 5-9m 165 7-23m, 14-15m, 26-28m, 26-27m, 29-33m

BARRANDE, Joachim Trilobites Chez l'auteur, Prague; 1871 [Down, I]

BARTON, John A lecture on the geography of plants London; Harvey and Darton; 1827 [Down, pre-B, S]

4 20-26m 7 4-9m, 5w Oak 22 23-2Sm 27 4-5m 30 12-23m 31 wtu, 22-25m 32 2-3m 36 2-23m 38 23-27m 39 14-26m (Humboldt) 41 6-22m

BARY, Heinrich Anton de Die Mycetozoen Leipzig; Wilhelm Engelmann; 1864 [Down]

P

BASTIAN, Henry Charlton The beginnings of life 2 vols.; London; Macmillan; 1872 [CUL,

I]

cc, che, ct, ds, fg, h, hi, phy, sp, t, v

vol. 1 NB xi; xii; 160; 167 on Cellular Theory; 215 do.; Nothing for Man xi 17-31m xii xvt But are these supposed Heterogenic changes due to Environment? 2-20m, 2-27u7 can this throw light or accord with the variability of higher form, as they are compounds of separate units? 160 26-28m 167 23-28m 215 10-16xo plastide Hackels term best, 25-29m 316 25-28m 433 19-22m 456 2-3? Catalogue p

vol. 2 NB1 Nothing for Descent of Man NB2

lix variability of algae

Ixii variation

Ixxxii variation in relation to conditions in Infusoria Cohn

♦31 Drosera

♦79, 88, 596 Pangenesis

255 objection

259 variation

377 Drosera

I think there is a tendency to plasticity var.

but not proved - 594 error on my views

597, 599 variation

604 I admit so far

608 I think I am in error

Frequency of generalised forms in old times

quite opposed to independent origin of the

diverse orders of same class

1 24z 31 2-7m 79 13-23m 88 4-27m 255 25-30w Vorticellae; He omits altogether the conditions; Why not eggs in the infusion.- I do not yet see the reason- 259 12-26m 261 3-9m 377 5-29m 594 3-6m, 4u "heterogeneous" 596 24-31m 597 2-8m 599 20-24m 604 wb like polarities of crystals l-4m 608 14-23m lix 20-30m lxii 13-20m lxxxii 2-34m

[page break] 35

36

BASTIAN, Henry Charlton The brain as an organ of mind London; C. Kegan Paul & Co.; 1880 [Down] pat

NB 188 Douglas Spalding; 213 Blind Horse - self; 216 my Horse - Isle of Wight 213 14-17m 215 30c/we

P

BASTIAN, Henry Charlton Evolution and the origin of life London; Macmillan & Co.; 1874 [Down, I] p

BASTIAN, Henry Charlton The modes of origin of lowest organisms London; Macmillan & Co.; 1871 [Down, I] p

BATE, Charles Spence Catalogue of the specimens of Amphipodous Crustacea in the collection of the British Museum London; by order of the Trustees; 1862 [Down, I] p

BATEMAN, Frederic On aphasia, or loss of speech London; John Churchill & Sons; 1870 [CUL] beh, h

NB1 Descent of Man p. 27; 31; 53; 100, 102; 109; 110; 112 Expression; nodding & shaking Heads; p27 Concepts NB2 p111 Gartner

27 4r-5u "fell\ door", 15-19m, 16-17u "memory I substantives ", 18-24zv(CD?) one case of only the infinitive mood being retained 29u "is I cut", wb How does this bear on concepts? 31 2-5m 53 12~16m 100 9-10m, 17-20m 101 17-18u "defect I language", 19-22m 102 l-2m, 3-5m, 16-18m, 19-21m 104 8-llm 109 22-28m 110 4u "commonly unaffected", 6-15m, 12-15m, 12-15w 2 cases l&-21m 112 3-8m

BATES, Henry Walter The naturalist on the river Amazons 2 vols.; London; John Murray; 1863 [CUL, I in both vols.] beh, br, cc, cr, f, gd, h, ig, mm, no, oo, phy, rd, si, sx, tm, v

vol. 1 NB p251

SB1 09Î vol.I

p. 20; 23; 30x gradn in worker ants; 52; 55;

68; 99 monkeys not breeding; 102; 182.-

analogy of Moth & Humming Birds; 193

sterile in confinement; 207; 210; 252; 254;

258-262; 304; 312; p 53 Sipo Matador

SB2 i& (not CD)

Bates Amazon vol 1

p. 20 on tropical insects not being more

beautiful & on differences in sex.

23. on worker ants of 3 kinds

27. tunnell under river - 30 gradations

between workers

52 Male & female butterflies haunting

different stations.

55 competition in the Tropics.

68. Trees with buttrefres.

102. 700 butterflies within an hour's walk

182. analogy between Sphynx moth &

humming birds.

207 widely different insects imitating sand in

colour.

210 insects of same family having widely

different habits.

252 male crickets being musical to attract

female.

254 a kind of thrush with nest lined with mud

258-262. discussion on variability of

butterflies & on mimetic butterflies.

304. local vars. of butterflies

312. Ditto-

20 7-19m, 20-21u "almost \ only", 21-26m 21 2u "more\coloured", 3-31m, 3u "females\ often", 5u "tropics", 6u "between the", 7u "any temperate" 22 2-10m, 18-22m 23 8-20, 32m 24 20-24m 27 23-26m 30 8-12m, 19- 22m 31 26-29m 51 23u, 29-31m 52 2-12m, 4u "less dense" 53 7-24m, 25u "fig order" 54 2-32m 55 21-29m, 31 -> 56 2S-24m 68 24m, 25-22 m 69 2m 99 20-26m 102 21-26m 182 20-26m 183 5-8m 193 2-6m, 2-3u "paca"/w 2 Rodents p. 202 9-20m, 22-23m 207 23-32 m/-> 208 22-27m 210 13-30m 250 23-26m, 29-31u "Locustidae"/w probably Gryllidae of WellandO 251 lu "Acridiidae", fig.w toothed lobe left wing 252 ll-15m, 15-27m, 31a "crickets" Achetidae wb Cicadidae again different 253 2-2m, 4-5m, 8-9m, 18-24m 254 15-20m/w a kind of Thrush 258 25-30m 259 fig.-> 260 5-9m, 14~19m, 28-31m 261 22-27m

262 ft22-2m 263 4-7m, 14-17m, 21-26m 304
22-31m 312 28-30m 313 2-Sm

vol. 2 NB 238 Toucans; 341 SB1 (not CD?) 39 Palm; 49 Tonka bean: fruits on stems; 51 Palm; 53 General descrip; 169 Bulging palm; 217 Fruit conspic ripe; 218 Gulielma palm; 237 Eriodendron;

263 Turtles eat fallen fruit
SB2 /& (not CD) Bates vol 2.

35 a young savage with instincts of finding

his way.

44 Bees using hind legs to collect mud &

using gum.

46 Parasitic fly - like bee.

61-70 - neuters of termites.

228. butterflies of several sp. males living in

[page break] 38

37

sunny places & females in wood

e> (CD) 307 Short-tailed monkeys, yet

arboreal.-

a> (not CD) 313 range of monkeys separated

by a river

347 butterflies with males 100 times more

numerous than the female.

347 range of butterflies depending on wind

351 gradation in workers of ants

364 great difference in the castes of worker

ants.

«s> (CD) 204 man essentially same in mind

284 strong sexual characters. Umbrella Bird

rudiment in female

349 tubes for caterpillars

357 gradation of instincts

SB3 09Î

35; 44; 45; 61-to 70 Termites; 113 sterility;

128 expression; 159; 162 God & Man; 194;

219 Cultivated fruit - by Natives; 228; 313;

347; 351 gradation in workers; 364 ants; *

close mouth & part front of tongue forming

the palate & open mouth suddenly & this

makes the click - open mouth sign of

surprise.

35 l-9m 44 9-12m 45 13-23m, 29-30^> 46 8-20m, 18-23m, 23-27m 51 3-5m 61 7-Um, 15-18m 65 3-8m, 28-31m 66 5-9m, 19-22m 67 17-27m, 28-31m 113 4-12m 128 29-31m, 31u "tola" 159 20~29m 162 28-31m 178 5-9z 194 16-29m 197 10m 204 l-9m 219 5-12m 228 4-9m, 9-12m 237 3-5m 284 12-18m 307 12-28m 310 24r-29m, 24-26"...", 30-31z 313 17-31m 338 21-23m, 22u "seven I more" 339 22-23m/u "deficiency \ used" 341 7-11m, 15u "considered I instrument" 347 4-11 m, 27-30m 349 22-31m 351 22-26m, 27-30m, 30-32-> 352 21-32m 357 20-24m, 20-22w is it true, stinging 364 14-17m 365 15-20m, 22-26m 419a 20m, 29m 419b 1m, 12m, 26m, 31m 420a 8m, 9m, 19m, 29m, 35m 420b 1Î3-ïm 421a lm, 6-9m, ÏÏ2m 421b 16m, 22m, 23m, 25m, 31-37m, 40m, 40m 422a 1-Am, 9m, 10m, 14m, 27m, 30m 422b 20m 423a l-3z, 16m, 22m

BAXTER, Jedediah Hyde Statistics, medical and anthropobgical of the Provost-Marshal-General's bureau 2 vols.; Washington; Government Printing Office; 1875 [Down]

BEALE, Lionel Smith On the structure and growth of the tissues and of life London; Robert Hardwicke; 1865 [CUL] et, phy, t

NB Used for pangenesis and of no other use

10 24-30m 21 xvt* cell contents l-5w or as some« several authorities object dispute♦ the rejectO the presentO exlion of cells, Beale's term been very useful 14-18u±, 21« "Formed I matter", 29-30m 25 27-30m, 29-30u "composed I tissue" 26 3-7m, 18-20m 27 23-28m, 27u "lastly I surface", 28u "of\and" 28 3-7m 29 12-14m, 13-14u "comparatively I matter", 24-27m 31 3-21w says before it has become completely passive 19-21m 34 wt the germinal matter in a fully developed muscle must be formed or modified by the development of the muscle. 36 ll-13m, 12u "is I or" 37 19-21m 62 wt/l-21w says the nuclei or germinal matter of the various tissues are * continually forming 12-15m, 12u "Cells \parts" 63 21-23m

BECHSTEIN, Johann Matthäus Gemeinnützige Naturgeschichte Deutschlands 4 vols, Leipzig; Ernsius; 1801-5 (2nd edn), 1793-5 (1st edn) [CUL]

beh, br, cc, ch, es, dg, ex, f, fg, gd, h, he, hy, ig, in, is, mg, mn, no, oo, or, pat, rd, sp, sx, ti, tm, ud, v, wd, y

vol. 1 NB Blumenbachs HandBuch of Nat

Hist

17*; 26 Book; 227, 228 - do.; 232-6 Horse;

241 Canines varying

275; 285,6; 294; 300; 309; 310,12; 324; 358;

362,5; 378; 404; 425; 432; 434; 448; 457;

470; 491 ; 505 to 508 to 536; 546 - Dog

It wd be good to investigate the 4 teeth of

upper jaw of Dogs to see about abortion

SBIOSR

Vol I Bechstein - V End of Book for early

references

p548 to 579 to 702

♦ p609 to 627; end; p. 653

795; 850; 932; 950; 984; 1032; 1046; 1078-

83,1084. Squirrels; 1095 Hare; 1119 Rabbits

to p. 1135-

A Calendar at end with periods of coupling

of all wild animals.

SB2Qß

p241 Mares Eye Canine teeth either absent

or very short - sexual & rudimentary

characters variable

(Bechstein Vol I)

p 294 Hinney more like Mother (ie Ass) then

Horse, but ears Horse-like Q/&

p 309 Nine Breeds of Cattle in central

Europe

310 Pale-coloured cattle more plagued with

Flies then darker colours

359 She Sheep have horns smaller or none

362 In Hornless sheep some have small

loose Horns

[page break] 40

39

BECHSTEIN, DEUTSCHLAND

379 Certainly Ram gives fleece

432 2 Breeds of Chamois inhabiting different

heights

505 Wild & tame Pigs produce fertile

offspring Q

508 Var. of front teeth in Pigs NlQ

530 Sort of pad defending Boars

536 Many wild Pigs die in Hard winters & in very dry summers.-

548 Bitch 5, seldom 4 Q, mammae on each

side - Iceland Dogs different voice (u^)

574 Newfoundland Dog - skin between toes

- Not in Newfoundland, when discovered.

584 time of gestation

638 Stutz - Dogs are easiest crossed with

Foxes Qä>

654 Cats with wavy hairs N.Q

663 Astonishing increase of mice in Isld of

Placida off Naples, when Cats destroyed.

682 In Lynx tufts of hair 2 inches long

795 Ferret procreates quicker than Polecat,

• parent

950 Black & Brown Rat cross in nature Q

1032 Marmot or Arctomy inhabit only highest

alpine height of Europe

1084 Squirrels in same nest, one finds 2

colours, when parents of two colours

1095 variation in upland & lowland hares

1119 Hares & rabbit will not breed after

many attempts made Qa>

1123 Rabbit can produce in 4 years 1274,

840

1133 Grey* Rabbits turned out after some

generations assume grey colour

26 î\2-lm/wb On variation 227 ÏÏ5?, ÏÏ2?/x/u " deutscher \ ausländischer" 228 3m 233 Su "dünne", 14u "Der\ist", 15u "OhrenIlang", 16u "Mähne dick" 234 l-2m/u "vorzüglichsten] Andalusien", 5-10m/w He means x - Hunter cross 13u "Yorkshire", 17u "die\ haarig", ÏÏ3u "Tigerpferde" 235 9u "Calabrien", Wu "Apulienl vorzüglich", 15u "Polnischen \ gleich", 1\3u "dass\ abnützen"\wx 236 2-7 m, IOw Pony 18u "Holsteinische", 19u "Mecklenburgische" 241 (err. printed 235) 4u "Hundzahne", 6-7u "fehlen \ kurz", 4-6m/w Fem* Mares Eye teeth absent or small: variable Owen says absent 275 1Î5m/u "von Natur" 285 wt There does not appear to be race of asses in each country. 4-8m/w Arabia Donkey very fine 8u "glattes", 12-18m/w smallness owing to climate (Peacocks do not flourish) 286 ÏÏ8-5m/w various colours 294 12u/a "mehr mütterlich" i.e. Ass 12-13w sometimes much mishapen 300 ÏÏ5-lm 309 zt, l-2m/xot 9 Central Europe Kinds of large Cattle 4m "übrigen Deutscher" 310 10-16m/w

These colours more plagued by Flies (I wonder if true) might bring in 312 1\3-lm 324 15-20w Change Bull to prevent inter se 358 5-7m/u± 359 ÏÏ14-13m, ÏÏ9-8m/w Horns in Female fail or are smaller 362 l-2m, 13-17m/w Q Hornless but sometimes appear, & are then not well fixed.- 365 8u++/mlw Hellenius case 378 12-14m/w Sheep with least mark often bring quite dark lamb- like Fox's fact 379 3-10w Certainly Ram gives wool most strictly heredetary \tl3-9m/w not interbreed 404 4-6m 425 6-7m/7u "lang herabhängenden", 16-17m 432 ïïll-lm, ÏÏ10-9m "WeinI höchsten", ÏÏ7m "obersten Theile", 1Î5« "dunkelbrauner", ÏÏ2u/wx, wb might be 2 species 433 3-4u "Feld\Bershirschen" 434 14- 15u "Pyrenäischen\ Gebirge", ÏÏ6-5m/M "SteinböckeI mittlem" 448 15~20w Fallow Deer various colours 449 ÏÏS-4m 457 î\14-10m 458 7-8u "gemeinisch\sind", 6-14m/w Q differences according to habitation 470 4-6m 491 fte-lm 505 llu "abgerundete", 12u "zugespitzte", ÏÏ7-lm/w Pigs wild & tame breed together & offspring fertile Q Qa> 507 flSu "vier", ÏÏ7m "etwas" 508 4-6m/w front teeth vary; sometimes 2 more in upper sometimes 2 more in under 5u/wx 509 M-lm/w Breeds tÎ4-2u± 510 ll-12u "Die\ Schweine", 16u/iox 517 6-15w white sows frequent 15 weeks speckled 18! Q 34m "zweymaV'lw breed twice 529 5-7w Wild Boar Dark colour 9m<->, 12-13w short more projecting ears 25m "hängende Schwänze" 530 10-15w Black hairs have brownish tips ÏÏ13-51...] 534 ÏÏ7-5m/o, ÏÏ4u++/w Twice a year on Heat 535 wt Wild Sow 18-20 weeks 3u "fünf\ zwölf" 536 (err. printed 436) 9-10m, 12-16w Many die of hunger in hard winters 14m "dochlfür", 16u "sechs\acht", 19u "zuweilen\ aussterben" 546 8-16mlw Believes in multiple origin of Hound 548 l-2m/lu "nurI Brüste" 549 5u "den \ murrend"lw voice different. 551 l-6w Fox like dogs like our Spitz 554 6a "2" subspecies Mastiffs 1tl2-lw> Big thick upturned snout; falling chops; slaving mouth; small hanging ears; Breed had flat long neck & thick - smooth short hair 558 6w Pug(?) 559 ïïlw 3d subspecies Hounds 560 4-12w Head round with ridge Ears very long -Body long - claws on after-toes 568 la "4" Spaniel* Poodle 569 8w Spaniel 572 8-10w hairs like Lion 15-16w Danish Dog 573 Ïï2w Newfoundland 574 5-7m/w Q skin between toes 14-15m\w not there in 1622 15-16w Greyhound 576 l-2w Italian Greyhound 578 Ü5-4w Terrier 579 1Î2-lw> Skye Terrier 584 ÏÏ6-5M "neun\Wochen"lw Wolf p. 617 wb 63-70 days 609 ÏÏ10-9m/M "jeder l Backenzähne",

[page break] 41

42

1\8-5w teeth different from Dog 617 1)22«; 77 days 1)22-20m/1)20w "2\trächtig", ÏÏ9-5mft8u "selbstgegrabenen Loch" 627 6u "Spielarten", 9-10m/u±, tÎ9-5w Q tip of tail variable 1Ï3-2m/ 628 3-8m 638 ä> 5-7m/a; Q 653 1)22-Sm/o> differ in habits ïïll-8w degenerate easily ÏÏ6m/wb Tortoiseshell! 654 6u/wx 663 f)20-3m, u>& Extraordinary increase of Mice in Isld of Placida when cats all destroyed.- 674 15m/u "bringt \ blinde" 675 4-8m 682 5u "zwey Zoll"I w ear tufts 2 inches long 702 5-12m/! 786 4u "gewöhnlich Iselten" 795 ïïll-7w more than litis wild MardO on prowlO p786 850 2-4m, 7-8m, 13-16m 932 ll-14m/llu "zweyen Jahrhunderten", 1)2m/«<-> 950 9-llm/w Q Black & Brown Rat W-5m/w Q 984 1)24-7m/ w Water Rats like Snakes inhabit dry & wet places 1032 1)22w Arctomys Marmot 1)20-9m, ÏÏ8-4m 1046 ÏÏ4-2m 1047 3-5m, 7-9m 1078 wi In relation to mankind - we cannot account for it.- 9-12m/w black very common 12u "gewöhnlich]Bauch", ÏÏ3-lm/wb these 3 seem to arise out of cross of red & black, but no evidence. 1079 wt N.B It must be remembered that B is not to be trusted about species 9-10u "mit weissen", ll-12u±/ w* Then this is Fox var. 23-24« "mit\ Schwänze", Ü7-5m/x, iï4u/art, wb when these vars cross offspring intermediately blended.

1\5-3m/wb all the vars of colours cross

1)22-5m 1095 Xw In several cases he has utterly rejected the Hunters varieties & therefore may be trusted, when he admits them. 1)22w He has the L varieties, besides. 1\ll-9u±, 1)2-2 m/-», wb no difference in any respect 1096 7w Nothing f)2m 1097 2m 1119 f)6-2m Rabbits will not breed with Hares, after many attempts 1121 ttS-6m 1123 6m/u "vier\ acht", 14m/u "mehrentheils viermal", 1)7-3m 1128 1Ï5m/u (colours) 1131 1Î20m/w "vier\ Junge" 1133 ÏÏ9-5m/w become grey after some generations. 1136 16u<->/w short ears, round head 18u "oft I lang", 19u/wx

vol. 2 NB p4*; Frisch Birds - Not in Linn

Soc

Pigeon PI. 143-151

Cock Tab. 127-137

p400 on Pigeons of this Book to p404

p396 Fowls nothing in Frisch

p1150; 1168; 1170; 1184; 1187 to 1204;

1271

SBQß

p400 Trumpeter in 1739

p404 some crossing domestic Pigeons I

think read

396 l-4m/w From same parents legs feathered & not. 400 wb Frisch 1739 402 2-

3m/w will cross with others, & has crossed with Trumpeter & Jacobin.- 9u "Schleyertabin", ll-16w It is not true that Hawks cannot catch. 404 5u "weisswarzigen", 5w Pavodetto 8m/w very large 463 "243 ".m 1150 1)20-7m, 1)3-2m/1)2w "triß\voll" 1151 13-14u*+, %m 1168 1)22-9m 1170 22-24m, 1)22-9m/1)22« "habe ich"/Ü9u "gesehen''/w C corone & cornix 1171 6-9w Dwarfs occasionally born ïïll-8m, 1\7u "Jungen\ Alten", 1)5-2m, ÏÏ5u "gemischt \gesteckt" 1174 5-7m 1184 1)27-2m/w crows following a little dog which used to catch mice 1186 "Naumanns Vögel".w where 1187 3« "Raubenkrähe\hat"/3-4m, 9-lOm/u^/w Beyond Ober 1)22u "Sie I grösser" 1189 1)23-9m/w The grey colour only an exaggeration of base colour of all crows 1194 15-16m 1204 f)20-7m 12711)22«; Magpie 1)9-5m

vol. 3 SB Qß

299 Peacock more fertile in India, but

Temminck Gallinaceae better reference

309 Caudal feathers vary in Turkey - Q

316 number of eggs in Tame Turkey

335 Range of wild Fowls - Acosta only

authority for American Origin

337 Fowl has 14 Caudals

339 Breed of Hens with Spurs, good layers

p.410

355,6 In Capons, Tail & Comb continue

growing. They • castrate Hens. NB Great

variability of Comb, & in Spurs, variation of

Secondary Male Characters

400 Cocks have not enlarged skull in

Polands, only Hens!

406 Frizzled Cock with split Feathers Spurs

various; Hens have sometimes.

N.B. Ld Spencer has shown how maturity &

size of cattle increased & quite lately we

have seen this in Ducks & Geese- When

no record kept, wd not be observed & yet cd

go on slowly.-

xv Zm/w Read (refers to pp. 293-500) 299 1Î22-22m 309 4u "Anzahlest" 316 ÏÏ5u/wx, wb 54, ie 27 each 335 24u "Acosta"/w Acosta alone says Fowls American 1)2-2 m/u "Morella\Hühner" 337 4u "vierzehn"'/w 14 tail 339 1)8-5m/a; Qa> Breed of Hens with spurs good layers; but the spurs disturb the nest 355 ÏÏ10-6m 356 5-9m 396 1)8« "Kamm\ Fleischlavpen" 399 1)24«äi "angefressenen Kopf", 1îl6-13m/w Canaries î\7-5m 400 5w Has Cocks 8-12w Cocks can withstand this deformity. What says Blumenbach? 10-llw Hen-poultry 1)7u "habeI bemerkt", Uulwx, ÏÏ3ul wx, wb Hahn Huhne 403 4-6m/QÄ> 406 4-8w wing feathers always split 1t22wA> "Japan"

[page break] 43

44

BECHSTEIN, DEUTSCHLAND

407 wt Spurs but in Cochin? tuft l-4m/w spurs various Qa>, 4u "sehr langen" 410 25-18m 434 1Ï3-2m/QA> 796 5z

vol. 4 SB1 09t

p3; p13; p14; p. 31 edge of caudal.- coloured

to p. 47 - swallow-tailed Pigeon Pigeons

Canary Birds

p454 difference in disposition of Canaries

p462 - if 2 top-knotted canaries are paired

there come bald or birds with wound on

head

p465 lay 3-4 times

p468 Hybrids.

487* 487* 478

SB2Qß

Bechstein Vol 4

p5 C. oenas Q pairs with tame (nothing said

about fertility of offspring)

p14 C. livia varies most in colour of rumpi &

is not true in this respect Q

17 do not mix* associate readily with Fancy
Pigeons

47 Swallow-tailed Pigeon Q

31 Outer Tail feather on outer edge coloured

like body of Pigeon X

454 Great differences in disposition in

Canary Birds

462 If you pair 2 crown-turned Canary Birds,

crown will be bald, & skull fail.

465 Canary Birds will lay 3- to 4 times (no

* wild Finch will do this)

468, 478 Q Hybrids of Canary Birds, various

genera - Hybrids of Siskin & Goldfinch

breed inter se, but at first small eggs & weak

young

vii 4~8mjw Read ix "Canarienvogel".m/w Read xi "Zweyter Anhang".m* xii 6-9m 3 tteu "paart I bleiben"/w pairs with tame -> 4 2u "zahnen\zu" 13 Ü9-5m/w House Pigeon with black Bars common in Germany 14 lu "Feldtauben"/wt The field Pigeon great vary in rump l-6m/w For those with blue rumps bring grey, with white & reverse 15 ÏÏ5m/u "bey \ dunkler" 16 15-22w with Bars & white Rump 1/2 wild in towers &c, &c- 17 ÏÏ2-2m

18 8~15w Field Pigeons vary when fed by
man ÏÏ22u "Liebhaber", fÏ5u "gedüpfelte"jw the
chequered Dovecot 1\l2-8m/w, xvb has
watched how the wild vary as he gives order
of appearance, I suppose may be trusted;
but then gives Jacobin! Did he judge by
commonness of variation? Does not say that
crossing avoided- 19 ÏÏ2-2« dass\setzen" 21
1Ï3-2m 23 13-17m/xv chequered ÏÏ7-lm/wb
The ash-grey chequering sometimes
disappears leaving the black chequering
more conspicuous 25 ÏÏ7m/u "grosse\

Feldtauben" 26 7-9m/8-9u*+, ll-14m/w crosses 27 4w 1795 7-12w Swallow thin feathered legs scarcely larger than Dovecot 9u "dünn", llu "kaum merklich" 31 l-4m/w edge of outer tail feathers coloured like body. Like white & black bars. 32 l-2w Satz of Neumeister 35 ÏÏ22u "aber \ über" 47 6w as a Plate, I suppose must have seen it 7-14m, 18m 101 4-5m/5-6u "baldlmehr", ll-13m/? 454 1Î7-2m 462 wt For feathers are parted & the parting gets wider & wider.- 5-8m/Q&>, 9-12m/w Mr Brent believes llu/wx, 12u/wx 465 9-llm/9u "viermal" 466 4m 468 u/wz 469 6wx, 7u "zeugen IJunge", 7-12m/Q 478 (err. printed 487), 3-4m, 16u/wx, ÏÏ4u "Loxia Chlovis" 487 202«^ 903 "Eisvogel".wt to 927 "Fieplerche".w IV

BECHSTEIN, Johann Matthäus Naturgeschichte der Stubenvögel Halle; Hennemann; 1840 [CUL, S]

beh, br, cc, es, ex, f, fg, gd, he, hy, in, mg, no, or, pat, sx, ta, tm, ud, v, wd, y

NB1 I thought of comparing rarity of English

6 German Birds after p210

There is very little information, except by

inference, about fertility of the crossed

canary-birds =

NB2 It is surprising how many birds have

been introduced as cage birds

p1 to 7

-20 -40 83,4 105 skimmed

107 Memory; 108 var; 112 do; 114 range;

137; 138; 145; 177,185,155; 192 var; 196;

205; 210; 212; 215; to 253 to 256 to end -

SB Qß <2 sheets)

2 Birds understand each others cries

4 Singing male attribute to charm females

7 Voice of Birds improves by practice Q

20 (he means 40) Remarks on rarity of Cage

Birds breeding, except such as Canary used

to confinement

83 Psittacus large eggs but unfertilised 105

exception

XX 106 Pi* 142Q Different facilities in

learning in Bullfinches p231 Q Different

characters in canaries (as in man) - 267 Q

in Larks taken wild 139 Bullfinch

occasionally breeding

139 Canary male Bullfinch female (Canary

female Greenfinch male p. 145)

185 Male losing sexual character in

confinement - 215 Linnet do. 219. do.

205 Habit Chaffinch has Q different song in

different places - 265 Q Larks sing

differently individually

210 Can cross House & Tree Sparrow, but

[page break] 46

45

not reciprocal (224 on canaries do) Q

212 on comparative rarity of House & Tree

Sparrow

221 vars of Goldfinch, 222

230 Easier to pair Siskin with Canary of

same colour

Origin of Canaries & Hybrids of (p347) Hybrids) Q

Thinks want of exercise great cause of variation.-

(over)

239 Hybrid of Canary & F Species always
takes after latter in colour & shape Q#>

242 good Breeders rare amongst Canaries

247 In Birds reared from nest, either sex will
do to match with Canaries Q

248 Certain that Hybrid Canaries & Q
Goldfinches & Siskins will breed inter se [but
first young are weak]

247* Has himself crossed Bull-finch &

Canaries N.Q

252 Canaries sing till they kill themselves.

262 Several cases of Birds in dark places

losing brilliancy of colour (Ch 7) p. 300 do

289 Garrulus lived 12 years

293 Q for instinct Migratory & Home

Thrushes can be distinguished - probably do

not cross (V Brehm)

312 Nightingale once exterminated do not

reappear (shows less abroad)

318 Nightingale sometimes breed in cage
surrounded by green boughs

319 live to 15 years old - even 25 years
322 Nightingale different Q prowess of
singers, some are night singers, inherited
403N.Q I think mistake C. oenas & livia (No)
But says nothing on fertility of Hybrids

418 case of Quail Breeding

title page tl3m 2 10-17w not aboriginal! turkey & »«-en understand others s*- of fear 15u&> "Zaunkönige verständlich" 3 5-6x, ÏÏ22u "Locktöne"/w understood by many species 4 10-17w from happiness or love ÏÏ22-22w "Denn I Weibchen"/1\l5-llm/w few females sing in widowhood ÏÏ6-5m/u± 5 Ïïl5-lm/wb different species learn with different facilities -» 7 ÏÏ23-22u "weil\ Männchen"/w larynx not so strong in female 1Î5-3« "dass\wird", ÏÏ5a/ wx, ÏÏ5-lm/wb improved by practice 20 ÏÏ8-3m 40 lot V Blaines Encyclop of Sport. (Athe) whether Falcons were bread or continually fresh caught - good case of difficulty of breeding, after thousands of attempts on European bird. l-20xv Elephants occasionally breeding may be compared to the mule occas. doing so 58 6V 61 ÏÏ22V 67 15V 83 ÏÏlOw Psittacus macao ÏÏ5-3m/ÏÏ5-4u "Bei\

unbefruchtet", 1Î2-» 84 2-4m/4u "aufgezogene", 5u "nur\zahnen" 89 Ux/u "pfeifen" 105 26-27m/u<->, 17-20m/x, wb it is known how very long pigeons live in confinement - .-. not diseased. 106 W-lm 108 15-20m 112 l-4m, 1Ï23-3m 114 25-28m 137 ÏÏ20-3m 138 22-20m, ÏÏ24orc, tl3m/u "wie\Vögeln", ÏÏ9-8m/ÏÏ8u+> 139 ÏÏ4-3m/u "bringen\auf" 142 ÏÏ20-5m 144 ÏÏ4m/u "Alter der" 145 2-6m 155 23-2Sm 177 4r-5m 185 1l3-lm/x, wb X I think I have overlooked some analogous facts 192 ÏÏ2m/u "Spielarten" 193 2-2m 196 20-22m 205 10-22m 210 ÏÏ9-8u "ein\gerathen"/w Tree Sparr. 2111t3u "Fringilk montana" 212 9-llm/w still rarer in England 215 9-22m 218 28-22m 219 27-28m 221 1t6-4m 222 fÎ28-24m, ïïllSm, 1t3u "kohkchwan" 224 ^9-5mß6u "wenn\mit" 229 14-16m/15u "DeutschlandIgemein" 230 14-19m/15u "die\gleichen"I18u "sogenannten" 236 ïïl9-18m/u+>, ttSu "ohne\vermehrten", ÏÏ4-3mfÏÏ3u "erzogen. Anfänglich", ïïlu/wx 237 2-4m, 6-20m, 1\ll-8mfillu/wz/wb origin 1Î3-lm 238 U-12u±J12u/wx, 14r-15m/15u "oft ausserordentlich", u8-5m[Ü5u "sehr einfaches" 239 l-2m/Q/2u "Farbe I Gestalt" 242 6-20m/ Q/&/2ÛU "Oder\ spät", zb 243 2-2m 245 6-8m/ 8u "alle\ möchten" 247 wt X F. linaria 6-7m/u "und I Bastarde", 9-18m/15u "Männchen I bei", H23a/wi, 1\2l-l7m, 1\l6u/wz, ÏÏ25-24u "Erfahrung I die", ïïlla/wx, tl5-4m 248 3m/wt F. spinus or Siskin 2a[wx, 3u "wieder unter", 2-3m/Q 5-7m/Q 251 ÏÏ22W "Das\Stube", \tl6m/u "Verschidenheit\ Temperamente", 1Î5m 252 2-3m/wx, 8u "Adern I zersprengen", 9u "herabfallen I sind", 15-21w related song 20-21m/u "derIfortpflanzt" 256 ll-12m/u "Sie\ bei" 262 6m/u "das\gemeissen" 264 12-13m/u± 265 1t8-4m/u± 267 1\3-2m/u++/wb corporeal virtue & vice 282 3-5m 283 ÏÏ3-2m 289 23m/w "zwölf" 293 29-22m, Hl2-19m, 1tS-6m/Q/« "welche \fremde" 294 Zw Nothing said about breeding in dornest. 13w The thrush 299 ÏÏ23-20m 301 2-4m 308 20-21m/u "sind\ Farbe" 309 zb 310 8m/u "bisISchweden", ÏÏ3-lm 311 ÏÏ6-5m/u "wenn I leider" 312 wt The numbers of Nightingales in Europe in summer have no relation to amount of food for them. 5wx, 7-12m/w This helps to show at what period the Sylviadae are destroyed. 15-18mlw think with respect to Malthus. 1Ï26-lOm/w instincts dormant for one year 313 3-4m/u "Da\ reisen" 318 tÏ27-23m/1Î23u "zuweilen bewerkstelligte" 319 2m "fünfzehn", 3u "bemerkt\Orte", 6-7m/u "fünf\ist" 322 25-20m/16u "nun\Schweden" 323 17-20m/17u "Es INachtigallen", ÎÎ22-23m/tt20w "weiss aus", Ü12-llm 329 7-14m/12u "Dieseleiner" 330 2-7m 332 4-8m 333 ÏÏ6-4m 346 tÏ7m 356 ÎÎ6-5m/

[page break] 48

47

BECHSTEIN, STUBENVÖGEL

u "einige\um" 362 1Ï20m/u "viel matter" 377 ÏÏ24m/u<-> 383 4-6m 387 16-21m/ 17 u "Varietät" 397 1Î9-5m/w appears not uncommon 403 ll-15m, fÎ8-6m 406 8-9m/w "tritt \ Jungen" 407 ïïll-10m/w Columba risoria 408 8-20«±, U-12m, 16-20m, 1Ï23u " stets" ßl4-12m, Hl2u "grösser werden"'/ÏÏ13-10m 409 3m/w "acfa /öftre", 23-25m, ÏÏ7« "unsere\schön" 411 2-3m 418 12-15mll5u "Jene\aus" 423 17-19m/18u/wx 424 ÏÏ15-14m/ ÏÏ24u "die\ Jahre" 428 ÏÏ22-6m 436 <err. printed 466) ft23-22m

BEECHEY, Frederick William Narrative of a voyage to the Pacific Philadelphia; Carey and Rea; 1832 [CUL, on B] geo, ti

36 39-45m 49 3-17m, 26-31m 120 27-28"...", 28-35m 136 wt Put this note to Matilda Isld wb+ Redo this Some of isld steeper • 18-21w before 49 years 24-25w in 1767 26-30m, 32m 137 wt who was Wallis l-3m 143 wb Here there is no explanation of ledge 19-21m, 27- 39m, 37-42m 160 7-Um, 13-Uu "generaUfathoms", 13-15z 165 16-45m 166 2-45m, 20-22« "instance\ usual", 27-29u± 167 wb 67 2u "equally narrow", 14-17m, 15-17w like hill not Crater 27-22m 168 13-43m, 22-24w Earthquake wave 169 4~40m 170 l-44m T74 35-42m 200 6-25w Note if same occurs to Beagle 15-25m, 15-25m 209 4-25m 211 4-22m 212 38-43m 213 2-2m, 40-43m 231 w& 00 314 44w 180lbs 444 32-37m

BELL, Charles The anatomy and philosophy of

expression London; John Murray; 1844 [CUL,

S E. Darwin 1844 to Ch. Darwin Nov. 28

1866]

beh, h, phy, y

NB p. 110 sneering muscles; p. 131 snarling muscles; 158 Pain; Wood-cuts of muscles 99 p. 107 109 p. 261 general title page wb 1844 first Edit in 4to 1806. 2d Edn in 1824.- facing iii fig.wt 13 3m, 14m 38 24-32m/24-31w add or more strictly bones of the jaw in comparison of Negro & European 27a "jaw" two 64 20m 82 7-8m, 12u "alupon" 84 4-5m 85 20-24m/23-24u^, 26-27 ml26u "office" 86 25-27 m, 27 u "emotions I developed", 29a "heart" but why? 87 27-28.', 17-18u "instrument I mental" 88 2-24m, 5w fear 21-23w traces of sobbing, 22-25m, 32-33m, 32"... 89 2-2m, 2...", 3-6m, 11-16m 90 6-8m, 6-7w ie Heart & Lungs 7w Why? 20-22m, 29-30w see C. Bernard 91 9-22 m, 9-22w because screams natural consequence 16-19m, 31-33m, 33u "double"

92 3-4u++, 9-13m 94 28-30m 95 2-3m/2a "of" moaning & screaming, 8-22m, 15-18m, 16u "serves I economy", 21-23m, 22-24m, 22-23u "That I from", 23-26m, 24u "extending) surface", 25u "parts I exposed" 96 3-9w albino negros blush, so not to exhibit expression.-14-15m 98 wt If all muscles are common to apes, this can hardly be case 2m, 2-6m, 20-22m, 23m 99 6-8m, 19-20m 100 3-22m 101 27-28m 102 6m, 18-24m, 26-31m, 24u "straight", 30u "oblique" 103 9-12m/"... 105 17-20m, 24-26m/25u "laughter I sneezing", 24-33"... 106 2-4...", 4-7m, 4c, 9-13m, 13-15m, 16-27m, 29-33ml"..."lwe 107 22-23m, 22-24w in passion distended nostrils 108 19-22m 109 fig.w/wb (explanation of fig.) 110 22-22 m 111 22w M. mentalis 21-25m 114 4-9m 117 28m "expression I speaking ", 19u "modulation I lip ", 21-22m 118 22m, 28m, 28-29m 120 23-28m 121 3-5m, 13-15m, 16-18m, 20-22m 122 6-9m, 9-14m/w, 18-21w & ears not depressed 30~32mfw so threaten other males 123 26-22ml?, 19u "retrovertedleye", 20-21u "sol blow" 126 4-5m, 15-16m 131 2-3m/w because retained 14-17m, 21-22u "Their \ canine" 132 22-25m, 26-30m 133 3-5m 135 2-3m 136 25-29m 137 2-9m/?, 5u **, 7u "they\ eyebrows", ll-14m/U-12w monkeys have? Owen 12-14w frowning good 13-16m, 15-16m, 16w this in man but no but not the M 17-22w I have seen well developed in monkeys incessantly clenching skin over eyes 26-30m, 30-33m, 30-31u "a\animals" 138 4-6m, 41, 4u "arching of", 12-17w I suspect he never dissected monkey. 29u "expressing I fear"\18-20wDog !!! 139 3-5m, 4-5u "muscle\expression", 6u "sign\altered", 14-19m, 16a "oris" or triangular oris 22?, 23u "weeping", 28-31m 140 9-22m, 22-24m, 24-27m, 29-35m 147 l-4m, 6-9m, 16-21m, 28-31m, 31u "system I nerves" 148 l-2w Disputed by Marshall Hall 149 6-8?, 15u "lacrymaU infected"lw not in Babys 31-33m 150 2-3m, 9-28m, 9-2407 upturned corners give look of silly complacency 25m, 29-34m, 29-32m, 30u "elevated shoulders" 151 3-6m, 5-6Q 20-24m 152 zt, 16-21m/w but are very little under the will 25-26m 153 wt in Laughter brows are brought down & arched 2-6m, lw [gr Zygomatic?] 154 10-13m, 10-llu "tremor\ excitement", 28m, 35m 155 7-8m 158 4-8m, 9-12m, 16-21m, 24-30m 159 4m 160 22m 163 24-28m 164 2-5m, 22-24m, 29-33m 165 8-12m 166 fig.w shoulders raised, 8-22m 167 28-401...], 30-40m, 34-37m 168 2-3m 169 4-5m, 10-llm, 13-14m, 21-22u++ 170 3-6m, 8m 171 24-27m 172 8-23m 174 3-22m, 5-20m, 5-7"...", 22"..." 176 8-23m 177 8-26m, 9-20a; no

[page break] 50

49

muscle keeps still 178 2-4m 180 9-12m 183

14-15tn 185 29m 189 5-8m, 9-12m 190 5-7m,

12-15m, 22-26m, 29-33m 193 10-13m 194 9-

20m, 25-26m 197 24-26m* 198 26-22m 211

2S-22m 214 22m 219 9-25m

Appendix "On the nervous system" by

Alexander Shaw, pp. 231-258

243 25-37m/-> 244 32-36m 248 23-30m 249

22-2 6m 252 2-4m 257 28-37'm

Explanation of plates, pp. 259-265

(u, w henceforth names of muscles) 261 7u, 8w,

15u, 15-16w, 19-21w, 23-26m/24r-26w, wb*

262 2m/w, 12m/w, 14m, 14-15w*, 16m/w,

21m, 21-24x0, 24m/w, 32m/?

BELL, Charles The hand 9th edn; London; George Bell & Sons; 1874 [Down]

37 5m 77 25m 89 24m 111 22m

BELL, John & Charles The anatomy and physiology of the human body 6th edn, 3 vols.; London; Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown and Green; 1826 [Down, pre-B, ED]

BELT, Thomas The naturalist in Nicaragua London; John Murray; 1874 [CUL, S] beh, cc, ds, f, gd, geo, h, mhp, mm, oo, phy, sp

NBl (much not CD)

Page 23 26 Ants

28 Ants helping each other

28 Ants

112 Humming Birds S S

118 Monkey & Eagle - (CD:) give case I do

not allude to Mivart - Probably after

Rengger, just allude to Belt on •

171 Indians

196 Cockatoos protected - Toucan

198 Toucans

209 Ticks

Acacia &. ants protecting them

Nectar protecting plants (CD:) by ants 250 Skunk

260 Glacial

291 Nests of wasps

Butterflies protection & ants & spiders (CD:) resemblance

Lampyridae

do (CD:)

Frog protected by colour 334 FW area continuous

Protection

do

NB2 ♦ These references apply only to facts

useful for Descent of Man

♦70 Phaseolus not frequented by Humble-

bees & sterile

p. 333 Wide distribution of FW shells &

Coleoptera

207 Romanes

SB a> p. 19 Phalangidae escaping ants by

lifting one after the other their long legs.

23 Blindness of Eciton an advantage in

keeping them together

26 sympathetic help of ants

74. Leaf-cutting ants determines existence of

trees & plants in S. America

77 ants rolling loads down steep slope

79 one of leaf-cutting - p. 83

grass brought by mistake

83 learnt danger by experience from

carriages on Railways

p 119 intellect & art of Monkeys

p 219. Bulls Horn mimosa & ants

p 222 Ants & Melastomataceae

260 Glacial deposits.

291 Birds building close to wasp-nests

316 Mimickry. mostly used p. 383 do.

334. Causes why F. Water productions have not given rise to any new species - not continuous under same conditions

lzb7 2-8m, 3u "polygamous" 19 19-22m 23 23-26m 24 22-20m 26 6-26m, 25-30m 28 24-32m 70 22-23m/26-29«<-> 74 3-26m, 27-31m 75 9-22m 77 2-6m 78 26-20m 79 22-23m 83 26-2Sm, 28-32m 112 5-21[...]\6-21m, 20-24c 118 5-22m, 8Q 23« "Cebus" 119 6-9m 128 3-8m 132 15-19m, 22"..., 22c, 23c, 25c 133 wt Mr Belt says that he watched many flowers during a whole season & 3-4"..."Il-4m, 6-23m 134 14-26w this accounts for the orifice being closed 171 2-24m 196 ÏÏ6-2m 197 29-27m 198 5-23m 206 22-30m 207 5m, 51...A, 24w no no 26w races have 208 23..Jä>, 23-26m 209 9-24m 219 22-2Sm 222 5-22m 250 l-4m 260 22-32m 291 20-32m 316 20-32m

20-24m, 20m "family I as", 12u "Lampyridae", 12m, 13u "genera", 14-18m, 15u "were invariably", 16u "not touch", wb over

7m, 7-14m 320 13-20m, 16m, 16-17u "out\eatable" 321 3-24m, 15-23m 334 22-24w no Water Birds 24-30m 335 22-25?, 26-28? 336 2-2m 383 7-24m 384 25-28m 385 3-6m, 7-161..."'*, 8-25m, 8a "wing" is

BENEDEN, Pierre Joseph van Mémoire sur les vers intestinaux (Suppl. aux Comptes rendus hébd. des séances de l'Acad. des Sciences, vol. 2); and

BRONN, Heinrich Georg Essai "Étudier les lois de la distribution . . . "; Paris; Maller-Bachelier; 1861 [CUL] em, geo, hl, tm, y

[page break] 51

52

Beneden p

Bronn

SA (pp. 594-595)

p513 to 542; 555,556; 560; 580 Hot Springs 513 1t6-4m 514 8-9m 516 5-20m, 20-25m, 1Î3— lm/w Bronn preceded 517 l-4m, 7-llm, 10-13m, ÏÏ2w Bronn jpreceded 519 3-4m, 17-19m 520 22-25m 525 ïï9w "division I travail", 1t6-4m (Milne-Edwards)[Ü4u "diversification" 526 20-20zo Best discussion on Highness & Lowness- 20-25m/21u "PourIanimaux"'/22u "minimum \ chaque" 527 l-5m 528 S-9m 534 1-lOxv Ruminants when young have bones typical & distinct - Hence embryo higher than mature animal 13-lSm, 17-24m 536 wt Land animals higher than aquatic 2-27m 540 14-18m 542 5-Um 555 2-9m 556 2-8m, ÎÎ8-5mß6u "un\des" 560 2S-23m 580 Xmlw Hot Spring 581 2-Sm, tÎ4-3m

BENTHAM, George Handbook of the British flora London; Lovell Reeve; 1858 [CUL]

NB D

ix 4-9m xiii 20m (Babington), 12-13m (markings not CD, except possibly:) 32 4-7m 71 "Opium Poppy".w Down 106 "2".w W 119 "3".w Norfolk 130 "T'.w Wight 137 "2".w I of 139 "T'.w Isl of Wight 153 "V.w Norfolk 154 "2".m 161 "3".m 163 2-3m 165 "2".w I of W 181 "l".w Down Isl of Wight "5".w Isl of Wight 193 "2".w Norfolk 207 "2".u> Norfolk I of Wight 223 "7".w Somewhere 229 ÏÏ13x/u "in I hairs", î\2x/u "covered \ down" 230 22-22*/ u "less I plant"\w Norfolk 1\lx/u "and" 231 2u "down" 232 9-10m/x/u "and\hairy" 234 "2".w (Hflrf)field 277 "9 ".to Norfolk 279 "V.w Isl of Wight 292 "l".w I of W 315 "8".w I of W 317 "V.w I of W 405 "3".w Norfolk 420 "2".w of Wight "2".w field 453 "2".w^ Down 70 475 "2".c, "3".c476 "4".c, "5".c, "6".c 477 ÏÏ26x/u "Common \ Britain" 478 "20".*, "22"x "22".* 479 "24 "x "25".* 503 "2".w; I of W 525 "2 ".w%> Down 70 530 "2 ".w^ Cambr

BENTHAM, George Handbook of the British flora London; Lovell Reeve; 1858 [CUL, another copy]

BENTHAM, George and HOOKER, Joseph Dalton Genera plantarum vol. 1 i-iii, vol. 2 i-ii, vol. 3 i-ii; London; Reeve & Co.; 1862-83 [Botany School]

vol. 1 ii, 441 30m, 40m, 49m, 53m 442 6m, 30m, 34m*, 37m, 39m, 42m 443 6m, 16m, 51m 444 3m, 6m, 8m, 18m, 51m 445 20m, 26m 446 9-12m, 13m, 24m, 26m, 53m 447 2m, 6m, 46m

448 llm\9-12w also see Linnaeus 449 7m, 30m, 53m, 55m 450 49m, 55m 451 3m, 35m, 46m, 55m 452 26m, 24m 453 27m 456 26m 458 50m, 53-55m 459 2-2m, 7m/w Gleditschia Duchata 460 29m 461 23m 463 29m, 29m, 39m, 45m, 48m, 51m 464 6m, 18m vol. 1 iii, 951 33u "PetalaMmbricata", 35u "Petala valvata"

vol. 2 i, 10 33m 11 9m, 14m 14 22m, 27m, 37m 16 45m 17 32m 21 28m 24 6m, 7m, 26m 25 22m 26 29m 27 38m, 54m vol. 2 ii p

vol. 3 i p

vol. 3 ii (after CD's death)

BERJEAU, Philibert The varieties of dogs London; Dulau & Co.; 1863 [Down]

IBERKENHOUT, John] Clavis anglica linguae botanicae, or, a botanical lexicon London; Becket, de Houdt, Hawes, Clarke & Collins; 1764 [CULR, pre-B, S]

ad 20m ac2 ll-12m, 16-17m ap 22m/u± ar2 4-6m cal 27-28m ca5 4-6m cil 19-23m cl 22-22m co5 5-6m crl 27-29m cr2 8-9m cu2 24-25m, 28-29m, 20-22m dil2 lS-29m em 20-21m er 3~4m, 23m fi2 22m, 18-19m, 21-23m, 24-25m gel 20-22m gll 2-2m, 28-29m ha2 22-23m, 29-20m hi 3m im 7-8m in4 25-27m la3 17-19m li2 25-27m me 23- 24m mul 23-24m mu3 5-7m ob 5-7m oc 2-2m op 3-4m ou 7-8m, 13-19m pel 8-9m pl2 21-22m, 25m pl3 2-3m prl 5-7m, ll-13m pr2 3-4m qui 24-25m re2 3-5m ri 14-15m, 17-18m, zb sel 28-29m se2 23-24m se3 22m, zb se4 26-27m so 5m st4 5-6m sul 20m, 16-18m su3 29-20m to 5-6m tri 7-8m tr4 6m tul 9-22m va2 8-9m vel 22-22m ve2 2-2m, 27-28m uni 20m, 22-23m

BERNARD, Claude Leçons sur les phénomènes de la vie communs aux animaux et aux végétaux Paris; T.B. Baillière et fils; 1879 [CUL (2nd vol. only)] che, phy

77 5-llw glycogen but no sugar in muscles 80 23-28m 327 23-26m 333 27-29m

BERNARD, Claude Leçons sur les propriétés des tissus vivants Paris; Germer Baillière; 1866 [CUL] beh, che, et, phy

NB ♦

The last Chapter on the Heart perhaps concerns Expression.-

[page break] 54

53

p 369 Ton Muscul Begun p 332 349 will explain blushing p. 337 for Drosera SB (2 sheets)

<1>

21 ♦; 22*

164 Contraction of vegetable cell - Drosera;

drawing of cell; Drosera p. 177* p. 210,

p.337

177- Wourara affects nerve & not muscle

210 upas digitalis act on muscle

337 Strychnine affects sensitive nerves

Drosera

Bernard Tissus Vivants

[Hence it is wonderfully important that after

strychnine a tonal does not produce

movement - when most absorbed does do

so]

<2>*

April 20 1871

p. 310 not contiguity

316 spreading of irritation

321 Reversed nerve current

336.-Bears on spreading of effect of

emotions.

353 profound contrast between voluntary &

reflex actions.- latter most powerful when

decapitated - Bears on weeping -

358 bears on individual effects of emotions

371 ; 384

397.- so Paget wrong

409 Name of vaso-motor system - 410

457 so quite independent of Habit certainly

so.- But even here it may be habit which

makes nervous power so readily follow this

course.-

(over)

p354 Action of Brain checks reflex actions of

many kinds Blushing & * as the reflex

action is to keep capillaries closed, if this is

interfered with, there will be blush

p452, 457 Pneumogastrique irritated checks

or stops action of Heart, thus a severe pain

in any part act through the nose

(See H.H. says * thinking about the action

of the Heart interferes with circulation)

Nearest analogy very good for Blushing

My case of sneezing - about breathingO

p 459 direct action on Heart but why, except

for habit, does the * sensitive nerve, acting

on brain influence the pneumogastrique.-

<sr^ very slight sensation initially affects

Heart

46* 461, 463 reciprocal action of Brain on

circulation & vice versa; syncope direct for

heart

464 Reverse action & 466 direct action

21 14-21m 22 15-17m, 20-23m 177 3-4m, 21-22m 178 9-12m 210 29u "digitaline" 310 20u "non I " 311 l-3m, lu "contiguïté" 316 6-10m, 13-16m 321 1-7 m 336 26-29m 337 15u "nerfs \ mouvement", 20u "animal I curare", 21-24m 353 17-25m, 20u "augmententIétendue", 21u "souvent I diminuer", wb V -> & p. 358 354 2-5m, 6-9m, llu++, 19-23m, 24-29m, 25-26u "Cest \ réflexes" 355 4-6m 358 l-2m, ll-16w between all the reflex actions ll-18m, 16-18u++, 21-28m/24-28w this is better than Müller wb Allude to Müller & give newer views 370 22-28m 371 2-6m 384 12-17m/12-14w reflex actions very special 397 wt + salivary gland acts by relaxation of arteries 2-8m, 15-18m, 18u "cette I paralysante", 20m/u "mais I sympathique"/w a wb Hence in a blush some nerves from sensorium must paralyse the vaso-motor ganglia 400 wt The experiment of the arrow shows that much not affected only * nerves, but these allow the vaso* capillaries to expand, & this expansion I presume causes flow of saliva 409 24-29m/-+ 410 9-28w I suppose when we burn from sensitive nerve causing impression to the cerebro-spinal ganglia & then paralyse the sympathetic & cause it to relax the vessels 17-20m, wb When we think intently of a part the part of brain which receives the sensitive nerves from part in question is affected, & this * influences the cerebro-spinal ganglia - 411 l-7m, 22-24m 439 15m&> 452 26-29m 453 l-6m 457 22-29m\ ->, 24u "douloureuse" 458 2Sw<-> 459 l-6m, 12-17m 460 19-22m, 21-22u++ 461 14-19m 463 23« "pâleur des", 15-17m 464 24-29m 465 466 2-7m 485 6-12m/7-8w Ton 486 24-29m\ 25-26w Ton? 488 26-27m 489 14-15m, 25-26m 490 14m, 20-26m, 31-32m, 32u "Ton musculaire" 491 20-21m

BERNHARDI, Johann Jacob Über den Begriff der Pflanzenart und seine Anwendung Erfurt; Friedrich Wilhelm Otto; 1834 [CUL] cc, ch, ds, f, fg, gd, he, hy, ig, mn, no, or, phy, rd, sp, spo, sy, t, tm, v, wd

SB G9Î

Bernhardi

4. Definition of various forms of species Q

7. slight differences going with white var.

8 on Anagallis - argues for A. collina Q

12 one-leafed Strawberry, heredetary

14 on lacinated and curled leaves common

to many genera

30 on Panicum ciliare turns into C.

sanguinale Q

35 on vars. of some grapes very constant

[page break] 55

56

BERNHARDI

39 a hybrid grass - rare case

♦45 Erysimum strictum not true

50 on a Pimpinella * being on a var.

66 seedlings of Veronica changed colour - on vars of Veronica keeping true for 10 generations -

68 3 vars with analogous differences study these pages & look to Babington & Steudel will come in after Anagallis

vi ll-14w Denies the universal tendency to avitism 15-19w has no tendency to return to parent form 25« "Chelidomium lacinatum" 2 15u/iox, 18u/xox 3 xob There is no necessity according to my theory that new species shd have not descended from several pairs 4 9-18w Unterart is in fact a doubtful species, probably a species but very little different from other 22-30w "Abarten" a variety which does not tend to go back to parent form. "Spielarten", those that go back in one or more generations xob Does anyone think wild Pampas cattle identical with present stock.-5 l-2u "Abänderungen" 11-6x0 Varieties which do not keep constant, or only in certain ground- 3afxox, 17-25m/18u " so \ Zweifel"/17-25xo These several forms of species hard to distinguish xob Unterart subspecies = doubtful races or * the close species Abarten - hereditary = race (or variety in animals) Spielarten which * are herditary for few generns - variety of Decandolle Abänderungen, which are not at all hereditary - allied to Monstrosities 6 28-30m/ 30u "Rumex\nemorosus"/28-30XO colour of Beet xob compare these with Do they not belong to same Family 7 18-22u*/18-28w 1st turns into last without sowing. When colour more permanent, then accompanied by some slight changes just as Henslow thought wd be See next Page 23-26m/xob not in Spengler This bulbocapnos * Carus produced white seedlings- 8 12-19xo Differences of anagallis phoenicea & arvensis- not proved to be same 23-25m/ 22-30x0 anagallis collina has 2 coloured flowers, believes this though experiment not decisive Q 9 5u "A. carnea"/l-5xo Q This case true 7m/m, 8-13xo fruit, taste & * seed vary in colour & are often inherited 18u "Phaseolus multiflorus"ll8-19m/xo ? colour of flower & seed go together 22-25m\23-30xo doubling not change of organ, but simply increase of petals 10 l-10xo In Datura no loss of * stamens (but may there not be potential stamens?) 14-18xo on Hairs or covering of Plants 12 9u "Trigonella coerula"/ 9-12x0 var. with stalks of leaves with leaflets,

23-26m/23-28xo relative length of stamens good character in this * Fam. but variable in Labiatae.- 29u "Fragonaria monophylla"'/xob one-leafed Strawberry is heredetary 13 2u "folk terna"lxo rarely inherited 19u "Caulis fasciatus", 21u "Sedum cristatum"/21-23xo in this case in some degree hereditary. 24u "Celosia cristata"/24-25xo Cockscomb example in flowers 28u "Triticum compositum"/tob hereditary division of the flower stalk 14 l-6xo Thickening of special parts, as in Cabbages & heading of Cabbages. 9-27xo Same variation affecting so many plants shows, how goes by laws. Lacination hereditary in Sambucus (& in Lettuce & Cabbage) so curled, blistered, &c. lOu, 22«, 23«, 26-27u <«*>, 22-27w not hereditary 20u, 21u, 27u, 28u <u*> 15 xot curled leaves of natural species more regular 3-7xo curled mint by seed had its first leaves not curled-7u*/10-llxo partly hereditary 13u*/12-15w petals only curled inherited 16z, 18u*\18-19xo leaves of in same situation 16 xot variety of Paeony with small leaves 12-15io Is there any Linaria with regular Corolla 30u "auf\ Boden''/xob on rich ground leaves of involucra? end in spikes 18 2u/xox 19 2w*/2-3u "zwei\setzen''/1-Am*, 8-lOm, 9u*, 8-lOxo Probable mistake of Kolreuter's 24-30m/xo See to this D. stramonium & ferox might be quite fertile, but D. Tatula & ferox are not quite but D. stramonium & tatula are. xob If I understand he only assumes about D. stramonium & ferox 20 24-30m/xob When intermediate forms found together, always necessary to bear in mind the chances of their being hybrids- 21 xob If the intermediate forms kept constant then one must be considered an "abart" of the other; if they went back to both parent forms, then they shd be considered as vars. & were result of external conditions * on the two parents; which wd be subspecies 22 25«*/ 16z/14-18xo Organs of these plants make great differences 26 27z 27 19z 28 28u*/xo (a) xob (a) Doubtful whether these varieties, because other species differ in same, but greater degree.- 29 xob Those who are not naturalists think species a well defined entity; show the distinctions of Bernhardt; of Decaisne & Hooker.- H.C. Watsons classification of British close species - then the difference of numbers - Then cases of certain well known genera as Land-shells & Rats - then such flagrant cases as the 2 Oaks - all this difficulty explicable on my theory depends only on ignorance of creations- 30 Uu*/18u*/14-17w Q turns

[page break] 58

57

after repeated sowing into 20-24w V Steudel to see whether admitted 30u "glatte Abart"/ wb does not change during 12 years 31 2u*/ w not this 5u "Abart"/6-7w this also true llz 32 2m, 6u*/5-13w This is a caryopllea, when it flowers 1st year, & differs in only one floret being awned- leaves smaller 14u* 35 28-29u*/wb changed in 3d sowing to D. glomerata 36 2m 39 25-28m 40 2u "hat\ nicht", 2-3m 44 19-21w wild Cruciferae vary much 23u*/24-26w probably vars 45 33m*/ 24m a/14-21w scarcely abortive much less good species being cultivated from seed 46 3m, 4-6m, 7u/wx 50 8u*/8-13w Kept true for 6 generations, but Steudel makes vaj\ of L Galiicum 16m*, 18m*, 16-18m/16-19w From this seed gave p. magna (Steudel makes var of p. magna- 66 4~8m/w In Veronica colours blue or red & some interchangeable 13w changed its colour 17-18w seedlings changed colour 25-26u±/25-30w Red vars. of these * blue Angallis kept true for 10 generations but may be thought true species; but he seems to think other differences trivial- 67 21-25m/21-28w when colour of flowers alters; so foliage, & when less colour, plant smaller. 68 17-21m/12-28w Like Rubus case & Hilacium. The abarten with red flowers from these 3 species differ from their stammarten in analogous way

BERZELIUS, Jons Jacob The use of the

bloxvpipe in chemical analysis and in the examination of minerals London; Baldwin, Cradock, Joy and J. Ma we; 1822 [Down, pre-B]

106 3clw€ 108 23c/we, 24c/we 141 llc/we 147 16c/we 154 15c/we 214 23c/we 275 15w A wb(not CD)

BEUDANT, François Sulpice Traité élémentaire de minéralogie Paris; Verdière; 1830 [Down, on B] p

BEVAN, Edward The honeybee London; Baldwin, Cradock and Joy; 1827 [CUL, pre-B, S E. Catherine Darwin] beh, oo, wd

NB 352 Crippled Spider purling differently; 384»; 261 taming Spiders & coming to Person for food

P

261 25-29m

BEVINGTON, Louisa Sarah Key-notes London; C. Kegan Paul & Co.; 1879 [Down]

BIANCONL Giovanni Giuseppe La Teoria darwiniana e la creazione data indipendente Bologna; Nicola Zanichelli; 1875 [Down] p

BIANCONL Giovanni Giuseppe La Théorie darwinienne et la création dite indépendante: lettre à M. Ch. Darwin Bologna; Nicola Zanichelli; 1875; trans, from Italian by G.A. Bianconi [CUL] ad, beh, gd, ig, phy, rd, t, tm

NB All first part marked but nothing of importance 117; 158;x164, 9x;

I daresay many supposed rudiments have functions

173;x176; 179x; 206; 218; Ruminant stomach - 268 Teeth & Skulls of vars of Dogs - 284 SB <*>

31. number of joints in fingers good adaptation.- while intermediate - shows how well limbs adapted

117. Everything explained by adaptations 164. 169 uses of rudimentary toes to grip in descending mountains 174 no such a thing as a rudiment. 179. on the little hoof of oxen in + soft marshy places.

206. In paddle of Cetaceans, variability of nodules of bone in cartilage 208 plan not uniform, joints in digits 218 explains wings of Bat by Mammiform Nature! & adaptation.-

268. no gradation between Ruminant & non-ruminant stomachs.- see Schiff on Duodenum

title page w 1874 12 8-12m 17 21-24zv Wings of Insects & jaws of do 19 6-7m "nécessité! mouvoir", 7-9w Crustacean & Cirripedes 22 23-27m 23 8-12m, 18-21m 24 18-30w insects a far greater number of pieces end to end in limbs 25 8-10m 31 22-31m 46 wb All this adaptation agrees well with me, & explains cause of general form of limbs 117 3-16m 158 at (page no.), 8-12m/w why not a mere prominence of adjoining bone 164 20-23m 169 ll-15m 173 18-23w but why shd it be a separate bone 25-26m 174 ll-13m, 23-28m 176 22-26m 179 16-21m 186 wb why three bones & not in fin of fish or water Beetle plate facing 186 w why 3 bones? 206 7-22m 208 15-21m 218 18-22m, 19-20u "adaptation]nature" 224 7-10m, 8u "radius I seul" 268 4-12m/w Schiff + shows that the Duodenum, I think, acts for this end; but no structural passage 15-19w Is it not in Kangaroos occasionally ruminant 269 ll-15w

[page break] 59

60

BIANCONI

Is it not in fact part of Oesophagus Schiff 275 6-9m 284 22-28m

BIBLE Cambridge; The Pitt Press; 1838 [Down, the family Bible]

title page (Note concerning children's diseases by Emma)

BIGG, Henry Heather Spinal curvature London; J. and A. Churchill; 1882 [Down, I]

BILLING, Sidney Scientific materialism and ultimate conceptions London; Brickers & Son; 1879 [Down, I]

BINNEY, William Greene The terrestrial air-breathing mollusks of the United States 2 vols.; Cambridge, Mass.; Welch, Bigelow & Co.; 1878 [Down]

BLACKLEY, Charles Harrison Experimental researches on the causes and nature of Catarrhus aestivus London, Paris & Madrid; Baillière, Tindall & Cox; 1873 [CUL, I] cc, fg, gd

NB Shows how effective wind is in Transportât of pollen

♦ 75 list of Plants

Effects of moisture discharge of pollen - 127

-128

131 quantity of pollen of Graminae in air Q&

- 132 - chaffO of grasses

pollen at great height - 141 ♦; 147, 8, 9, do.

do. do. - Even alt wind had blown in any

how from the sea

148 on Board Ship

152 error?

157 Buckwheat entomophilous

500 - 1000 ft; more in upper current than of lower [19 times as much] p152 over 1200 at alt 1000 ft

75 33u "Plantago major", 34u "Rumex", 34u "Polygonaceae", 36u "Amentaceae", 36u "Urticaceae", 42u "Graminaceae", 42u "Cyp-eraceae" 127 26-32m 128 10-19m 131 38m 132 16~20m 141 29-37m 147 6-llm, llu "600\ hundred", 14u "500" 148 7-10m, 10-llw p149 149 31-32m, 39m 150 8-13m 151 10-15m, 25-27m 152 6-llm, 15-17m

BLACKLEY, Charles Harrison Hay fever 2nd edn; London; Baillière, Tindall & Cox; 1880 [Down]

BLACKWALL, John A history of the spiders of Great Britain and Ireland 2 vols.; London; The Ray Society; 1861-1864 [Down]

vol. 1 NB 0/

&

vol. 2NB 189,207,355

189 24-27m 207 16-18m 355 30-33m

BLACKWALL, John Researches in zoology London; Simpkin & Marshall; 1834 [CUL, S] beh, br, fg, gd, mg, mn, sp, t, wd, y

NB 3; 16; 29; 33; 46; 47; 51; 62; 73; 74; 80;

83; 86 Journal also; 89; 94; 122; 118; 136;

137; 141; 142; 151; 154 to 162; 174; 176;

190; 204; 227 Journal; 240; 245; 260; 270;

301

SB 091

158 capacity of piping tunes in Magpie never

used in Nature Qa>

174. cases of Jackdaw Rook & Woodpecker

with monstrous crossed Beaks Q

3 14-21m

P

16 14-20m 17 l-7m 29 6-24m 33 22-27m 46 wt Hence it will be important to show that Malay Fowls make diff noise from Common. l-4m 47 20-24m 51 8-llm 62 23-27m 73 8-11m 74 24-27m 80 4-10m 83 13-17m 86 wt Nor do all Icteri lay in other birds nest.- Is Molothus pecoris migratory in N. America (Yes I am almost sure Silliman?) 2-7m, wb How easy for an ostrich to learn lay its eggs in other birds nests were there any of same size !!! 87 wt xx There remains to account for young birds expelling brothers- Not invariably so Molothus in Sillimans Journal l-7w Blackwall suspects they do xx 5-13w Cuckoos do not pair - a remnant of Ostrich state 14-20w From 4 to 6 eggs 18-24w No see p. 75 wb The causes of Ostrich laying * in different nests, is the number they lay -Jenner? has said Cuckoos lay great number does Blackwall say so ?? 89 8-21m 94 6-23m 118 ll-15m, wbu 119 6-7m 122 l-5m 136 23-27m 137 21-27m 141 6-12m, 20-27m 142 9-19m 151 23-27m 154 20-22m, 10-22m, 17-19m, 23-28m 155 2-7m, 16-27m, wb The action of the old Pointer, they way look round & have known to go round other side of hedge, shows that they know what they are doing: (my theory will explain all this)— Lord Brougham says not knowing object -one chief criterion of instinct 156 15-22m 158 16-28m 158/159 wb Hence it would be odd if they did not sometimes acquire arts in wild state. The capacity of animals which can be shown by a thousand instances is in this view important- 160 l-6m 174 13-21m, 13-16Q 23-27m 175 l-19m, 9-14m, 9-11Q 176 5-

[page break] 61

62

25m, 8-lOQ 190 8-15m 191 l-27m 204 9-16m, 12w x wb x What a contrast to Martins & Penguins deserting their young.- In Pointer we see contest between two instincts, standing & springing game 227 7-22m 240 1-13m 245 7-19m 260 2-15m 270 l-4m 301 2-5m, wb Important with respect to Argynauter attaining habit. <£> throughout)

BLACKWELL, Antoinette Brown Studies in general science New York; G.P. Putnam & Son; 1869 [Down, I]

NB 209* 209 25-22m

BLAINVILLE, Henri Marie Ducrotay de

Manuel d'actiniologie ou de zoaphytologie Paris; F.G. Levrault; 1834 [Down, on B, S] p

BLUMENBACH, Johann Friedrich The

anthropological treatises of Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, with memoirs of him by Marx and Flourens, and an account of his anthropological museum by Professor R. Wagner, and the inaugural dissertation of John Hunter, M.D., on the varieties of man London; Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts and Green; 1865 [CUL] beh, fg, h, he, si, t, wd

SB ♦

191

203 Circumcision of Jews heredetary 205 -» Man the most domesticated of all.— 292 <r- good to show how quite ignorant B. was of selection

** 322 tadpoles hatched on back of adult in cells yet have tails!

191 29-30m* 205 24m "is I advanced" 290 22m 292 ll-13m/u "because I purpose", 15u "consequence of" 322 21-35m

BLYTH, Edward The natural history of the cranes London; Horace Cox; 1881 [CUL]

BOIT ARD, Pierre Manuel d'entomologie 2 vols.; Paris; Roret; 1828 [CUL, on B]

vol. 1 title page S

A> (all w are page-numbers) 55 4w, lOw, 15w, 18w, 20w, 24w, 32w 56 3w, 6w, llw, 14w, 15w, 17w, 18w, 19w, 24w, 31w, 33w 57 lw, 19w, 20w, 24w, 28w 58 3w, 13w, 16w, 20w, 23w, 27w, 35w, 37w, 40w 59 5w, 6w, lOw, 16w, 18w, 22w, 25w, 28w, 30w, 31w 60 lw, 20w, 30w 61 24w 62 lw, 4w 63 6w, 12w, 17w, 22w, 30w 64 lw, 3w, 8w, 15w, 20w, 25w, 31w, 37w 87 26w, 28w, 30w, 31w

vol. 2 title page Charles Darwin Rio Plata August 7th 1832

BOITARD, Pierre & CORBIÉ Les Pigeons de volière et de colombier, ou Histoire naturelle des pigeons domestiques Paris; Audot & Corbié; 1824 [CUL, pre-B]

beh, ce, es, f, he, hy, ig, oo, phy, sp, sx, tm, v, wd, y

NB •* p 34 colours in crossing

SB1 Les Pigeons..

p.VII Introduction

It is a mistake to expect a tumbler suddenly

to appear-

p.10; 15; 27 - ask Gould; 30; 34, 37; 54; 58;

64; 80; 120; 158; 163; 164,6 to 229; 235;

238

SB2Qß

Special facts on Pigeons not here included

12 Females show antipathy to certain males

(Ch. 6.)

15 Roman keep Pedigrees of Pigeons Q

32 Account of many crosses

35 useful Pigeons more fertile (45 fear
experience) p. 160 do.

Absorbed in 7 or 8 generations Q°*

Biset produced from complicated crosses Q - One cross the Cavalier always true Q«> 54 Pigeons of different size do not cross readily (Ch. 6.)

120 On Hawks observed to pick out white

Pigeons; hence some owners examine all

nestlings

158 By high feeding Dovecots rendered as

fertile as Fancy Breeds (Ch. 3.)

165 The sailing Pigeons Q

173. Var of Pouter of which female never

panachés - or chequered Q -»

178 Claquart Q - 221 Turner or Smiter

200 Sub-vars of Nun - colours vary, but

feathers coloured remain same Q

198 argument of intermediate form not being

produced now as proof that both are species

208 Hybrid from Barb & Turbit very fertile Q

211 Turbit fly from Paris to Liege in 14 hours

224 Fan-tails crossed with any others lose

character Q<=s>

235 Sterility of crossed Turtles Q

238 In crossing white & common collared

Turtle, young take after one side exclusively

title page u "Corbié"/w kept pigeons for 45 years vii 26-31m 10 30-31m/wb p. 12 12 2-25"...", 26« "six mois"/16-17m 15 2-2m, 7-9m/8-9w See to this 27 5-27m, 19-20m, 24m/ 24-25w this must be mistake 27-31m/28-29w

[page break] 63

64

BOITARD & CORBIÉ

what genus 28 17-22m 30 23-24m 31 15-18m/16-19w effect of cross long continued 27-31m 32 8w common Pigeon wb Nonain -Jacobin 34 6-9m, 9u "à\cavalier", 18-19u "souvent plombé" 35 7-12m, 20-22m, 24-26m, 30-31m 36 wtu, 4at, 6-10m, ll-12w 3d cross 14-17m/16-18w 7 or 8 generations 37 l-4m/3-4u*+/l-2w !how odd QA>, 17-24m/20-25w how odd! Blue bars returning wb p152 description of Biset 54 4-6m 58 24-29m 64 2-3m/////fl "e/ftf" sterility 80 5-10m 120 24-29m, 30-31m 152 2« "ou\pur"/4-5u "toutes\ailes"/ 6-7u "du \ queue"/3-8w Dovecot & Chequered 153 3-5m/4u "Chardin"/3-5w What date 1686 in Ray Billil 158 5-10m 160 2-7m 162 22u "jadis estimé" 163 25-26m, 31m 164 13-14m, 17-21m 165 3-4m, 7-10m, ll-15m/ll-13u*+/ 14u "moins haut"/15u "que\lülois", 17-18u++, 23u "à\argenté" 166 3-6m, 13-17m, 16u "larvae", 23-25m 167 16-20m/17-22w hence not wild, yet well characterized 29-31m 168 l-2m/Q 5-9m/w only colours 169 9-10m, 16-19m, 20-23m 170 l-3m, 22-24m, 29-31m/29u "lesIpanachent" "de\petits"/28-31w not wild 173 7-9m/QA., 9u 174 4-5m 176 3-6m, 15-18m, 22-23m 177 18-22m, 19w variation 22-23m, 25m/26u "milieu\seul" "albngélmince" 178 6-8m/6u, 18u "Claquart", 19u "Columba precursor", 20u "Pigeon batteur", 22-24m, 25-29m/25a "plongeur" p. 165, 27u "enfle" 179 Im, l-2u "ailes \yeux", 2u "chaussés", 3u "blanc", 9-Um/lOu "M. Vieillot", 14-15m, 17-18m 181 l-2m, 8-10m, 21-23m 182 29-22m 184 2m*. "Bagadais", 3-7m/4u "longIcrochu", 7-10m/9u "leur\pates", 25-28w Scanderosa certainly pi. 9 wt Scanderosa 185 5m, 9-10m/ lOu "Tous\peu", 15-lSu "pigeon cygne", 19-20u " et \ moindre"/21-22u " ordinairement \ noir"/18-21w just contrary to Brent 186 22-13m, 15-17m, 24-25u "redoutable" 187 Im, 18m/u "nouvelles" 188 22-23m, 23u "excessivement farouche" 189 2-5m 190 22-13m, 23-28m 193 26-27m 194 4-5w Archangel? 8m, 14-19m 195 21-23m, 23-24m, 24u "têtelvol" 196 5u "leur I court", 15-lSm/ uh, 17-19m/18u "parce I conservent", 19-30m/ 23-24W No blue 197 8m, 20-21m, 23-25w crossing & keeping part of character 24-30m/ 25-29w !? Why narrow shakers? 27a/u "cravates"/w p. 210 27a/u "coquilles"/23-25w v. p. 199, yet nonains so near can be crossed & keep part of character 26u "paons", 27-28u "glouglou", 27-30m/wb are not the characters chiefly trivial? How is it in crossing poultry with crests? 198 whole Zw I do not see this argument. It presupposes that characters of a species cannot be transmitted to a hybrid: I know of no such case; on the contrary it

might be argued those characters were not fixed - requiring both parents to have it wt/ l-6w* This argument for certain number of races - in fact crossing will not do midpage.w Q, Qa> 199 Xw &c pigeons with a Coquille can be produced p197 by crossing a nonain with a common pigeon 9-12m, 13w The Coquille is reversed feather like nonain 16-26m, 17-20m, wb Nuns 200 2-5m/w laws of colouring 201 10-12m, 19-20m/19-26w ! Yet has said that Coquilles will not transmit their peculiarities 204 7-llm/9u "brièveté" 206 27u "carmes I soigne", 24-30m (Buffon) 207 20-21m, 21w Barb? 23m, 26-27m 208 wt/l-2m\w Ray talks of head of Turbit being square - 6-8m, 15-17m, 18-19m/?/18u "morilles en", 25-27m/ 25u "ll\polonais", 28u "ll\nourrit" 209 20-16m/w Certainly Barb - nothing said about being wild 210 12-14m, 18-20m 211 wtu, 1-2w 15 miles per hour 14-17m, 30u "un\ yeux"/w See to this wb u 212 3-6m, 26-27m 213 4-5m 214 16u "bleu", 21-26m 216 9-30w I shd think these were same as Antwerps 218 16-18m 219 4-5m, 15-16m 220 22-23m, 23-28m 221 7a "culbutant" Tumbler 8-9u++, 12-16m, 23~26m 222 3-20m, 24-2 6m, 18w&> Spot 223 27-29m, 26-27m 224 3-5m/Q/!, 7w p. 226 20m, 23-24m 225 4-8m, 9x**, 12-13m, 14-18m 226 3u "faculté\ relever", 4u "moins large", 8-15w There have been several vars of this 24~27m 227 27-29m 235 3-8m 238 18-21m/Q 22-25m 240 4wx, 7w+ %, 8-9wx 8a/ux, 9m/u, 14u/wx, 15-16u/wz, 18-19m/u/wx, 20wx, 20wz, 23u/wz, 25u/wx, 28a/u/wx

BOLINGBROKE, Henry, Viscount A collection of political tracts London; 1748 [CUL. 1900]

(ink marks not CD; the following possibly CD) 4 4-22m 6 ÏÏ20-3m 64 1Î22-3m 65 9-25m 77 22-25m 140 12-20m 177 6-22m 185 IÎ25-23m 187 tt4-lw 189 22-2Sm 213 2-3wi 217 ÎÎ20-6m 219 ÏÏ22-7m 220 24-2Sm 234 1Ï22-5m 235 ÏÏ22-8m 236 9-22m 245 ÏÏ8-6m 247 7-9m 260 25-20m 264 tl2-8m 265 5-8m 266 1\20-5m 271 l-4m 285 8-16m 291 ÏÏ3-2m 292 2-2 2m 295 fl24-8m 311 20-20m 334 3-20m 346 ÏÏ5-2m 347 9-25m 374 ÏÏ24-2m

BOLINGBROKE, Henry, Viscount A dissertation upon parties London, 1739 [CUL. 1900]

133 u/w*. 269 u/w*

BOLINGBROKE, Henry, Viscount Letters on the spirit of patriotism London, 1749 [CUL.1900]

[page break] 65

66

(ink markings not CD; the following possibly CD)

18 HlO-4m 26 ÏÏ10-lm 49 5-10m 60 flS-2m 73 ÏÏ22-9m 77 ÏÏ3-2m 91 ÏÏ7-3m 92 ÏÏ22-9m 118 S-20m 135 6-Sm 138 ÏÏ20-2m 148 4-9m 157 ÏÏ8-5m 159 2-20m 161 tÏ8-5m 169 6-20m 175 lu "steddy", 4Sm 179 ÏÏ23-Sm 190 20-23m 192 Xm

BONAPARTE, Charles Lucien Coup d'oeil sur l'ordre des pigeons Paris; Mallet-Bacheler; 1855 [CUL] ad, gd, tm

SB Qß

3 - On number of tail-feathers - 16 in

Goura - * Q

21 Birds of E & W Africa often same, but

different at Cape

44 Balancement - long tarsi & short toes in

the Phaps group

50 Zenaida American group - Galapagos

2 26-27m, 30-33m, 32u 3 9-20m, 20-22QA, ll-12m, llu "pattes I plus", 12u "douze", 16u "quatorze \ seize", 29u "s'élève \ seize", 34-37m 4 23u "premièreI sont" 5 5-20?, 25u "orbites nues", 26u "rémige échancrée" 8 14u "quatorze I pennes "/13-16m/w The Pptilopoda ought to have 14 12 27-30m, 32u<& "les I développé", 34-36m, 35u "presque I oeuf" 13 2-3m 19 24m, 25-28m, 15u "douze", 16u "sous-famille", 16u "seule cosmopolite" 20 27-29m, 27u "genre\ deuxième" 21 30-35m 22 21-24m, 30u "Col. livia", 35-36m 23 4-5u "deux\ caractériser"/4-7m/4w orrupion blanc, 5-28m, 8-9u "clair, gris-bleu", 15u "plus d'assurance", 19-21m, 20u "C.Iretrouve", 26u "d'un\ou", 37-39m 25 22-29m, 28-33m 44 3-8m 50 8-12m, 9m, Wx, 9-10w Zenaida at Galapagos good case 51 22-27m 52 25-22m

BONAPARTE, Charles Lucien A geographical and comparative list of the birds of Europe and North America London; John Van Voorst; 1838 [CUL, S]

gd

NF go through this list with D'Orbigny & self

& see what birds common to N. of America

& Europe

NB 35 Nothing in particular on birds

35 26m 45b 19w Galapagos 47w Rio Plata

46b 26w Rio Plata 47b 9-10w Galapagos 27-

18w Rio Plata 48b 25-26m 49b 5-6zt> Rio

Plata 50b 13-14w Tierra del Fuego

P

BONDI, Augusto L'Uomo: ipotesi sulla origine (teoria darwiniana), considerazioni Forli; Tip. Soc. Democratica; 1873 [CUL, I]

BONER, Charles Transylvania: its products and its people London; Longman, Green, Reader and Dyer; 1865 [Down]

BONNAL, Marcel de Une agonie Angou-lême; F. Lugeol & Cie.; 1877 [Down] p

BONNET, Charles Oeuvres d'histoire naturelle et de philosophie: insectologie 2 vols.; Amsterdam; Marc-Michel Rey; 1780 [Down, pre-B]

vol. 1 NB 160; 167

130 30-34m, 31u "petit accroissement" 160 18-20m/21u "deux\Eté", 22-24m/23u "jusqu'à\ fois" 163 2-6m/5u "douze fois" 167 20-22m, 24-28m 267 27m 268 25-26m, 24m 269 29m 271 2m, 5m

BONNET, Charles Recherches sur l'usage des feuilles dans les plantes Göttingen; Elie Luzac; 1754 [Botany School, FD]

BONNET, Charles Recherches sur l'usage des feuilles dans les plantes Göttingen & Leiden; Elie Luzac; 1754 [Botany School, FD]

9 l-4m 17 5-9m 19 9-22m 27 2-3m 42 23-25m

BOOTT, Francis Illustrations of the genus Carex 2 vols.; London; William Pomplin; 1858-1860 [Down]

BORRELLI, Diodato Vita e natura Napoli; Enrico Dethen; 1879 [Down] p

BOSQUET, Joseph Description des crustacés

fossiles du terrain crétacé du Duché de

Limbourg Haarlem; A.C. Kruseman; 1854
[Down, I]

BOSQUET, Joseph Description des ento-mostracés fossiles des terraines tertiaires de la France et de la Belgique Académie royale de Belgique; 1852 [Down, I] p

BOSQUET, Joseph Notice sur quelques cirripèdes Haarlem; Les Héritiers Loosjes; 1857 [Down, I]

BOSTOCK, John An elementary system of physiology vol. 1; London; Baldwin, Cradock & Joy; 1824 [Down, pre-B, ED]

[page break] 68

67

BOUDIN, Jean Christian Traité de géographie et de statistique médicales et des maladies endémiques 2 vols.; Paris; J.B. Baillière et Fils; 1857 [CUL] ce, gd, he, oo, pat, sp

vol. 1 SB Qß

& xliv

l-lii; p. 201

-*p320 •* number of animals killed in

France, showing how one animal increases;

«s» compare with ravages of wolves

p.347; p. 392; p. 406

^ Poor Book

& The introduction gives all the most

important cases; which show that climate &

race affects the constitution; if so why not

the progeny?

xliii 35-38m xliv l-36m Hi 12-38m, 16-19m 1 ^ 9-17m, 23-27m 201 15-20m 320 29-33m 347 25-28m 392 31-32m 406 24-23m, 14r-18m Catalogue p

vol. 2 SB Vol 2

0 295; 317; 321, 322 e> Bouton d'Aleppo

401 «> Negro diseases

445 cs» Elephantiasis

529 «► Deaths of different Races in Ceylon

648 cs> - do in Jamaica.

Most of the local diseases probably ♦ have

local cause but it shows what little causes

act, unperceived by us & act differently on

different races - may as well produce

differns of structure, as such diseases as the

Bouton of Aleppo

295 2-5w<@> strictly local diseases 317 22-15m^r 24-26m^ 321 3-5m& 322 7-19m\w<@ drinking certain water saves from Bouton 401 7u "être\noire" 445 ll-17m 529 35-41m 648 4-llm

BOUE, Ami Autobiographie Wien; F. Ulrich und Sohn; 1879 [Down, I] p

BOURBON DEL MONTE, Jean-Baptiste François L'Homme et les animaux Paris; Germer Baillière; 1877 [Down, S]

SF 63; 65; 71; 72; 73; 79; 81; 87; 89; 90; 91; 93; 97; 98; 99; 101; 108; 111; 129; 137

BOWDLER, Jane Poems and essays Bath; 1819 [CUL.1900]

125 3-6m 130 ÏÏ6-2m 131 l-3m, W-Um 134 fÏ3-2m 135 1-lOm 177 9x, Ux 178 ftëm 223 5x/w 29 227 ÏÏ4x 229 ÏÏ3x 232 3x 235 21-26«/ 26* 239 fl3-2m 240 2-25m 242 5-10m 245 2-20m, 22-2Sm 249 l-8m, ÏÏ25-9m 258 4-20m

259 ÏÏ6-2m 260 %m 264 2x, ÏÏ12x 265 3x 266 5x 268 fî&e 270 2-22m

BOWERBANK, James Scott A monograph of the British Spongiadae 4 vols.; London; The Ray Society; 1864-1872 [Down] ad, hi, tm, v

vol. 1 NB Even in so lowly organ, bodies as Sponges B has shown the special uses of the wonderfully diversified & curiously formed Spicula -

&

(vols. 2 and 3 p; vol. 4 ed. by A.M. Norman)

BOYER, Abel Le Dictionnaire royal françois-anglois et anglois-françois New edn, 2 vols.; London; J. Rivington; 1816 [Down, pre-B, ED]

BOYER, Abel Royal dictionary (abridged) 23rd edn; London; F.C. & J. Rivington; 1819 [CUL, pre-B, S C. Darwin October 29th, 1825]

BRACE, Charles Loring The dangerous classes of New York New York; Wynkoop & Hallenbeck; 1872 [Down, I]

BRACE, Charles Loring The races of the Old World London; John Murray; 1863 [Down, I] h, v

NB 388 correlation of colour of skin; 392

smells emitted by Human beings

P

BRADLEY, Richard A general treatise of husbandry and gardening 3 vols.; London; T. Woodward; 1724 [CUL, pre-B, each vol. S of R.W. Darwin] ch, fg, phy, v

vol. 1 NB 43* Ash Tree - 199* - White

edging leaves common by graft; 132 black

and white grapes, & striped on same plant;

298*

43 6-8m 132 19-26m 199 2-5m, 21-27m 201

25-37m 202 2-6m 298 15-21m, 15-16w 1724

20-24m, 21-26m 299 zb

vol. 2NBp.16;p.172*; p. 172*

16 26-31m, 39-48z 171 22-30/22u "soft"

vol. 3 NB 1722; 40*; 58 on good from change of Seed; 60*; 90* 40 30-33m 41 7-25m 58 20-22w in 1724 22-32m 59 l-5m 60 2-27m, 7-25w A.O. 1722 22m 90 24-40m index, p. 3 22m, 26m p. 4 25m p. 6 23m p. 7 24m p. 8 18m

[page break] 70

69

BRADY, George Stewardson A monograph of the free and semi-parasitic Copepoda of the British Islands 3 vols.; London; The Ray Society; 1878-1880 [Down]

BREE, Charles Robert Species not transmutable London; Groombridge & Sons; 1860 [CUL] beh, ce, si, sp, t, ta, v

NB 78 Variation accidental as far as good of animal is coned

^ Origin

^ 102 Sp. Th.

«^ 132 Origin

^157 Origin

«^ 168 good No; 222 Origin; 222 Sp Theory; 252 aphis

«^168 Look to - may not different castes of ants be produced by different food ^222 on variability of Larvae «^252 on aphides & Ants.

60 6-8m, 18-22m 78 tot He must think other species 4-5m, 5u "uncomfortable", 7m 102 10-29m, 22-24m\22w good 103 4-6m 108 26a/ue, 25-27w time of - no 132 19-32m 157 4a/u "same"/w similarity 7a "these" several 166 3-7m 168 wt& Plant produces 2 forms wb yet wd be due to selection of instincts 15-23m 222 ll-13m, 15-22m, 25-28m 223 26-29m 252 ll-23m

BREHM, A.E. Illustriertes Thierleben 4 vols.; Hildburghausen, Verlag der Bibliographischen Instituts; 1864-1867 [Down] beh, br, gd, sx, tm

vol. 1 NB 75 Baboon like spirituous drinks & orang like tea & coffe & wine?

pxxx about polygam? ♦xxxvi about pairing

p261 Baboon & Leopard

p.119 stopped reading March 2d p77 apparently polygamous Q 108 Poly & •

title page S 11 6-9m, 10-Um 23 Urn 25 35m 30 29-30m 33 7m 35 8-9m 39 23-45m, 30u "Siamang", 32u "freudiger" 40 17-23m, 21-22u "seine\an", 23m 47 16-18m 50 21-22m, 24-31m 52 26-27m 53 wt Tail l-3m, 7-8m, 27-31m 54 10-12m 56 l-5m, 9-12m, ll-13m, 20-23m, 31-39m 58 27-23m 59 3~6m, 9-llm, 9-11m, 22-25m, 22m 60 l-4m 61 ll-12m, 11m, 17-18m 62 33-36m, 34-36m 65 20m 67 23m 68 16-20m 70 2m, 26-29m 72 46-48m 74 24-32m 75 2-5m, 2-3w get drunk 12-14m/12-14w distinguish male & female 33ua 76 27-40m, 47m 77 6-9w lives in Tropics 15-20 to 150

Wu "undI Weibchen", 12u "Mantel", 13-14u "die I Mutter", 44m 79 8-35m 80 7-26w Saw them roll down stones, as large as head, so as to close the pass for the caravan - act in concert & use tools.- also defend each other for the males advance 8118-19u<^ 82 wt old male Hamadrya & Geledons fight & tug each other by the long man or mane of Hair, & roll down stones against each other 28-31m 84 3m, 7-llm, 7-14w hits the ground when in passion with open hands - as in Garden. 22-27m 85 wt X Master shown by pretending to strike him, & the pretender instantly recognised.- Mat on shoulders to protect from heat of sun 25-26% 86 l-5z, 9-llw very fond of riding apes 13-19w very fond of Beer - headache after being drunk 44-48w/wb very much afraid of Lizards & Frogs & Lurchen yet very curious like Orang with Turtle- 45-48m 87 wt X one individual of distinguished intelligence - very fond of all young animals - & when kitten scratched him, bit off claws. 12x, 28-31m, 29w about food 34-39m, 42m, wb very clever in stealing & conquered Dog 88 27m 91 3u/w fright 7-20m, 8u "hellbraun", 10-12u "In Igefärbt", 46m 94 25m 96 8m 101 2Sm, 35m 103 27m 107 22-22w Polygamy 108 19u*, 33-34u*/34w%, 40-41u++ 111 22-24m, 24u++ 112 2m 113 23-24z 114 27m 116 22m 119 20m 120 16-20m 124 32m 128 9m, 43-48m, 48u <-> 129 2-6m, 6u^, 35m 130 ll-13m, llu "aufgeregten", 12u "sich\ möglichst" 261 3m

vol. 2, 729 22u "die I Schild" 731 20-29m, 26-28u++, 31-33m, 36-38m, 37u++, 40-41m 732 20-26m, 13u "auf\fallen" 743 13-14w up-curve fig.z, fig.w these ought to curl a little more outwards (see Wallace - correct by him; Reduce Wallace's drawing & face same way with Boar 24« "rückwärts", 17-18u "Diel kurtz", 19u "ragen\sie" 745 25-27m, 25-16u<->, 34u/wx

vol. 3 NB 236 Vidua; 322 Paradisea; 745 Rupicola

236 5-9m, 18-20m, 19u "feuerroth", 23u "roströtlich", 40-44/42-43u "paarweise" 237 3-5m, 4-6w sings when in fine plumage 292 15-18m, 15u "bedeutend kleiner", 16u "ist\auf" 293 4u/wx, 6u/wx, ll-12u^ 325 l-4m\l-2w long feathers 9-12m, 9u "sonderbar I Geräusch" 326 24m "Bennett's", 26-32w cannot bear any dust on feathers

vol. 4 NB 351 Courting of black cock; 991 on Courtship (?)

352 9m, 14-15m/19m 469 2-6m, 18-20w tailfeathers & secondaries 18u "ungemein\

[page break] 71

72

BREHM

stark" 473 20m 990 29-31m, 29-30w few polygamous 33u "Da\gibt"/33-37w more males than female

BREHM, Alfred Edmund Tierleben 2nd edn, Grosse Ausgabe, 9 vols.; Leipzig, Verlag der Bibliographischen Instituts; 1876-1878 [Down] p

BRENT, Bernard p. The canary, British finches, and some other birds London; Journal of horticulture and cottage gardener, n.d. [CUL] hy

NB p. 21; p. 22; p. 30; p. 109 Hybrid Canaries 21 8-12m 22 19-21m/20u "feather-footed" 30 12-16m 55 7-22m 109 32m

BRENT, Bernard p. The pigeon book London; Cottage gardener office; n.d. [CUL] br, hy, oo, v

NB w<&

Q p4* 13 - Hybrids with C. Oenas

Q 41 - Kite Tumbler after spiling become

black

46 Trumpeter 1/16 blood not trumpeting

55 - Lace Fantails always give lace to

offspring what a contrast with my Japan silk

Fowls!

60 - The story about Hawks killing tired

Carrion wrong.

•> 36 definition of splash pigeon

13 6-22m, 14r-16m 36 41-A7m 41 22-28m 46 20-31m, 28-31m 50 zt 55 27-31m 60 20-22m

BRIGGS, Thomas Richard Archer Flora of Plymouth London; John Van Voorst; 1880 [Down, I] p

BRIOSL Giovanni Intorno un organo di alcuni embrioni vegetali (extr.); 1882 [Down]

British Association Report of the third meeting of the British Association for the advancement of science held at Cambridge in 1833 London; John Murray; 1834 [CUL, S]

SB Brit Assoc Vol 3; p. 50 x; p. 447; 0/ Octr. 1857

50 17-29m/w Hooker quite agrees 446 25-20m 447 21-26m p throughout

British Association Report of the eleventh meeting of the British Association for the advancement of science, held at Plymouth in

July 1841 London; John Murray; 1842 [CUL] em, fo, gd, hl, ig, ir, sp, t, ti, tm, ts, v

SB1 1841; p. 77; p. 96; p. 173; p. 181 Waterhouse - low in scale; 185 185; 186; 192; 193; 196; 198toend.-SB2 Qß

96 Different form of Vertebrae in ant & post part of column. Ch 7. Kinds of Transition.- 0 173 Owen intermediate fossils - 185 - 196 Summary on do

181 do - animals on confines of groups present great differences 197. Argument (Owen) against Transmutation - Resting on assumed rise in development - Grand discussion.-

201 Embryology of recent Reptiles
resembles ancient

&

11 49-54m 96 44-50m/? 173 37-45m, 44-47m 181 23u "like\a"/21-27m/l-24w this is like Waterhouses remark that low groups vary much, 29-34m/29-51w according to this, if there were many Monotremes, they wd vary much.- 185 41-48m, 46u "Pleiosaurus"/46w Enaliosaurians 49-53m/50u "other fishes"\w p. 186 53-54^ 186 30-32m 192 36-41m/l-44w As species are long lived (must be!!) so are genera - how is this in Mammifers Badger long-lived - Carnivora in Eocene 193 33u "terrestrial" \31-49wThese cd have been np terrestrial Mammifers for 70 specimens of Iguanodons have been found 196 9-llm, 13-15m, 20-22m, 24-30m, 36-38m, 48-52m Vil 21-25m/33-37m/l-35w assumes the series to be perfect & a tendency to higher development - 198 12-14m/12-42w must confess even on my view imperfection of record surprising - 22-25m, 36-38m, î\8-2m

3-5m, 7-9m, 18-30m, 32-44m, 49-54m

l-8m, 29-33m, 45-51m, whole tw Do those geologists who tacitly think the record pretty perfect - think that there were only 3 Mammifers during Oolitic & only . - Reptiles during Carboniferous & so many in Permean & * Triassic 201 22-25m, 36-41m, 43-50m

202 6-8m/w Falconer ll-15m, 21-24m

P

THE BRITISH AVIARY London; Dean and Munday; n.d. [CUL]

18 tm/"... 20 8-18m 25 wb 2 32 U-lm 33 6-24m 34 8-16m 40 6-24m 43 4-20m 50 t4-2m 51 2-2m/m 57 ÏÏ20-7m 68 l-4m

British Museum (G. Busk and J.E. Gray)

Catalogue of Marine Polyzoa in the collection of

[page break] 74

73

the British Museum 2 parts; London; by order of the Trustees; 1852/1854 [CUL]

Part 1, 39 1-Am 44 18-22m 54 1Î23-22m, ÏÏ9-5m Description of plates, iii "pi XXII".m

Part 2 NB <nof CD)

67 3-5m, ÏÏ22-7m 70 2-4m, Ïïl6-14m 83 26-29m, 24-27m 84 1Î3-2m 94 7-9m 104 3-7m, 16-21m, 19-21m/21..."', 29-33m 105 13-26m, 1Î22-2m 106 l-7m/2-7"..."/2a "seta" & the 2a "observed" • ÏÏ4-2m/ÏÏ3w "avicularialfar" 107 8-llm/zv Both av\(cularium) & vibr<acu/fl> 108 fa We. m

British Museum (J.E. Gray) Lzsf o/ f/ze specimens of Mammalia in the collection of the British Museum London; by order of the Trustees; 1843 [CUL] gd, geo, is, sx

Part 1, 2 lu (u henceforth *> 4 lu, llu 5 29-21m/20u, 33u 6 21-25m/21u 7 6u, 16u, 25u, 33-34m/33u 8 lu, 17u 9 29-31m/29u 10 26m, 20m, 24m 11 17-18m/17u, 21u, 26u 12 25m, 32-24m/32u 13 25m, 27-29m/27u 15 25m

Part 2 /rcmf a«d fcacfc Wmc covers.w Seals

NF What seals Kergueles Isd Aukland &

Campbell Isd Azores S Shetland Georgia

Ascension? Falkland Seals - ice-action

NB There is no case of Seal confined to

single isld So not case parallel to Bats.- No

species common to N. & S. but species of

same genus N. & S. - In fact nothing for

me.-

p22 & 24 Caspian Seals It is a Northern

genus alone

viib 15-16w Fur seal viii 13-14w representative species in North 22-24m/23u "Ursinus", 31-40m 2 34-37m 3 42^3m 13 23w Packed ice 33m/u (u henceforth place-names) 14 6-8m/17-18m/l-18w Ice does not come to New Zealand 16 23-25m/24u/25u, 41-42m, wb Distance from S. Orkney to Tierra del Fuego 17 4u 22 31-39m/32u/33u/ 36u/37u 24 wt good case as identical species in p. viz p. vitulinus Hardly because may have ranged further formerly 9m, ll-13m, 36-37u 34 41-42m\41u, 43-44m/43u 35 31-33m/ 31u/32u, 41u, 45u 37 21-24m/21u, 38u, 40-43m 43 20-22m, 24-32m 45 38-39m

Part 3, viib 29m, 23w ? common viiia 27m*, 36w C Aegoceres 38m/u/w Aegoceres viiib 16-17m, 19-21wt& C Dar & * 29-32m, 32wt& Smith 34m/w Babing 36-37w Colours ixa 4ml w Colours 48 <m henceforth sex-differences) 4u, 6u, 8u, Wu, 18u 100 5-6m/5u, 36-40m/36-37u 104 30m 106 37-40m 124 20m 128 2m 133 2 m,

5m 134 22m 136 6m, 25m 137 30m, 35m 139 26u 141 7m, 24m 142 33m 143 5m 144 26m, 26-27u 146 33m, 40-42m<& 147 25m, 30m 148 29m, 20m 149 6m, 7m, 24m, 27m, 20-22m 150 7-20m, 8u 151 35m, 36-37u 152 24m 153 4-5m 157 9m, 25m, 26m, 27m, 29m 160 25m, 32m, 37-40m 171 36m "in male only" 172 37-40m 177 35m 179 25m, 23-25m, 42-43m 185 20-22m, 28-30m 216 40-43m 220 29-31m 242 24-28m

British Museum (F. Smith) Catalogue of British Hymenoptera in the collection of the British Museum London; by order of the Trustees; 1855 [CUL] beh, fg, mhp, oo, sp, sx, tm, v

NB ♦ p225 Ask about accidental other

species s*- they lay their eggs

SB109Î

16 ♦ How far mixed; 46; 114; 117; 118; 144;

158, 161; 108 to end

SB2 üß

16 Mixed colourings of 3 genera & 5

species. Wd not blindness of instinct lead

them to become parasites

46 The bee whose larva preyed on, does

not interfere with Parasite Bee Q

117 The parasite closed nest in some cases

NQ

158 Great diversity of instincts of Bees of

same genus: variable in species also Q

174 Males in one genus, female in another

hard to distinguish

185 diversity of Habits NQ

211 Bombus diversity in nests Q

225 on occasional presence of working Bees

of different species, in nests of others Q

1 7m "added I one" 2 wb for Apidae p 113 16 wt Fabre believes certain Sphexidae occur only parasitic 2-5m, 9-10m, 13-15m/13u "a mixed", 18-22m 46 2-22m, ll-13m, 25-30m 56 zttb 114 20-21m/w Hibericum 117 19-23m, 26-32m 118 14-22m 144 25-30m 145 26-25m 158 10-14m, 10-28w variable situations of nests ll-28w variable in species & genera 22ma, 34][/ua 159 9-22m, 22m*, 23u "burrows I banks ", 20m, 25-26u*+, 44-46m 161 10-14m, 10u*, 12u "underside I lying" 173 32-37m 174 18-22m, 23-31w In Andrena it was the males which were so difficult to distinguish 27-30m 185 wt Megachile a leaf culture, what diversity of Habit- ll-14m 208 22-26m, 29-31m 209 42-46m 210 22-26m 211 44-46m/wb Build in different situations & use moss -> 212 6-22m, 14-18m, 43u/w 2 213 15u/w 3 25u/w 1 36-39m/Q/36-38u "in\ numerous"/wb These varieties are males females 8c workers 214 23w 1 32-40m, 32u,

[page break] 75

76

BRIT. MUS. (SMITH), HYMENOPTERA

37u/w 21/2, 40u/w 1 215 7-llm/8-10u, 21u/w 2 33u/w 3 36u/w 1 216 22m; 2, 29w/h; 2 32«; 1 217 23w 0 34m> 1 38w 0 218 22m; 2 30w 2, 32w 1 219 25w 11/2 29m; 11/2 31 w 1 221 2m; 2 Ww 1 26w 1 26-30m 223 4m; 1 9m; 1 llw 1 33z^ 224 33w 2, 38w 1 zb é? 225 4m; 1 18-30m, 18m, 22u "workers" 226 22m; 1 24m; 2 26m; 21/2 227 22m; 1 34m; 2 39m; 1 229 18w 0, 24m; 11/2 230 27m; 0 32m; 11/2 34m; 1 231 22m; 0 32m; 2 36m; 2 233 7m; 1 23m; 3 26m; 2

British Museum (T.V. Wollaston) Catalogue of the coleopterous insects of Madeira in the collection of the British Museum London; by order of the Trustees; 1857 [CUL, I] is, sp, v

SB Qß

Whole Introduction marked ♦ p85 note Canal Elateridae Telephoridae vii ll-19m, ll-13w dele these 3 vars. 26-18w add 5 vars. viii 6-20m ix 3-4**, 7*, 14-15w Italics 26u "far", 25-28wu x tt23-22z xii 32-36m xiii 12-14m, 19-30m xvi wt The species f. on all 3 islands, are all rather indigenous 4-9m 1 zb 207 wt The numbers to left hand are the vars. to each species added from great Book & corrected in few cases.- Omit in counting all those marked by one or two Asterisks (a.s counted) 5*, 10.3 (ie, line 10, CD writes '3' to left hand), 17.4, 30.1, 34.1, 42.4 208 2.2, 5*, 10.1, 12*,

20.1, 23.3, 31.1, 34.1, 39.1, 52*, 53.5 209 2*, 4*, 17-19c, 26*, 39.1, 43c, 44c 210 5.1, 39.1, 42.1 211 5.2 212 29*, 30*, 40* 213 22*, 22.2, 29* 214 22*, 27*, 20*, 27.2, 29* 215 6.5, 14*, 25*, 33*, 41.1 216 26.4, 29.2, 22.2, 27.2, 28.1, 50.1 217 25*, 27.2, 34.1, 35.1, 40.1 218 22.2,

32*, 43.1 219 20.2, 27*, 20*, 26*, 28*,

29*, 34*, 35*, 36.2, 42* 220 7.2, 20.2,

23.5, 28.2, 42.2 221 7*, 29*, 31.1, 38.4, 39.2, 43.1, 44.2, 45.2 222 22*, 24.2, 27.2 223 7.2, 27*, 27*, 28*, 33.1, 44.1, 53* 224 2.2, 24*, 26*, 46*

Catalogues of the zoological collection in the British Museum 8 zb

BROCA, Pierre Paul On the phenomena of hybridity in the genus Homo London; Longman, Green, Longman and Roberts; 1864 [CUL] f, h, he, hy

SB 25 Definition of fertility in hybrids; 38; 39;

40; several statements to this effect - quote

when I speak of inferiority of Mulatto under

Reversion

18 21-26m 25 29-34m 27 29-36m 30 12-18m

33 23-26m, 28-32m 36 9-25m 37 19-24m 38

5-22m, 22-26m 39 28-22m, 32-33m/w Proc R 40 28-30m 49 7-22m 60 7-34m 63 20-23wz, 22« "indirect communications" 66 15-19m P

BRONN, Heinrich Georg Handbuch einer Geschichte der Natur Stuttgart; G. Schweizerbart; 1841; 2 vols, and atlas [CUL] ad, af, beh, br, cc, er, es, et, em, ex, f, fg, h, he, hy, ig, is, mg, mn, oo, sl, sp, sx, tm, ts, ud, v, wd, y

vol. 1, xviii 22-23m 378 31-33m

vol. 2 NF When in doubt for reference see Index to first time name is mentioned SB <20 sheets, numbered 2-10, 12) 2

Bronn. Geschichte Th. 2 Cross means useful

a p. 93 cage-birds deprived of light become black & snow insects from * same cause do-

p.96. birds black from food & being in dark places, generally assume proper colour next year.- (Bechstein)

X p. do (b) nestling goldfinches in cage covered with cloth all became black, resumed colour * next month do (c) fe» male pyrrhulas took on plumage of female in cage (other cases analogous) (d) Hence light has influence, & whiteness of polar animals perhaps effect of snow-light Negros!!

Introduce discussion.- though polar animals may have been created white & beetles under stones black, we yet know that it is possible they may have been so altered.-Against relation between tadpoles & Siren X Q (e) Beetles become darker & darker (traced by gradations) till black on snow-covered 7000-8000ft summits of Alps.- but thought species by some authors - so in going to pole: hence climate, though opposite effect on Vertebrata, such beetles must in pupa or larva state must be long under ground 3

p. 99 (a) yellow var of Zygaena not found at Erfuhrt, but common in south Germany.-

(b) accounts for increase of cattle in
Australia from greater birth of cows to Bulls
3-to-1 & in Man ??!

(c) Rabbits & Hens breed much offener, in
domestication, with food &c, than free
p.100 (a) quote Roulin on infertile geese,
when taken into America & Garcilasso for
hens not procreating; though now become
fertile
, yet game-cocks from England are

[page break] 78

77

less so.-

p.101 (a) late eggs of butterfly produce a

different variety from early eggs

p. 102 (a) much food increases fertility:—

mountain sheep produce only one lamb;

whilst lowland more & if former brought into

good pasture, even in first year produce

more than one; on other hand, Marsh-sheep

taken to mountains retain fertility for 3-4

generations [How opposed to Doubledayl] X

X109 Hares larger & smaller in Woods &

Fields

p110 Most important: Gloger thinks similar

differn in feathers of wing in Ducks,

especially Musk-Duck differences between

migratory & stationary birds of same

species.= X

<4>

p111 change in stomach in owl for vegetable

food (a) X wh. caused it to perish X alludes

to milking of cows - I may say difference is

sudden in La Plata

(b) In pig-races, wh. have many young more

tits give milk than in less fertile races.

p113 X Difference in Habit of single & many

Beavers.

p. 113 (a) Rabbits much ferreted (?) taken to

live in farms (F. Cuvier): anyhow a variation

in habits

117. Latent instincts in animals become feral

<&ie tarnen ess

p. 117. It is important to consider whether

the male in plants or animals (V. Koelreuter)

can propagate the sportive tendency,

because if so it will show, that the varying

tendency in the generative system, under

domestication, is the effect of impregnation

& not the womb influence. In fact if fish &

silkworms vary much, it cannot be foetal

influence X|| (Yes it may in Egg), nor indeed

in birds, as the mother only influences the

egg by its warmth, after a very early stage:

p.118 (a) origin of most varieties of plants,

through sports by unknown causes.

p. 118 (a)(a) attribute sporting of apples &

such like to the transplanting, pruning &c,

wh. they have undergone, [no. corn sports

as much as anything)

5

p.119 when a man has once got an 0

variation (a) (or through bastardising), then

he can easily go on raising more & more, ie

variation tends to increase, [this comes very

near to my facts]

p119 (b) No character resists variation in

cultivated plants; in lesser degree in wild

state: cannot compare effects of nature

during course of years, with our during a few

years.-

X|| p. 120 (a) is said, that Dahlias at first sported on single characters, & then in less degree in all: this very important, from analogy to wild (& whether relations of subgenera to genera)

X 121 variability of heredetariness in weeping ash & Peach

p123 (a) cases of sports in Dahlia flowers; & of whole plant producing different coloured flowers Geranium do - Dianthus - case of wild Achillea do

(b) apple with no petals or stamens, but 14 styles; fruit peculiar, when impregnated. p124 (a) curious account of seeds of a Carduus sown - one young plant came up different, & the seedling for 3 years from it same, & then on same soil lost one of its chief chlv 6

p 127 (a) subsequent offspring of a mare, affected by having once produced a mule. & sow so affected from a cross with wild Boar & on two races of dogs p. 130 (a) tailless fowls appear to have an abortive unformed, knotty projection, instead of the Cuckoo-Bone

p.130 (d) left wound snail can pair with only left - but young are right, in Helix pomatia (contrary to Sowerby)

p. 131 Tail feathers in waders & webs sometimes X vary in number - Gloger & Hodgson (references)

p132 (a) case of carp (which bred true) with 4 times larger scales in lines, with some places bare X - call Looking-glass Carp.-X p. 132 (b) Indian races of sheep & oxen where female hornless - he compares it with deer-tribe.

X p. 132 (D) cow lost left horn by suppuration, afterwards had three calves with left horn a mere stump attached to skin. X p 133 (a) Bug generally apterous, found in marshes with wings elytre bred in a house produced offspring with abortive wing v M DictionaryO [case where we know what an abortion] 7

p 135 (a) - remarks that the nature of the affinity in plants, wh. favours crossing is not known - because

p141(a) Gartner not external similarity, some of the closest species have not offspring when crossed; & because some genera, especially amongst the Monocotyledons will scarcely cross! (b) No cross of two species produces as many seeds as the * true species; yet

[page break] 80

79

BRONN, HANDBUCH

above says it is sometimes easier to get fertile seeds, through cross, than with no cross.-

p136 (a) remarks on uncertainty of Koelreuter experiments, how many trials necessary - first flowers fail - K. saying all that are fertile are vars., is arguing in circle-Good summary of Crosses = 141. (b) genera crossed with difficulty p146-(a) [good summing up of results of Hybridisation

(a) seems to think, the more remote, the crossed species & the more intermediate the offspring, the less fertile they are & more subject to monstrosity which particularly affects generation svstem(?) p147 (b) -How odd it is hybrids crossing easier 0 parents than 0 8

It is important to show in Azaleas, in (p.147) Lilacs, in animals, that the sterility is not due to tendency to vegetate or to increase of fruit &c- but to some direct influence on propagating system.-

p. 147 (b)(b) remarks from Köl, that variation in hybrids, depends on the parents (or parent?) having been domesticated, or tending to vary -

p148 (X) It wd be easy to take 100 double flowers & count, which has male & which female part most affected p. 152 (a) From Koelreuter, hybrids self impregnated, others lose or retain their small fertility, or approach to one parent in form & gain in fertility

p152 (B) Lindley on Hybrids not propagating in the 3d generation. X p154 (a) - hybrids not intermediate between parents (as by Koelreuter) but seldom!! in some parts like father, in some like mother Gartner 9

155 (a) Gartner. Hybrids the more fertile the nearer they take after the mother-side, less so, the nearer after the father side Hybrids go back to Mother side ! Herbert says just different

155 (B) says Hybrids from same species differ (??) & that the facility of impregnation depends on the selection of the sexual organs, & not as general relations. Reverse crosses similar offspring p. 156 (a) He says some species of a genus * impress their characters on hybrids, much more strongly than other species (does not d'Orbigny assert this in some Indian Races?) p156(b) He says either return to mother, or lose their procreative faculty

X p156 Passiflora more fertile with other pollen than own.

10

p. 164 (a) in making hybrids the female

generally resists male; so that male donkey

must be painted like zebra to cross with

mare zebra

Mares will only take stallion-donkey in dark,

& stallion horse must never have * seen

mare before - alludes X(d) to physical

difficulty of crossing some races

X(e) Buffon says that female foxes, dogs, &

wolves though in heat drove off with bites

the males of other species.

(f) Cuvier says Dingo & common dog wont

breed, though often * couple (they will in

Australia) & Zoolog Garden of London good

X ||See to authority

H. case of dog pairing with chained wolf

X p165 crosses of Domestic Cock with other

Birds & Finches

p172 (a) Case of some crossed by boar

(perhaps previous impregnation) had one

tame pig & other wild &c &c

X p168 variation which comes on with age

appear at corresponding age •

X p. 169 & 172 BB - Mongrels have the

character of (but many exceptions) (rest 0)

hybrids have character (rest 0)

(over)

It is an old argument, but never to be forgotten, that we must look with our gained experience * on the history of the world, as an * animal of years duration must on the variation of domestic animals he wd never suspect such a thing.

12

p184 (a) Ammon reckons on colours of of

horses being certainly true if only two

generations are known true

(b) white hens, peacocks, mice all come true

(D) contrasts fruit-trees - gives Van Mons

case of 35 years selection producing all

good fruit - (natural mongrelising he does

not notice) & trees bore fruit sooner

p185 (a) High-heel boots, have affected form

of childrens feet in Germany! Thaer

p186 (b) Shepherd-dog instinctively *

rounds sheep

X (a) mongrel sheep-dog & pointer for

several generations pointed at Birds.

(e) varieties sometimes cross whilst wild;

white hares in Cornwall &c

♦ Have parasitic plant genera wide range as

Waterhouse says parasitic insect do have

No

p.54.

[page break] 81

82

SB 09t (4 sheets, numbered 1,11, 13,14)

56 on mixing of Salt & FW Fish in Baltic

58 do. & of shells & Crust in Caspian

69 changes of colour & quality of fruit from

soil.

77 Doubling of flowers, discussion on.

83 changes of flowers on mountains, intense

colour, plant less size, but larger flowers

85 cases of plants changing by culture.

Lobelia & Ziziphora (Refer to in note) Q

89 Summary on changes of Fur of animals

under changed climate

107. most important case of variation of Fish

96. Hawk in Berlin went back to earlier

plumage

H

170 X 8 generations absorb another race, in

which one blood is 99.62 of whole

- strong case of sheep taking after Ram in
reciprocal cross X

- on crosses not intermediate: on horns
going from father X

177 Description of Hybrids wolf & dog

179 Particulars on Hybrid Canaries &

Goldfinch

I have used all this Book for Hybrids

13

187. feral dogs soon reclaimed (Schomburgk)

-Bechstein says Zeisig more readily pairs (Ch. 6.) with * green than with yellow Canary Birds

Brehm's subspecies not merely geographical Races

190. White Hares of Cornwall.- (must allude

to Bronns Gesichte in Preface; if soon

Gartner, Kolreuter, Decandolle Huzard.-

Hooker's works - Lyells Geology. Isodore G.

St. Hilaire

195 References to G.St. Hilaires doctrine of

external cause causing change

210 Horses swim 7 German miles

216. on accidental migration of Lemmings,

insects &c

223 References to falls of inorganic bodies

224. Lost animals - Turtles - & Birds on

continents

225 Reference to Hawk Case Fontainbleau

- R. Brown on Gulf seeds germinating

229 case of Head of Bos m. washed on

shore of Greenland shows course of iceberg,

with respect to plant common to White Mnt.

& Greenland.-

234 Excellent accounts of falls of seeds, with

references

236 Fish & Crab Rain

247 Remarkable that N. Holland more plant

common to Europe than S. Africa -

explained by me 14

252 on Relation of Red Sea to Med
iterranean - Wiegmann Arch/- on distrib. of
insects & Lacordaire-

Alpine climate not very like polar.

Snow region in Alps 12 plants, many more in Melville Isd

-Table of heights & Latitudes to show correspondence

272 Duration of Seeds vitality of 284 number of seeds - kind of animals which have most - number of eggs in Crab-Fishes

286 number of mice one pair can produce in year

- increase of cattle in America with dates 293 Destruction of forests by insects 297 - on insects destroying crops-

Rein-deer killed by insects

Mice destroying trees

302 increase of mice, followed by increase of weasels

505 causes of extinction, yet not real for they do not apply to rarity

v 9-12?, 14-18m, l-26w Read all on this problem vi 4m, 23-26w Read vii 20-24w Read viii l-30m, 18-23w Read xi 2-12m/w Read & marked 28 xot Tobacco plants in 5 years wd cover all Germany 29-31m/30w (a) 54 8-10m, 13m/u "die Pflanzen", 19u "lange", ÏÏ2-lm/xv (a) xob Trees not killed by cases of shells of seawater - did annual seeds spring up again? ask Mr Higgins 55 7-17w sea & freshwater shells mixed together 56 14-20w on Fish inhabiting salt & F. Water 26-27«<->, 32u*+/30-35xv Cyprinus in F. & salt water 58 21-40m, 23-28w Caspian Fauna genera of salt & fresh fish & Crust & Shells 43-44m 59 28-40m*, 30-Alxo changes in vegetation -spread of a grass when forests cut down 65 12-17x0 (Must skim previous Part May 12 -45 Begun 69 23-31m/xo dark red Rosa became streaked with white by earth colouring 29-31m, 32m, 35-38m, 35u "1837", 44xo Is this good authority? wb X other cases of flowers changing colour in diff: soils, xx case of grape strongly manured cow-dung, alum, horse-chips &c changing from small * yellow-green, with flatened grapes into large watery dark blue grapes 70 zvt A Different manures affect greatly melons in quality 2-10m/3u "Gewürz \zartheit"/xv A 72 xvt sugarcane & * Pineapple seedless, from antithesis of sap & pulpy fruit l-4m, lu "Ananas", 2u "verwildert\kleine", 29m 74 2-27xo instances of different parts, with

[page break] 83

84

BRONN, HANDBUCH

parenchyme enlarged by culture, as in Cabbages & Plums 16-27m, 28-29u<^, 29-30m, 35-39m/w These trees did not produce fruit, from luxuriousness of vegetation 75 1-2u<^, 8-13m/zv cutting trees makes them fruit. 76 19a/u/wx, 16-28m/w on change of sex in dioeceous plants 77 l-21m/4r-17w on doubling of flowers 27-30m^, 27-35w old & new seeds differ in producing double flowers 78 ll-26w did seeds produce female plants - large fruits is opposed by antithesis to seeds 79 35u "dasselbe Individuum"/35-37w loose or gain hairyness 81 20-22m/19-25w European biennials changed into annual in Crete 82 11-17 m/llu*/15u "Weiss"/16u "Hibiscus]weisse"\17u "Roth"/w Lilacs when put in hot-house changed from white to red 21u "Wimmer", 28-38m, 44-45m\w (I have not thought worth quoting) î\2w/wb all facts on next page I believe taken from this wb R. Brown believes in great alterations in flowers on mountains 83 4-7m/w dwarf from growing on high mountain 9-13w leaves change a little 20-26w Hairyness increases on heights & in wet places 27-29w other time lose them 30-35m/iv Colours of flower - stem darker 37-45W flower larger sometimes though petal smaller even twice wb x from above changes many varieties have been considered as other species 84 19u "Nessel I dioica"/16-22m/ w Link says southward Urtica dioica changes into U. caudata 42m 85 wt (a) Lobelia lutea from England flowered for 4 years in Pawlowsk, did not seed, was divided into 3 plants, & they lost their lance-formed teethed leaves & has broad, egg-shaped leaves, with different flower; became the L. bellidifolia 2-7m/Q 9a\u*\10aluh\7-12m\w Both. C.G.H. flowers diff. colour diff time of flowering 30-33m/w Form, direction & connect less affected; great influence on instincts 39-40m 86 22u "kleiner] unfruchtbarer"/23-24m!?/24u "die Grad"/17-28w Animals on limits of proper climate less fruitful!? and less size. 31-37w Peron's case of shells altering in size in Australia 37-38m/wb On increase & decrease in size in Helix's on Alps 89 wt European goats in high mountains have some fur 7-14m/10-16w on change in fur in European animals in Himalayas midpage Q 40-41m, 45-46m, xvb this Page summary of facts on fur 90 4u*/4-6m/4-9w looses hair when old 6-10m/9-19w Pigs with different hair in different parts of S. America 16-20m, 19u "weit I Winterhaar", 26-30m/w No cause for Angora wool 42m 91 25« "Gloger"/14-21m/w almost all beasts undergo some change in winter in colour 19u "tropischen

Gegenden", 20u "höherIsind", 21u "helle\ grauweise", 22u "Polen" 93 8m, 14-16m, 28-33m, 28w (a) 38u/wb% 94 3-16ml2-9w animals at pole become white 23-36m\21-32w birds do all or in patches 95 l-5w Men, horses & Birds white with age. 12u "Eichhörnchen"/9-15m/w some darker by age & by hot climate, 20-27m\w other colours change in birds by climate 28m, 29-32m/w head, neck & eyes change colour 43m/43-44w Gloger - much praised by him 96 wt a Hawk went back in Berlin to an earlier plumage 3-6m/5u "zurückschlagen", 9w (a) 12ua/15ua/12-15w Galapagos Finches Black 17a/u/wx (b) 22-23m/w (c) 27-30mj28-29w d 32-33u "Osw. Heer", 36-39w e Quoted 97 l-18w/wt ! Most of these observations are vitiated by doubt of what are species - reason against my going into details 23« "Viele dieses", 14-lbu "Systemen]worden", 31-33w Quoted 40ma 98 7ua, tt7m 99 ll-13m/w a 29-31m/w (b) 38-41m/w (c) 42-43?? 100 12-16m/16u "Schafe"/ 13w (a) 38m/w Gloger wb on different singing in same Birds 101 24u "Freyer"/10-14m/w In Ray has written much on Butterflies no authority 15-19m/16-17w (a) 22-26m/w effects of good food chiefly through young 32-36m/w affects flesh more than bones 102 25-16w (a) 26m 105 14-26m/w on change in Merinos in France 8c Holland 106 26wx 107 wt This case so important as to be quoted 10-12m/13-14u "grosse] entstanden" jllw (a) wb (a) the intermediate form between * these two supposed species, found in a ditch where one species had been turned in. Yarrell. vol I alludes to these two fishes & gives summary of their differences 109 2-4m\ 2-6w made from many individuals 13-17m/w birds black from seeds 27u "Bombyx]viel", 28u "B.IBlättern", 35m/u "Waldhafen\Hirsche"/36u "Gebirge", 48m/wb x wood-hares larger than field-hares Mem: Fox of Highland 110 20-23m\20-22u "Schwung]Truthühnern"/ 23w Musk duck 25-29m/29u "Gloger"\33u "S.109"/30-33w toes & membrane (a) wb p109 Alludes to different figures of Mountain & plain cattle 111 5w (a) 19-20u "bis] Werfen "/18-25m/w tarne cows more milk than wild: organs adapt themselves 34-36m/w (b) 40m/w Greyhounds in Mexico 112 5u "Scheue"/4-8w domestic animals loose cunning 113 4-14m/w case of dog walking on hind legs 18-24w Beavers difference when single & in company 26m/w (a) 28-30m/w+ Ducks 115 23-33w original temper &c of wild dogs different 116 24u "Menetries", 41m/u "Isis 1832"/39w ?read? 117 wt So Rabbit in Falklands, Horse in La Plata Latent

[page break] 85

86

instincts- 2-22->, 13-16m/w Young wild Cuba dogs reared are tame !! 25-26m, 33-34m/u "Aber I mögen "/w !! No 40-41m\u "Hopkirk\Isis 1819" 118 3-6m/w* understand? 9-10m/9-15w sports on single branches hereditary (a) 21-23m/w (a)(a) 119 2-8m/5w (a) 11-17 m\13-14u "dass\ vorkomme"/12-17w (b) not understand 20u "1790"/21u*/20-23w ? Dahlia history of 30-33w flowers of two colours on 1 plant 33-34u "DA trug", 34-38m/w sported extraordinarily 39m 120 wt First affected single parts, then all parts of plants but in less degree l-2m, 4-6ml4u "6'-7'"/5u "3'^4'"/3-5w by selection 7-12w period of flowering earlier 42-44m, wb (on Cabbage-varieties) 121 22-32m, 22-25w weeping Ash hereditary 29w not hereditary 31-34w Weeping Peach hereditary Qä, 38m/ u "Versuch\Monographie"\w Potatoes 41-44mfo 122 ll-19m/w cases of leaves soldered up like Nepenthes 123 2-3m/wx, 5-9m/6w (a) 10-llu "eines I Weiss", 13-14m/u "rothgefärbten IJahre", 14w Geranium Dianth 20w (b) 41m\w (a) 42-43m/w (b) 45m/u "Ann.\XX"/w Oranges 124 21-22u++/w (a) 23-26m/24w (b) wb (b) very curious, seedling became smooth instead of hairy; but it was found in ensuing summer, that it was hairy in spring & smooth later in summer 127 20-22m/w (a) 23-24m, 45-46m/ wb Dog cases 128 34-35m, 39m (Blumenbach), wb skull of tufted Holland-Hen monstrous bladder of bone (yet sexual) 129 15-16m/16u "mehrerl Knochen", 42-44m 130 l-3m/2w (a) 12m/13u "Schlegel"/w (b) 24-23m/w some moveable part in tortoise variable 25-30m/w These genera of Bell only monsters 33-36m/w (D) 37-38m, 41m/w (D) 131 î\12-10m/w (a) 132 wt Now see whether number varies in different species 3-5m, 6-12m/8w (a) 26« "Lambert"/16-19w skin with spines 21-22m/u++, 31-33m/w (b) 35-37m\ QA./w (D) 39m, 42m/w (D) 133 22w (a) 135 15-16w not cross! 17u "Pelargonium /18u^l 17-1811, 18-21m/w Herbert 26-30m/27w (a) 36-37m/w (B) 136 9«*, 22m "deren I fruchtbar", 24-39m, 33-35u±/w (a) 42-43u "den\ Petropolitanae"/w (a) \\2-lm/u/wb Novi Commentarii? 137 44-46m/? 138 l-12w Herschel experiments appear valueless to me 34m/w What result 140 32« "Dr Gartner", 43~46m 141 lu "oft I leicht", 10-13m, 10-14m, 13-14m, 13-15u "keineswegs I A"\w seldom so many seed as in pure cross (a)(b) 21-25m/w all changes take place more slowly 26-29u++, 31u "600\30" 144 5w (a) 17-18u "AlleIpraecox", 25-26w Monocotyledon 26-34m, 36m, 38m, 39-40m, 43-46m/w Amaryllis

145 1-lOm/wt/l-lOw all sterile except 2 cases, as are pure Amaryllis on account of tending to bulbs; How does Herbert find this? 40-45m/w Look to Passiflora Rosa 146 16-35m/28w (a) 37~42m/w 1824 to 34 8£. Bailliere 147 l-2m, 4-6m/w (b) 20-22m, 38-42m/w (b)(b) î\5-lm/w/wb tendency to monstrosity; is not this like large fruit of Pears 148 wt Most often sterile on male side 2« "am häufigsten", 2m, 10-17m/w greater * vegetation power of hybrids 152 7-12m/9w (a) 38m/w B 47m 153 4u "Henschel", 5-7m, 44u "Nie I zeigten", wb Hybrids never intermediate as in Koelreuters !! V p. 138

9u "Gärtner", 22-25m, 27Q, 29-30u "einzelne Water"'\22-31wFruit never affected by a cross in the plant itself 36-37m/u "kommtIüberein", 41-42m, 43m*, wb effects of crossing varieties exceedingly uncertain

l-20w History of variation of mongrel maize, not very important 30-33mj31w (a) 38-41m/39w (B) 43-44m, 45m/w Gartner 156 l-5m/2w (a) 7-9m/8w (B) 26u "genannten", 27-30m, 27-28u "ganzen I Form", 30u "Saamenstaub I Früchte", 35-37m, 36-40m, 36u, wb Grt fertility of Hybrid Passiflora than with own pollen 157 29-31w wild Hybrids 40m/w Authority for all 158 wt/l-lOw How curious the number of natural Hybrids in Gentianella & Verbascum & Conicus I doubt whether some of them are not varieties & Zygaena in insects 22-22« "dasslverband", 13-19m, 18-21m, 18u "hat I Mutter", 18u "Charaktere", 19u "Kelch I ausgenommen ", I L> 27m/w some character like one parent & some like other 22-23u "in I den", 31-32u "scheint I unfruchtbar", 36u "Fruktifikation\ Vaters", 37u "es\Saamen" 159 23-26« "Habitus\spuria", 16u "Fähigkeit]Saamen" 28u "Die\Charakter", 37u/wz, 39-40u/w% 160 wt/lu "auszubilden"/l-4w parents must live together 5-8w* L. marshy fields 6«*, 22-22« "bald I Mittel"/22u "häufig \ ähnlicher/9-25w are not these varieties? they are fertile 291... 161 2-3m, 2m* 162 14wx, 17-42w curious case of change,- but possibly a hybrid - (not like the Asphodelus case, of Linn Soc) for it has a seedling, 24-25« "angebliche Verwandlung", 21u "blüheteX zinnoberroth"', 22u "purpurroten ", 25-26u "blüheten I Streifen ", 30u "aberIals", 39u "SchneevogtIzwar", 44m 163 8-14m 164 3-6m/4w (a), 9-11m, 12-13m/w (d) 16-17m\w (e) 19-20m/w (f) 22-23w She-wolf or dog, 22-23u, 25m/w (h) 31-32Q/33-34w p 132 35-38m/27-37w are these species? 40m*, 42m 165 14-15m/w Bechstein!!! 17mjw * minute account 18m/w minute account! 25m, 37m, 45m 166 5-6Q/6m, lOw 1 12w 2

[page break] 88

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BRONN, HANDBUCH

16w 6, 19w 9 168 10u^/wt Peculiarity which comes on with age, are hereditary at same age wt/l-9w self-acquired peculiarities scarcely ever transmitted !!, 8u "allen\ zwischen", 13-lSm/w sex determined by strength & age of parent 27-30w on sex of offspring 169 24« "Varietäten-Kreutzung"/w intermediate 16w (B) 18-20w varying when parents vary 21-25u± 170 wt/fig.w 8 generations transform one race to another (so Kolreuter says in Species?) Q<& 8-9u<^-, 10-11QA, 15-19m/20u*/13-20w strong case of sheep taking after rams ie sex. 23-33w cases of odd hereditariness not intermediate in claws & horns 28-30u<^, 32u "gehörnte Kuh", 32u "ohne Hörner", 33u "stall\Hörner" 171 2-5u±, 14-15m, 27-29u "Em I Nachkommen", 31-32m, 32u "Godine", 32u "'vorzugsweiseIgleichen", 44-45m, 45wx, wb Probably good, as he trusts to numbers (Read) 172 2-2«<->, 4-10m/6w (a) 22-22«; Royston & Carrion Crows 12-13u<->, 15u "aber\Fällen", 16u/wx, 14-20w Q considers them as varieties Newman must be consulted. 24w B 24-26u<^/27w (e) 34-35u±, 43m, 44m 173 12w Fish 24« "beruhet I von", 20w female 174 8-9u*, 13-14u "viele I Junge", 28-30u±, 33u/wx, 39u "auch\ legen", 42u "keine Eyer" 175 18u/wx, 24u/wx, 32u "gleichen I alle", 33-35m/34u "ein I ähnlicher", 34-35u "ein I ähnlicher", 35u "zuletzt I zwischen"/33-39w is this not effect of which bird is father or mother, 43u "sind fruchtbar" 176 20« "sechs \ Mutter"/10-12w Lumbar vertebrae 27« "doch \ beiderlei", 29-31u± 177 14~16m, 27^0m/28-45w 3 Hybrid wolf-dogs from one litter differed in form & instincts : female bore young to a hound 28u "war menschenscher", 30u "Kopf", 39u "andern I Kreutzung" 178 l-5m/w other cases of dissimilar hybrids 5u "Charakter", Su "sanfter", 9u "nur\zeigen", 19-40w Minute account of hybrid of Cat & Martin not infrequent - seen in copulation!! 179 10-32m/ 18-20w A, 38-39u "sich I ausgemacht "/34-40w Crosses of Canaries & Finches breed with one parent ÏÏ2m/w See to this ïïlm/w About breeding of Musk & common Duck wb A history of hybrid of canary & goldfinch hybrids wb Says the Hybrids of Musk & Common Duck can breed. 181 5-10m/w Hereditariness of extra fingers 10-34w How wonderful! the cell shd have such power Often good instance of peculiarity appearing in grandchild- 182 l-28w Much of my sort of argument about return to parent-forms- 30-34m, 35-38w Crow cases 42u*/40-43m/w Koelreuters case 183 wt (my remark) 2-5m/w

reasons in circle 23-27m*/23w+ remark, wb cases, as sixfingered or case where only one parent has peculiarity ought to make one cautious about saying there is so strong a tendency to return to parent form. 184 5-6u "2161Pferden"\8u "nurI Junge"/15u/5-14w only 11 out of 216 pairs produced foals of different colours (b) 23w (D) 24-25u "dass\ scheine"/! 185 13-24w account of what selection & crossing have done like my skeleton 30-33m/32w (a), 35-41m/35-45w mutilation hard to inherit yet believes in tailless dogs from this cause!! 47m, 22-23u "gehörnten I zurückschlägt "/wb which did not go back: no wild permanent vars go back 186 12-15m/13w (b) 17-18m/w (a) 21-23m/w (e) 24m "S.190", 26-30m/w race of one horned wild stags 37u "Gmelins", wb (a) some species resisted culture for 2-3 years - but with proper culture returned to parent-form - 187 5m/wt/l-5w perhaps often cross now with dogs if inhabitant & so with horses. 20-22« "aberIRassen", 15u "Schomburgk"/16u "nachI Ohren"/13-15m/12-17w wild dogs in 1st generation tame 29-33m/w seems to think new species are formed. 188 6u "Brehm's", 30-32m, 33-35m, 33-34u "nach\ paart", 35u+, 37-39m/38-39w Brehm subspecies 189 l-28w/wt These sub-species are not exclusively geographical vars or species 5-18m/16u*/18u "aus I diese"/7-15w case where Brehm splits old species into 2 29« "tinnunculus\einen", 19-30w 4 subspecies (See Gould) Bronn seems to consider them varieties 30u "Sie\Klima", 34u "meisten IJäger", 35u/wx, 38u "nach \ und", 39-42m/39u*/40-41u "Bär I Striche" 190 3« "nach I Couche"'/wt Must see to this. l-2m/w Hares differ 3-Sm/w White Hare 33-37m/35w a 39m, 41m, wb Slow geological change important because domestication shows slowness 191 wb I begin to suspect too slow, except in sudden immigrants x- In this case we have fewness of number, sudden change, (in organism & external conditions), but on other hand not many to select from.-especially changing island.- 192 l-33w seems to think that some species may be varieties 193 22-22« "viele \ Spezies "/w tortoise-genus, 42m 195 23-26m, 24-25u++

202 19-21m, 32-35m/w double creations
probable wb remarks that 2 must have been
created of bisexual animals - [Multiple
Creations must not be treated dogmatically]

203 14m/u "Candolle Sohn", 15-21m/w
believes whole surface covered with new
species 204 26-29m 210 wt plants distributed
along rivers l-3m, 32u "71 Meilen "/30-35m/w

[page break] 90

89

Horses swim 211 33wx, 34-35u*+/w whether same one does not know 216 l-29w in certain periods animals congregate & migrate in no fixed direction or fixed time hard to explain 31-34m/33u "O.IVV.", 35-36m/w (a) wb (a) In these cases Congregating always announces intention to migrate, though when in years, when number not great, there is no tendency to congregate 222 29-39w congregate & migrate, when food &c fails in own country 223 17-18m 224 16-18w Lost Turtles 26-31w Lost birds on continents 225 3-4m, 30-32m, 40m, 41m 226 6-15m/w Eggs of mollusca may be attached * fuci & wood 227 wt x said that maize was floated to Japan l-2m/w x 229 wt (a) quadrupeds carried on ice may transport seeds- 3-13m, 6-10w (a) White Bears. Wolves. 15-21m/w Bone washed to Greenland on ice so cd seeds 38ulwx 230 ll-13m, 28-40w If Storm Petrel so often blown inland, other birds might be blown to sea wb The real cause of surprise in birds, insects & light seeds, that not more distributed. 231 19-24m/23u "leichter \ schliessen"/22w (a) wb distance to wh. pollen is carried bears on seed transportation 232 2-20m/2u "Lupinen" 4-10w cases of pollen-showers 18u "vor I Feldarbeiter"/16-25w This bears on seeds. Meteoric paper of Coniferae- 233 zb 234 3-5w rain of seeds 9-llm/llu "die\ waren", 14-18m/18u "zum\ Art"/14-20w corn raised in Africa fell in Spain 15u/wx, 21m/u "Schleffen", 41m/w Read 42m/u "und \ 217", 43m 235 32m 236 16-21w Crab & Fish Rain 237 7-10w Fish Rain 24« "zweiIlebend", 27u "Fischen\Fröschen", 28u "und\lebend", 29u "lebend" 238 9-llm, 12-15w Frog Rain 241 15-19w Fish eggs perhaps stick to Birds 20u "50\Genera", 21u "mit\Saamen", 26-31m/w amount of birds with seeds killed by others 245 27-28m, 29m, 37m, 41m, 42m* 246 14-15u<-*/5-20w ?? shells in America & Pacific 25-28m/26-27u "ziemlich]besitzen", 37m, 39-40m 247 8u *, 9-1 lw wider genera 13m*, 18-19u<->, 26u "3851 von", 31u "nur \ Arten", 33-35m, 33u "701590", 40-Alm 248 6-7m, 9-llm, 19-20u "unterI Europa", 27u "Ursus\ Fischotter", 28-32m/29u "beiden Wiesel"\29-30wtwo weasels 37m, 43m 249 23m "reicher\ ist"/24u "je\ seine"/ 23-28w Hooker says no no! N. Zealand 251 24m/u "22 \Reiche", 41m 252 5-6m, 7-8m, 17u "Fischen"/18u "Korallen gemein"/19u "500"/ 20u "32"/17-21m/15-27w Red Sea & Mediterranean Phillipines make shells more in common 36m 253 11-lSw climate of mountain tops differ much from Polar

Regions 254 17w in 48° wb Snow regions of Alps only 12 phanerogam whereas Melville Islds & Spitzbergen much richer 255 5w+ exclusively confined not peculiar %w Heer on insects of Alps.- ♦ The number of peculiar insects appear very small at the great heights - most peculiar species at bottom 256 24-27m/25w (a) wb (a) Larger the continent, larger the animals - Australia & S America contrasted with Java & Borneo !!! 272 wt Duration of seeds 273 38-42m/w old seeds reviving 278 25u "Spallanzani's Versuchen"/25-31w no fish eggs keep more than 2 months dry ÏÏ2m, ïïlm, wb account of a disconnected pool annually dry & annually repeopled with Fish 284 16u++/14-18m/w Less propagating powers by ostriches !! wolves I! x 19-21w because not destroyed 29u "ihres hundert"/28-34w number of seeds from a 1000 year old trees wb x number of eggs compensate viability chance« of destruction in full grown state & youthful state & egg state 285 18-19m, 18m*, 19m*, 29m*, 30m*, 32m*, 32m*, 33m*, 42m "Polygamic]Hühner", wb How evident protection of womb does in place of many eggs (yet rats) 286 22m "Feldmaus", 12u "5110", 15-21m, 19m, 34u "27 Jahre", 35u "4000-8000", 36u "35.4M"'/wt, 37u "65.1 Besitznahme", wb One is always astonished at geometrical increases 287 2a "Rudel" flocks l-2m, 40-42m/u "Lyell's Principles of Geology" 288 38-41w impregnation 42-45m, 42u*, 43ut 293 7u*, 8-9w destruction of forests ll-18m, 22u/wx 294 5-10w Forests destroyed wb To see what injury horses do & sheep to young plants I have often wondered how anything grows up 296 11m 297 l-3m, 17u "von I Engl.", 18u "land einwärts", 18u "200", 38m*, 39m, 39u "den I unmöglich", 43-45m 299 29-32m, 29u "Rennthiere", 31a "Drittel"/u "soIstirbt" 300 32-36m, 33u "FeldIMaus", 35u "bedeutende junge" 301 15-19m/w Epidermis in Caterpillars 302 6m, 42m 303 wt Weasels increased Im "Wiesel", 2u "Mäuse" 505 25-28m/25w (a) wb (a) all these great causes given of extinction, yet none of these apply to rarity & therefore (with exceptions) to extinction

BRONN, Heinrich Georg Morphologische

Studien über die Gestaltungs-Gesetze der

Naturkörper Leipzig und Heidelberg; 1858
[CUL, I]

409 10-llwx, 13-16m, 19w no 19m "bisher gänzlich entgangen"

[page break] 91

92

BRONN, Heinrich Georg Untersuchungen über die Entwickelungs-Gesetze der organischen Welt Stuttgart; E. Schweizerbart; 1858 [CUL]

SB ♦ p78 Oken Grant 1835 use my copy d'Alton, Unqer 1852; p. 80 ? 79 36m 80 34-37m, 34wx

BROOKES, Richard The natural history of insects London; J. Newbery; 1763 [CUL, pre-B,S]

BROOKES, Richard The natural history of waters, earths, stones, fossils and minerals London; J. Newbery; 1763 [CUL, pre-B, S]

(w<&; not CD; give melting-temperatures of various metals; u mainly names of metals] iv 34~37w, 34u v 26-28w, 26u xxiv 27-30w, 27u xxvi 19-26w, 19u 25 8u, 9u, 13u, 30u 26 4u 98 26-32w, 29u, 29a 102 15w 110 15w 111 5-10w, 8u 114 31w, 31u, 32-38w, 37u 116 2-3u, 2-5w 117 3-9w, 3u 122 38-41w, 38u 128 15-16w, 15u, 23-24w

BROUGHAM, Henry, Lord Dissertations on subjects of science connected with natural theology 2 vols.; London; C. Knight & Co.; 1839 [CUL]

ad, beh, br, ch, cs, fo, h, hi, no, oo, phy, sh, si, t, ti, tm, y

vol. 1 NB1 Is there anything odd in the nidification of Penguin Duck.- M. Miller says so - we want cases of this N.B. some birds feed their young with different food from what they eat themselves - this paves the way for explaining habits of solitary wasp, * in this book considered -good plan thus to take one example-Ask Fox to obtain information about Tumbler Pidgeons. cross them.-NB2 1 ail to 54; 70; 77; 79; 84; 91; 102; 107; 108; 116; 119; 123; 121, 122 to 134 to 138 to to 143 to 155 -> 161, 167; 179; 188; 196; 203, 204 -> 208; 216- Journal =; 267; 244; 332 SBÜß

Q 17 Case of solitary wasp feeding young with spiders & caterpillars, good better than Birds feeding different food Q 28 Brougham definition of instinct [Insects life too short for much experience or gained habit]. Though habit may do something for higher animals not needed for most complex instincts

Q 30 Instinct - (47 do &, 52) 70, 203 Q 77 Mathematical work to show how perfect the Bees cell is 79 contrast with man making a plan - p. 244.

Q 117 good instinct - chicken pecking circle

inside shell cannot be an habitual action;

208 young alligator snapping/ Chicken

seeing, walking, pecking at early youth reflex

continued

Q 124 Intelligence

Q 196 On Abstraction in animals

Q 219 On the form of Bee Cells

All Q

7 ll-17m 8 wt therefore growth an instinct!! 5-7m 9 wt or rather apparently voluntary -analogy from ourselves would lead one to consider voluntary 2-3m 11 ll-15m 15 ÏÏ22-lm 17 wt In whatever way I create my instincts & habits, or changes in brain's structure, the instincts must have been formed step by step on account of effects of crossing 19-25m, wb excessively hard to account by habit - 24 4-22m, 5u "ml number" 28 l-7m/w/wt this hardly applies to S. American horse cantering wb Yes the gratification of an habitual action.- or even without it, but disagreeableness of prevented - One sees this in dogs - 29 16-21m/17-23w but why does she like half killing them 30 wt Spallanzani & the Bat is good to exemplify what I mean l-2m, 5u "instant"/5-7w false in Bees 7-12w Here is common confusion of means 32 12u "cylindrical cells"/? 33 15-25m 42 19-25m 43 l-12m 47 13-23m/w no -retriever action does not apply to it 22-25m/? 48 wt Yet S American Horse cantering * would be called instinctive. ? will not my definition, of that which, according to our own consciousness, wontO be done with deliberation. l-6m 51 14~18m/Q 52 10-18m, 21-25m, wb is it not that most instincts happen to have some end in view? 70 ÏÏ5-1m, wb applicable to habit 77 wt very wonderful - it is as wonderful in the mind as certain adaptations in the body - the eye for instance, if my theory explains one it may explain other. 2-27m 79 5-25m, wb some wax-working woman worked under a cloth, & so made likeness by touch 84 21-25m, wb take the case of chicken being born with powers of sight, which man only acquires slowly - we can see no reason why man shd not be born so - this might be worked into good case 85 2-29m, wb also lamb walking & baby not - the movements of lamb in womb could never teach it to balance body - an act which must be most difficult 91 12-14m 102 10-25m 107 12-22m 108 18-25m, wb Casarita boring through mud walls - swallows building on wet places -116 l-13m 117 15-24m/21-22u "and\end"/23-

[page break] 94

93

25m/16-21w hard to account by my theory 121 12-18m, wb Blackwall has seen same thing 122 4~25w the blindest instinct, birds building nests, is somewhat adapted to circumstances 22-24m, wb I am surprised at this being called intelligence 123 8-17m/9-Ww See Rengger 124 3-6m/4-5w Yes Rengger wb* 125 3-7m, 8-12m 134 22-25m 137 14-25m/23w/wb Blackwall - No 139 23-25m 140 2-23m 143 wt x it is a faculty 5u "examined \Instinct"14-7mlw very false x 29-22m 145 29-25m 146 l-7m 147 22-25m 155 22-24m 161 27-25m 167 22-25m 179 6-lOm, 14r-23m, wb always compare savages 188 23-25m 189 2-5m, 13-18m/15u "which\ kindred", wb Have animals taste? dogs like looking out of window 196 8-19m/13-14w dont understand 197 3-7m, 3-25"...", 5u "Judgment I Reasoning", 9-25m 199 wt Rengger shows that monkeys domineer over dogs, like men over other animals 203 15-18m 204 6-22m 208 24-27m 216 l-6m 222 2S-22m 225 2-4m 229 20-25m 231 23-25m 233 14-22m 235 27« "trihedral" 241 22-25m 244 7-19m/ll-12u±/llwf&/12-13w<&ec, wb astonishing on my Th. that infinite attempts should have reached that perfection which mathematics requires - this instinct has same relation to geometry, which the eye has to optics 245 8-llm/8-9u "not I rhombus" 264 18-20m 265 l-2m/lu "but\three" 267 22-18m 270 20-26m 278 9-14m 279 20-25m 332 9-13m/w the instincts of young Cuckoo are like those of larva wb The instincts of the young of anims are probably remnants of instincts of ancient larva-state P

vol. 2 NF Sä

NB 52; 56; 65; 66; 84; 108; 183

SB Qß

84 Rattle of Rattle-snake; if given to paralize

prey by fear useful; not given to warn

animals - go on to say Tri-

gonocephalus to show case.- Ch. 9

108 Vis Medicatrix

52 ll-18m 56 wt Man's mammae !! abortive wings, under * united wing-cases !! l-8m, 13-26m 65 13-23m, wb Preservation of life! 66 l-15m 84 5-10m/w curious instance of injurious structure 108 2-25m 109 2-23m 183 wb/tw How many times have shells been changed in Europe since Eocene? Mammals probably greater number. & how many at present & how many during Eocene - We might calculate how many have lived in Europe alone yet only 160 have been found fossil

BROUN, Thomas Manual of the New Zealand Coleoptera Wellington; James Hughes; 1880 [Down]

BROWN, Robert The miscellaneous botanical works 2 vols and vol. of plates; London; The Ray Society; 1866-1868 [Down]

vol. 1 p

vol. 2 p

273 3-5m 278 16-21m, 33-37m, 37"... 279 wt

•, l-3m/lu "some confidence", 6-8m, 12-14m

281 2-Am

P

BROWNE, James Crichton The West Riding lunatic asylum medical reports London; J. & A. Churchill; 1871-1875 [CUL] beh, ds, phy, sx

vol. 1 NB 95 Blushing; 8 Death of males important for Descent 8 5-12m, 13-15m

P

95 27-28u "nitrite of amyl", 29-33m, 33u

"bright I face", 34-36m, 38-39m, 45m 96 5-7m\

5u "eyes I excited" 97 32-39m, 40-44m

P

vol. 2 NB for Cicuta p5 or Conium

Maculatum (u^)

27 * Conia acts on the Motor centres of the

Brain but I tried HyosycamusO

81 Poisons in animals & vegetables

297 & Singing preserved when voice lost

& Drosera

v 13m, 15m, 22m, 27m vi 3m 27 l-2m/u

"firstly I periphery" 81 20-23m/22-24w Frank

has shown 39m 82 14-18m, 17-20m (G.

Harley) 83 6-13m, 29-34m 84 20m 297 16-

17m/10-21w Dr J Crichton Browne 31-33m\

32u "to sing"

vol. 5 NB 0/

vii 4m, 8m, 10m, 17m, 19m, 27m, 31m

BRUGUIERES, Jean Guillaume Encyclopédie Méthodique - histoire naturelle des vers 1 vol in 2 parts; Paris; Panckoucke; 1789-1792 [CUL, pre-B] v

vol. 1 part 1 title page "sixième" corrected to premier 163b 23w/wa 164a 15u*>, 49-55w B. not tulipe? 164b 27uts 165a 32u* 166a 29-33m, 29u*/39^£lw var. B. balanoides 166b 35u/w var. tintarlyO 56u* 167a 13-15w var. lentenabulus 167b 22w 168a 2-2m, 22ha 168b 2-2?, 31-32m 169b 29uA 170a 6-8m/

[page break] 96

95

BRUGUIÈRES

8u*/6-9w Probably a ChthanalusO 23-24m 170b 35-38w Conia? Tetradila serrata? 171a 2Sm* 172a 38u A 305 2m

BRUNTON, Thomas Lauder The Bible and science London; Macmillan & Co.; 1881 [Down, I] p

BRUNTON, Thomas Lauder On digitalis, with some observations on the urine London; John Churchül & Sons; 1868 [Down, I] p

BRUNTON, Thomas Lauder Pharmacology & therapeutics London; Macmillan & Co.; 1880 [Down, I]

BUCH, Leopold von Description physique des îles Canaries, suivie d'une indication des principaux volcans du globe Paris; F.G. Levrault; 1836; trans. C. Boulanger [CUL] geo, ve

NF Etna albite lava also produce pumice, p. 328

NB ♦ See Burney - for Shortland world Solomon Isld -

155 25-28m&> 156 24-27m/& 159 27-2Sm, 22-32m 162 9-22m, ll-17m&>, 31-35m 163 2^m, 6-23m, 29-35m, 29-31m 168 27-33m&> 170 3-6mto, 23-27m Y7\ 24-31mto 173 7-2Sm, 32-35mA> 178 4-23m<& 181 12-18m** 182 32-33mte 183 32-35m/32u "écailles striées" 184 1-18m 185 2-5m 190 15-20m, 3Ù-35m 191 22-27m, 18-22m/w (A) 192 13-22m&> 193 28-35m&> 196 22-35m&> 197 9-15m/llu*0* 200 6-26m 201 3a "l'autre" (of W) l-9m, l-13m&>, 20-22m, 20-23m 202 25-29m#>, 30-33m 206 20-25m/!&> 207 25-26z 212 19-23m&> 215 24-27m 216 28-35m&> 277 25-28m 283 25-2 9m, 26-29m 293 24-35m, 30-35m&> 294 2-20m 295 12-28m, 28-35m 300 5-22m 323 S-27m 324 2-4m 327 2-2m, 21-22m, 31-33m 328 2 m 329 2-3m, 14-16m 333 27-30m, 31-32m 334 22-25m, 34-35m 335 2-3m, 7-8m 336 9-22m 339 29-35m (E. de Beaumont) 340 l-2m 342 23-2Sm 343 33-35m 346 2-3m 349 31-34m 350 2-3m, 5-6z, ll-14m, 15-16m 351 7-20m 354 24-27m 355 3-6m 356 20-23m, 22-25m 358 35"...A> 359 9..." 373 26m 374 7-22m 386 22a "Island" Same as Amargura Krusenstern 392 32-34mtt> 393 l-10m* 398 6-20m 400 20-25m 403 20c "Ouest"/10w east 404 30-34m, 31-35m 405 2m/3-7m/2w Mathews Rock 406 25-27m, 24~30m 407 10-14m, 17w Lava 32-34m 409 5-8m 411 29-35m 412 2-3m, 23-25m, 22-27m, 29-32m 413 20-25m 415 22-24m, 27-31m 416 5-7m 418 17-20m 419 2-3m, 30-32m,

34-35m 422 2-3m, 2-2m, 17-23m, 33-35m 423 32-35m/Q/33-35m 424 2-2m, 27-29m 425 25-28m, 2 9-22 m, 34-35m 426 2-2m, 33-35m 427 2-3m 428 9-24m, 9-24m 429 18-22m 430 23-27m 435 9-22m 442 6-22m 443 2-8m 446 27-22m 450 26-31m 451 8-23m, 23-27m 452 23-20m, 22-25m 455 2-22m 456 17-24m 457 2-6m 458 2-7m 460 6-23m, 24-29m 466 2-25m 467 2-26m, 29-32w Valparaiso Earthquake 30m, 33-35m 469 26-33m 470 25-34m 471 2-4m, 7-22m, 12-35m, 17-20m, 23-25m, 34-35m, wb XX 472 5m, 10m/8-25m 475 5-20m 477 S-23m 480 2-8m, 22-27m 482 4-9m, 4-8m 483 23-31m 485 24-32m 486 16-20m 487 26-29m, 28-29m 488 13-lSm, 19-20m (Humboldt) 490 3-Sm 491 29-32m 494 2-22m 501 9-23m, 20-24m 505 33-35m 506 2-2m, 19~20m 508 29-32m, 29-33m 514 28-20m 519 wb Does not some one describe Volcanos in S. Shetland besides great crater; New Isld Discovered 1839 by Enderby's Ship; St Pauls or Amsterdam seems quite omitted.; Proby Isld - Isd North of Bonin Ramilla on coast of Ascension - Matthews Rock

BUCH, Leopold von Travels through Norway and Lapland during the years 1806, 1807 and 1808 London; Henry Colburn; 1813; trans. J. Black [CUL, on B, S Charles Darwin M. Video Nov. 1832]

xvi 19-20m, 24-25m, 28-29m xvii 16-17m, 30-32m 94 8-20m 236 7-20m 306 S~26m, 26« "fruit I maturity", 16-17m, 27-28m, 27u "not\ well" 307 5-9m, 7u "presented]fruit", 8u "barren"

BÜCHNER, Ludwig Aus Natur und Wissenschaß Leipzig; Theodor Thomas; 1862 [CUL]

BÜCHNER, Ludwig Conférences sur la théorie

darwinienne de la transmutation des espèces

Paris; C. Reinwald; 1869; trans. A. Jacquot

[CUL]

ad, beh, fg, h, ig, phy, t

NB 79 good sketch of Häckel's views on first organisms & spont. Generation 114 Helmholtz Eye not perfect

Man 123 Schaafhausen - Gorilla 1/2 way between erect & quadruped.-

How difficult to young child to stand upright - 124 do - on milk teeth of man

132 self-reflection or consciousness

135;137; 144

all Q

[page break] 98

97

title page z 79 3-29m 114 27-32m 123 30-33m 124 4-llm 129 wt Büchner L wt 39? 132 6-llm 135 S-2Sm 137 30-32m, wb higher apes & lower races of man -> 138 2-8m 141 6-9m 144 30-32m

BÜCHNER, Ludwig Die Darwinsche Theorie von der Entstehung und Umwandlung der Lebe-Welt Leipzig; Theodor Thomas; 1876 [CUL, I] P

BÜCHNER, Ludwig Liebe und Liebes-Leben in der Thierwelt Berlin; Hofmann & Comp.; 1879 [Down, I]

BÜCHNER, Ludwig Die Macht der Vererbung Leipzig; Ernst Günther; 1882 [CUL, I] P

BÜCHNER, Ludwig Man in the past, present & future London; Asher & Co.; 1872; trans. W.S. Dallas [CUL] h

NB Nothing need be quoted - Nov 1873; All

on Man; 120 very good' resume; 142; 156;

266

119 34-37m/37w quote 120 l-4m 142 13-25m

156 12-17m, 25-30m 266 3u "Dr. Lisch", 13-

15m, 17-25m

BÜCHNER, Ludwig Mind in animals trans, of 3rd edn by Annie Besant; London; Freethought Publishing Co.; 1880 [Down] beh

NB 159 on instincts of ants

159 1Ï2a "are" ie pratensis 36-42m/->, 20-41w

& yet pratenses taken as pupa 160 10-13m,

41-42m

BÜCHNER, Ludwig Sechs Vorlesungen über die Darwin'sche Theorie der Verwandlung der Arten Leipzig; Theodor Thomas; 1868 [CUL] beh, ds, ex, h, ig, oo, t, y

NB ♦

179; 180; 190; 195; 198; 202 good when described; 210; Schaafhausen Book & Rutimeyer Paper SB •> ♦»

p. 179 Man first dentition like Apes- conclude * feed on Plants 180 ss> All used Man

p 90 on Self-consciousness of Savages 195 on the exactly intermediate manner in which apes walk on Hands - good It might have been asked how cd there have been transition between • hand & foot?

198 interval will get greater between man &

higher apes, from extinction of latter

p202. Rutimeyer apes interval between

Catarhine & Platyrhines.-

210 The milder disposition of young apes,

perhaps only like mildness of young

Carnivora - Bücker

179 12-15m, 12-Uw ask Huxley 24« "auffallende", 15-18u "indem I hat", 17-20m, 23-26m 180 24-22m 190 llu/wx, 15m, 15-25m/w asks whether savages reflect on relations of things 195 wt Gorilla intermediate in upright position - if not existed wd not be kn l-5m 198 wt/3-12mll-14w interval between Man & higher apes will get greater, from death of lower races & higher apes. 201 9-20m 202 22-26m 203 5-7m 205 25-26m 210 wb The milder disposition of all young apes only like young tigers or lions - perhaps does not indicate descent from a mild form-P

BÜCHNER, Ludwig Sechs Vorlesungen über die Darwin'sche Theorie der Verwandlung der Arten 2nd edn; Leipzig; Theodor Thomas; 1872 [CUL]

title page 18u ^

P

BÜCHNER, Ludwig Die Stellung des Menschen in der Natur; 2. Lief "Wer sind wir?"; 3. Lief "Wohin gehen wir?" Leipzig; 1870 [CUL]

NB Reichenbach (rest 0)

170 - (Lamarck before him)

0/

2. Lief p

BUCKE, Richard Maurice Man's moral nature London; Trübner; 1879 [Down, I]

BUCKLEY, Arabella B. A short history of natural science London; John Murray; 1876 [Down]

BUCKTON, George Bowdler Monograph of the British aphides 4 vols.; London; The Ray Society; 1876-1883 [Down] oo, sx

vol. 1 NB p. 71; p91 Dimorphism.

p.71 Some Plants not often attacked by

aphides - even very poisonous ones

71 20-23m, 17-23m, 23-26m, 33-39m 91 4-

27m, 36-37m

(vol. 2, p; vol. 4 published after CD's death)

[page break] 99

100

BULLER, Walter Lawry A history of the birds of New Zealand London; John Van Voorst; 1873 [CUL] ad, ben, br, ds, gd, mg, oo, phy, sx, t, y

NB1 p29 Protective Colour of Birds

p56 - affection between paired Birds S S. Q

p66 - Huia Qa> with Beaks different in 2

sexes & aid each other SS

NB2 p74, 76, 78 migratory Birds to N.

Zealand

81, 84 spreading of a species

93 - Rats destroying Birds
Nothing for Descent

NB3 167 Birds with good wings, but

incapable of flight

219 male colours on one side fainter & the

Bird feeds laterally SS

224 Courting of Pied Oyster Catcher, not

important

278 - Gulls catching Moths

SA (pp. 2-3)

p. 1; 15; 19; 111; 117; 121; 137; 163; 165

SA (p. 372; •»> p. 29 Stringops large wings

but no muscles for flight - colouring

assimilative must be protective from Birds of

Prey, whilst resting during the day

Part II

p.74, 75, 78 Cuckoo summer immigrant

believed to be partly parasitic in incubating

but not feeding its young

p.81. Birds, Zosterops which has spread

from S. Isld. rapidly

84 Changed Instincts, also, has become

permanent resident

Believes rats by destroying much chief cause of decrease of •

Anthornis or Bell-bird - decorates nest with Brilliant feathers.

Part III & IV

167 Weka good-sized wings, but incapable

of flight.

29 l-4m, 6-7m, 8-10m, 16-19m, 17-25w why as no beasts of prey Rats? There are Birds of Prey 33 9-10m 55 15-23m, 37-42m 56 14~19m, 20-23m, 25-26m 66 19-29m 74 29u "another I visitant", 31-34m 76 ll-16m 78 19-22m 81 l-6m, 6u "indigenous", 7-llm 84 6-15m, 20-25m 93 13-17m, 24r-26m, 31-34m, 41-43m 94 7-9m 95 22-26m 167 6-10m 219 33~41m 224 ll-20m 242 14-17m 278 6-16m

BURBIDGE, Frederick William Cultivated plants, their propagation and improvement Edinburgh & London; William Blackwood & Sons; 1877 [CUL] fg, hy, phy, v, y

NB p. 34 size of seeds effects on growth of

offspring

58 grafting, rules of

#> species which will graft

95, 96 - on Variability

132 «> - Hybrids dying young

155 <*> - on Hybrids taking after either

parent

33 26-33m, 28u "Dr Gustav Marck" 34 l-48m 35 3-9m, 5u "Professor Lehmann of Munich" 58 9-18m, 14w Recipient 19-30m, 32-38m 95 4-17m, 18-27m, 28-39m, 42-A3m 96 14-45m 132 18-34m 155 2-Um, 5-16m, Wu "comes I most", 26-31m, 38-43m 156 13-18m, 26-33m 157 36-43m 159 29m P

BURCHELL, William John Travels in the interior of Southern Africa 2 vols.; London; Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme and Brown; 1822 [Down, pre-B, S] fg, tm

vol. 1 NB p529, 536 wonderfully hooked seed; with woodcut; 529 grapple plant 27 8-9m 101 27-29m 124 23-24m 158 4m, 12-14m 259 l-3m 409 16-17m, 27-28m, 34-35m 427 13-14m, 24-27m 428 22-24m 429 10-llm 529 fig.m 536 10-14m

vol. 2, 59 l-6m, 10-12m 69 26-27m 71 32-33m 72 11m, 16m 73 13-14m 74 28-31m 78 12-13m 172 21-24m 173 zt 207 7-13m 450 22-27m

BURGESS, Thomas Henry The physiology or mechanism of blushing London; John Churchill; 1839 [CUL] beh, cc, cr, h, he, phy, sx, t, ud, y

NB1 p. 1 Youth more liable - care more for

opinion of others

Sighhing - Grief

NB2 ♦ p10 Expression

B says Blushing Hereditary in one family

(both parents being never subject) except

when one child diseased with cyanosis

heart» -

SB1 p. 1 Youth blushes

10 Description of fear

Female blush most

Designed by Creator, as check Th^ ♦- In Ezra & Nehemiah - Bible

♦31 scar in negro blushing

♦ 33 Mulattos

♦34 Otaheitians

38 Albinos blushing - (Iris)

43 Circassian do - disuse Th^

48 Morbid sensibility Th-»^

[page break] 102

101

50 Power of accusers ♦54 Causes

56 Infant do not blush, but redden with passion (evident do not blush) (old age no£o)

61 Hereditary

/&> 62 Blushing no proof of guilt x«^ 68 Rage, expression of - Rage

114, 122 Why face blushes more -

125 Exposure to air

128 whole body glows

133 Sensation on face before blush

134 Concomitants of Blushing & Sham (ie Shame)

Over (over)

137

p156 - only a moral stimulus excite blush (not a passion) not shrugging shoulders (no shyness) commonest of all causes or self consciousness -

177 Decline of blush

N.B. Personal remark makes a person blush more than anything self consc

♦ This is differently on my view that vanity
does not cause blush - it is on depressing
self-consciousness which alone causes it -
No a pretty girl who thinks a man is admires
her will blush - One is more sensitive to the
ill-feeling than good opinion of others.-

*> 180 says depressing cannot be called

either exciting or depressing

» ♦ 182 Herditary blushing 10 children

a> ♦» tear-ducts in youngest

*a> •«Sk 187 upbraiding shy people makes

them worse

a> 188 Edgeworth quoted (good)

All about Blushing except p68 Rage

Burgess

SB2 a Burgess on Blushing p 10

Fear

in regard to voice in Aeneid

"Obstupui, steteruntque comae, et vox fau-

cibus haesit"

(over)

Will the albinism observed by Dr B

Dr B "the strength alters the •"

a> Dr B observed with + two albinos that th

"caused them to blush deeply.-

1 9-20« "sensitive\conscious" 10 10-20m* 11 8-llm 23 l-3m, lu "children and females" 24 3-5m/w see to this 8-llm, 9-13"..."/12-13w » 25 7u "Ezra", 8-llm/w Ch IX.6, 20u "blush"/ w Jer Ch VI v. 15 26m "a I wrought" 31 21-24m, 21"..:% 22a/c/w/23a/c/23-25 "..."*, 28-29m/-* 32 24-27m 33 5-8m, 13-16m 34 29-22m 38 23-26m 39 13-lSm, 15m, 20-25m, 29-* 40 4-8m, 4u "ears", 9-12m, 20-22m, 29m

43 6-9m, 13-lSm 48 24-27m 49 3-7m, 12-15m 50 16-19m, 17u "presence\accusers" 54 wb nearly all cases, his real & false blush, connected with what people will think of one - Remorse does not cause blush.- 56 8u "hereditary", 13-lbm, 15-lSu "of old age" 57 9u "idiot", 13-Uu "but \ blush" 61 l-5m, 15-18m 62 6-llm/l-llw/wt no test of guilt because the thought that the other was thinking of you suffices to cause it 68 22-22u "flushed] fire", 17- 18e "My I rage", 19-21m/u "heart I rage", wb glittering 69 22-23m 114 9-23m, 19-24m, 20-23w effects of use or Habit 122 2-20w but neck & ears colour 5-23m 125 20-29m 128 7-22m, 20« "epigastric" 133 2S-20m 134 2-20w> mental agitation which affects heart and respiration 6-8w+ & Gratiolet good 10-llm/w* p. 349 & 366 22-28w (awkward gestures) stammer peace of mind lost 156 wt He may shrug his shoulders voluntary - he may pretend to laugh 6-7w affecting "to his mind" 9-12w no shyness 177 13-20m 180 21-25m 182 2-22m 187 19-23m, 22-24m/^> 188 l-4m/2u "countenances", 5-7m 189 21-26m/24u "frequently wept"

BURKE, Edmund A philosophical inquiry into the origin of our ideas of the sublime and beautiful, with an introductory discourse concerning taste, and several other additions London; Thomas M'Lean; 1823 [CUL.1900, I by G.V. Jackson] beh, sx, t

NF ♦

The morality & Metaphysics of Ambition } ? I am going to Italy next Summer Sublimity

NB1 Simple Ambition instinct of excellence over other men satisfied (1 ) Pride, ditto, with comparison to other men so as to undervalue them. (2) Fame, desire that (1) should be generally known. & acknowledged (3) Vanity, [do] (3) with undervaluation of others, or overvaluation of yourself (4) Arrogance a determination to show pride without real pride having been attained Conceit - pride without foundation and on trifling subjects?

•♦ But the ideas raised by these words refer to peculiar kinds of character NB2 He can see reason why instincts (sexual) of animals stronger than in man -because not having any notions of beauty to keep them in right line

these involve feeling triumph The»* feeling-oof-» Sublimity akin to feeling of pure (1)

[page break] 103

104

BURKE

gratified ambition - connected preeminently with consciousness of being a sentient being arising from many ideas- each preeminent of its class.- [feeling of triumph at being a sentient being] brought on by the thinking faculty by being very active & exhilarating (hence aided by bodily conditions) with power to look inwards = Euclid too absorbing = yet conclusions from mathematics sublime - Gravitation sublime -thinking on subject If pleasure from a source not well understood, sooner look to yourself & hence sublime -

iv 6m, 8m vi 8m 55 9-17m 56 13-21m (Scipio, Cato) 57 21-25m 58 16-20m 66 zt 103 ll-25z 114 14-15Z 115 2-25z 162 13?/u "objects small" 163 5-10m 191 13-14m (Tommaso Campanella)

BURMEISTER, Hermann Beiträge zur Naturgeschichte der Rankenßsser Berlin; G. Rainer; 1834 [CUL] em, fg, phy

15-17m/w eggs not contemO impregnated

3-5m 16 28-29m 17 20u "Organe" 18 3-5m\w eye becomes double 19 4-6m, 20-23m 20 20-24m/w feelers & eyes thrown off 21 10-llm, 23-27m 22 3-6!! 23 17-19m/xv no trace of seam in shell 24 23-27m/w calc. plates 25 l-4m/w epidermis on all young shells 26-30m/w Ovaria within young shell 27 5-6m 28 ll~17m/w eggs in different state in different parts 29 l-2m 30 13-15m/14u "Gräten"/w fish-bones 16-29m/w Burmeisters description best of mouth.- 31 14-18m/w cissi all alike 35 22-26// 37 2-3m, 15u/wx, 16u/w*x, 22-26m 38 4-€m, 19-20m 40 22-14m/w case of moth 22-29m/w pretty good 41 2-3m, 14-16m/w so cissus ant. are longest 19-20w rest of cissi similar 45 22-23m 49 23-2 6m 50 13-16m/xo compare with Cyprus 26-28m 51 26m, 26u "Stomatopoden", 27u "lässtlder", 28m 28m 53 5-6m, 12-13m pi. facing 60 wt i

BURMEISTER, Hermann Histoire de la création Paris; F. Sary; 1870; trans. E. Maupas [CUL]

P

656 30-33m 667 31-36m

BURMEISTER, Hermann The organization of trilobites London; The Ray Society; 1846; trans. Bell & Forbes [CUL] co, ig, sp, t, ti, tm

NB p37 & 38 Species Theory

SBQß

p.37. The earlier geological types present

peculiarities of various existing groups

passing into one another Good Remark to

quote

1 zb 33 3-Am, 3-4w 3 37 26-28m, 37-^2m 38
l-6m, 12-17m, 12-17xv Mollusca! Corals
support this

P

BUSCH, Otto Arthur Schopenhauer München; Fr. Basserman; 1878 [Down, I] p

BUSCH, Otto Arthur Schopenhauer: Bätrag zu einer Dogmatik der Religionslosen Heidelberg; Fr. Bassermann; 1877 [Down] (p

BUSCH, Otto Arthur Naturgeschichte der Kunst Heidelberg; Fr. Bassermann; 1877 [Down, I] p

BUTLER, Samuel A. Evolution old and new London; Hardwick & Bogue; 1879 [Botany School, FD]

(markings presumed to be by FD)

BUTLER, Samuel A. A sketch of modern and ancient geography for the use of schools 4th edn; London; Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme & Brown; 1818 [CUL, pre-B, S]

title pages (much illegible scrawl) v 2w 4004 vi 2m, 7m vii 37m, 39m, 41m via 4m ix 11m, 21m, 25m x 4m, 28m, 33m, 40m xi wt (dates), 5m, 45m xii 7m xiii 23m, 27m xiv 9m, 27m, 42m xv 27m, 22m, 25m, 32m, 38m xvi 5m 10 wbu 11 wf 12 11m 13 23m 15 26m 17 22m, 27m 20 8-24m, 17-20m 31 wtu 32 20m 33 7m 34 28m 35 20m, zb 36 3m 37 32m 39 24m 40

2 m 41 22m 43 3m 51 7m 63 zt, 2-15m 64 zb
67 24m 84 24m 85 28m 89 22m 93 20m 97
22m 99 26« "Ennius"/w 169BC 100 6w 281
104 wt (note about events of 264BC) 122 zt 146
27m 148 2u "Thucydides", 2-9w son of Plorus
an Athenian died 391 before Christ 149 3m
151 6m 153 24m 154 22-20z, 23-25w 449 died
BC 155 5m, 17m 158 26m 159 7m 160 5m 161
2m 162 22m 163 27m 164 26m 166 22m 168
2m, 23m 169 22m 185 wt (dates), llu "Apelles
and Hippocrates"
186 7-20w> (dates), 9u "Zeno"
191 wt/8w (dates), 7u "Diogenes", 8u
"Mithridates", 18m, 23u "Punic war"/w&>
218bc 192 30u "Mithridates and Strabo", 32«
"Pompey", 30w/31w/wb (dates) 193 27«
"Lucullus", 18u "Mithridatic", 9-16w/17-19w/
wt/wb (dates and events BC)
194 23u
"Anaximenes"lw, 26u "Themistocles"lw (dates)

[page break] 106

105

195 21m 196 20m "Strabo"/w (dates) 199 lm 202 27m 209 20m 210 26m 237 wt • 240 2z 241 zt 243 zt 249 xvt/5-8zv Mani Mane Mane Mane 251 wt 251 253 7w Aegyptus 254 wt&> Dr Darwin 255 wt darwin 258 27m

BÜTSCHLI, Otto Studien über die ersten Entwicklungsvorgänge der Eizelle die Zell-theilung und die Conjugation der Infusorien Frankfurt am Main; Christian Winter; 1876 [CUL, I] fg, phy, sx

title page 22u "Bütschli", 16u "1876" 207 28-32m 208 5-12m/w for a renewal of youth & a reformation of parts 209 18-22m\18-19u^, 27m 210 20-23m/20-22u<-*, 19u "Vereinigung] Actinophrys", 22u "scheinlich\Encystirung", 31m/30-33w Give Butschli first & Enger & then Carter 211 29m, 22-28m/22-23u "dass\ ist"(27u "Verjüngungsepoche"/26-30w this is just what he has said about Infusoria wb According to this view Conjugation is a renewal of youth & size which gradually decreases & propagation thus division.-Process seems analogous 212 2-llm/w same process without conjugation or with 2 spores formed 214 17-22m/22u "denlde Bary"lw the first man 17-22m/w He fully admits that conjugation is the first step to sexual copulation 215 3u "Dagegen"/5u "wirkliche Befruchtung"/3-7m/w not so * with Proteus infusoria &c &c 10-17m/w seems here all for connection of conjugation & sexual reproduction 22-24m/u "dass\ erkennen"/w Conclusiv 32u "1838"/m (J. Müller) 216 3-6mjw seems to say that conjugation of infusoria is the same with s. generation 8-9u<-> 219 9-261...], 25-26u "erhalten I Fortpflanzung" 252 wb p. 207 to 219

CABOT, Louis The immature state of the Odonata 2 parts; Cambridge, Mass., University Press; 1872-1881 [Down]

Part 1 NB 0/

CAMERANO, Lorenzo La Scelta sessuale e i caratteri sessuali secondari nei coleotteri Torino; Ermanno Loescher; 1880 [Down, I] p

CANDOLLE, Alphonse de Géographie botanique raisonnée 2 vols; Paris; J. Kessmann; 1855 [CUL]

ad, af, beh, ce, che, ci, co, cr, es, ds, dv, ex, f, fg, fo, gd, geo, gr, h, he, hl, hy, ig, in, is, mg, mhp, mn, oo, phy, se, si, sp, t, ts, v, ve, wd

vol. 1 NB1 p478 His * Geogrph Regions

As there are only 3-5 Ascension Plants, &

I think DeC speaks of several inhabitants, it

is one of strongest case of many introduced

plants.

NB2 Philology pxxii; p. xiii; p. xiv to end of

Introduction

p535. Decandolle Memoir vol X on

compositae

SB Mem. Carrier Pigeons caught at Dover -

See McGillvry number of seeds in crop.

That Transport does little for continents, but

much for isld. is what I shd have expected.-

In Compositae & all others.- Proportion of

seeds with plumes & small seeds ought to

be great in islds; even if not same species.

It may be possible to take two great groups

for comparison of range, it cd be useless, I

think to compare orders of Vertebrata

SA (pp. 528-529, 5 sheets)

SA1

5. Sous-regions (c0&> showing) 34 species to

Fam.

3 Sous regions (ee<& showing) 28 species to

Fam

(over)

» 4. Sous-regions (u showing) 40 species

to Fam.

This again is hostile, contrary to largest

Families do not extend furthest

SA2-5 09Î

SA2 &

»Vol I p 516 Decandolle

(numbers of species in certain families totalled)

Water Plants seem to make large proportion

of Monocot. - wide ranges

Taking the 23 Fams. of Dicot. & 4 Fams

Monoc together, with more than 500

species; we have 27 Families, with species

inhabiting more than 2. regions

[page break] 108

107

CANDOLLE, VOL. I: NOTES

(calculation that) 4.5 is the standard of all Families whatever (over) ^00 +

SA3 p. 512 of Decandolle; (list of numbers of species, and totals; namesfa, ee®3>) (over)

» I think if Families are used, whole world or Continents shd be used as field of Compositae. But I cannot say why I think so a> May 1. 56 I have taken the Families (p.512. Decandolle) on other side (above) from Drege (Flora B.2. 1843). There are 21 (one omitted) Families, which have their species ranging over a * larger number of the 20 divisions, into which the Cape District is divided, there the average (viz 1.6 regions) * range of all the Dicots. & Ferns together? - These 21 Families have each on average 126.2 species, but if the Compositae from having more than double number of species be subtracted; then the average is only 77.1.- There are other 37 Families which range * less than the general average mean of 1.6 & these have 87.9 species to Family. So that nothing can be inferred safely from these results, * Families being too large.- [If we give a reasonable number to the Compositae, viz 500 species, then the average of the wide-ranging Families is 96.7] SA4 <Aj and ^>) Vol I p. 516

(continues totalling numbers of species) This gives for the 23 Families of Dicot with some 500 species, that the proportion of species * per cent which inhabit more than 2 regions is 4.3. The standard for all Dicot being 4.1.- If we * consider the * 7 Families marked •^ which I consider Tropical, & which have less means of spreading, for Tropics divided, we find these 7 large families have only 2.0 per cent species widely spreading, so that means of distribution come into play, & the remainder, wd be above 4.9. Those of Tropical Families, have 6044 species & only 124 in more than 2 Regions.-(over)

Picking out Families with more than * 500 species, no of species, no of wide rangers (list follows, with species names and totals, some marked •^

SA5 Dicoti only. Families with under * 50 species.

(list follows, with species names and totals, and number of wide rangers) (over) (continues list from SA4; calculates that)

The standard of all Dicots is 4.1

^ General Conclusions

&> Families with more than 500 have a little

above average of wide rangers & Fams

beneath 50 rather fewer wide rangers, than

average - But there is far greater difference

■a- according to nature of Family itself, than

its mere size.

N.B. Decandolle does not use the very small

Families, here used in his average.

SA6 » (pp. 560-561)

Cruciferae - p. 550

(table of totals of species and those in more than

2 regions in various islands)

N.B. If the Labiatae & Polygonum worked

out this way, it wd show * in how isolated *

spots some species of each Family occur.-

= 33/100 agrees nearly with Decandolle

I conclude islds must either have some easy

way of getting inhabitants or double

creations are tenable

(over)

(another similar table) Compositae, p. 552

= 22 per cent leaving out Canary Isd only 13

per cent.

xii 24m xiii 12-17m xiv 7-10m xv ÏÏ9-5m/w true xx 30-33m xxii 34-36m xxviii 29m, 34-35w Individuality xxix 16-17w Cultivated Plants 32m xxx 21-22w Definition of species 45 19-33m 47 16-21m(FD), 23-25m 62 6-7w(FD) 72 8-12m/10-llQ 14-22m 84 8-22m/ 8-9? 85 7w say read 88 ÏÏ3-2z 116 36-39m 117 6-8m, 13-16m, 27-30m, 37-39m 118 6-9m, 16-21m 144 l-4m 147 4-7m, 9-10m, 17-25m 156 llw+ say read 183 4w* say read 200 20-26m 201 l-7m/3-5w examples of causes 28-32m 202 25-29m 203 36-38m 238 24-30m/w Read 39-40m 246 18-26m/w DoesAi this refer to America? if so • or to Islands? 247 2-7m, 6-8m 250 20-28m/w I do not think even at lower limits except approaching a Desert 264 10-llm, 12-16m/ 12-13u "enfin\nord"/15u "on I fait", 16-21m 268 9-llm 270 16-31m, 28u/29m/w Spain 279 Ww says read 305 20w say read. 316 34m/ 32-34w theoretical average of minimum height 34m/wb I have no doubt native 326 30-37 m\-+ 329 24-22 m/-> 330 l-7m 334 4w I only read 337 6-7m, 9-10m/9u "lat.\degrés", 15-16m, 15u "sel connaît", 25-28m, 27u "environ I trente", 30m/u "bord I degré"'/-» 338 5m, 41-43m 339 wt Island Saxifrages 2u "auxIouest", 3u "la\ Asturies" 340 15-20m 341 23m 343 7-22m 394 20-24m, 32-34m 395 22-25m 397 20-22m, 23-24m, 25-28m, 32-38m, 39m/-> 398 29-33m 399 8-15m 406 12-18z/w (circle with compass points marked), 31-36m/

[page break] 110

109

31u "8495", zvbee, zb (oval with compass points marked)/wb 4 times elongated E & W 407 7w arctic ll-13m/12u "Montagnes \Japon", 14u "Turquie d'Europe", 37u "Caucase" 408 25-18m/16-17w S. America 410 16-19m 411 25-29m, 31-32m 412 3-6m, 12-15m, 38-42mj40u "Sierra-Nevada" 416 ll-13m/15-17m/7-20w so make Alpine Plants of N America, so means more wonderful 24-26m 417 ll-16w* -But Asa Gray's Alpine plants are more than this alone. 35-38m, wb The southern hemisphere of Hooker 418 5-lOm, 10-12m, 25-28m, 30-33m 419 wt All used in the Chapter on Sociability - Struggle for existence -Stations & wt Not used on proportion of genera to range 422 l-2m, 26-29m, 36-39m 424 36-40m 428 31-35m/32-33Q 431 38-39m 444 29m 447 28-34m/-+ 448 8-10m, 22-23Q 15-18m, 18-20Q 21-23m, 35-36m 450 24-27m 453 12-17m/12-13Q 21-26m, 27-36m 454 2-5m, 6-7m, 24-26Q/26-31m/26-37w Every one of such species wd cover ground if no other species present: if rarity here is step to exclusion, then the greater importance of other organic beings is shown wb p463 near confines become rare necessarily, but yet, (at least sometimes) social; see top of p462 (Q) 455 6-16m/8-9Q*/wt Not Q 22-23m, 26-28Q 31u "caractéristiqueIblé" 456 lu "dans\ cultures", 14u "Plante I champs", 40-44m/Q 457 15u "ne\absolu"/15-16w because impossible 458 l-3m 459 16-18w I shall not Q. this 28u "espèce I sociale", 20-33w a broad distinction in terms between répandu or diffused, & abundant or social, (a) see p. 463 wb (a) Does former depend chiefly on physical conditions the latter on other species ??? The latter must chiefly on other species, except where, perhaps conditions very peculiar. 460 26-28m/36m/Q/25-38w/wb I am inclined to think that H.C. Watson facts go only to show that most widely diffused are diffused likewise most in smaller areas: hardly descends to such minute areas as field. A species might abound on one spot & yet be rare over all England, but is this so? 461 4m/u "nuisent", 19u "directement I indirectement", 6-29w It comes to this, whether there are * many social plants in good common soil? 25-26u "toutes I grand"/25-28m/ <-, ll-12m/14-15m/12-20w Alder in Larch-wood, but this must imply adaptation, else wd not grow up. 23-24Q/w Mangrove forests 27-29m, 31u "les\alpines", 34-38m/36u "paraissent I abondance "/38u "d'être I moins "/31-39w This is fact of same kind as not being dwarfed 38u±/wb This is opposed quite to view that each form more depends on other

organisms than on external conditions, wb ie great numbers to live wb But on the extreme limit of a desert, then plants grow separately, I think 462 l-4m, 3-4m/4u "isolés I étroite"'/wt meadows very full of social plants 3a "espèce" but not of all life? 5-9m/Q/wt Q when a form can once live, then it may be social from mere number of seeds. & occupation- 22m "en\isolés", 13-16m/w (a) -> wt (a) As long as conditions exactly same, in relation to physical nature & other species & its own * excretions, then of course there will be many individuals, & so be social.- 23-24« "causes I locales"/12-15w This must include other species. 19-23m/18-31w Except (z) at the Cape, it seems the more fertile the land, the more diversified the flora; & according to me, it is more fertile of production in life in part because more diversified.- (z) The forest of firs grows slowly, for land poor & cold. ÏÏ2-lQ/wb case (z) explained by diversity of stations, such as occur in all dry regions.-as stated before 17-34m/w I cannot but think the number of species, depends in part on the goodness of conditions; but why I do not see; much life causes much decay makes strata &c &c & many stations, for different times of year will have species all times of year. good. ÏÏ22-9« "surtout I station", ÏÏ5-2u> This is cart before horse?? There wd not be many species without stations; yes, how many species can be introduced, wb a field of grass cannot be called so rich for so many genera. - (a damp rich tropical soil & a damp cold poor soil ought to be compared) 463 wt The many cases of introduction of new species into islands, shows the simple free-road to, from elsewhere created, is important element-Creations not easy work thus also shown.-My theory shows how slow & difficult it must be.- Supply not equal to demand.- 8-9w all this discussion strikes me as unsatisfactory, from struggle with other species, not being here prominent. 10-llw Not Quoted 14-18m/ w depends, I think, on beating other species 24a "répandent" no doubt one element 25a "vent" Yet Compositae confined, 14-18m\l, 7-23w He shows towards end of Book, that genera increase with no of species - but not I think with individuals - yes for mean density & decay create other stations) 20-25m, 26-29m/28a "communes" but not yet social; but sociality and commonness bound together, for perhaps hardly one absolutely social plant to exclusion of all others, except such as Mangrove 1Î6-5«; but yet it seems when does appear is sometimes social.

[page break] 111

112

CANDOLLE, VOL. I: 463

î\4u/a "estlrare" Yet social plants occur near limit ïïlu "de\ elle", wb A great diversity of forms will follow from adaptation to different stations (supposing free inroad), as well as from supposing a great amount of life, for the latter creates many stations, %w Would not under same climate a uniform good soil support more diverse forms than uniform poor soil & climate? 464 l-4m/wt/l-7w No hardly - flatly contradicted by his social Plants. 8-llm/w thus if compositae abound in many countries it must be due to their organisation; but if * the species in certain countries are more or less common due to conditions 20a "les" different 12-18m/w Does this not imply that habits of species have more in common than they really have?-wb* One sees a Railway cutting temporarily covered with plants (in most cases only the natives of seeds) next year there wd be more seed, yet the abundance soon ceases.- here struggle comes in. 465 wt these tables refer to species being very generally dispersed within their own region of habitation.- 2-3Q 2nd table "composées ".w largest family 6u "1 sur 4", 10-15m/w It wd be very curious to see what result wd follow from genera, calculated in this manner by averages ll-12u "mais I sensible"\12-14m\14u "soit\100"/15u "18\45", 13-15X*, wb Can Families include too great a range of adaptations to answer for such calculations?? The resemblance in Families may be due to parentage? 466 l-10m/w Tropical Families have nearly as many common species as non tropical Families.- This shows how little adaptation to climate goes through a Family, table " Phanérogames ".w standard table.w Here again it is clear that largest Families do not have greatest number of common species Ïïl2-7m, 1Î4-3u<->, ÏÏ2-2m 467 lm/l-4w & yet it may be social!!! p. 462 7u "17,8"/w ie below the average of all Phanerogams. 9w ie average llw the very small families have more than average!! 12~13m/w quite opposed to my views.- table "Phanérogames".w standard table.w Here again same general law 468 table.m/w This goes as it shd do 2nd table "phanérogames".w/wb These are 2 largest families & they have nearly 1/2 the common species, but single spears in other Families are excessively common 469 27-31m/w Doubt whether Watson not too large. 34-35m, 40-41m/w doubts. 470 wt Ask Hooker about paragraph 3.- what it means 8-llm/ 10-llué, 13-14m, 16-17m, 18-20m/18-19u "moyens] remarquables", 20-23m, 19-24w I

cannot believe, much is due to this??? Yet it must be part element.- 23a "Quant" to common species of 23-26ml?, 27w * What does he mean 31-32m/??, 34-36m/w but excess of numbers very small 37~39m, 40-43m/Q/wb "species with restricted range are not common" ie confined range & rarity go together. î\2m/î\4-lw/wb propagating by number may account for this to certain extent 471 wt Only those social plants which inhabit common ground are the difficult ones to understand, if such exist near limits la "sociale" certainly if conditions peculiar l-3m\ l-8w It shows that sociability does follow other laws than * commonness; how can they help each other, or injure others? 4a "espèces" Can means of propagation come into play 4u "circonstances locales", 5-8m\w diffusion depends more on climate 7-8w This like Benthams cases on Pyrenees. 16-21m/ Q, 34u "c'est l'abondance /34-37'm/w social plants most easily affected 472 wt If this fact of social plants entirely disappearing be true it shows again that there must be some other law.- It is analogous to social plants suddenly appearing on their limits wt If sociability depends on other species & not on external conditions, then very slight change might determine their existence 2-2m/6-9m/8u "par \ naturelle"/l-16w It is like change in Oyster Beds.- I cannot believe; flatly contradicted by History of shells.- No this seems to apply exclusively to plants social or not social in same area.- Is not part of this that social plants now conspicuous, espcially in forests midpage.w But it cannot be that every individual disappears from field 16-22w It looks as if one individual protected another, & so this wd lessen when preyed on by insects &c: Trees, wind- 24-28m/24-30w Everyone knows how hard to rear few ears of corn in Garden.- my Radish seed from apparently mice ft22-7w cross impregnation n7-lw/wb are social plants very defined in their adaptations: It has been shown I think greatly depends on number of other species adapted generally to same sort of conditions. wb/Zw - But why none in tropics; because oldest climate, & all species mostly perfectly adapted: most of the facts come to adaptation in preponderant degree- wb These several cases seem to show that all the individuals of social plants disappear together owing I presume to rotation - 473 wt The Paris is well fitted as shown by its mere presence; it is social from numbers of seed sown: this I conclude must be

[page break] 114

113

governing element, but easily overlooked in Tropics where more closely adapted species.- 2-12w Destroy 5/6 of English plants & many wd become social which are * not so now.- 4~32w These two Pages not worth quoting 23-25m, 23-25m/w of rotation 28-29m/29u "sur I considérable", 31u "de l'Europe", ÏÏ4-2m/!, wbfl\15-lw I wonder whether Cardoon is social in Europe? & spotted thistle of Pampas? If so it wd seem to be merely * excellent adaptations, like when Railway cutting first exposed, due to seeds, wb Fennel - Hooker & Bentham say yes. 474 l-2z/w ordinary shape (oval), ftSu "endémique"Jm, ÏÏ6u "sporadique"', 1Î3m 475 1-2m, 21-26w difficulties in defining areas & terms 476 2-Am, 10-13w Before making any calculations whatever skim over to p 519 26-35m/28u "mais \ rares "/33u "espèces I aire"", wb Introduction 478 wt/l-5w Now the question is whether this applies to means of transportation or adaptation, probably the latter; for plants seem to have such power of spreading.- The adaptation must be to struggle with other species & not conditions 4-5u "de\famille"l5-9m/7w (a) 479 wt The transportation is a theoretical question & implies single origin, & probably not considered by Decandolle. In Birds, according to Goulds idea, was considered with means of transportation.- The very nature of the areas, some continuous and others disconnected, shows he did not consider means of transportation. 22-23m/ 22-25iv Can it be right to run them together.- 22u "Archipel indien"/23u "Nouvelle-Guinée"/24-25m/?!!, 26u "Nouvelle-Zélande"/26-27m/w are these distinct 32u "Bermudes" 480 2-26«; without knowing whether areas connected by continuous land or separated by sea, the results seem to me useless. How different cases of plants common to India, & Africa or tropical S America & ones common to Europe & Siberia, must make some difference. 481 2-13w Thus far it seems that intertropical species do not range so far as temperate (but tropical lands * more divided by seas?) not the American provinces, table.w very regular laws indicated by this table. 484 7-11m, 15-17m/15-32w Q I cannot think why; this fact keeps very constant, see note below, when more species discovered so that a given percentage in each Family are sporadic 486 l-4m 488 table.w R. Brown 489 table.m/w Aetheogames = Mosses, Fern, Hepetiae, ÏÏ25-5m/ïïnu "730"/Uu "dont\ Lurope"ß7u "8"/Ü14-11wm 490 table.m/wu,

wb ?? So Auckland isld more in common with other countries, but less with Europe -If this community is the S American, it accords with glacial, having been subsequently peopled. Kerguelen ought to have been most with S America & less with Europe - See next Page.- So he counted ones about Glacial agency. 491 2nd table.m/w These must have come from North. 493 table.w/wt (What a contrast with the 730 Phanerogams of N.Zealand more water, more coast - more higher mountains.) Dryness alone most important element, but not enough to account for this difference table "Phanérogames".wet, table.w Far larger proportion common to Europe than in N. Zealand & Auckland Isd; So far more species in Larch wood, than in all Falkland or Tristan I or Norfolk Isld. Only 272 in Society Islds ^18-lw this shows how much free access determines the number of species: is not this against former continuity of Land. table.->/5u "soit\100", 5u "soit 22", table.^>/1\5m, Uu "1843", 1\3-lw/wb 5009+1686=6595 species of Phanerogams The fewness of European plants very interesting as compared with all land further South. Was not Africa the old Tropics? The glacial climate & ice action explains the greater community in other regions. 494 wt Von Buch only -» Canary Isd Dicot 322+Mon 59=381 species. 496 table.m (Dicotyledons)Jw so that Kamtschatka & Labrador have nearly same number of species in common with Europe. (Mem Iceland all in common) 497 2-3m/u "Remarks I plants", 15-18m, 1\2-lm, table.m/?/-*/wb what a contrast with Alpine Plants of N. America 498 l-16w These contrasts of numbers, show that islands never united to mainland 17-23w* contrast with Falkland Isd 18-31w Feroe 192 Dic+80 Mon=272 a contrast with the Oceanic islds 499 ÏÏ9-6m/wb Is this owing to closer adaptation? or longer existence of simple plants, & .-. part of existing means of dispersal. wb/Xw Means of dispersal & adaptation are all confounded - in Cryptogams at least, means of dispersion wd come into play. Xw The cases from which he argues are in very many cases islands; & even when same species occurs in 2 continents * means of distribution must come into play- 500 8-12m, 17-lSm, 21-29m, ÏÏ2u "mesure\découvertes"'/Ü2-lm/wb/Xw I cannot think cause of this. Perhaps it is only that certain species of genera range far, like certain families in order: but why as discovery progresses, does the relative

[page break] 115

116

CANDOLLE, VOL. I: 500

proportion keep constant? Does the
proportion hold good in different countries <-
I shd think it was only chance that more
wide rangers * were found & more local
species. 502 wt can this have anything to do
with Glacial Period? carried by ice from
Tierra del Fuego? - but none could go from
New Holland. At Glacial period New Holland
very favourable for introduction of temperate
plants. l-4m, 6-8m, table.w some compositae
have wide range.- 503 l-3m/2u "dont\
France"/l-3w
water-plants (condition more
uniform) 4-6m, table-title.w This is the more
important comparison? table.m/w These very
large & natural Families have only a few: (a)
table.w/wt These 13 Families have 149
species on average: they have 37 species in
common with N. Holland, or average nearly
3 in common with N. Holland 2nd table.w
These 33 Families (those with less than 15
species being omitted) have 1541 species
on average only 47 species each & not one
in common wb (a) N.B. There is another
element, besides facility of transport, the
durability of same form. No - but this is the
very point that we are considering that large
Families are wide rangers & most convertible
[but that it is only a few which are wide
rangers; the others changed into species]: I
see I have not clearly relation between very
wide
rangers & variability.- as in water
plants. Indeed if wide rangers are only
generally variable, then some wd be identic
at great distances. 504 2-4m/->/wt Even if
these are added to list on other side, the
Families, which on average have larger
number of species, have most in common
with New Holland.- 3u "Lemnacées"/4u
"Hydrocharidées"/5u "Lythrariées", 5u

"Alismacées"lw water. 505 table.u "Composées" lw some wide rangers table.w It is evident that the Glumaceae most widely spread. & I shd think means of distribution must come into play, second table.ÏÏ4-2m/->/w compos. 507 14~16m/15a "austral" which are common to Southern islands & Europe.- 508 wt N.B. Pritchard shows the * mntains go partly E & W in Lat 10° N.Africa. 9-15m/w 96/7000 What a contrast with T del Fuego. 18-19u "et I Cap", 20u "ou \ antérieures", table.m (Salsolacées)/w Here again; must be owing to means of transport, table.c "Fougères" "Phanérogames" "Composées"/wb These 16 Farn, (with species in common with France) having 2222 species have 139 species per Family; ie nearly twice as large as those families which have not one: there wd have been none if Compositae had not

been omitted table.m "Composées"/w so many omitted 509 wt The Cape & Europe valuable, because have means of distribution, cannot be so important as when islands are compared. - No Sahara - but how in glacial period.- table.w These 41 Fams. with 2895 species, have on average only 70 species to Famy. (wd it be worth great labour to calculate by genera.) llu "pourImoins"\w on account of smaller Families not giving true averages 0 calculate this 2nd table.c "Fougères" "Phanérogames "/wb These 21 Fams. having species in common with Cape, having 2438 species have an average of 116 species; if we * leave out Compositae as so numerous (at least at Cape), we have 20 Fam with 1960 species each Fam. has 96 species - (ie double of those Fam. with no species in common) - see over 510 2« "151 moins"/table.m/wt These 24 Fam. having 916 species (with none common to Cape) have an average of 38 species each 4[..., 2nd table.m "Composées" 511 table.w*, 2nd table.w see over There are numerous very small Families with very many species in common, which wd make case the more hostile 2nd table.m "Graminées...26"/w can this be accurate? wb These 13 Fams (in left half) have only 36 species to Fam. & have 255 species in common to N. Africa wb These 13 Fam (in right half) have 52 species on average & only 243 in common. Here then the larger Families have fewer species in common with America. First hostile case. 512 16-25m/w These two groups might be contrasted 1ri3u "Documente\1843"/ÏÏ10u "plus\(a)"/ïïl3-lw/wb I might work at this Dividing the Plants into 2 groups of those ranging above the mean 1.6 those ranging beneath the mean - (Being continental wd depend not on means of transport) & not tropic come in, or so much astounding range of water plants ïïlm, wb Would it be possible to work out this in genera??? Taking for instance the genera found in 2 & upward sous-regions & see what average of species such genera have, ie of general average of genera, or give or take those Genera found in only one sub-region 513 wt N.B. Hooker says Dreges Book is great Book with elaborate distrib: (perhaps in Linn Soc) & he will lend me; good to work out genera larger & small for distribution.- Does not give genera, only Families 5w 22 6-7m/w omit this in calculation 9w+, 18w 37 Ledebour $12-5w* I feel sure that this wd be hostile to view that largest Families range furthest 1r$-4m/1t2w This is mean 1Î2w "63661près"

[page break] 118

117

514 wt F. Water Plants demonstrate that some element quite distinct from numbers of species, come into play in wide distribution. Is not same thing observable in Salsolaceae? love of salt? 515 wt This table gives the proportion in each of the named Families of the wide ranging species to the whole number of species in the Family.- 516 l-39w This table looks * hostile Can my view be applicable only to single continuous regions; if so, Cape of Good Hope & Russia wd be excellent- 517 20-22w V. note p. 519 * anomalous 518 table.m "9 à 7,1" "1 à 0"/w These 2 might be compared table."l à 0".w But these seem mostly tropical 519 3-9m, 9u "dans I infère ", 18u "Calyciflores I compliquée ", 20-23m/20-27w according to this one ought to compare * size of Families in same great division & not as I have done in great totals. 26-29m, 28-29m, 29-33m 520 13-15m, 29-32m/30-38w Marshes cannot be so uniform in conditions. But Marsh Birds visit 521 11-14m/w ie Marsh Plants 16-17m, 23-24u "la\ salés", 35-36u "lesIgrande" 522 table.w Table of acquatic & Marsh Plants 34-35u++/w This looks like conditions 8-10m 523 8-llm/w conditions & means of transportation here explained. 20u "plantes annuelles", 38-39u± 524 4-5m, 8-llm, 12-14m/?/13u "plantes\ arides"/14u "semblent"/13-23w why? few other species or inhabitants, this wd apply to water-plants & sea-side plants.- ft4-lm 525 12-15m, 17-18m, 28-34m 526 table-title.m/u 527 Xw Trees often dioicous chance transport of one seed insufficient Might be tested by other dioicous Plants. ÏÏ6-lm/w Trees most limited. Herbaceous plants next - annuals most widely - can live in hot countries during their winter wb Does not this depend on means of dispersal, as annuals for very conditions of life must have great means of dispersal.- wb Trees depend less on means of dispersal 528 table.w Have these big seeds? What can reason be? Mostly Tropical 529 2-3m, 10-llm, 21-22m/ 22-23u "quelmer", 32-35m/w/wb What can reason be Higher developed & more changeable 530 2-3m, 5-6m/w small seeds 531 table.w In same Families distribution according to annual & herbaceous & trees. All accord in same general Result.- 532 12-15m/w no general rule means of distribution greater or less 18-20m/w seeds in proportion small 20w/l-20w There is, also, relation of size & highness in series.- Because big requires more food & is therefore a flourishing organism.- ÏÏ25-2wV-»/ïï9-5w (a) If I am right on size, wd go to show wind.-

But then Compositael! Yet here the * transportation comes into play; but then the Genera ought to be widely distributed. How is this.- This ought to be worked out in Decandolle -» or better look to Flora of islands & see whether genera of Compositae more usually the other genus. ÏÏ5u "peut-être beaucoup", Mu "reproduction\dissémination", wb (a) Means of distribution coming in so importantly is quite in accord with Barriers (ie the stopping of distribution) being so effective; so beyond anything the most important 533 llu "Ailes"lw or pappus 22u<->, 17-18m, 26-27m, 29m/w This does not concern wind 32-33m, 38m/w I wonder whether in Royal or Linnean Soc- wb If I am able to add anything new to Decandolle to means of transport, it will show how curiously imperfect our knowledge is- 534 4-6m, 7-10m 535 wt Wind generally accompanied by Rain will the pappus then cause seed to stick?? table.w I must study distribution of genera. ÏÏ24-2m 536 wt (a) Note/ the proportion of genera with single species with & without pappus nearly the same: if transported by pappus & transmuted, then ought the most genera with single species with pappus l-20w As these calculations include many continents, the seeds cannot be more transported than others. 5-7m, 19-25m/Xw /. Pappus, therefore, would seem to act like hooks which can transport to only short distance: remember no transport avails except it be to unoccupied land: no false look at introduced plants ÏÏ27-20m/tÏ22-20m, ÏÏ9m/w (see last page) ÏÏ5-3m/w (a) 537 6-9m/6u "2,2"\7u "2$", 9m, 13-14m, 17-18m, 20w Range rather small 20-21w therefore rather peary I shd think 538 l-2m, table.w In same Family species with fleshy fruit have widest range; is it because animals eat them? 31-32m, 38-39m, wb without Isld are specially considered, I hardly dare trust these discussions, for my purpose, as adaptation must so overrule powers of dispersion 539 2m, 3m 540 3-7m/3-7u±/w what complication. 541 ÏÏ5-2m 544 23-26m, 33-37m/w Russia may be considered as new country peopled from whole South 545 3-5m, 28-34m/29-37w Here isolation clearly comes into play; but this does not account for smaller range of plants within Cape District. 38u "Flora, 1843" 546 16-22m 550 table.w As far as I can see (which is very little) isolation of area seems to have little to do with confinement of species!! In this Family 552 wt Here again it seems perfectly insulated regions have the

[page break] 120

119

CANDOLLE, VOL. I: 552

wide-ranging species in greater proportion; this cd happen whether formerly connected by land, or chance introductions: No if isld was only a bit of a continent, it would not be so, but if it received species, then it wd have wide rangers ■**■%*, left half of table: 17m, 18m, 21m, 26m, 28m, 29m, 30m, 42m, 45m, 48m, 49m, right half of table, 12u "purement insulaires"lw New Holland Mem 13-16m, 20-26m/! 554 tot Here again the less the connexion between the areas forming one group, the more species they have which are generally wide rangers or Isld generally possess large proportion of wide ranging species, table.m, 2nd table.m/wb Caledonia + 555 table.w 59 regions ÎÏ2m<->, ÏÏ4m/wb IThis exactly opposite result to top of last page 558 table.w This agrees with Bentham 559 18-19m, 25-28m/w uniform bad conditions & means of dispersal 37-40m/w can think of no explanation * wb Give this as example of unexplained facts or law 560 8-9m, 12-13u<r+/12-25w great regions more separated, but how can this bear on distribution within Cape Region. The very wide rangers which inhabit different great regions will a fortiori inhabit the smallest.- 23m/a "proportion" of wide rangers 28-32m, 33-37m, 33-36m/w/wb North most united before Glacial, or rather by ice action during glacial, and Before Glacial action 561 l-4m/3u "Crucißres"/4m/u "Composées"/3-13w* try this with really oceanic isld say only volcanic isld - It is here done: no great difference 10-llu "présententIautres", ll-17m, 20-26m, 28-30m, 35~40m/38-39Q^/35-40w I shd have looked at this just contrariwise wb I never shd look at it under this light; yet perhaps agrees with Herbert's views - When then only few species, we must suppose either others extinct, or then few only as yet introduced. 562 l-4m/l-10w All this opposed to groups with largest number of species having widest rangers 26-17« "indiquent I petit"'/17-18m/16-20w This perhaps comes into law that great wanderers are very great wanderers. 32-36m/37-40m/30-38w in fact isolation by deserts or climate or sea equal 563 l-3m, 12u<*, 13*, 20-30m 564 15m/w introduced 36-38m/w 1/2 world 567 46u 569 46-48m (Hooker) 573 44-46m 579 32-37m 581 24-25m, 36-39m/38u "d'un \ cultivé" 582 3-4m, 9-13w 47/117 acquatic or semi-acquatic ! 26-33wu, ^14-13mf\15-7w This looks as if due to * unoccupied site ^2-lm/wbu 583 3-4m, 18m 584 2-5m, 15-17m, 21-22m/21u "en Abyssinie", 30-33m, 30-35m, 38-40m 585 2-3m, 15u "La\Légumineuses"/15-17m, 19-21m\

w (a) 26-27m, wb (a) yet how extraordinary the law lately developed, that where there are few species of a Family, then average range is greater than when many.- species occur.- The latter are local vars. considered as species 586 l-3m/Q 3-6m/5u "aIbaies", 12-14m, 15-16m 587 22-24m, 22-29m/22-24w very local plants 34-39m 588 13-14m/12-32w This bears on * few species inhabiting 2 areas, where there are many species. Does it not come to this, that widely extended species break into varieties & these become species, with confined ranges.- anyhow this shows how complicated a question it is 22-25m, 36-38m/37u "restreintes I vastes" 590 28-30m/27a "la" Mediterranean 591 22-23m, 22-23m, 30-31m/u "120001 existent", 34-36m, 36-38m 592 7-llm/w Labrador lately colonised, 22-26m 594 14-16m/13-20w This is important for shows creation by adaptation does not explain, see p. 599 28-30m 595 2-7m 596 2-5m, 36-37m, 37-39m 597 ÏÏ22-20m/ÏÏ22-9w No, because opposed to generally contest within same Families:- One Family may fail over world, animals or insects allied over world. ft22u "Rutacées", til2u "Zygo-phyllacées"/ïïl3-5m/w (a) wb (a) Here is case in ease with which var. changes into species; & tending to extinction: Rutaceae & Zygophylleae small orders in alliance of Rutaceae, which has several small orders wb Antiquity of sp. anoth cause. Most complex problem 598 18-21m/18-25w seems to attribute much to simple fact of ancient existence. 30-34m/w contrasts these islands in range 37-39m/wb here comes in creation: they are new in North. 599 2-4m, 24w Marsh Plants 26-28m, 29-30m, 37-40w/wb speculation, which I shall introduce on Fish, bears on this; changes of River courses: most lakes connected with streams- How many fresh water deposits with recent shells.- ÏÏ2« "aux causes' '/wb why, mere hypothesis 600 2« "ou I espèces "/2-4m/wt/l-7w I think many acquatic plants are social, which is proof not fully occupied; see to this I remember it is in salt-marshes, water-lilies Reeds & Flags &c. 9-llm/w whirlwinds 23-28m, 38u "Protacées"/38-40m 601 5-7m, 23-25m, 28-29u "commeIplantes", 29-31m/w no evidence for this 32-34m 602 table "régions arctiques ".m/u "Petits I espèces "/?/w recently unoccupied area "régions tempérées".m/?, "régions australes".u "Petit nombre"/?/m/??!, ÏÏ3-2w "les Iextrême"/m/wb .: closely adapted: parasites opposed to this.- 603 table "marais ".u "Uniformité I physique"/m/Hl/w why this was contradicted "plantes nivales".m/Il,

[page break] 121

122

"foräs".mlu "époque I glaciers"/!! 604 table-title.m, "Organisation simple".m/wt I see he always thinks simple organisation & ancientness corelated. More probably is related to adaptation to diverse conditions. I presume complexity or highness & close adaptation go together. 605 38m, 44m, 46m

CANDOLLE Géographie botanique vol. 2

NF Read & write sketch & look over; Read Hooker Galapagos New Zealand & Flora Antarctica SF09Î

a When this read skim over (make index); Reread Hooker N. Zealand & & Fl. Antarctica &» Galapagos; Skim my own portfolio; Then read my own old sketch, & write essay

compare D.C. list of introduced Plants in America & see whether they abound in vars. & whether large genera: taking average of species with vars. in whole U. States Flora -but those very sparingly introduced ought to be excluded.-

NB p. 1130 ask; 1179 * ask *; 1332.- Error (about Potatoes

* on absolute numbers in small distant islands-

If Decandolle cd be trusted we shd have * greatest difficulty to transport seeds from isld to isld in same archipelago & as most volcanic archipelagoes are rising we shd have the wondrous spectacle of a naked isld somewhere in ocean.-tsolation most important, as preventing migration & so altering conditions, & making gaps in economy of nature, & quite secondarily causing organisms to vary. Also few individuals would aid in checking crossing, especially the bisexual.- A vigorous wider spreading spec, & which consequently varies, when isolated, under most favourable conditions to vary. Possibly isolation not long enough in many cases, as in Alps & F.W. Fish- Few individuals for isolation, & this gives bad chance of new forms, but time wd make up for that.-

SBl 09Î A.

Index to Decandolle Chief Points

p.72 p. 117,8, 147, 201, 203 Adaptation to external conditions, chiefly climate, showing how differences of temp, will affect differently diff. plants, on trees exposed to whole year cold hence (I shd think, dwarfed p. 264 more height no influence; hence alpine plants show nature of former Glacial

land better than arctic plants.

-p.268. humidity.-394-418 *

xC 238 on difference in leafing &c of Beech

in Madeira. Read essay 397?

246 on sea not determining limits of plants in

Europe

250 Nothing said about sterility of plants at

lower limit of range [ask Watson or

Decandolle at some future time] shows limit

dependent on other forms.

=» though they are sterile at upper limit

270 Alpine Plants. 316-327, 329 Polar &

height limits are corresponding in different

species; 407 Japan Mts; 412 Spain -

°» p416 bears on general forms of area of

Plants.; 490 Bears on Glacial Period

XC 337 Limit of cultivation of maize

343 on N. American vines, European does

not succeed.

» x means used for 1st Volume

x^ 406 only few plants have elongated area

&416

xC 422, 428 Qe> Adaptation to conditions;

447 Qe> alternation of natural Crops» 453

e> Struggle between Fish & Water Plants

» p455 why more species in dry than humid

climates

456 Corn Plants, list of

xC 457 to 465» on abundance of species,

or Social Plants.- my discussion on

selection of diversity of form to amount of

life.- p. 470 to 473

» p465 Book on the subject to consult)

465 to 470 Op» on relation of frequency &

largeness of genera; bears on extinction.-

503 - 509 in connection with very wide *

ranging genera or Fams. & large genera.

see infra

x^ 476. When species in 2 distinct countries

are generally in intermediate - ratio of wide

ranging species & families. Families which

range furthest, without regard to obstacles.

There is p484 great distinction between

Weak species & very widely extended

species, ie when a species is once a

spreader it spreads widely. 490 Proportion of

N. Zealand & Auckland Is. &c with Europe &

& 505- on expansion of absolute numbers

within Larch wood. On relations of polar

districts to each other. 496» Labrador,

Kamtschaka & Europe 499 Low plants 519

<w^> Qp» range furthest °» with exceptions

p500.- 498 Bears on former continuity of

Islands & continents.

» Decandolle • plants not being spread N

x«*fc 502 on introduction of glacial plants into

N. Holland p. 507/508 contrast of Cape & T.

del Fuego in European species.

[page break] 123

124

CANDOLLE, VOL. II: NOTES

x8^ 502 some Compositae wide rangers.

505-508.510.

♦ 508, 509

503. 509. On largeness of groups & wide

ranging. 511 hostile.

» 514. & highness & lowness in plants

499/519

other causes determining range.- also

greater division of Tropical land.

519 on wide range of acquatic plants 522

good index.- do Marshes yet not so uniform

521 sea-side plants do

527, 532 Trees much limited; herbaceous

plants next; lastly annuals - good MS.

remarks. Bears on distribution of F.Water

productions

533 to 540 on * Range in relation to nature

of seeds

544 to 563 * Range in different countries as

Russia & Cape &c & Islands

563 Plants which range over 1/3 of world

p.582 47/117 semi-acquatic/ p584 108/117

in N. temp & arctic lands, where land

continuous, good to show effect of continuity

- so good remark on same plants 584 being

found on the intermediate islands

587. Azores less endemic sp. than Canaries;

Faroe has none - cases of very local

species

SB2 Qß •C• (4 sheets, numbered 2-5)

Alph. De Candolle for 2d & 3d Vols-

2

590 Species which inhabit other areas

besides Mediterranean, inhabit all its

Provinces

594 shows extension of acquatic plants
cannot be explained by uniform conditions p.

599 do

595 winged Compositae not large range p.

600 small seeds widest rangers 596 not
I arge-fruited seeds.

597 to 600 On sp. of same Families having

small range in very different countries, but

that they come into competition with nearly

same Fam.- Good about dominant species

spreading:- Long & Good Discussion on this

subject

Vol 2 Naturalisation, by Nature & by Man

608 Each sp. not perfectly adapted to its

own home, & [good] good MS remark

physical causes cannot engender new

species perfectly adapted

613 seeds blown up 5400 feet & effects of

wind

currents of sea (Madeira to Canaries) note 616 20 years in F. Water alive

action of Birds on transportation in

various ways. (p769 admits agency of Hooks

797 good)

624 seeds alive in earth.

629 Cases of naturalised plants confined to

few localities in new country. [Cardoon,

Guava Peaches & Oranges several cases

631 Few disjoined species, & even species

of same genus generally in same country

Cases of aboriginals, which are often injured by weather or do not ripen seeds, [this again shows want of perfect adaptation in indigenes.

Curious case of irregular distribution chiefly F. W. Plants: [Birds now rarer] good suspicion, one may say that means wd be now less effectual.

637 List of plants which have spread

recently moderate distances

645 List of nat. plants in Britain [compare

with Hookers list * of nat. Plants f. in

Australia *

698 Resume on do. 83 certain - 10/83 from

America & Discussion on causes.

709 722 Nat. at great distances, in various

countries; Europe/U. States 716 in 26 years

600 miles of Lat. Many other good facts of

rapidity/- 720 Monte Video cases, when

became social/ Juan Fernandez on

Australian list.

723 Plants nat. in Europe since * date of

Columbus; from all countries (Compare with

Australian List)

742 Resume on do. 64 sp. good in contrast

to many on islands (None from any island)

No p. 754). The introduced sp. are wide

rangers in home

746 Plants nat. in N. America (751 Nat. plant

in many countries & wider range than its

own nat.)

754 Resume of do. p755 (proportion 122:

35) of plants of 2 worlds.- Proportion of

Fams. of Nat. Plants nearly same as of

indigenous in Europe.-

(p.759) the naturalised plants here again

wide rangers in Home

761 Plants probably from merely scientific

reasons nats. by nature in Tropics of Africa

& S. America

796 Resume on - shows very few cases
from continent to continent.

797 Again rule that naturalised, were
originally spread widely & have naturalised
widely

798 On difficulty of succeeding in natur
alising a plant. When tried intentionally good
to show importance of struggle

804. The species which * have become naturalised belong it seems to Fam. which

[page break] 126

125

have not wide average nat. range; but that

does not concern me * on account of

specification; if the individual species have

that is all

Overlooks time See MS remark.

3

Alph De Candolle for Vol 2. &3.

807 Recent Fir trees extinct in Ireland &

Shetland Isd - Faroe & Nut-trees.-

995 cases of trees with Disjoined ranges

(Alpine, Glacial & 996

Disjoined acquatic Plants

999 After Glacial period more lakes - p 1024

Eriocaulon 1027-1029 - Nymphaea W. Plant

range of.

1007 Disjoined Alpine Plants to 1019

1019 Alpine Disjoined Species (but some

partly glacial) connected with being aberrant

forms. p1035 get Hooker to look over lists.

1025 Inter-Tropical Disjoined species.

1030 Cyperus polystachyus hot soil. Mem.

Hooker Himalayan Cyperus in Hot Springs -

shows a genus adapted to become fitted for

peculiar site.

1034. No sp. common to S America & S.

Asia, unless also fd in Africa - why on

theory of creation? good

1036 Sp. common to Mauritius, Madagascar

& India, do. difference is in Bourbon &

Mauritius.

1047 Good discussion on Disjoined species.

1047. Species common to N. and S. not

found in Tropics. Glacial: Antarctic ocean

1054.

1055 Conclusion on Disjoined Sp. races

1056 on ancients causes of dispersion,
remarks in general

1062 on antiquity of species - old Trees

1067 Brongniart on relation of American &

Europe in vegetation fossils

1092 to 1104 On Origin of Sp. Extinction,

Isolation

1097 Concentration of close species the rule

&c

1110 Multiple origin of species (1116 do)

1127 Genera more real than species.

some analogy intimated between all species of genus (1131 do) see my reference below 1145

Disjointed genera - 1132 Metropolis of genera with wandering species

1133 small genera with few far separated species fGlaciall a difficulty here.

The bigger the genus the wider its area of extension; specially if it has subgenera

Relation of area of genus to that of its component species

1141 Genera confined to single isld with several species-

1141 Case of Genera with very wide & very narrow Ranges: Average range.

number of individuals not guide to aboriginal country, but number of species is so.

External characters go with consti: differences, as shown by crossing & grafting.

1146 Cannot explain by any cause Distrib. of
Families. 1149

Distribution of Families like species of a genus.-

Outlying genera abnormal or aberrant

Single species ranging far taking place or representing or equivalent in distribution many local species in other cases.

4

Alph De Candolle 2d & 3d Vols.

1158 Fams. with immense ranges & local

List of small Fam. with few genera & few

species (Aberrant)

1161 Concentration of genera - not range in

proportion to number of species.

1165 I suspect lower Fams. more broken??

good if I could show as it could be due to

increase in number of species in higher

Fams.- No. Higher Reptiles, higher Mollusc.

Higher or more Reptilian Fish most broken: if

contest within each Family it would be so.-

1170 Definition of Dominant families, which

have most species.

1172 on number of species to genera & to

Families in various areas.

1176 On proportions of species of Dicot &

Monocot in different countries & Islands

1180 Something in common with regard to

Temp, even in all Monocot. & Dicot. So on

(1185) Mountains 1188 Humidity chief

relation in the Mono. & Dicot.

1189 to 1233 On the Dominant Families in

various countries & Islands.

1233 Discussion on & good M.S. remarks.

1236 The richer in species any area, the
greater the no of Families, ie more diversity
in inhabitants

1237 Under unfavourable conditions the
great & dominant Families only survive.

- The Dominant Fams. over world are not always in same proportion to most numerous; they seem to be the increasing Families-

1238 On how far the dominant Fams. are
affected by climate. The most dorn, seem
now very complex. 1241. Even in Tropics
Leguminosae, Compos. & Gram, are the
dominant Fams.

1247. Local dominant Fams, at Cape &

[page break] 128

127

CANDOLLE, VOL. II: NOTES

Australia (1251 for cases)

1249 good sentence, cannot explain

proportion of Fams. in Islds by conditions.

1252 Arctic Regions very peculiar conditions

yet very few peculiar forms, no Fam. Good

1254 Excellent Table of "characteristic"

Fams. (not found elsewhere) over whole

world 1258 Detailed Table.

1267 On families with double & treble

centres.

1267 Glacial

» 1268 good Glacial 1269 Cape at base of

Page.

1271 Total no. of species in areas of various

sizes (1273 small areas)

1275 same sp. range more widely in

Sweden than in France 1276 still less widely

at Cape & S. Australia

1279 & 1282 On number of species in small

islds.—

1278 Africa, tropical poor in species & very

poor in characteristic Fams. (for latter see

1254 & 1268)

1287 On proportion of no. of species to

genera in various countries & 1288 Islands.

1289 good discussion bearing on the

problems of more life supported by more

forms (1298) and generally on insular

Forms.- 1293 often monotypic - ie

preserved from extinction. 1297 Islands

again

First great Division of Distribution of World are not related to Climate, like the forms of land.

remarks Old & New Worlds greatest division.-

5

Alph De Candolle (Vol 2. & 3 of mine)

1313 Plants of Europe in relation to Glacial.

1326 Glacial

1326 Lyell on most ancient sp. most

repanded.

Vegetation of Madagascar allied to India

Africa & America never united all points to ancient Broken Land.

- Many species in common to Mountains of W.Indies Glacial. California & Chile

& 2 on Plants of Pacific islds

Ligneous Lobelia in Tahiti

Submerged countries when elevated have uniform vegetation

admits some species are derived by modification

1340 Cause physique of present period one of subordinate importance. Feb. 17th 1860 I have now abstracted whole grand Work.

SA1-10 (pp. 878-879)

SA1D9Î

Introduction

* p72 Hence dwarf?; 84; 116,8; 144; 147;
p.238

200 - influence of other species overlooked here & in similar cases.-202 & so here. A cause which prevents more than 1/20,000 seeds vegetating or giving full-grown plant- «s^ Here in this page: preoccupation overlooked. How little climate explains what species are common & what rare in same district - When ground preoccupied seeds of other plants wd have to arrive at period, when not in full vegetation.- good1^

♦ 246; 250; 264, 68; 270; 326; 395; 397;
406, 408 to 418; 422; 447 to 474 to )

SA2

p465 DeCandolle Books to see whether

frequency goes with genera, as it does in

Families, not in latter markedly in larger

Families.

Boreau Flore du centre de la France

Miquel Disquisition Geograph Bot de

Plantarum Regni Batavi Distrib 1837 Lugd:

Batav:

Furnrohr Flore de Ratisbonne in Naturhist.

Top. Regensburg 1839

+ De Plantis Salvadoricis 1830 Ev. Meyer

Meyer on Cape Plants p509 & 512

SA3-6 091

SA3 A

Oct. 15/55/: As every organism struggles for

life: the individuals of every species, will try

to adapt itself to several stations (of course

chiefly wide-spread species will meet with

such) for thus more will live. Why a species

cannot adapt itself to all stations, depends

probably on hereditary laws & actual

chemical nature of its body.- But it may be

said * more wilN> live by being adapted to

several stations; I think this is obvious; we

might kill probably many species adapted to

flourish under trees

» (or food of which species wd disappear &

decay if they not present)

without proportionally more trees - (or more

chemical change, best measure of amount

of live) * living- The better the conditions

the more the life; & the more the life,

probably the more the forms

» see p 462 Tome I Decandolle why? I

cannot prove this

» (at least the more the small diversity of

forms ie species, the more the great

diversity ie genera, but not in same ratio.

- though the latter (ie number of forms) chiefly

[page break] 130

129

depends on diversity of conditions, & * for plants, at least, as Decandolle fils (over) has shown are most in warm, dry countries. Under peculiar conditions, small stations, there may be a good deal of life & yet few forms,- as in arctic seas- do the forms live throughout seas? or are they not short-lived. Why have Lakes few forms? no tides, not much diversity; no estuary of brackish water

» The question which I cannot answer is, why under bad climatal or soil conditions there shd be fewer forms than under good climate & soil, ie when little life, few forms but most diversified in stations.—> (to SA4) * I think Decandolle explains why fewer social plants in good climate & soil, viz where more species there will be more neat adaptation.—> (to SA4) I can see in case of salt marshes, because like small isolated isld (for salt-marshes are isolated by conditions themselves) there has not been room for creation: all the salt-marshes in world under approximately similar climate wd make but a small workt-All F.W. Lakes of same climate (besides too much separation) are likewise small.- Land fitted for heaths small - Even arctic seas small, especially if killed in winter-SA4 -» (from SA3) My old question why so much life in North Seas, & so few forms, is probably in fact an illusion, the eye struck by number of same species. One is surprised to see any life compared with arctic Land-(Small area only bad from fewness of individuals giving chance of new forms, hence this is opposed to isolation being advantageous)

(from SA3) In bad climate & soil, the amount of live, from slow growth probably smaller than it appears & number of forms perhaps really in proportion to quantity of live considerable.- It has acquired a great laboratory to make all forms - Perhaps once there was no arctic Regions.- Hence few Alpine plants on really isolated Mountains.-this caused by slowness of creation Caspian biggest brackish water & a good many species. (over) A

We may move to discussion on number of species. (N.B. few species, but many individuals in salt marshes) with the distribution of mammifers on premise that I exclude Cetacea, Chriopter & Seals?) The presence of Bats * very strong case-e> is not Madagascar a great opposed fact to my views of distribution of Mammifers -

perhaps so large as to rank with Australia -very separate & mammifers very like.— (The way the Inula & Alders & Gorse, appeared in patches, shows seeds a very important element)

Ought the law of * common plants belonging to large families, as is faintly case with Decandolle facts, to be common to large genera. A Family may & does contain many genera not increasing, but then a genus may & does contain many species not increasing. If on average genera contain forms more closely allied, & either decreasing or increasing more regularly, then the law wd hold more with genera than with Families - How does a Family increase by the genera increasing & splitting up & other genera dying out &c Family turns into an alliance by a few portions only increasing .-. I think law always better tested by genera than by Families.-

Some agricultural green crops are said to be advantageous because they smother weeds Here abundance of seed is important SA5 a> Feb 15/57/: In every small area * if not of some extraordinary nature, there are many genera to species, ie much diversity in organisms & no great number of individuals in relation to species - Sqr yard of Lawn - a single wood - * a coral islet - an islet of any kind.- This depends on most * life being supported on small area-aaa But if the site be very peculiar, the former part of law fails, & species not very different as on Heaths - saline plains Cyperaceae as in Hots-pools (Hooker Himalayan Journ) there peculiar adaptations will come into play: In these cases * there are also generally many individuals in comparison to species because only few things can live there. * (over)

Diversity of sites great cause of most numerous species (D.C. explains well effect of dryness). Subject to this I shd expect & believe it is, that most species when most life, for as organisms are so intimately related to organisms this will in itself cause more species. And this bears on unfavourable conditions, as Arctic Regions &c SA6 aa If the site be small, & somewhat peculiar * as compared to rest of world, As in arctic regions (near winter) Alpine summits - Lakes of F. Water - then there will be many genera to species, & very many individuals to species.-

why is this I believe because laboratory small; if in nearly whole world, with myriads

[page break] 131

132

CANDOLLE, VOL. II: NOTES

of individuals selection has effected what we see, we could not expect so much for restricted *sites, specially if of no great antiquity: as Arctic Regions - [N.B. this is contradicted by islands; No but into these forms transported from other countries come into play] Possibly unfavourable conditions may come into play, but I doubt from case of Lakes-(over) m> p462

SA7-10 (numbered 2-4) Nouvelles Recherches sur les lois on distribution des formes végétales Humboldt, Sw Acad Sei 19 Feb 1821. p. 6 Notre imagination est singulerement frappée de la preponderance de certaines q'a cause de leur facile reproduction &cc (would aid no doubt) "Fallacy. There is something quite unknown about social plants. The cause of such cases in the Mangrove is nearly obvious = in pine forests in N. America, which when cut down for few years only bear oaks cactus & Bamboos = in our heaths. I think that it is simply, that there are conditions of some peculiar nature to which only few * species adapted. Yet how comes it that in Northern parts of Europe & N. Zealand Ferns are so preponderant. Where a species is so obviously well adapted & abundant, there seems no tendency to form new species. A species to form new ones, ought to have been widely spaced under different conditions, & not simply numerous under the same, though peculiar conditions 2

||^ I think this explains the absolute want of relation between abundance in individuals & species of the genus?: it shows that new species not formed by mere chance or laws of simple propagation I suspect the line of succession in making a new family may be this & not branch out till * a new & useful form is formed.

p.9 Generic forms numerous on Mountain summits (- small area)» as in Glacial region: there must be a cause » (as in Dark cases, Blind Fauna, as on Coral islands also)

A) why such peculiar & ill-fitted situations "reçoivent des colons d'un grand nombre de genres". * Why do not several * species of same genus become adapted, I think it must be because same spot can support more life under very widely different forms - Take glacial region or dark cases» - can support

1 nocturnal 1. diurnal carnivore - one grain-feeder * &c&c (There is something very remarkable in this & very different habits imply generally different genera.(a)) (back of 1)

» -» On this view the small number on Coral Isld is due to not - suitable conditions, & prob to few arrivals. (2 again)

p.16 Under a given latitude & in either the old 3

or new world (which in several families have different proportions between the families) <«») if we know the number for instance of the Leguminosae, we can judge of total phanérogames. e> not in Patagonia (Hooker) (back of 2)

(a) We can understand this in animals & we must suppose something analogous in plants though not intelligible to us. (3 again)

p.22 The proport. numbers of the great families are the same in Germany & France; hence the species of Leguminosae, Cruciferae & Umbelliferae, which appertain exclusively to Germany, must be replaced by other species of the same families in France. Again France has 1700 or 1800 more species than the German list, & yet their additional number must be proportioned in same manner as whole. (calculations follow)

» All this ought to be advanced as creationist facts (over)

New species not having been created in Aegypt since Mummies & Pyramids is less result of physical conditions having remained unaltered, than of other organic beings having remained the same.-4

p.23. Taking even few square leagues near Berlin having only 900 species. Vide last page.

These facts show in most astonishing manner how if a new species has to be created, or more strictly perhaps to be introduced (ie if a gap be left in economy of nature) how it will depend on the character of every other plant in country - (Think of this with respect to animals, whose place in the economy of nature we understand better) The point is to consider what old species could be introduced *, their subsequent modification is a separate question.-

[page break] 133

134

Shows how a gap in Nature is a fixed &

difficult point

(table of calculations follows concerning

proportions of Monocotyledons, Cyperaceae,

Compositae and Rutaceae in the equatorial zone

of the old and new worlds)

How does this list bear on above remarks

does it not invalidate it? Wonderful

adaptation of some kind is shown.-

(over)

m, P466

SAH (pp. 980-981)

(list of species) Unknown according to

Bentham

SA12 (pp. 1020-1021) 09t A

p.1020: The case of Geum - Veronica,

Myosotis - go to show that Mediterranean

was land during Glacial Period.- as does

Mouflon on Sardinia.- & some Alpine plants

(in former page) on the Mediterranean islds

- Perhaps bears on connection with
Abyssinia.- sub-alpine plants on opposite
side of Gibraltar - read J Smith? on change
of level at Gibraltar

SA13 (pp. 1078-1079)

Changed habitsA

Decand*A (9.)

Edin. New Phil. Journ. 61/70 fish salt water;

Zoologist p. 20 do

Quatrefages Unite p79 Goose laying at new

time

6. Colin 1/426 animals accustomed to new

food; Gard. Chronicle 1841. 291 Cherries

vegetating earlier under Heat

SA14 (pp. 1232-1233) 09Î ^>

All these tables with under nearly same

climate, the similar proportion of great

Families impress my mind, very strongly how

the existence of every species, depends on

fixed laws & relation of organisms.-

Especially the latter respect, when we see

how considerably different the countries are

- It shows too by what laws the creation of
new species will be governed.-

The proportion of the great Families in the Atlantic islds, impress strongly my mind as an argument in favour of continuity. Only coral isld (most of which probably at one time have been immersed) shows that different groups only are allowed to live. & seeds from adjoining country wd be in proportion to that country.-SA15 (pp.1238-1239) 091 ♦ (table concerning Compositae and Leguminosae) As Legum are generally good sized seeds * I have made out this table of all the islands in foregoing list & it certainly seems very

doubtful how far size has anything to do with transport - But then floating; & crops of Birds come into play -Upon the whole nothing can be inferred from this list

608 wtltw (a) it might as well be argued that plants do not change under domestication because not perfectly adapted to man's use. De grants complete adaptation is proved not to hold good arguable, & yet argues because there is room left for new species, no change can be effected. On contrary, it might be argued if every country had its species perfectly adapted, then there wd be no cause, or means by selection to change species.- Ill- good l-3m/3u<& "Causes I actuelles", 4-7m/6u "L'adaptation complète", 8-10u "et\ébranlées"Hlw (a) 609 2u "passagères\ adventives", 30m/30-39w [The many plants which can live & the few which can propagate, shows that seedlings or life of seedlings the most crucial part of existence] CD. 610 34r-36m 611 l-3m, 12-17m 613 38-49m (Boussingault) 614 6-10m, 25-30m 615 2-3w Spiders webs Fall of pollen CD. 15-17m/ 16u "101lieues" 616 31-33m, 35-36m 617 10-12m/?, 27u "courant\Canaries", 31u "l'est\etc" 618 12-15m, 36m 619 wt In MacGillvray even Carrion Crow attacked a flying wounded Grouse 3-5m/4w (a) ll-12m, 21-24m, 32-36m 620 28-35m 623 10-12m, 28-30m/30u "transport llégère" 624 20-25m, 34-37m 625 l-3m/2u "magasin] graines" 628 30-36w Peaches Oranges La Plata Guava in Tahiti 629 l-2m/lu++, 15-21m, 23-26w shows difference of conditions 27-36m 630 25-28?, 24-31m/27u "Ce I rarement" 631 1-Am, 7-llm, 18-24m/24w& JoyO 632 17-18m\w of irregular distribution 18-22w* I do not see that owing to non-transported 24-29w very curious details in following pages 633 27-30m 634 14-16m/15u "enclavés dans"/16u "vent\ le", 21-25m/<^, 31-35m/31u "hypothèse"/33u "autrefois I facile "/35u "accidentelle I disparition "/ 31-39w Only one fact for this hypothesis 37-39m, 40u "à I certaines"\wb What an hypothesis 635 wt If herons eat fish with seed, such means wd have been more energetic formerly, when country wild- 2-5u±/19-22m/-*l2-7w less time equally good theory 9-10m 636 9-10m 645 wt p. 703 He excludes plants growing only in cultivated ground, very correct. 3-10mlw Big type certainly not. 687 l-3m 698 9u "satisfaisant] probabilité", llu "quatre-vingt-trois "/w 83 22m "avant] siècle", 15u "10 venant "/w 10/83 Amer 26-28m, 31-33m 701 wt (b) England formerly

[page break] 136

135

CANDOLLE, VOL. II: 701

connected, hence most plants which could live in England wd have immigrated. If any species had been introduced by Birds within the last century, & was not mentioned by old Books, it wd have been thought to have been overlooked- 30-37m/w (b) (a) So very recent since 1700 xob (a) But is there not some arguing in circle for it is the very probability of being introduced by some one chief argument 702 20-25m, 26-27m, 27-28m/ !, 33-34m/! 703 6u "55", 6u "en 1724", 12-13m, 39-40tn 704 6m, 7-20m, 26u "trois mille"/w Cent? 27-31m/30-35xo How can this be told - look at connections, before any ancient Floras 31m "alpine \ aquatique" 705 7u "manqueI exactes"/6-8xo this shows the means he uses 706 8-9m, 36-38m 707 5-8m, 16-18m/xo shows conditions 19-22m/xo proves too much 24-26m 708 l-3m, 8-13m, 17-21m, 32-35m, 36-40xo even in same country difficult 709 xot (a) if all true, either doubt creations, or new isld do not form; but new isld do not form.- 3-6m/xo by wind or animals llu "devaient I rares "/xo (a) 17w These are only a few of the best cases 711 2m/u "1629" "1623", 5-8w age of early good Floras 9-10m/10u "p.\1627", 37m/u 716 22-27w in 26 years 600 miles of Latitude Ch. 5 718 28-33m 719 12-13m/13u " quatre \ après "/xo Ch. 5 18-19m, 23m, 26-27m, 29-30m* 720 17-22m/19-20u "ne\Montevideo", 27-28m, 32-38m 721 4-5m/3-9xo Falkland Isd Azores? Canary Isld How many (See next Page) 7u "le I ordinaire", 18-22m, 30-35m 722 9-18m, 21-23m/22u "espèces I naturalisées ", 24-28m, 29-32m, 38-39m (Hooker) 726 25m, 30-31m 731 7-llm/w on account of Hybrids.- Ch. 9. 18u "la I résolue", 19-20w<-> 732 17-18m/18u "de 1857", 19-20m/u<^, 42m/u "les I comme", 48u*-> 733 l-4m/lu<->/3-4u<->/l-4w what does Bromfield say on this? 40-42m\41u "c'est\ blanche" 734 7-15m, 16-17u "appuient \vue", 20-24m, 30-32mß3m, 37u "que I Stramonium" 742 6-9m/8u "64 espèces", 17-19m, 30m/u "grand" 743 38-40m 744 l-5m, 6-8m/7u "181 siècle", 19w (1) 20w (2) 18-24w I think this Law wonderful; but not applicable (?) to island- 25w (6) 29-30m, 31-36m/w These introduced species are wide rangers in their own countries. 745 9-llu++, 12-14m/w Q6 746 18-21m 750 14-17m 751 23-31m 754 34-36m/35u "à 184"/37u "172\12" 755 16a; 35:172 18-20m, 35-36m 757 8-10m, 22-25m 758 6u "184", 7-12m, 30-33m 759 17-22m, 34-37m, 39-40mlQ 760 lu "561 nouveaux"\2u "Parmi\sont"/l-3Q 30-34m 7fil l-4m, 23m 762 3-4u "l'ancienImonde", 6-9m/6-7u "aux\ sont", 9u "très I inconnue"'/w This may be

natural 15-16u++/18? 763 26u "les courants", 28-36m/30-33xo currents from Africa to America & reverse 764 20-25xv Current of Pacific from Hooker 38u "de\l'ouest"/39u "dirige\Sandioich"/zvb But as trees come to Carolines 765 7-15m/9w currents 19-21m, 23u*+ 766 5-8m, 15w The Disjointed Species appear in further list, where there is no good evidence of true partition 769 14-16m/13-21xo I see he admits often hooks are powerful agents of dispersion. 773 4-9w Rhizophora on 2 sides of America 774 23-25m, 26u "peu\ genre"/25-28m 796 8-10m/10u "et\ Océan l8-22w opposed to my idea of storms. But so few & agency of man so difficult to eliminate, that the case is not important. 19-21m/21u "est \égard" 123-38x0 All this shows that sea is a very effectual Barrier, when wide. How then islands in open ocean. Wind from isld to isld?- 28u "était I tropicale", 30-31m 797 10-llm/llu, 13-15m/12-17xo makes the case of such plants, peculiar to Isld, the more striking.- 17~22m/-+/xob This often mentioned before & shows truth of rule, that when a plant ranges widely, it can range very widely Ch. 7. Acclimatisation 798 3-4m, ll-15m, 18-21m/xo not on islds 31-32m 799 l-7m, 33-38m/^> 800 30-34mlxo so could live 801 xot/l-15w Could I get list of Naturalised Plants from Lowe for Madeira; for Canaries - Webb & Berthelot; for Azores St. Helena. Sleeman - Watson: it in his publishO lists Bojer has done it for Mauritius- This cd be important as showing means of distribution & as showing inhabitants of islands not well adapted. 802 4-5m, 16~18m/xv already disseminated 803 28m/28-29u++/Q 804 xot I fancy the Compositae agree with my law that Compositae have as class narrow range, & few the species of range widely. No, my law was that when the species range widely the class ranges widely. But plants will not serve. Except so far how species range narrowly & I fancy genera range narrowly. 3-6m/5xo (a) 27-32m/xo time, time (a) he argues for 2 or 300 years last 100 only known at all well.- xob The Azores has 100?? European plants, if 1 transported in 1000 years then 1000 wd get in a hundred thousand years.- Who will pretend to think * real species has existed, so short a time? 805 23-28m/20-25xo Bears most importantly on origin of cultivated species 29-30u*-> 806 9-10u<+, 17-25m, 24-25u "le\encore", 40m/u "Il\espèce" 807 21-27m, 29-33m 809 18-21m, 24-28m 810 ||^/wt N.B. Most domestic animals & Plants can withstand most diversified climate, & therefore (like

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accidentally transported plants) they have probably wide range & therefore are very unlikely to have become extinct or be unknown. l-5w Mosses only. Animals accidentally transported by man. 4-7m/l-5w Generally conspicuous * & certainly useful, xxx 6-llw* Shows that are becoming extinct belong to small broken genera.- This not 15w (Good to compare all this with Bentham's article) 20-24m, wb xxx Might say probably not local species 811 -> (from p. 810)/wt I suspect it will appear for Decandolle that the originals have not wide ranges; but I suspect Decandolle in the following discussion.- To make this argument perfect, they ought to run wild. Nor fowls & Fancy Pigeons do not run wild. 815 19-27m 826 9-13m, 15-17m, 23-25m 827 4-7m, 8m, 20u " combien \ par" J20-24m/w not selected except size & colour of root 32-33m/33u "pendantIaltérées" 831 38-A0m 832 lm, 4r~6m, 11-Um 835 5-8m 836 13-15m, 18-19m 838 2-5m 840 1-7m, 15-19m\19u "estimés généralement", 20-21m/21u "origines\Choux", 26-27m 842 12-16m/w yet all cross - must be created in Hybrid Chapter. 22-24m, 26-31m/27-28u "de\oleracea"/26-35w Here comes in argument * as in dogs, that reputed parents are closer than variations 32-36m/36u "Systema"/? 843 27-34m 844 3-11m 848 20-25m, 27-31w See in Gartner about fertility. Nothing - 34-38w Not known wild positively - wb Hence not likely that the numerous varieties shd have each wild prototype 849 9-12m, 16-17w Not known positively wild 850 7-19w The fertility of the N. chinensis being American bears on the vars. in China (not known wild there) 854 wtj l-18w I shd remember that * edible vegetables may be killed out by being eat up.- in times of famine at least annuals, but then seeds in ground, as Decandolle remarks. But annuals do not appear in winter time during famines - 857 13-15m/ 23w<-> 863 34m/w Citron 35-39m/36u "d'espèce\celle", 40-A2m 864 21m/u++, 29-30m 865 5-6m/u/w (2) 12-14m/13-14u++, 28-32m/ 28w (3) 866 33-38m, 41-44m 867 19-21m/19w bitter orange 868 8-13m 869 22-23m/22w Sweet orange 30-36m, 37-38m/w -shows how he believes in hereditariness 39-40m 870 6w 4 10m, 15-21m, 22-24w Sp. ? 6 24-25m, 26-27m 871 4-6m, ll-12m, 28-29m/29u "Bergamotte", 30-34m, 35-37m 872 18w & Crimea 21-22m, 23-24m, 25-27m, 32-34m, 40-A2m 873 wt/l-3w I daresay wild • Secy -Boucher de Perthes in same Library. Hort. Soc. Agricult Soc, Antiq. Soc. 4-6m/5u

"Reynier"/4-6w Worth reading for Cattle &c 875 16-19m/17u "multitude\ces" 876 12~18m, 29-33m, 34-36m/w Flora Jamaicae? 37-38m\ 36-40w good case for no doubt an eastern Plant 877 2-3m, 3-4w Poor 3-5m, 6-7m, 10-15m, 23-24m, 26-27m/26u "plusieurs espèces" 878 20-21m, 27-30m, 34m 879 37-40m\38-39u "faveur \ sûr "/39-40w/wb Hence probably derived from single species 880 10-12m 881 4-9m, 30u "Malum\ils"/29-31m 882 6-7x^/ u** "hort\121", ll-14m, 15-18m/16u "Théo-phraste\ avant" 883 35-37m^/x*& 884 3-8m/x*» 885 3-7m/x^, 13-15m, 22u "en 1857"/ 22-25m, 27m/x^ 886 U-12m/12u "S'il\ espèces" ll-31w/wt There is strong difference in Laburnum & Orange? & apple cases the tree goes on producing separate fruit & blended fruit. But this case (together with several stones of seed) makes Peach & Nectarine different far more analogy with Sports. In LaburnumO case it is not pure yellow which produces pure purple; it is a mixed tree- 19-22m, 30-35m/w Peaches & Nectarines 35-46m\w\wb I shall have to read all Gartner on this subject ÏÏ9-2m, ÏÏ6w^ "Journ 7tt5u^ "V"/ÏÏ2u^ "18511299 "/tÎ3-lm*& 887 ll-14m/x*&, 17-21m, 35-A0m 888 23-25m, 26-32m 889 24-27m, 33-35m, wb Great cause of doubt in fruit trees is escaped seedlings 891 l-2m 897 16-20m 902 27-31m 910 ÏÏ12-9m/ïïl9-6w (In Loudon good account.) confined range. Probably single origin, good to point out amount of variation. ÏÏ23-22m/ÏÏ9-7m^ 911 l-4m, 14-15m/ll-14w This good as well as gooseberry ÏÏ24u "1557", tÏ22u "2597" 918 20-21m, 35-37m 919 25-26m 920 4-6m/4-8w Forster must be read again 921 32-34m 922 2-7m 923 7-9m, 15-16m, 37-40w Mem Schomburgk in Guyana 925 24-30m 926 4-9m 928 4-7m (Lindley), 12-13m, 16-18m/17-18u<+, 21-26m, 26-31m, 35-37m/w Read 929 2-3m, 5-6m, 8-12m/9u "1501froment", 15-24m/17x*&/15w old vars 28-33m/28-29m/26-32w Does not stigma & anthers with pollen protrude what for if not for external fecundation in fine weather. 30-31x*&, 35-37m, 39-A0m 930 l-10m/4-5x^/tw ? see the accounts of Australian savages how they try everything - Look at Carrot, Parsnip. Gooseberry - I am sure I have read somewhere of savages getting grass seeds.- Zizania aquatic (?) in N. America How large. 10-16m/10-llx*&, 17-21m/w yet do not run wild- 25-26m/x*&/26-27u "non\ changé"/27-29m 931 4u«& "2822"/x^ 932 10-18w Only 1 of the 4 species found on any good evidence wild.- So that at least the 200 or 300 sub-vars cannot have wild

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CANDOLLE, VOL. II: 932

aboriginals 16-21m, 22-25m/20-26w I doubt whether language can be trusted? so far as he does. 25-31m/w It is clear that one arrives at maximum 1Ï3-2m 933 4-6m, 7-8m, 15-16u <->, 32m, 39~40m/39u "Bull.\66"/x^/w I have read this 934 16-24m, 38-40m 935 5-6m, 12u "hexastichon"/13u "distichon"/14u "vulgare", ll-13x/w*& 3 sp. 23-24x^/24-26m, 28-30m, 33-34m, wb The more I reflect the more I come to conclusion that antiquity of man one of the most important elements in history of variaton.- 936 xot+, 17-18x^/18u "VHordeum distichon"/18-20m/w 1 or 2/4 f. apparently wild.- 21-24m, 31-34m, wb Lindley or Loudon makes probably only one species of Rye 937 19u "Econ. Eg." 938 ÏÏ20-3m, ÏÏ2-lm 939 6-7m, 15-16m, 34-38m 940 12-17m, 30-31x^/m, ÏÏ2-2m 941 15-17m, 35-37m 942 18-21m, 22-23u ++, 28u +•>, 31-32x^, ÏÏ3-lm/ w see about European vars. 948 1Î9-6m 950 5-7m, tÎ7x^/1Î6u "avait \ considérable"/ÏÏ5u "aujourd'hui I nouveau", ÏÏ5-4m, 1Ï4-2m, tl5-lw Did I not find it in elevated deposit? 951 20m, 13x/15x^/ll-18m, 19m, ÏÏ15-14m, ÏÏ12m, ÏÏ22-8m, ÏÏ4-2m 952 25-29m 956 20-22m 957 36-37m 960 19-22m/20u "localité] auteur" 961 25-27m 962 1-Am, 18-21m 966 20-25m 969 20-21m/21-22u "grande I Rouge" 980 4-6m, 18-20m 981 table.m/w (notes Bentham's opinions as to wildness, affinities and principal locations of species listed; so also pp. 982, 983) 982 wt Plants not mentioned by Decandolle Celery - (Medlar known wild) Cynara cardunculus (Pistachio nut origin unknown) Anel or Fennel Asparagus Atriplex Isalis linl & Ricinus Castor-oil Plants (origin doubtful) 983 l-3m, 4-7m (in text below table) 984 21-23m, 25-28m, 29-34m/30u "157", 34-35u "21185"/ 35-40w omit in my calculation, though several authors, I think, wd not put in the 85 985 2u "321aient", 9-10m, ll-14m/12u++/ll-18w comparatively modern. .*. this which at first appears a very important original is not so important.- 14-15u*& dans \ connus "/m^, 20-27m, ^3-lx^/U-Au *+/??ftl2-lm/till-8w against creation for man? 986a 5m/?, 9m/?, 14m/?, 18m/? 986b 5m/?, 12m, 13m, 19m, 20m 987 lAm/wt/l-6w Celery not cultivated in Tierra del Fuego Potatoes not south of Chile, because not being civilised for culture No S. America, but Incas far enough & long civilised. 988 l-2w But I think ground cultivated in La Plata when discovered 4-lOw How many of these cultivated along Cordillera - Look to this. 9w Tomato ÎÎ4-2m 989 lm/w This all used 3-4m, 6-8m, 10-Um/ w exactly the same as in Pigeons 15u "XVIe", 16m/16u "choux\courges", 19-22u±/

21m/15-21m/w but no evidence that have not reappeared 23-27m, 27-29m, 29-37m 990 5-9m/7x/wt x He seems to have overlooked the indirect effects 2-2m, 3-4??, 15-21m/w But this all implies such perfect communication 28-34m/28-29u "ou I communication "/ 27-37w Here he admits faulty communication. This argument equally applicable to var. arriving in one country 32m "si\autre"/ 32a "spontanément" in same country IÎ5-2m 991 6-8m/?, 16-17u "Quand] agriculture"/14-24w ! How can he pretend he knows origins of agriculture.- (Celts are thought to be agricult.lists) ÏÏ7-2m/a> How can he tell no change.- No * selection 992 2m, 3-7m/4w quote 8-16w So when one attends to any species, instantly one begins to get new varieties- 14-15m/u "seulement]origines" 993 28-20« "examiné] transport"/!, 24-25m 994 20u "occupé"/19-20m/w forgets wild 23-26w In Keeling Isld some larger fruited trees 995 7u "en Sardaigne"/5-7w So Decandolle thinks these species distinct 22m, 23-24m, 26-27m, 32-33m/32u "Quercus Suber",33u "il\Madère"

1-Am, 10-llm, 19-20m/17-22w Pigeons might transport Beech most or Oaks ïï6-2m

14u "Bourbon]Maurice"/13-15w ? How if not Fact? 13-15m/13-25w I think there must have been some great subsidence here.- I might ask Maury about soundings between Mauritius & Bourbon. 26-27w wingless Birds

4u "Bourbon, Maurice", 22-25w He does not bring in depths.- 999 wt I think soon after Glacial epoch, country with more lakes, like Finland?? 16u "en Abyssinie"/17m, 21-23m, 28-30m/29u "flottent]germination", 33-36m/36u "aux I Shetland" 1000 8-9m/9u "à l'île", 14-15m, 18-19m, 14-25m 1001 3u "en Lithuanie", 6-7u "nord]Italie", 17u "la]du", 24-28m/24w Extinction 32w Extinction 34m "dans I méridionale", 39u "en Algérie" 1002 2m "au I Espérance", 2u "dans \ Amérique", 34-35m 1003 wt Sea breaks with F.W. lagoons often bordering coasts.- l-2m/w Extinction? 7w Extinction (?) 29-22m, 29-32m, 37-38m 1004 10-13m/w wd surely stick on birds 22-25m, 32u "mûrit]de"/31-34m/w Birds pick up ÏÏ2-2m 1005 25-27m, 20-21m, 23-25m, 29-33w must conclude belong to causes geological or anterior ÏÏ8-2m 1006 l-4m/2-3u "l'autre] montagnes", lOu "d'immenses"/lim, 23-24m, 27 u "première hypothèse", 28-29m/28u "chaque] espèce" 1007 5-8m, 8-llw D.C. speaks of 300 leagues = 15° Lat. 22-23«;» nearly 20° between Lapland & Switzerland. 17-18m/w Hence 108+18/685 not altered since glacial epoch 23m "purement"/22-24m/w I do not understand whether these 124

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exclude the Swiss 26u "arctico-alpines"/26-27m 1008 wt (It being only genera & not species in common on Borneo & Australia, is a difficulty.-) wt Not one of these is Atlantic isld. Wu "au Caucase", 17u "Carinthie"/zu where 22m "variété d'Amérique"/w Extinction ÏÏ2w "monts I centraux" 1009 13-15m/13-19w this shows I think,-former land transport & not by icebergs 32u "Corse" 1010 24u "Sierra-Nevada" 1012 2-4m/3u "arctico-alpines", 15-16m/15u "3\lieues", 22-23u++/19-26w This seems to me to presume that we know the causes of struggle far better than we do.-26-29w* Elsewhere far less of these 30-36w mountains & therefore probably other species take their place Mm 1013 l-2m/wt of course for implies first wide extension. 5-9m, 14-16m, 28-29m/29u "les\Abyssinie"/30w There are mountains in Ab of 10,000 ft wb Are there many genera in common between Abyssinia & Europe not fd in intermediate country? 1014 14u "Sinai", ÏÏ3-2m 1015 l-2m, 7-8m, 16-17m, 24-28m, 29-33m, 34-36m/w my facts go only to genera.- 1016 l-7m, 18u "aux I pieds "/l 9u "dans I montagnes "/20-25w This must have been imported during glacial period (a) 28u "Abyssinie I pieds ", 31-32m, 37m/w extinction 38-40m/w since glacial ITlm/w "aux \ hauteurs "/w (There are also alpine insects wb (a) This good argument against connection by land or if land connection a very long one for cold & warm plants, so plenty of time for immigration of everything whichO cd immigrate us land quadrupeds.- 1017 l-4w Mem: if seeds transported by icebergs * it wd be irregular.- 5u "Sommités"/5-6m/w extinction since glacial 8-9m/w extinction llu "montagnes"/10-llm/w extinction since glacial (?) 16-17w Extinction since glacial. 24m, 30-36w one of the species which has transmitted down Andes crossing by Behring Straits 1\6-5w extinction since glacial 1018 4-7m, 9-10u "L'identité\ quoique"/?!, 14-16m/w extinction since glacial 24-29m, ÏÏ4-2m/ÏÏ2u "déposé\impalpables" 1019 13-17m 1020 wt The fewness of these cases show how usually habitat continuous 3-10w Spain & Greece & Palestine. Extinction 15-19m/w alpine in Spain & Taurus 22-23w Extinction 26-27w extinction 32-33w extinction 36w extinction 39m/w extinction 41m/w extinction 44u/45m/w partly alpine wb Those with x seem most likely to have been separated by extinction, but they do not seem very good cases or worth calculating for extinction.- (x against Minuartia dichotoma, Viscum cruciatum, Solanum persicum) 1021 wt All

these 16 cases are Spain of Western portion of Mediterranean 2w some extinction? 6x, 8-9u "sur 16500", 12x/w do 15m/x, 21u "habitantIsablonneux", 27m/w true 29-30u<^>/ 28-37w Depth not excessive Now the islds in Mediterranean are not simply volcanic isd \_ think, but fragments of other rocks. See Map of Europe 39uh/39-41w species of Atlantic isld. 38a "p." none mentioned./ mentioned at p. 1016 1022 2-8m/w After giving Spain & W. Mediterranean Give Spain & Ireland.- 7u "car I montagnes "/3-8w During glacial period by Rennells current.- hence might have travelled by land during glacial period. 10-12m/w Great Genus 10-llw See S. America 13-14m, 20-22m/16-22w has only 3 species Decandolle makes a Family: Lindley a subfamily.- with 5 genera 25m/23w Great Genus 27u "à\famille", 30u "des\Népaul", 28-29w Extinction 1\l0-lw/wb Genus of 3 species Saurureae Rich., Alismaceae Rich, (so I suppose very peculiar) genera. Lindley gives only 4 genera to Saururaceae. It really might be worth while to work out the Spanish cases. No not worth.- ÏÏ4u "Etats lou'/w this refers to these 2 last cases entirely dying groups. 1023 l-4m, 5-7m/w He always leaves out struggle with other species.- 9-12w a great genus: Lindley 9 genera in Eriocaulaceae 22u/21-24w Decandolle puts genus in the Family 28-30m 1024 wt F. Water habitats not being well stocked less likely to become extinct.- 2-2m, 3-4m, 7u "la\Eriocaulon"/7-9m, 10-13m, 19u "mais\ quantité"\14-20wLarge genus not small sub-fam in Lindley.- (now thought peculiar species?) tt22-29m 1025 4-5u<^, 12-13u "dirai\impossible", 28u "sigue\les" 1026 24?, 28? 1027 1?, 40-42m 1028 10-llm/lOu "Lieux humides", 19?, 26u "Lieux humides"/?, 32? 1029 wt/Xw If these are transported accidentally what hundreds of thousands of genera requisite- May one speculate on excessive antiquity of F.W. Plants-Continents were all once united theoretically.- It seems most improbable that the great laws of Creation shd be different for simple elements of aquatic Plants.- Is there any geological evidence of Water Plants being older? There is something in relation to land & F.W. Mollusca, I think; Morris would know. ?The genera of F. W. Molluscs are most ancient 3u "Il\humides", 5-6u "lesIhumides", lOu "Lieux humides", 31u "terrains humides ", 35u "les I humides " 1030 3u "montagnes I Indes ", 4u "montagnes I intertropicales ", 12-13u "même 120° "/14-15u "où\Antilles"/ll-14w Ischia Volcano 1032

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CANDOLLE, VOL. II: 1032

23« "humides", 18u "graines", 21u "humides", 34u "humides", 37u<^>, 39u "prés humides"

1033 4u "Lieux humides", 10-15w I see one
Dicliptera in Keeling Flora 22-25m, ÏÏ3-2m

17-18m/-*/19-21m/w why if creation.

6u "endroits marécageux", 8-lOm, 12-17m/w small genus Lindley small Sub-Fam. & put it with (?) in another small Fam. 26-30m, 33-41m 1036 l-3m, 4-6m/w Double creation, subsidence in Pacific 10-12m/9-19w either on coming or on going off of glacial period: species might have travelled by Arabia &c Canaries Isld 180 miles from Africa- 20u "à\Mariannes"/21-24m/23-24u^/ xx/zv Primulaceae; moderate Family 34m, 36u "sont\Mascareinhes", 39~40m, wb good to compare list of Mauritius & Bourbon to see difference like difference in Galapagos &c 1037 9-llm, 15-17m, 22m*, 27-28w Supplemental list 30-32w These seem all less certain- 1038 17u <-> 1039 ll-12m, 23-25m 1047 l-2m, 4u "ilI monocotylédons", 5-6m, 9-10m, ll-14m, 15-181...], 19-201..], 201...], 21-22m, 21u "êtrelhygrophiles", 25m, 27m, 28-35m, 39u "des\existes", 40-41m 1048 20-25m, 35-37m, 38-40m 1049 22-22« "Pour\ Maloiunes"/w Var. of islds 35-48m\48u "sept, parte" 1050 3-8m, 9-12m/12u "IUlithosperm", 22-28m, 30-31m, 33w Arabia 34-35m, 39u "Lieux humides", 48u "sericea\peine" 1051 2-2m/2u "Les\maritimes", 2u "Lieux humides", 6-7m, 19-20m, 31-35m 1052 2-6m, 33-40m 1054 8-23w There is something very odd in Family resemblance with Cape: quite beyond speculation.- (u henceforth place-names) 8u, llu, 12u, 14-15m, 16u, 22u, 23u, 24-25m, 27u/28u/26-29m/w cirripede in this predicament 30-31u, 31u, 33u/33-36m/34u, 38-40m, 43u, 45u, wb How little is known: power of floating & duration of vitality in saltwater 1055 lm/u, 14u, 15u, 16u, 29-30m, 42-44m 1056 2-3m, 4-12m/10-16w The separation of areas depends entirely on anterior causes? ie no means of present for transport. 1057 12-16m, 25-27m, 31-34m, 35-37m 1058 7-18m, 23-26m, 28-31m/32-34w Does not mention small number on islands. 1ÎS-5m, Îî4-2m/w If we cd believe in antiquity greater, this wd be explained- 1059 3-7m\ 5w (a), wt (a) If I remember right, Compositae wider range in Europe & Siberia than at Cape - if so formed into distinct species in latter.- 1060 3-7m/w Gerligg wd give opposite presumption 20-35m/w oh! oh! Look to shells analogous formations. East & West N. & S. America.- India- not exactly contemporaneous 1062 1Î26m, wb He looks at extinction as due all to Deluges &c!N 1063

29-31m, 32-39m 1064 l-14m, 14-20m, 23-24m, 38m/w (FD), 40-Alm 1066 39-41m (linger) 1067 wt Lyell refers to Murchisons Paper on Alps 4u "pliocenes d'Oeningen"/w Oeningen. 9-14m, 15-19m/!H, 27m, 31-34m 1069 4-7m/5w+/u "mais insuffisante", 15u "la\ manque" 116-17 m, 26-27u "prennent\ importance"\28-29m1070 21-24m, 25-28m, 29-32m 1071 7-17m/10w See next Page 18-21m, 25-29m, 30-35m, 40u "ville, village" 1072 24u "nousIépoque", 24u "'avecIdonnées"J24-32w Not one of these characters agrees with primrose & Cowslip 26-40m\w Jhe definition; but practically, & as far as my subject is concerned descent & creation come into play. 33u "positivementcommune''/wb Here creation comes into play No 1074 14-17m 1075 22u "zoologistes", 18m/u <->, 23-25m, 32-33m 1076 9-10m/10u "la\commune", 19-22m, 28-31m, 28-31!/29-34m, 34-35m/35u "pollen\ bouton"/?, 37m/u "quod\creatae" 1077 3u "hybrides"/w oh 4-6u "et\qu'on"/5-9m/6-9m/ 8-9u<-+, ll-12u^/w So he wd not argue from quadrupeds 19u "la I succession ", 34-35u "Ainsi \ seulement "/35-36m/w even in Hybrids 1078 wt there is no separation between domesticated & wild variation 6-8m, lOu "variations I races ", 15-18m/15u "On I même"/ 16u "années"/14-31w variations are fleeting changes in Individual: Probably answering to * (shell in brackish water) size in animal and wool - or blackness in Bird fed by Hemp seed 29-30m, 33-34m, 37m 1079 2-2m, 6-9m, 12-13m, 18-20mjw not hereditary 22m "perdentItoujours", \\3m,^i\4-2w Horse-Chesnut origin known. 1080 19u "à I multiples", 18-20m, 26-27u "variations\variétés"/26-29m/w ie can be propagated by grafts. 30-38m 1081 wt If this cd be trusted, it wd be very important.- l-6m/l-4w Chance seedling surely must have been raised?? 5u "jamais I semis ", 14-23m, 31-33m 1082 7-13m, 25-26m, 30u "asperges"/w asparagus 34-37m/ w Race = sub-species 1083 Im/x, 2-4Q 8-14m/9-10Q 16-21m/17u "pourpre"/x/20-210 21-24m, 24-29m/26w any crossing? 34-36m

1084 20-23m/w very good & new 38-A0m

1085 8u "curieuse I rarement", 17-20m/20w
only requires selection. 21-23m, 25u "est\
dans",
30-32 «<->, 32-33u "imparfaits\borné",
34-35m
1086 7-13m/7-20w For my view I do
not want races, only more variability: these
introduced plants are excellently adapted, for
they hold their ground in a well stocked
country. 19-24m/19u "conditions \ tendent", 24u
"depuis
I siècles "/22-25w because adjoining
continent stocked 27u "cette chimère"/28-
30u<->/25-30m/w
Azores plants. Himalaya

[page break] 146

145

Rhododendron Ceylon Plants. ÏÏ7-4m, wb The Kidney Bean objection goes for nothing; those who bring it, seem to think that climate acts on all: it is selection & we know not that colder climate has anything to do with production of hardiest varieties, yet I believe climate does gradually harden plants 1087 3-6m, 23-30m, ÎÎ2w "influence du climat "/wb (always this) He has not the Key- 1088 5-6m, 7-12m, 33-35m 1089 16-20m/15-16w Bears on old glacial period 25-31m/25-35w I suppose he means they wd not have been created not to extend for they cd not have extended, owing to their isolation.- 1090 lml ?, 8-9m, 25-30m, 36-37m, 38-39m 1091 6-8m, llu "c1est I cultivé" 1092 12-17m, 20-23m\w Shows not shadow of evidence in shells !! 1093 10-16w not isolation in case of trees; many species in same island.- 18-22m, 25-32m/26-27u "distinctes \ autre", 38-40m 1094 7-8m, 10-13m, 14r-24m, 34-37m, 39-40m 1095 10-13m, 16-19m, 29-32m, 33-35m, 37-40m/w same argument as Cuvier about Dogs 1\5m/ wb but many think these are only varieties 1096 wt (a) It must be most rare, when species gets isolated & sports suddenly: I shd think favourable but diverse conditions (referring chiefly to other co-organisms) but numbers in the sport not great.- 5-6m, 8-10m, ll-18m/w In fact he here follows man's method of selection too servilely.- 14-18m/!, 19-22m/w islands 20-25w (a) Isolation chiefly requisite to get new conditions. 23-30m, 32-34m/32-33u++ 1097 l-3m/w This necessary for if contrary was rule, they cd not have descended.- 4-6m, 6-10w (a) (Antelopes same case at Cape) 9-14m/12-13u "cause I naturelle"flOw Selection 17-24m/14-21w This exactly the reverse argument of old Decandolle about Araucaria ÏÏ24w Yet in Compositae we have case of Centaurea in H» Hieracium & ÏÏ21-lw Get Watson to give some particulars about Hieracium: see in marked list, how many doubtful vars. ÏÏ8-lm/ ÏÏ22-3zo What is Henslow composite plant which has a palustr species or * Kierecium. (he means Hieracium), wb (a) Elevation slow * subsidence, every continent has been many times divided into islands. 1098 7-8m/8u "isolement" 17-llw ie avoiding crosses.- yet he says many are impregnated in bud.- 9-12m/!! 1099 24-26m, 32-38m/35-38w always overlooks selection.- 1100 2-6m, 7-8m, 16-18m, 31-33m, 39-40m 1101 10-14m, 22-31m\ 27-28w Well stocked countries 34w (time) 36-38m, 39m 1102 6-17 m, 20-30w I do not see any good in discussing this hypothesis.- There is so little analogy in a

plant taken suddenly 29-30mlw false ÎÏ20-2m/!? 1103 22-23m, 29-39m 1104 24-31m, 32-37m 1105 6-8m 1110 36~40m 1111 wt (a) Those geologists, chiefly continental, who believe that species all destroyed by catastrophe, upset the whole theory.- 5w (a) 30-33m/w just like shells, with increasing knowledge all upset. 34-37m 1112 2-5w Mem. India & Africa 35-37m 1113 2m/3-5m/ l-9w Mem. how little is known about Chalk. Hooker is much opposed.- It is like arguing about Mammifers- 1114 3-8m, 21-26m 1116 l-5m, 17-22m, 24-27m 1117 18-20m, 29-32m/ 33-35m/28-40w All this agrees with my theory, but I confess I do not see much weight to argument concerning facts of introduction accidental. 1119 l-4m 1121 22-25m/25u++ 1124 l-5m/?/wt This shows how little he appreciates real antiquity of world.-27-31m 1125 9-22m, 18-21m 1126 27-28m 1127 24-22m, 27-30m 1128 2-6m, 16-22m 1129 l-2m/2u "complète", Um, 18m 1130 wt Glacial Th. 3-4m/w Ask 9-23m 1131 3-4m/3u "individus Ifaits"/2-8w ie you may have many species & few individuals; or reverse.- 22-23m, 15-20m, 22-23m 1132 8-10m, 13-15m, 16-18m, 21-23m, 22-24m, 26m, 29-30m, 31-32m/31u "Les Idispersés", 32u "plus rares", 39-40m 1133 wt Are these aberrant genera? 2-2m, 4-6m/6u "et\ Brésil"14-7w small genus with wide range, & species itself wide ranger. 9w cold period 14-16m, 21-23m/22-23m^, 24-25m, 30-32m/26-40w/wb opposed to my doctrine but how little we know of agglomeration of individuals - The number of species will always depend on anterior causes, of individuals or actually existing causes.- t4-lm\wb Yet as far as H.C. Watson's Cybele goes, it wd appear so.-1134 3-7m, 8-12m, 18-22m/w on the number of genera in a region.- 27-29m 1135 l-8m 1136 table.w but here comes in old cause of doubts that regions, not divided according to apparent obstacles of transport. 7-8m* 1138 l-5m, 7-llm/12-16m/7-18w a good proof that with wide diffusion differences supervene -all showing slow transport.- 1\15-9m, 1Î4-3u "la\ reguliere" 1139 l-3m/w General conclusion 21-23m, 24~27m/24-39w see next Page So that perhaps (he admits) it is only in the less large genera (ie growing genera) that extension of * one of species affects course of genus 1140 3-6m, 10-llm, 17-26m, 28u IUI 18-19m, 22-30m 1142 ÏÏ23-22m/->/ l-14w area of genus thrice size of species .X * X Perhaps really six times as great as species 1143 4~6m/w How little he understands extinction. 26m "isolement", 17-

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147

CANDOLLE, VOL. II: 1143

29m, 33-35m/34u "un \près" 1144 2/'-29m 1145 24-27m 1146 6-10m, ll-15m 1147 31-32m 1149 24-30m/25u^/28u "n'est\océan", 38-A0m 1150 23-24m, 25-26m 1151 8-10m/w This like species of a genus 19-21m, 27-31m, 35u "qui\Fissenia"/36u "doit I rapporté"/ 34-35w seems abnormal genus 1152 wt In Steudel Bontia put in many Families 3u "à l'extrémité"/w small Fam. 6u "Bontia"/5-8w Is Bontia abnormal in the Myoporaceae 7u "Sélaginées"/7w small Family 8u "Gym-nandra"l8w abnormal 23~24m, 28-30m, 31-32m 1153 l-5m, 16-19m 1154 12-15m, 17-18m, 23-27m, 30-33m, 35-40m 1155 27-28m, 33u "soit\100"/35u "2, 5"/36u "7 1/2", 36u "12 l/2"/31-40wlwb There are more species of Graminaceae in Holland, than in France, but far more individuals of Graminaceae. & so fewer Leguminosae even of individuals than of species. 1156 22-25m 1157 26-27m 1158 16-18m, 29-30w Families with confined ranges 36-37m 1159 16-19w I doubt whether cd have been exterminated elsewhere 20w above 300 species 1160 4~6m 1161 7-8m, 22-25m, 26-29m/27u "d'une\régions" 1162 22-27m 1164 14-16m, 24-26w Examples of above 1165 25-28m/25-32w Monocots. much more broken families Lower Families more broken: so Ferns, Equinatae &c. more distinct.- 1166 l-3m 1167 24-28m 1168 22-24m 1169 ÏÏ3-2m 1170 20-23m, 24« "caractéristiques", 22u "l'absence", 25u "Enfin I familles", 27u "de\Fougères" 1172 12-17m/12-21w Bears on numbers in small isld - but yet the diversity of forms bears on adaptation 27-29m/29u "diminue" 1174 ÏÏ8-5m 1177 8-10m 1178 wt for World 83/17 table.m "Grande Bretagne"/.w Penny Encyclop. 83,827 sq miles table.m "Nouvelle-Zélande"/.w 8600 sq miles - Crawfurd 1179 table.w I wish I knew real size (of islands) so as to see as compared with continents real miles of inhabitants, (rest of table has dimensions of islands marked), wt* Make out or ask author whether mere relation to distances from mainland does not influence number of species wbu 1180 19-23m/20-27m/19-35w These are important as showing something common in constitution of the grandest division of Veg. Kingm. 1181 2-4m, 29m 1184 ÏÏ9-6m, tÎ9u "de\Monocotylédones", 1Î8m "beaucoup\régions" 1185 27-29m 1188 26-28m 1189 29m "prédominantes"Iw Definition p1170 1194 2nd table.m "Amentacées" 1195 3rd table.w This very different proportion 1197 3rd table.m "Légumineuses" 1199 1st table.m "Crucifères", 3rd table.m "Composées" "Scrophulariacées" "Renonculacées" 1200 1st

table.m "Graminées" 1202 3rd table.m "Légumineuses" 1203 3rd table.m/w about size of Canary Isd 1204 1st table.m/w/wt Compare Sardinia & Canary Isd too Big 1206 2nd table.m "Rosacées" "Composées" "Amentacées" "Renonculacées"l.w very curious 1207 2nd table.m "Sur 157 Phan" "Rubiacées" "Ver-bénacées"/w very peculiar 1208 first table.m/w These families prevail irregular 1209 3rd table.m "Salsolacées" 1210 3rd table.w Cambridge has 866 sp. m/wb How much more pure wb Same general proportion as elsewhere 1211 1st table.m/w How the orders of the Families agree.- 1212 1st table.m "Rosacées" "Amentacées", 2nd table.m "Légumineuses", 3rd table.w Rosaceae seem to abound in N. America 1214 2nd table.m 1215 2nd table.m "Orchidées "/.w Compositae not here 3rd table.u "57 Fougères et 9 Lycopodiacées"/.w hardly any Compos. 1216 2-2m "Composées"/!, 3rd table.m "Acanthacées" 1217 1st table.m "Orchidées" "Rubiacées"/.w like New Guinea 1218 1st table.m, 2nd table.m "Malvacées" 1219 2nd table.w Malvaceae prevail in W. Indies 1220 1st table.m "Mél-astomacées" "Malvacées", 2nd table.m "Orchidées", 3rd table.m "Euphorbiacées" 1222 3rd table.m 1223 2nd table.m "Scrophulariacées" "Rosacées" "Crucifères" 1225 22m "Mél-astomacées", table.m "Protéacées" "Eparc-ridées", 1\2-lm 1226 table.m, ÏÏ3m "29° lat. S." 1227 1st table.m "Graminées" "Malvacées" "Aspholédées", 2nd table.m "Scrophulariacées "/.w None .m "Myrtacées", ÎÏ3w "Scrophulariacées", ÎÎ2m "Epacridées" 1228 1st table.m/w very peculiar 1229 3rd table.m "Cypéracées" "Géraniacées" 1230 table.m "Graminées" 1231 3rd table.m "Myrtacées" "Solanacées" "Berbéridées" 1232 22-24m, 18u "316"/18-20m, table.m "Composées" "Caryo-phyllées" 1234 l-24w He seems to think great object to get picture of country 1235 23-25m, 21-31w ie the number of Fam., making half the Flora, ie about 7 or 8 this number depends on richness of species in Flora ÏÎ2-2m "nombre Wert"/w so he considers these islands have few species 1236 15-18m/12-24w This wd have been more useful to me if a]l Families had been counted. I do not see how it bears on me- 1237 ll-14m/10-16w Hence under unfavourable conditions the great & increasing Families chiefly prevail 22m "Prédominantes"/w Définit p1170 22-25w These must be the growing Families, either over world, or in some regions- but sometimes peculiar regions.- 26-32w Hence the predominating Families do not depend

[page break] 150

149

solely on the number of their species. 1238 l-2m 1239 wt When one sees Legum. Compos. & Graminae. increasing one can hardly doubt that complexity of vegetation is increasing & getting higher.- 13u "à I Maurice", 17-23m/w Falkland 19/100 Juan Fernand 25/100 Tristan 9/100 25w+, 26-28w Madeira 13/100 Azores 111/2/100 I think these facts overcome the fact that individual species are not widely disseminated, because they are correlated. 1\15u/w & Timor & New Guinea 1240 17-19w Perhaps replace Compositae fÎ20-22m, î\6u "Les\ces" 1241 lw tropical l-2[...], 3u "nos I tempérés", 7u "Mélastomacêes", 13-16m 1242 24r-27m 1243 1st table.m, î\4-lm 1244 l-2m 1245 17-24m 1246 28u "la Nouvelle-Zélande"/?, ÏÏ4-2m 1247 15-24m/17w Cape 1248 2~5m, 13-14m/14u "sont \ représentée", 29-32m 1249 19-21m/w ie, I presume in proportion of Families fl7-6m, ÏÏ5-2m 1251 16-20m, 21-24m, 21-22u "presqueId'espèces", 27-30m 1252 18u "la\ boréal", 19u*, 17-20m*, 34-35u "Comme I arctique"/34-36m/w new forms do not arise under unfavourable conditions. 1253 4-17m/w It is rather small region, like Lakes, as well as unfavourable.- In middle tertiary still smaller area. Perhaps sea round Pole - If there be circumpolar sea, on some theory Probable- 1254 23u<->/23-24m/12-19w These imply the most fundamental & longest separation, excepting so far as difference may depend on conditions 26u "enumeration", 27m, 28w 3 33m*, 35-36m/wb Except that Isld no islands seem to have any characteristic Fam. 1255 l-2w 4 3-6m, 7u "intertropicale", 9-13w 16 Fams highly characteristic add one for Chile 18-19m, 24-23w only 4 ♦ highly characteristic î\10-9w 5 ÏÏ4-3w 5 1256 1-Sm/wt Looking at plants on I or at animals, taking most distinct forms. It is clear I think that S. America excluding S. extremity most distinct - then Australia (2), -Asia (3), - Mediterranean (4), Cape (5) (temperate N. America 6) - But Decandolle does not consider very small Families. 1257 27-29m 1258 wt These right-hand tables apply to number of species in each Family, compared to world: conditions must influence to considerable extent.- table.m, "Renonculacées"'.w Refers to other division where found & in order "Onagrariées".w equal "Cactacées".w *high land 1259 "Uvulariées" .w 13 beginning with 2. ie more preponderant in N. America than in any other region. 1260 table.w 20 beginning with 3 1262 table.w 30 beginning with 4 - many peculiar 1263 table.w seem very distinct from

temperate old world.- 1264 table.w (numbers of species) 1265 wb 34 - 10 with 10 or * more predominant than in other countries 1266 1Î4-2m 1267 lOu "Families I principaux"', llu "15"/14u "3"/ll-14w This looks as if ancient connection by East old world- 15u "families Iprincipaux", 27-29m/w&> Glacial tl4u "6"Im, wb I doubt whether had better be used 1268 wt I believe no revelation in science will be more wonderful, than the ancient history of geography of world, when we can feel sure that individual species & genera are descended from one common point, when we know more of means & facts of distribution of all organisms.- l-15w Behrens St in Eocene Period.- llu "ensuitel avec"/10-13m/w Glacial 18-27m/14-35w Only the wider spreading Families have reached Africa. This looks as if Africa peopled at late times from Asia; & that at very ancient times there had been much communication between Asia & tropical America- 20u "intertropicale12"'/26u "15"H/17w very old till-8m 1269 3u "1", 38-39m, 42m 1270 9-20m, 13-lSm 1271 table-head.w or 75 miles wbtc 1272 table.m "Nouvelle-Zélande" 1273 table.m 1275 2-4m, 6-llm/w ie same species range more widely over Sweden. 1276 3-7m, 9-15m, 19-22m, 24-27m 1277 36-38m 1278 3-5m, 15-18m, 32-34m 1279 9-1 lm, 32-37m 1280 ll-14m, 21-23m 1281 6-8ml6u "les Malouines", 23-25m/21-24w In archipelagoes all islds never in action together $16u*+, ÏÏ25u^, ÏÏ22u^, 1Î20w^, 1Î2u "Hooker's 1242 ", ïïlO-lw I cannot at all admit enough to kill vegetation more than Madeira. Look at Etna, Vesuvius or even Sandwich Islds.- 1282 wt/ Xw It might be argued that there has been fully as much or more creation than could have been anticipated, on theory of some unknown ratio of creation to area (but such theory is complicated by relationship of immigration to creation). Those who do not admit possibility of immigration, but believe in multiple creation, wd be most puzzled.-Then antiquity comes into play it may be said that islds near continent not old enough to have creations- (a) Etna very old But generally if no new species exist in isolated islds looks as if some land - It can't be assumed that each isld very old- Xw Even theory of creation is complicated by the relationship to easy immigration- & by affinity to adjoining lands. l-2m, 3-6m, 9-13m, 14-16m, 21-30m/24-25u "ont\élevées"/ 26-37w volcanic soil very rich, except when too dry. How fertile Mauritius & Society Islds 1283 l-9m, 19-20m, 30m 1284 ll-19m/2-25w

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152

CANDOLLE, VOL. II: 1284

* During glacial epoch the conditions of low country must have been * more similar, ? from length of days ?? & absence of peculiar united to present alpine climate ? than to present arctic regions.- There must always have been some arctic regions 1285 2-3m/2u "200J000" 1286 19-21m 1287 table-head.w what a pity not real number 3w p1271 table.m/! 1288 table.m/w very curious 1289 wt\ l-26w What I want to show is that when little life can be supported, most can be supported by very different forms; when more life, more forms; but not so different, as less differns in the conditions to be filled up- 10-12m/llw of course 14-16m, 19m, 20-23m/w more fertile the country, more species in * each genus. 25-27m, 28-32m, 33-37m/w In short in + species are created easier than genera 1Ï4u<->/w; with poor countries this doubtful ITlOfl "pauvres" in species not in fertility Ïïl0-lw/wb My vars in Keeling good case, showing that species might come in closest approximation? wb It seems whatever causes may be, whether nature of country, or difficulty of immigration, & slowness of creation, when few species, many genera: must be only the different causes, I shd think.- 1290 3-7m, 8-llm, 15-21m, 36-40m/w these causes rather different. 1291 4r-7m, 14-17m/w I do not think subject here approfondi 21-27m, 30-31m 1292 l-2m\ la "proportion" in Falkland 14-18m/l-18w/ivt This looks as if isolation was not so important as many individuals.- a large archipelago Quite a continent - most favourable of all chiefly rising, but att>-. -» Small outgrowing island may be most favourable, & yet make but * few species difficulty of immigration of forms to become modified 29-31m, 33-35m/34u± 1293 wt In quadrupeds, no Batrachians: - Aptéryx & Curious Parrot - Extraordinary Parrot of Pacific Dodo & other birds of Mauritius, -where for from not flying have become insulated. Can insulation be more related to peculiar conditions than to mere crossing.-17-23m/14r-21w One sees not only created so different ie very abnormal from ocean or islands (a) 25-31m 1296 table.m ïï'ïle de Madère et Porto Santo" 1297 3-5m, 6-9m/w but this does not go to cause 16-17m/16u±, 19-20m, 21m, 22-23m*, 23-28m/29-40m/23-40w/wb If we reject accidental introductions, I argue impossible, but look at Keeling Islds.-We shd conclude that in enormous period, certain genera & Families wd increase, & extinguish the various ones introduced & so bring proportion to average wb Think of

effect of reuniting America & S. Africa, or New Holland 1298 19-29m, 24-27m 1299 29-20m/19u "de chaque diluvium" 1301 8-9m, 10-11m 1304 34-37m 1305 5-6m, 32-36m, 38-41m (E. Meyer) 1306 36-39m 1307 l-2m 1308 ■wt Climate was first idea, just as adaptation was first idea to explain structure of bodies -neither position of an organic being depends on adaptation to conditions, nor structure, both show * a ruling however, viz descent. 1Î3-2m 1309 <- (to p. 1308)/wt (a) It is very important to show that the first great divisions of world are not according to climate, but geographical.- 4-5m/w (a) 7-8m, 15-17m, 28-29m, 32-34m 1311 l-3m 1312 26-29m/27u "le\septentrionales" 1313 8-9m\%w The relation being between North & Alps & England, looks perhaps more like land: * only north colonised subsequently. We must remember before it was warmer.- & apparently with more American vegetation.-The uniform extra outer vegetation, wd have been driven South. Baffin Bay then a great separation. & Iceland & Greenland Faroe, must have been peopled subsequently to Alps & old lowland of Europe ll-14m, ÏÏ6~lm

1314 29-37m/?l29-30w transported by ice

1315 34-38m 1316 28-34m, 35-38m 1317 18m
"districts montueux" 1318 3-8m/l-6w Land of
Mediterranean rest on much better ground.-
18-30w !! This is poorest speculation in
whole Book 1319 15-18w But these
Compositae hate damp. 35u "espèces I
anciennes" 1320 5-9ml!!, 10-llm, ^7-lm 1321
17-20m, 22-26m, 26-27u++, 34~37m 1322 25-
30m 1326 6-18m (Lyell), 27-34m\w covered
with ice different from Kerguelen Land 1327
29-33w ?more likely cold, from neighbouring
great continent- 1328 14-20m/16u "AlphA
341"\14w
Hills of Java? 26-29m, 1\3m/w What
evidence 1329 l-5m/w yet quadrupeds so
distinct- 13-lSm, ÏÏ2-lm 1330 8-13m, 27u
"aux\Antilles"/24-28m/w
agrees with extinct
Mammifers 32-33u <-> 1331 l-5m, 4-9m, 25-
28m, 33-38m
1332 l-5m&\l-5m\4-5"...", 7u
++/w
What kind of seeds.- 23u<& "Lobéliacée
ligneuse", 15-16m/12-21w
Do not more
complicated plants change more rapidly, like
Mammifers.- ÏÏ9-8m 1333 6-10m, 23-27m/25u
"Avec
I imagination", 29-32m, 37-38m 1334 6-
20m 1335 4-6m/l-21w ie that the species
were once common to all the islands: I
cannot believe this: it wd make species too
numerous; & not applicable to variation:-
This is good argument, the existence of
vars.- 1336 l-4m, 5-7m\5-llw why shd the
species supposed to have been identical
have become extinct & not the others? 9u

[page break] 154

153

"à\ espèces", ll-12u^, 15-18m/16u "inexplicable Ila" 1337 4r-8m, 28-30m/29u "Sainte\ Afrique", 31-32u "laquelle I précédé", 32-A0m 1340 9-llm 1346 3-7m, 17-19m/18-19u "que\ utiles", ÏÏ2-lm 1361 î\3m/w Longifolia on Ischia p. 1030 1362a 6u "982\986", 11m, 12m, 13m, 14m, 15m, 16m, 18-19m/18m/19m

CANDOLLE, Alphonse de Histoire des sciences et des savants, suivie d'autres études sur des sujets scientifiques et particuliers sur la sélection dans l'espèce humaine H. Georg; Genève, Bale, Lyon; 1873 [CUL, I] beh, gd, h, pat, sp, v

SB p7 species generally in groups in the same country

357 - 358 - 361

Selection of Barbarians & uncivilized man * Somewhere in Vol.

7 24-31m/w no separation a disparity 10 29-23m 11 30-31m/31u "volIailleurs" 316 28-33m 321 8-9m 322 1-5?/3u "robes I dames", 21-24m/ w Cuckoo answers this question 357 ll-16m

358 19-23m 359 2-4m/3u "manière régulière"/
3-4w
certainly not Su "barbares", 7-8u <-> 361
6-12m 482 wb Return by atavism of tendency
to disease & about vaccination quite new

CANDOLLE, Alphonse de La Photographie Paris; G. Masson; 1880 [CUL, I] mhp, tm, v

NB 38 Notes; 81 Variation; 185 Cotyledon of

Conifer in appearance multiple

197 198 Bloom

38 1-7m 81 23-2 6m, 32m 197 26-27m 198 5-

20m

CANDOLLE, Augustine Pyramus de Mémoires et Souvenirs Genève; Joël Cherbulier; 1862 [Down, I to FD] p

CANDOLLE, Augustine Pyramus de Pro-dromus systematis naturalis regni vegetabilis 2 vols.; Paris; Treuttel & Würtz; 1824-1825 [Down]

CANDOLLE, Augustine Pyramus de Théorie élémentaire de la botanique Paris; Déterville; 1819 [Down, pre-B, ED]

NF Preserve (CD?) v 27m vi 28m

CANDOLLE, Alphonse de, & CANDOLLE, Casimir de Monographia phanerogamarum 3 vols.; Paris; G. Masson; 1878-1881 [Down, I in vol. 3] p

CANESTRINI, Giovanni Origine dell'uomo 2nd edn; Milano; Gaetano Brigola; 1870 [Down]

CANESTRINI, Giovanni La Teoria dell' evoluzione Torino; Unione Tipografico-Editrice; 1877 [Down] p

CANESTRINI, Giovanni La Teoria di Darwin criticamente esposta Milano; Fratelli Dumo-lard; 1880 [Down] p

CARLIER, Antoine G. Darwinism refuted by researches in psychology London; Jarrold & Sons; 1872 [Down, I]

CARNERI, Bartholomaeus Gefühl, Bewußtsein, Wille Wien; Wilhelm Braumüller; 1876 [Down] p

CARNERI, Bartholomaeus Sittlichkeit und Darwinismus Wien; Wilhelm Braumüller; 1871 [Down]

NB 0/

CARPENTER, William Benjamin Introduction to the study of the Foraminifera London; The Ray Society; 1862 [Down] p

CARPENTER, William Benjamin The microscope and its revelations London; John Churchill & Sons; 1868 [Down]

CARPENTER, William Benjamin Principles of comparative physiology 4th edn; London; John Churchill; 1854 [CUL] ad, af, beh, br, ce, ci, dg, die, em, fg, fo, gd, h, he, hl, ig, mhp, mn, no, oo, pat, phy, rd, sp, sx, sy, t, tm, ts, ud, v, wd, y

NB p. 480 Regrowth of thumb - Doubling of Germ SB109Î

The difference between high & low in Fish, I think, is whether other classes are considered besides Fish. * So many insects, It is very odd how many inhabitants of Fresh Water - Gasteropods -Insects - Spiders - Plants are land-productions metamorphosed & not marine productions. How few have passed on to the Sea. Hence so few Radiata in F Water The Sea has Whales, Seals & Penguins & formerly Lizards, Sea-Snakes, Turtles p. 3; p. 15; p. 16 to 42 to r; p. 257; p. 271; p. 273,7; p. 291; p. 309; p. 313; p. 317; p. 319;

[page break] 156

155

CARPENTER, PHYSIOLOGY

p.322 to p. 332; p. 359; p 377; p 405; p 413;

p 425; p 433; p 448; p. 458; p. 467; -470;

p.476 to 480; 493; 546; 553; 561; 569; 571;

573; 575 to 585 to 610 to end

SB2 Qp\2 sheets)

(1) 16 on highness & lowness

79 - High Fish. N.B. I think on this subject

there is much difference whether we look to

Fish alone or to other classes ??

92 same number of cervical vertebrae in

Giraffe & Whale - As in Reptiles only 2

sacral vertebrae in Kangaroo

96. top - special from the general in

development

101 Rudimentary & not developed used as
synonyms, [as well to talk of * the final s in
generitive, which is rudiment of his, as
prophetic of new change, as in Rudimentary
organ]

102 Compensation,- Balancement (only
terms)

107 Fossils approach nearer to Archetypal

form & to embryos of recent forms p110

Examples p. 112 old forms intermediate or

rather with various characters combined,

which are now separate [an admirable

summary chiefly from Owen on this subject]

p 117 Summary of do

122 Even Carpenter believes plethoric

population breeds less. Q So did Hugh

Miller; must fight against

131 Even the most specialised organs retain

other & more general powers Q

257 On 3 Kinds of Lungs in Fishes NQ

271. same organ, viz. heart, in 2 Classes
developed at very different rate.

272, 277 Branchial vessels in loops in young
chick like those in Fish or tadpole

279 Branching from aorta very variable in

man

320 Gradation in Respiratory organs NQ

Wings of insects Branchiae: ReuseO of

swimming bladder & originalO fraena into

wings

322 respiratory organs in Arachnidae &

Vertebrates NQ

332 Branchial slits

359 Pagets explanation of Rudiments (false)

[over] Carpenter Comp Anatomy lent to L.K.

BruceO

(2)

405. Atrophy of muscle & bone when nerve

cut of hind leg of Rabbit

413, 425, 433 Glands are f. of utmost

simplicity in lower animals - Mammary,

Biliary & Urinary

448 thinks light of larvae of glowworm for

Birds to feed on them ! Q

458. Q Birds quits eggs when temperature

71° or 72° - not instinct or feeling? 465 Q

The "proper electric current" of frog has

curious analogy with electric discharge of

Fish

467 Q Electrical Fishes 470 471 Explanation

of

477 to 79, 80 I had better allude to

Spallanzanis experiments of regrowth to

show nisus formativus

480 On Double Monsters being a division of

one.- Good discussion on Nisus

493. Abstract of M. Thuret on sexes of Fuci

(Chapt. 3)

553 Medusae generally have sexes separate

561 Synapta hermaphrodite differently from

* all other Echinodermata

569 Hermaphrodite Byrozoa F.W. false

573 Salpidae Dichogamous 574 Lamel-

libranch generally hermaphrodite 575

Davaine Carpenter seems to doubt their

Dichogamy p. 577 Pteropoda require

congress of two 589 Planaria do

577 Eggs of Linnaeus can be dried up &

revivified

590 On Ascaris 64 Million Eggs Q

592 Dorsibranchiate Annelids dioicous,

Tubicolae do. being fixed by Water - 595

Myriopoda do.

602 In White Ants, soldiers are Pupae NQ

608 Some Acaridae hermaphrodite water or

land?

610 Fallopian & Placenta foreshadowed in

Fish

627 Explanation of 2d young taking after 1st

Father

Chapter on Development might read to see

on law of most developed soonest +

developed

633 Orchis case, another instance

635 Decandolle says the more common &

robust plants vary most

690 Secondarily automatic - mastication

without will

693, 4 Definition of instinct - 696 Relation to

habitual (N.B. origin seems chief difference

between * instinct & Habit

726 Different position of eyes, show I think

all org never cd become sensorial NQ

730 Eye of Cephalopods Q

734 Eye avoids spectral aberration &

chromatic aberration

title page wb 1854 xvii zb 3 5-10m/6u "totally"/7u "evolution" 9 2u "the I of" 10 4-7m 15 19u "functional"/a "and" internal 16-19m/ 18w (a) wb But why shd analogy or functional correspondence be so much more

[page break] 158

157

than homological or structural correspondence?? 16 24u "Lemna"/15u "Zostera", 17u " degraded"\16-21wI wonder whether really: is there much abortion? 28u "Tree-Fern" I29u "Lemna\ Zostera"/27-31m 17 52« "gradelin" 18 l-3m, 6u "homogeneousness", 15-16m/13-19w I have misunderstood Von Baer 48-50m (Budd) 19 45-48m 20 25-28m 23 4-6m 25 30-35m 29 8-15m 42 14-19m/16u 50 23-27m 58 22-31m 60 29-35m 62 29-37m 63 2-5m 79 26-32m 85 8-12m 87 9-23m 88 49-50m 89 42-44m 90 48-50m 91 37-40m 92 20« "7", 23u "ll\20"J12-16m, 35-40m, 44-46m 93 6-22m, 13-16m, 47-50m 95 7-20m, 45-49m 96 5-9m, 32-38m/34u "regarded I general", 38-40m 97 8-22m, 29-*2m 99 22-25m 101 6-12m/w Electric organs Poison glands 33u "rudimentary", "underdeveloped"/33w not synonymous 41-48m 102 34-36??/36u "principle I compensation ", 38u "occasions "/40u "accompanied"\42-51wThese do seem to me good examples 104 32-39m/34u "teeth" 107 13-17m, 28-31m/30-31u "archetypal generality", 40-41'm ♦ 109 21-25m, 23-26m 110 2-6m, 15-19m 111 2-8m, fig.m, 22-39m, 40-43m 112 3-8m/6u "not \ lowest", 15-18w ask Huxley 40-44m (Forbes) 113 22-22m 114 5-22m, 23-28m/! 115 2-4m, 27-32m, 34-37m 116 2-4m, 5« "but\type" 117 29-42m, 29-32m/31u "osculant]forms" 122 22-27m/?/Q 128 27-30m 130 4-Sm 131 32-36m, 38-47m 137 20-29m 142 42-*2m 143 2-3m, 13-20m/w Falkland Islds - Elephants 32-37m 159 9-23m 257 32-42m 258 1-llm/w The foundation for another kind of Lung 261 16w Fish?, 18-20m/18-19u "Lepidosiren" 264 23-27m 271 25-30m 111 1-9m 277 26-39m, 44-50m 279 4-9m 290 33-38ml"..."lu "rate of life" 309 10-15m/w Double organ 313 21-24m 316 25w see p 325, 23-27m* 317 38-50m 319 42-52m/-> 320 2-3m, 29-34m 322 27-32m 323 21-26m, 30-34m, 45-48m/-> 324 5-22m, 27-32 m 325 not variable organ & a transitional group 3u "all\ developed"/5u "Lepidosiren"/4-9w So ranks as Reptile & not Fish 14-22m 326 fig.w snakelike Saurian 332 21-34m 333 30-37m 359 23-31m, 33-43m\w But why present cases of undeveloped glands. 43-35w/wb Rudiments of wings of insects. Rudiment of bone, when so much matter of same kind excreted, wb Rudiment of teeth in young growing whale, when so much phosphate of lime wasted, wb Rudiments in plants! more cellular as a rudiment of a style. Rudimentary instincts. 377 39-45m 405 33-A0m, 41-52m 413 27-32m, 29-31m/30u "simple structure" 425 2-Sm 433 44-52 m/->, wb organs 434 2-4m 448 49-53mf Q 458 30-36m/w not instinct 465 18-25m/19-

20Q 467 33-38m/33-34Q 470 5-10m/6-8Q ^TL 7-43m/13-14Q/9-10w see p 455 476 36-41m, 51-55m, 54u "subjected I influence", 54-55u "has I species", wb But the domestic varieties keep constant under their proper condition. 477 22-31m, 33-39m/36u "not I larva", 45-46m/ -» 478 7-25m 479 wt for 6 fingers 2-2m, 22-24m, 42-48m 480 2-29m, 22-22m, 33-A3m\34u "thumb double"\35u "each\perfect"/37u "along\ nail", 43u "formed" 481 20-23m, 22u "possessing]rudiments" 493 26-33m 546 7-20m 553 40-A2m 561 39-AAm 569 33-37m, 38-40m/39u "visceral cavity", 40-44m, 48-50m (Van Beneden, Allman) 571 10-16m/13u "within I cloaca" 573 18-23m/20u "ovarial testes''/21u "not self-fertilizing", 25-28m 574 37-41m 575 l-3m/3u "ostensible co-existence", 8m, 10-16m, 19-23?/m/21u "ovalrecognised"/ 23u "which\place", 27-32m/31u "which\find"/ 32u "generalishell" 576 37-39m/38m/u+, 42-43m 577 23-25m, 29-31m/30-31u "being\ fertility", 32-34m 585 43-47m, fig.m 587 wt Phillip Philip 35-39m 588 8-26m 589 24-29m, 30-41m 590 22-25m/Q 592 26-27m, 32-34m, 41-45m 593 2-3m/3w "inlPlanariae" 595 33-36m/33u "Uyriapoda"\36u "dioecious" 599 wt Larvae not being simply embryonic but likewise adaptative is never noticed.- 602 8-11m 608 43u "Acaridae"\42-45m\wland or water? 610 24-27m 611 5-8m 613 20-27m, 27-33m 615 3-5w noU applicable only in Vertebrata? 5-7m, 27-30m 616 42-46m 627 40-47m/42w (a) wb (a) Grafting nearest analogue, does not support this view Do you think if you injected blood from one into other it wd make hair grow different? 628 27-38m 632 9-24m 633 U-22m, 48-50m 634 8-12m, 24-27m, 36-A0m, 43-48m 635 2^m, 32-33m, 32u "611 species", 38-43m/45u "are common" 637 3-8m, 26-36m/w not if nothing better possessed 638 29-32m, 49-51m (Owen), 68-70m 639 40-A5m 690 8-23m/ "Medulla Obbngata"/10-llQ&, 17-19m/19u "684" 692 31-38m 693 25-31m/27u "immediate I sensations ", 28u "intentional adaptation", 43-47m/45u "noI required", 48-52m 694 4-8m, 14-17m, 17-29m/18-23w sensori-motor connected with Instinct. 25u 696 31-37m/32a "these" habitual 698 7-24m, 17-20m, 22-45m 699 35-38m 702 20-24m/20-30w dogs turning face on one side not see another petted- 708 10-13m, 23-27m/19-26w Fear of punishment 726 15-19w Mysis Cirripede 18-30m/20-34w difficult to explain, except on general diffusion of perception. 730 28-22m, 26-28Q/26u "iris", 29-30m, 49-51m (Skbold) 734 ll-18m, 28-33w wonderful! 30-36m

[page break] 160

159

CARPENTER, William Benjamin Principles of mental physiology London; Henry S. King & Co.; 1874 [Down, I]

CARPENTER, William Benjamin Researches on the Foraminifera (extr.); 1855 [Down] p

CARRIÈRE, Élie Abel Produdion et fixation des variétés dans les végétaux Paris; Libraire agricole de la Maison Rustiane; 1865 [CUL,

I]

ce, es, die, ex, fg, he, hy, sx, tm, v

NB 21; 30; 28; 34 to 58 very good,

wonderful on Bud-Variations; 65; 66; 69; 70

Bud variations; 72; 57 Cytisus Adami

<@ p 21 & 30 on Dichogamy (rest 0)

SB •» p. 28. on influence of Father - on

colour &c. goodish evidence in certain cases

p67 On Hybrids presenting quite new

characters Relation to Doublecross

Many valuable facts referred to proper

places -

6a 16~23m 21b 36-57m/40-44w colouring self-fertilised 48-50m 28b 4-12m 30a 27-32m, 32-34mé?l30-38w& in cold weather pollen matured later, 35-44m, 37-41m&/40u "gelées" 30b 36-49m 31a 28-32ml"..."&/29c&l32c&l 28-32w ie not crossed 34a wt Bud-variations l~18m/2-7w Chrysanthemum 35b 12-14w Roses get list 36a lu "Baronne Prévost", 3u "cinq variétés" 37a 27-28w Cherry, 51-55m/w does not revert perfectly 37b 10-llw 3 fruits 38a Ww Plums 38b 10-llw Grapes 49-57m, wb Apples show 39a 6-10w Haricot Maize & Potatos 23-38m/w But this is by seed 38-41m/30-34w variable when sown by seed 39b 15-18m 40b 28u "sur\sur"/25-29m/w Maize 29-36m 41b 2-13m/5-6w Potatoes 42b 10~16m 54b l-3m& 57a 26-33w Hycanths 57b l-2w Cytisus 4-6rn, 12-14m\12-13x&, 19-24m, 33w+ New character 36 36-37m 58a 21-34m, 21-22m, 23-28w X& Bud variation Effects of conditions 64a 46-58m* 65a 76-82m/xvb Varies or breaks like tulips or Vidua 65b 63-73m 66b 67-76m/71w ie wb strongly heredetary 67a 4-34m 69b 33m, 46~55m, 61-71m, 75-78m& 70a 6-13m\w Double flowers 28-32m, 33-40m/w form of bud variation like tulips, 44-50m/41~42w conditions 70b 15-19m/13-25w moss Rare for seed 24-25w by seed 43u "Moussense partout"/40-45m/w Bud var 54-61m/w Bud var 65-73m\66-67x&\ 75-79m\75-76x&\78-79m&\wb good like his case of Radish - Causes of Variation 71a 25-30m\30x&\25-26w Bud var. 44-66m&\57-61m/! 72a 32-39m/32-39m*&!33-34x&/32wlwb Barbary; this is in principal buds, not aH

affected conditions wb Causes of Variation Use these new facts under Var. under Nature 72b wt change slowly 2-3m, 6-13m, 12-23m^/15-20m/20-23m/ wb These facts of beech & Barberry bear more on relation of conditions to inheritance 27-30m, 31-40m

CARUS, Julius Victor Geschichte der Biologie München; R. Oldenbourg; 1872 [Down, I]

CARUS, Julius Victor, and ENGELMANN, Wilhelm Bibliotheca zoologica 2 vols; Leipzig; Wilhelm Engelmann; 1861 [CUL]

vol. 2 p

979 58-64m 1070 43m 1792a 26m 2000b 61m, 78m 2001a 1m, 2m 2026a 52-55m 2030b 64m (Morren) 2039a 3m (Newport), 4m, 38m 2129a 35m (Wallace), 39m, 40m, 41m

CARUS, Julius Victor, and GER-STAECKER, CE. Handbuch der Zoologie Leipzig; Wilhelm Engelmann; 1875 [Down, first vol. only] p

CASPARI, Otto Die Urgeschichte der Menschheit 2 vols.; Leipzig; Brodhaus; 1873 [Down] p

CATALOGUE of the books and maps in the library of the Geological Society of London London; R. & J.E. Taylor; 1846 [CUL]

NB1 Read p109 Darluc Hist Nat Provence

112 Risso on Ranges

p.111 Cirripedia Lamarck

In the Presentation Copies in list given in

Journal Feb 1851 - Many useful to M

Periodicals

p8, Linn Trans of Normandy

Good Journals

Agassiz Recherches sur les Poissons

Fossiles - of Old Red Sandstone p. 60

Calcutta Journal of Nat Hist vol 3 & 4

NB2 107 (he means 109) Diet des sc nat

109 Forbes Star-fish

Loudon, Arboretum

Royle

Buckland's * Bridgewater Treatise

p67 Pictet Pal.

Bowerbank - Plants of London Clay

R. Agricult Journal - Edinburgh - other

Journals

Wernerian Transactions & Other Journals

reed

Boston Journal

xii 8-9m/w marked 36-37m/w marked 3 15m\ 16w read 4 38m/w read 5 19m 6 41-42m 7 1-2m, 30m/w read 8 13m 9 2-7m/4wA> Hooker

[page break] 161

162

for 8w read 12-16m, 19m/zo read 21m/w read, 27-29m 12 24-25w I do not think worth reading 25m, 35m/w read 13 6m, 8m, 17mlw read 46m 14 5m/w read 6m 25 38m 33 26m 58 5-Sm, 20-22m 60 2-8m 61 4m, 28m 65 20a; vol. 2 22-22m 66 35-36m 67 28-29m, 4(M2m, 42u "in vol. 4", 45m, 48m 68 33-35m 106 28m 107 9m 108 7m, 24m, 23m, 27m, 32m, 41m 109 6m, 18-19m, 34m 110 40m 111 3m, 27m, 33m, 39-40m 112 49m 113 22m

209b 53-55m (Brocchi) 210a 4m (Broun) 217a 18m (Lea, J.)

CATALOGUE of the Chiroptera in the collection of the British Museum (G.E. Todd); London; by order of the Trustees; 1878 [Down, I] ig, tm

NB xvii Gradations in complex Nasal

appendages of Bats

xvii 21-35m, 36m xviii 17-26m xix 10-19m

CATALOGUE of the scientific books in the library of the Royal Society London; Richard & John E. Taylor; 1839 [CUL, S]

fg

NF E.W. Strickland 31 Robert St Chelsea

Mondays & Thursdays

NB1 Hills Essay on Natural Hist 1752;

Montagu Testacea; Libr in Royal

NB2 Brickells Nat Hist of N. Carolina

Whewells Bridgewater Treatise

read Lawrence Lectures on Man 1819

Read Harlan medical & phis Researches

Edwards, sur la charactere physiologique -

des hommes des races diverses p. 497 -

1829 - read - 2d Edit 1841 is to be

published

James on man physiologically &

spycologically considered

Edinburgh Hort Soc & Highland Soc

p 387 List of Hort & Agricult transacts

Lindley's Horticulture ??

p.721 Forster on Migration of Birds

505 by Isode G. St Hilaire

p740 = Amoenitates Acad.-

p767 Stillingfleet Transact do -? read

Broderip?

p.639. Asiatic Journal Hooker says good.

NB3 p 396 Decandolle papers

p 552 Quetelet sur la loi de la croissance de

l'homme

p.758 Quetelet sur l'homme et le

développement de ses facultés

Dubois voyage

Lichtenstein's Travels read

Loefflings travels Louisiana

Mackenzie north PoleO

Ramond's voyage on M. Perdu

Natural Hist.:

p581 Barton's fragment in Nat. Hist.

583 Catesby's Nat Hist of Florida

585 Linnaeus on study of nature

Virey's Philosophie & Histoire Naturelle 1835

a miserable book according to Brougham -

read

Lawrence Lect on Man

538 Meckel

474, 582 Blumenbach: must be read-

582 Buffon.

449 Pallas Spicilegia Zoolog

510 Haller

contents page 9mjxv, llm/w, 12m/w, 13m/w, 14att, 15m/w, 17m, 18m/w marked 387 3-32m, 7m, 9m 388 20m, 23m/? 393 33-36m 396 48-53m 398 23m 400 6m 401 37-38m, 42m 403 43m 404 44-45m 405 8m, 29m 406 37m/w read 408 38m 409 53m 410 42 m 411 50-51m 412 8m 414 3m, 5m, 7-10m, 8m 415 37m 416 6m, Urn 418 23m\w read 29m 420 24m, 32m 421 7m, 50m 422 4m/w read 425 38m, 40m, 42m 428 lm/w read 20m, 16m/w read 18m 429 40-41m 430 33-34w read 431 27m, 18w (one Edit 1619) 19-21w Recommended by Blyth 432 22m, 24m, 26m, 28m 433 28m, 42m 434 42m 435 30m/w read 38m/w read 439 32-33m, 44m 440 20-21m, 22-24m, 32m/w read 441 Im/w read 20m 442 16-19m, 26-29m 443 26-29m, 43-45m 444 14-20m/w Read Pigeons & Fowls 445 22m 447 22m, 31m 448 20m/uA> "1788-1806", 14m/w read 46m/w read 52m 449 3-20m, 9m, 43m, 46-47m, wb Shriften Berlin! p. 589 450 35m 453 48m/w read 454 17m/w read 18w vol 2 has the •, 20-21m, 22-26w Has this cirripedes? 28m 455 20m, 22-23m, 29m/w read 456 25-26m 457 25-26m/ w read 19c/w 8to x 44m 461 27m, 18-19w read 29-22m 474 54m/wb QuotedO by Prichard 497 10-12m/llw read 505 47m, 49m 506 38-39m/38w read 512 21-23m 513 22m 522 44m 524 32m 538 14-27m/16-30w Dr Holland says some good views on generation See which vols 23m, 27m 556 20m 566 20m 581 37m 582 8m, 19m/w read 42-42m 583 6m, 19m 585 29-30m, 41-42m/w read 587 38m, 43m, 47m 589 26m/w/22w vol 1 & vol 5 590 32m, 36m 591 46m 593 2-3m, 8m, 18m, 34m/w read 598 9m, 48m 599 53-55m, 53m 600 17-22m/16w read 23a "Agriculture"/ m/29-34w this followed by Archives 54m 601 22m, 52m, 53m 602 24m/w read 614 47-49m, 48m 636 45m 637 28m 638 6-9m, 53-54m 639 22m, 23u "1816-1832", 49-53m, 48-49m/wb

[page break] 163

164

CATALOGUE: ROYAL SOCIETY

Hooker says good 640 26m 651 23m 652 36m, zb 653 7m, 16m 655 49m 656 4m 657 42m, 47w read 54m 658 9m 659 7m, 32m 660 6-13m, 15m 661 43m, 47m 662 26m 664 26w read 665 6m, 25m, 29m, 44m/w read 50m/to read 666 22m/w read 42w read 43m 667 24m 668 35-38m, 50m 669 42m, 53m 670 2m/w read 671 39m 672 47m 674 25m, 29m, 36ml 34~35w read, 38m 676 3m/4-7xo I suspect appalling on separation 677 22m, 32m 682 44-47m 688 25m 689 26-28m 721 26m 740 25m/21-28w Lyell believes Broderip has Engl, translation 744 5m 767 38m

CATON, John Dean A summer in Norway 1875 [CUL, S, I]

NB 0/

CATON, John Dean The antelope and deer of America New York; Hurd & Houghton; 1877 [Down] beh, br, ce, v

NB p. 46 Antelope weeping; 90; 156; Deer not breeding in Parks 294; do- 304 46 33-42m 47 3-10m 90 26-31m\w analogous var. 156 32-42m 157 30~37m 158 27-32m 294 27-22m, 22-32m 295 9-24m, 22-28m 304 22-24m 305 2-4m, 6-9m, 12-15m

CATTANEO, Giacomo Darwinismo: saggio sulla evoluzione degli organismi Milano; Fratelli Treves; 1880 [Down] p

CHAMBERS, Robert Ancient sea margins Edinburgh; W. and R. Chambers; 1848 [Down, I] geo

21 25m 100 3-9ww\3u "847", 26-27w 1202, say; 1210 110 27-29m 113 22-23m 115 2-2m/ w p61 of mine 5-8w also entirely overlooks my arguments for the terraces 124 23-27m 157 9-10w 968; 821-6 25-27w 628; 706 187 2m, 28m 189 3m 328 3-5wu, ll-22w average interval 20ft. 330 wt/tw 27ft interval on average & each observ. * has for 5 or 6 ft of variation, so that real interval not more than 10ft table.m/xvee, wbu

[CHAMBERS, Robert] Vestiges of the natural history of creation 6th edn; London; John Churchill; 1847 [CUL] ad, ci, ds, em, fo, geo, hi, is, t, ti, tm, ts, v, y

SB109Î

p.67; 90; 123; 186; 195; 209; 225; 235; 249 Key of Book; 268; 274; 276; 280; 281; 283; 286; 290; 301; 307; 312; 319 p494; 501

The idea of a Fish passing into a Reptile (his idea) monstrous.-

How easily a soft cirripede might give rise to Balanus Segments of shell - if loose wd be lost

I will not specify any genealogies - much too little known at present.

Never use the word higher & lower - use more complicated, as the fish type (& not a mere repetition of parts) where cartilaginous forms are higher for being nearer reptiles & consequently mammalia.-SB2Qß

90 Embryonic Reptiles now have biconcave vertebrae, extinct form had do 209 Inherent impulse to advance from oldest & simplest up to highest - & inherent impulse to become adapted. Quote in Preface. * 249do 225 compare with tadpoles metamorphosis.

235 Yarrells Birds Gull getting thickened stomach Vol. 3 p571 Quotes Pennant on Trout in Galway getting thickened stomach. Was it Trout? Yarrell Fishes vol. 2 p. 57 thinks Gillasso only a var. inner cuticle only undirected.

274 Monomyarian Molluscs before Dizaria -latter higher?

Young Gasteropods all alike when very young (Forbes) in Jameson's Journ

Nucleus of Cephalopods shells is also spiral like Gasteropod (Forbes) Carpenter Gen. Physiology This about Cephalopods, important for it shows what precursors were: see if accurate

280 Dibranchiate Cephalopods commence in

Oolitic 281 Cephalopods change quicker

because higher

301 Talks of nature being equally ready to

go back as well as forward

307 Cecilia is a snake-like Batrachian

494,2 Curculios - Corydalis & Libellula &

Scorpion in Coal

367 Remarks on isld not having mammals &

less perfect life but really I need not allude

to such Rubbish

67 22-29m (Agassiz) 90 5-8m, 17-20m 123 22-26m/22-25w See to this in true chalk 179 27-26z 186 8-14m/w new creations !! 16-22m 195 4-5m/w is not Pecten very old 209 2-26"..." 4u "inherent "/l-8m/w quote to show difference V. Whewells remarks against this 22m "inherent" 219 22-261...] 220 23f... 221 3..J 225 5-12m/w whole key to theory 229 26f... 230 24...] 231 10m/10-14l...], 17-211..] 232 91..., 20-251...] 235 22...], 20-22m\w Yarrell! 249 23-26m 267 17-18??!/18u

[page break] 166

165

"exclusively marine" 268 2-7 m, 7-18m (Agassiz) 274 ll-21m 276 9-17m/12-13w Forbes 277 14-26m/24w Carpenter 278 6-20m 280 20~24m 281 2-16w I must allude to all this 283 12-15m 286 l-17w It is strange error that generally he looks at every form, as having started from some known form. 19-23m 290 l-3m 301 7-llm, 15-17m 307 20-15m/w I forget this Amphl? 312 l-3w Hence many Turtles transformed!! 4-9m 319 l-3m/ III, 17-20m/!!!/20w oh 340 5!!/u "walrus" 409 ll?/z/u "monkeys\houses" 494 10-22m 501 7-8m 505 Sm, 22m

CHAPMAN, Henry C. Evolution of life Philadelphia; J.B. Lippincott; 1873 [Down, I]

NB 0/

21 8w 22 30w 25 13-15"..."/15w Haeckel 86

2-5"..."/4w 100 13w/c 102 32w/c 130 28c 170

34w

(untranscribed words not CD)

CHAPMAN, John Neuralgia and kindred diseases of the nervous system London; J. & A. Churchill; 1873 [Down, I]

NB 0/

xiv 21m xv 8m, 17m xviii 3m xx 5m, 6m xxiv

21m, 23m P

CHAPUIS, F. Le Pigeon voyageur belge

Venders; 1865 [CUL, I, S]

beh

SA (pp. 170-171) (conversions of km to miles) a> nearly say 35 miles

George calculated these and average rates per minute for 20 selected flights the rate is 1066 metres per minute which gives per hour as above

59 18-24m 86 24-27m 87 l-2m, 3-7m/5w Instincts 20m "certains mâles"\9-24w u, 23-25m, 24-27m 133 wt Verviers to Lyons 156 22-25m 159 2-3m 161 9-26m 165 19-20m, 24u "kilomètre I minute", 28m 166 18u "soit\ märes", 23m/u "925" 167 7-10m/w but due? 168 22m/u "947" 169 l-4m\lu "Espagne"J2u "Liege", 5u "1 kilomäre" 171 wt* which is kilometers?; average of 20 flights u, 5-6m/ w* =366 metres?

CHARPENTIER, Jean de Essai sur les glaciers et sur le terrain erratique du Rhône Lausanne; Marc Ducloux; 1841 [Down] P

CHAUMONT, Francis Stephen Bennet

Lectures on state medicine London; Smith, Elder & Co.; 1875 [Down, I]

NB 135 Beer; 165 cistern

CHILD, Gilbert W. Essays on physiological subjects Oxford; Combe, Gardner, Hall & Latham; 1868 [Down, I] beh, he

NB Consang. Marriages

CHILD, Gilbert William Essays on physiotegical subjects 2nd edn; London-Longmans, Green & Co.; 1869 [Down, two copies]

NB 0/ P

CHILDREN, John George Memoir of J.G. Children Westminster; Josiah Bowyer, Nicholas & Sons, for private circulation; 1853 [Down]

CHUN, Carl Fauna und Flora des Golfes von Neapel, 2. Ctenophorae Leipzig; Wilhelm Engelmann; 1880 [Botany School] p

CLARCKE, Benjamin On systematic botany and zoology London; J. Bale & Sons; 1870 [Down]

CLARK, Henry James Lucernariae and their allies Washington; Smithsonian Institute; 1878 [Down] p

CLARK, Henry James Mind in nature New York; D. Appleton & Co.; 1865 [Down] af, ct, fg, he, ig, si, sp, tm

NBO/

SA (pp.94-95)

p.61,66 Pangenesis; 81 do; 85 shows how

numerous gemmules must be for carrying on

to next generation Not all used up in

formation of the animal.- This view of

division of single egg, & not union of 2, is

now very generally admitted.

Planaria cut in two says it is true budding

♦ 203 Snails asymmetrical.-

263 Lepidosiren, affinities

279 projecting instead of selecting

Lereboullet consult

272-276 Doubtful on intermediate forms in

lower classes

279 projecting instead of selecting

61 16-18m, 25-29m, 30-31u*+, 32-36m 62 2-4m 66 16-20m 81 22-23m/23u "fissi-

[page break] 168

167

CLARK, MIND

gemmation", 33-35m/-> 82 16-18m\ll-19w but with budding, I suppose for formation of eyes 32-35m 85 15-17m, 25-28m, 30m 86 1-5m 93 24r-26m/25u "budded out", 29-> 94 15-17m 203 13-16m 267 9-15m 272 l-4m 273 1-13m T7f> 10-21m 279 23-30m

CLARKE, J.W. Cattle problems explained Battle Creek, Michigan; published by the author; 1880 [Down]

CLAUS, Carl Grundzüge der Zoologie 2nd edn, 4 vols.; Mauburg und Leipzig; N.G. Eltwert'sche Universitäts Buchhandlung; 1871 [Down, S] p

CLAUS, Carl Untersuchungen zur Erforschung der genealogischen Grundlage des Crustaceen-Systems Wien; Carl Gerhold's Sohn; 1876 [Down]

CLELAND, John Evolution, expression and sensation Glasgow; James Maclehose; 1881 [Down, I]

COAN, Titus Adventures in Patagonia New York; Dodd, Mead & Co.; 1880 [Down]

NF not yet entered in Catalogue of Books

COGNETTI DE MARTIS, Salvatore Le

Forme primitive della evoluzione economica Torino; Ermanno Loescher; 1881 [Down, I] P

COHN, Ferdinand Die Pflanze: Vorträge aus dem Gebiete der Botanik Breslau; Kern; 1882 [Down, I]

COLIN, Gabriel Constant Traité de physiologie comparée des animaux domestiques 2 vols.; Paris; J.B. Baillière; 1854-1856 [CUL] beh, es, fg, he, hy, ig, mn, no, oo, phy, sx, tm, v, y

vol. 1 SB p. 131, 5; p. 142 to p. 160; p. 192; p374; 426; p617; 426; p614 Londeners Walk Watch while Snail fixed in crevice pulled in 3 directions to free itself V. 2d Vol for Abstract

127 9-10m* 131 10-12m\l-12w none to aid another animal without that aided itself 13u "ait\inutiles"/w V. p. 134 15m "susceptible! essentielles", 26-31w wildness in aboriginal Galapagos Birds- 32-33m 134 35u "animal sanguinaire" 135 27m, 29-31m/29u "mulet\ dans"/30u "espèce I cactus"" 142 10-14m\ll-12w no gradation 143 30-31m 144 27-31m 145 wt I have seen young Ourang at looking

glass 4~7ml5w (a) 147 31-34m 151 29-32m 160 23-16m 192 16-20m 374 35-39m 426 2-5m, 13-18m 614 wtu, 12-18m\14u "bout\ douze"/16u "dix! vingt"/17u "une\fois" 617 wt my notions not half so odd as life of Parasite; bred in fish & matured in cormorant xvtce, lu "les\membraneux", 4u "le héron", 3-5m/w V. next Page ll-15m, 33-40m, 34u "pylore\étroitesse", 35u "duvet\poils" 618 6-9m

vol. 2 NB Book p 405; p492; 496; 529; 530

to 548; 614

SBŒR

374 On Hinny neighing on account of shape

of Larynx

426 How soon animal gets accustomed to

any particular food-

614 - excellent on length of time grain kept

in crop of Turkey - 18-20 hours -

617 Hawks throw pellets because pylorus so

narrow

Vol 2.

492. M. Desfossé on hermaphrodite Fish

Serranus

529 case of hybrid of Horse & Cow NQ
author admit clearly only monster

530 Qc» on ovules in mule

532 Vauban calculated produce of Sow in 12

years at 6 millions - on rate of increase

Guinea-Fowl - on sterility of fat animal Ch.

3 Tegument of eggs of wild Peacocks

536 on characters of Mongrels so like

Gartner Q

537, 539 Hinny more after ass than Horse

Qa>

(over)

540 Horns transmitted from either parent

542 The older races transmit most surely

614 10 Mammae in Rabbit, Dogs &c

405 44m (Geoffroy St Hilaire and Cuvier), wb Has Waterhouse got it 492 12-15m 496 17-22m 497 28-37m 529 l-2m, ll-24m 530 5-12m/8-9QA, 15m (Aristotle), 29-31m 531 18-23m, 29u "tigre! lion", 34-36m/35u "font\ sanglier", 45m\u ''fait Ioeufs''/-» 532 2-6m, 26-30m, 27m]w Sow?? 36-37u "engraissement! oiseaux", M-lm 534 10-15m\ll-12u "Suisse! Poitou" 535 28-31m, 34-43m/41u "d'une! portée" 536 l-4m, 5-7m/5u "intermédiaire"/7u "mélange!fusion"I5~12w how like to Gaertner, 14-17m, 15u "taureau!Jura", 25-30m, 31u "mulet!âne", 39u "deux!cotés" 537 lOu "le! mamelons", 18-19U++, 35-36m, 40-41m/40w variable 43-45mj44u "incontestablement I prédomine" 538 7u "l'hémione mâle", ll-12m 539 2m "bardeau!mulet", 3u "la!exceptées", 31-34m, 40u "cheval!Hartmann", wb Hartman

[page break] 170

169

is a German Book which I have seen referred to elsewhere 540 13-15m, 19-21m, 37-39m, 38u ± 541 36-38m 542 18-19m, 30-32m 543 l-3m, 14-18m, 38-40m 544 14-19m/ 17-18u "boeufï breton"/24-26m/l-27w It certainly is not true that one can get as perfect offspring as parents 548 l-6m 614 17-19m, 21-23m, 40-45m 627 32m/?

COLLETT, Robert Zoologi: Fiske Christiania; Grendall & San; 1880 [Down] p

COLLINGWOOD, Cuthbert Rambles of a naturalist on the shores and waters of the China Sea London; John Murray; 1868 [CUL] beh, gd, ss

NB 173 Electric snake

Butterflies attracted by dead specimens S. Selection

182 Referred

I have read as far as p 260 (very little) 367 all inhabitants of the Sargasso basin 374 Flying fish Habits

1 11-Uz 173 27-34m 182 6-9m/"..." 183 4-6m/5-6u "frequent battles" 367 12-21m 374 17-21 m 375 32m 376 9-12m, 24-29m 377 14-19m end of booklist wb 64

COLUMBUS, Christopher Selected letters ed. R.H. Major; London; Hakluyt Society; 1847 [Down]

COMSTOCK, John Henry Report upon cotton insects Washington; Government Printing Office; 1879 [CUL] beh, gd, mg, oo, phy, tm

NF extra-floral glands; moths boring into

melons-> 84-85; 86-87; 90-91; 97; 89 great

powers of flight of moths; sweet juice

eliminated -319-320

NB 84 Extra-floral nectar-glands

89 Migration of moths grt distances

117 do & distribution

120 do

213 ants destroy enemies of cotton

Nectaries

320 to end with Bibliography.

84 10-22m, 41-46m 85 2-12m, 19-26m, 28-

32m, 38-47m 86 4-21m 89 l-16m 117 7-13m/

13u "Argotis annexa" 120 27-32m 183 26-29m

213 28-30m 317 wb W. Trelease 320 22-26m

325 14-22m, 31-38m 326 l-7m 327 5-7m 331

3-7m, 21-25m, 38-43m, 44-46m 332 24-30m,

40-47ml? 333 l-5m, 9-15m, 45m 336 Urn

COMSTOCK, John Henry Report of the entomologist of the United States Department of

Agriculture for the year 1879 Washington; Government Printing Office; 1880 [CUL] ab

NB 203 Change of Habits in insect; 246 do 203 25-28m 246 17-23m, 18-19u "At\ acquired"

CONGRÈS INTERNATIONAL d'anthropologie et d'archéologie préhistorique (Bologna, 1871) Bologna; Fava & Gavagnani; 1873 [Down, I by Cappellini (secretary of conference)]

P

540 lm 542 13m

CONTA, Vasile Théorie du fatalisme Bruxelles; G. Mayolez; 1877 [Down]

CONVERSATIONS on vegetable physiology vols. 1 and 2; London; Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown & Green; 1829 [Botany School, pre'B, FD, E. Catherine Darwin in vol. 1]

CONYBEARE, William Daniel, and PHILLIPS, William Outlines of the geology of England and Wales Part 1; London; William Phillips; 1822 [Down, pre-B]

(a few editorial marks, not CD)

COOK, James and KING, James A voyage to the Pacific Ocean 3 vols.; London; W. & A. Strachan; 1784 [CUL]

vol. 1 NF This Work was given on its first publication by Josiah Wedgwood Esq of Etruria to Erasmus Darwin M.D. of Derby and is given to their Grandson Charles Robt. Darwin by his Father in 1840

COOKE, Mordecai Cubitt Mycographia, seu Icônes fungorum vol. 1; London; Williams & Norgate; 1879 [Down]

COTTA, Bernhard von Die Geologie der Gegenwart Leipzig; J.J. Weber; 1866 [CUL] af, ch, gd, geo, sp

SB p. 198; 200; 208 good; Geology, change of species; closely allied species; Die Urwelt der Schweiz Notes pinned 198 10-12m, 14-15m 199 24-30m 200 21-23m, 31-33m 201 17m/14-16w all found together 207 4-12m 208 l-3m/2u "dort \ Kreide", 13-15m\13u "sechsmalige", 21-25m, 25-27m 209 2-2m, 21-23m/22a "ausgedehnten" Sea 210 34m 221 28m

COTTA, Bernhard von Geology and history London; Trübner & Co.; 1865 [Down]

[page break] 171

172

COTTA, Bernhard von Die Lagerungsverhältnisse an der Grenze zwischen Granit und Quader-Sandstein Dresden und Leipzig; Almoldische Buchhandlung; 1838 [Down, fragment]

COX, Edward William What am I? A popular introduction to the study of psychology London; Longman & Co.; 1873 [Down, I] ct, fg, hy, phy

64 \[12-8m/w One pollen gr not enough 66 l-13w I hardly understand what you mean by germs 68 18-19x/16-18w hybrids 70 19-21m/14-21w fused together 71 2-5m 72 3-16w influence of nerves - Plants 73 26-28ml 27u "must be"

CRAWFURD, John A descriptive dictionary of the Indian islands and adjacent countries London; Bradbury & Evans; 1856 [Down] br, gd, geo, is, se, v, ve, wd

SA (pp. 216-217)

10; 14; 15; 16; 28; 32; 38; 46; 56; 59; 73; 74; 86; 88; 92; 101; 107; 113; 119; 121; 122; 123; 125; 92*; 135; 138; 143; 144; 145; 152; 153; 171; 172; 217; 220; 225; 255; 256; 268; 269; 278; 288; 291; 298; 306; 316; 318; 320; 407; 417; 420; 433; A volcanic mountain wd undergo enormous degradation when subsided; Penlth note sheet missing SA2Qß

See map at beginning Very many facts show that very large quadrupeds will not exist in the smaller islds

Mountains heights & nature of

Zoology of archipelago

38 Bantam Poultry came from Japan

112 History of Cock ÇW

119 Genus Cervus

121 Dog NQ

125 Duck no wild ones, Penguin common

var.

136 Elephant of Borneo described by

Pigafetta

145 Goose not breeding in Manilla

Hog, wild species of

Horses many breeds of, not aboriginal

Q

255 Cat of Malay Q

268 Marian Isld nothing about aboriginal

quadrupeds

288 Monkey wild species of

316 Ox tribe

10; 11; 16; 88; 28; 31; 46; 56; 59; 74; 217;

225; 92; 279; 337; 143; 171; 220; 291; 298;

306; 318; 321; 407; 417; 420; 433: (names of

mammals of different islands)

10 57-62m/59u± 11 40-43m, 46-50m/46u± 14 40-43m, 45-47m 15 20-28m, 30u±, 35u±, 40-41m, 45-51m/51u "Babirusa", 53u±, 56-62m 16 l-6m, 4-9m/5u±, 13-17m 28 52-61m 32 3-10m 38 26« "It\Java", 23-27m 46 58-61m/61u "the\cat" 47 lu "The\hog" 56 42-48m, 44-51ml46u "hog" 58 37-43m 59 20-43m 73 52-59m 74 4-19m 86 54-59m 87 7-15m 88 22-20m 92 40-45m 101 14-18m 107 12-20m 112 51-56m, 61-63m/Q 113 l-3m\lu "among\ rudest"/2u "domestic state", 2u "bears I species"/ 3u "Sumatra", 4u "Java", 4u "MalayI Philippines", 5-18m, 18-20m/19u "Malays I Javanese", 21-28m, 29-31m, 31-37m/35u "do\ such", 42~48m\44u "in\Hindostan", 51-56m 119 l-16m, 4u "Cervus I Cervus", llu "The\ belongs" 121 46-62m 122 5-llm, 58-63m 123 4-9m/8u "crown-pigeon" 125 9-llm, 12-20m 135 52-59m 136 l-18m 138 l-3m 143 10-16m 145 49-57m 152 19-29m 153 26-62m, 32m\u "ThereI breeds", 33u "one\to", 36u (u henceforth place-names), 37u, 40-41Q 43u, 44u, 48u, 49u 49u, 52u, 54u 154 20-24m, 42-51m 155 13-18m 171 47-61m, 61-64m 172 14-21m 217 12-17m 220 26-29m, 33-40m 225 40-52m 255 44-51m, 50-52m 256 13-19m, 31-38m 268 14-21m, 51-58m 269 14-18m, 37-39m 278 60-64m 279 4-6m 288 4-19m 291 26-27m 298 7-24m, 36-A5m 300 22-25m, 31~40m 306 58-60m 316 9-26m, 22-29m 318 19-24m/20u "about I miles", 29-34m/29-31w Depth 320 52-58m 321 6-9m 337 54-59m 407 3-5m 417 32-42m 420 54-61m 433 26-31m

CRAWFURD, John A grammar and dictionary of the Malay language vol. 1; London; Smith, Elder & Co.; 1852 [CUL] ben, gd, geo, is, sy, ti, wd

NB ii; viii; xcv; civ; clxxxiii; ccvii; ccxl - on

animals of Isd; ccxlviii; ? cclii area of New

Zealand; ccliv; cclx; cclxii, & iv

SB Qß

civ at Lucon no horse or Oxen — only Hog,

Dog, Goat, Fowl & perhaps Buffalo

xcv Timor said to be primitive

ccvii Horse wild probably feral in Celebes

ccxl Domestic animals of Pacific

cclv &c on men colonising islds in Pacific

cclix Dogs of N. Zealand same race of in

Society Isd

cclx Traditions of introduction of esculent

plants into N.Zealand

cclxii In Marianne group natives use Fish

Bones for arrows /. not deer x

cclxiii Fowls wild or feral, probably from

wreck, as Cat then found?

ii l-6m iv 3-8m v 20-23m, 24-26z vi 22-26m,

[page break] 173

174

27-29z viii 19-22wu, 34-38m xcv 28-31m civ 25u "absence", 26u "buffalo", 27-30m clxxxiii 25-27m ccvii 3-5m ccxl 23-27m ccxli 27-30m ccxlviii 7m, 19-22m cclii 18-22m, 19-21m/20a/we ccliv 27-30m cclv 25u> Sandwich cclvi wt Yet Sandwich had dogs, Hogs & Fowls wt Probably the frequency of being cast adrift wd make it obvious that, the Polynesians had better try to preserve animals..- 2-6m cclix 15-17m, 20-23m cclx 2-2 2 m cclxii 8-13m, 15-24m/w see to Magellans voyage about Deer cclxiii 8-9m, ll-15m cclxiv 6-8m, 23-30m, 34u "hog I wild", 35-36?

CROLL Climate and time in their geological relations London; Daldry, Isbister & Co.; 1875 [Down, I]

NB Glasgow Geolog. Soc. iv.313 p7; Athenaeum Sep 22. '60; 32 xii 30-32m 25 10-llwu, 17-19w (not CD) 331 9-14m 332 6-9m (Geikie and Jukes)

CROOKES, William Psychic force and modern spiritualism London; Longmans, Green & Co.; 1872 [Down]

CUNNINGHAM, Robert O. Notes on the natural history of the Strait of Magellan Edinburgh; Edmonton and Douglas; 1871 [Down, I] beh, gd, is, y

NB a (page numbers ^>)

p56 Live terrestrial insects in sea when I

found them

94 Young Logger-Headed Ducks can fly but

lost when old

131 says Upland Geese do frequent lakes

by the sea

195 lizard in T. del Fuego.-

56 9-12m/9u "live beetles", 15-17m 94 29-32m 131 l-5m 195 6-10m

CURTIS, William The botanical magazine, or, flower-garden displayed 2 vols, in one; London; Stephen Couchman; 1793 [Down, pre-B]

CUVIER, Georges Essay on the theory of the earth, with geobgical illustrations by Professor Jameson 5th edn, trans, by Jameson; London; William Blackwood, Edinburgh & T. Cadell; 1827 [CUL, pre-B, S]

281 1-Amßw C11 9-llm*/24w C21 282 9-10m 283 7wZ10wA 19-21w 5, 6, 7 284 15w

8 22-22«; 9 285 7w 10 12-23m/17w 11 18-21m 345 21-23m 346 20-25m 347 2-9m 354 29-31m

CUVIER, Georges Leçons d'anatomie comparée vols. 1-5; Paris; Baudouin; 1799-1805 [CUL, pre-B]

(most w apparently not CD) vol. 1, 14 20m 16 18m 18 26m 21 29m 22 2-3m 23 2m, 2m 24 5m, 9m, 10m, 14m 25 5m, 9m, 10m 26 22m 29 22m 36 29-20u<-> 37 26c/ a&>e 46 27c« 50 23m, 24-27u ± 51 23m, 29m, 20u "irritabilité", 24m, 28u "poissons", 29m 52 3m/5m/l-5w Quant ils font sauter tout hors de l'eau 6u "n'ont aucune" 62 lla/cfte 92 26-27m, 30m 93 3u "sont", 4m/u "parallèles", 5-6u "leurs extrémités" 94 4m, 5m 95 22u "moindres", 23u "véritablement", 24m 96 3m, 6u "auxquelles", 7u "aprèsImort", 8m, 12m 97 2m, 3m, 5u "le fibre", 6u "de\corps" 98 29-20m, Um 99 llu "temps", 13w (not CD), 15m, 18u "dont", 18u "nerfs", 26u "insensibles", 27m 100 26m/K "nerfs", 18m/u "fonctions", 19u "dépendent", 20m/u "médullaires" 101 9-20m/ 9u "charnue", 14m, 23m, 24m, 27u "fluide", 28m 102 2m, 15m, 19m 110 9m/w oiseaux 111 20m/w oiseau 25-27m, 28m/w remarque 29m, 30m 116 22a/ce 120 20m 122 23mA> 124 24a& (not CD) 125 24mA> 133 18u "sensibilité] irritabilité", 19m, 25m 134 22m, 22a; (not CD), 15m 135 3m, 19u "le milieu", 20m, 27-28m 137 2m, 17m, 19m/u "tous sens", 29m 138 2-2m, 5m, 7m 139 29m "cordes", 25-26m/26u "mêmes" 140 25-26m 141 28-29m 144 24a/ cA« 209 4-6mà> 248 26-27m 256 20u "preuves", Um 276 22m 288 25a; remarque 343 20mA> 365 22-25w&> (not CD) 449 3-Am 463 22m "poches", 13u "qui" 464 24m 465 22m "muscles", 23m, 23u "muscle" 466 2m/M "et s'alonge", 3m, 10m 472 23-25m 476 5-6m, 19-20m\w (not CD) 480 28m 484 8u&> "déploiement I certain ", 1 l-12u&> "et I opposé " 486 22m "talon\étendre", 12m, 14u "fournit] immobile", 15-16m/w marquez 23m/we 488 8u "soulever", 9u "extenseurs", 10m, 22m/u "homme" 489 6-7m/7u "et du", 8u "talonI arrière" 490 #> 9u/c "gauche"/9w d. derrière 22m 494 26-27m 497 23-29m/25-26w A 501 lluto "certain point", 22m/& "seroitl élastique" 508 20m, 24m, 27m "leurs I que"II..., 18u "pieds sont" 509 7-8m 510 24m "LaI mouvement", 15-16u±+, 25-26m 511 5m "avant d'arriver", 6u "le premier", 7-8m, 27-28m 512 5-6m, 9-llm, 25m 513 26-27m 514 3-4m, 8m, 11m, 15u "les\dans" "martinets\fous", 16m, 23-24m, 30m 515 2m/M "inflexible", 4u "centreIgravité", 5u, 6m, 8m, 11m, 15-16m, 17u "inférieure] corps", 22m/u "os", 23u "cylindre]creux"/23-

[page break] 176

175

CUVIER, ANAT. COMP.

24w&> (not CD), 26u "aériennes" 516 l-2m, 2-3u "traitant des", 5-6m, 10-llm, 12u "entre", 13u "expansion \peau", 15-16m, 24~25m 517 2m, 3u "grêle I centre", 10m, 24-25m 522 24uA> "156", table.wen]

vol. 2, 38 14c/w à noter 93 21-22m 94 5m, 30m 95 3m, 10m, 12m, 22« "sensations" 96 12m\w% 97 18m/u "rendre", 20u "nerf simple"/ w gen 23w à noter, 24m, 26m/u "plupart des", 28u "renflemens", 29w à not 30m 98 2w%, 4m, 8m 103 23u "médullaire", 24m, 25~26m 104 15u "médullaire", 16m 105 29m 106 5-6m, 20m 107 13-14m, 14m, 24m, 25-26m/25u "consommer" 108 7m, 8u "substance essentiellement", 9-10m, 13-14m, 15w noter 24m/w* 109 lxv électrique 3m/u "isolés", 4u "conducteur", 5m, 6u "cohibans", 10m 110 25m "branlement", 16m, 20m 111 5m, 10m, 19u "autres ordres", 20m, 24m/u " contracte"lw facture 29u "des sensations", 30mju "portion I nerf" 112 3m, 12m, 13-14m 113 8m 115 9m 117 24m, 27a/c«É, 21-23w (not CD)

vol. 3, xxi 29-30m 38 9m 46 4m 154 20-24m 156 24-29m 402 20m 407 3m

vol. 4, 308 4m 309 23m 319 25m 331 22m/zo (not CD), 13m/w (not CD) 364 15-17z/20-22z 374 24m 486 22m, 23u "que\fils", 24u "membranes I unissent", 25u "trachée"

CUVIER, Georges Le Règne animal 5 vols.; Paris; Déterville; 1829 [CUL, on B] beh, sx, tm

vol. 1, 151 26-28m 214 20-24m 219 30-32m 220 9-2 2 m, 27m 227 25-28m 228 5-7m, 13-16m 306 23-28m 458 2-4m 459 20-22m 460 24~25m 462 22-22m 496 9-23m 560 8-24m

vol. 2 NB p. 78

Q & G Cap Freycinet; L'Uranie (wrecked in

Falklands); S. Astrolable

Peron, Lesueur artist; Baudin - Australia

Lesson & Garnot voyage de Coquille Capt. -

Duperrey

viia 34a; 1 viiia 33xv 2 viiib 32a; 3 ixa 29w 4

ixb 7w 5 22a; 6 29w 7 xb 25a; 8 28w 9 36a;

10 xia 22a; 11 25m/o? 12 xib 2m, 6w 13 25a;

14 xiia 2a; 15 22«; 1, 32a; 2 xib 20a; 3 37a; 4

xiiia 23a; 5 12 24-27m 28 23m 30 23-2 7m 54

20-23m 60 3-4m\u <->, 6u "comme \ femelle" 65

20-22m 66 19-20m 73 8-20m 81 25-29m 83

22-25m 88 28-30m 101 5m/a?A> • 103 3-5m

104 29-31m 106 9-22m 107 24-27m 110 32-

36m/Q 111 20-22m 112 24-26? 113 20-27m

114 5-7m 119 4-6m 189 zt 237 21-24m/23u

"s'enfleIsaison" 247 22-27m 255 22-23m 333

15-18m, 23m/w Cape Fairweather

vol. 3,11 23-25m 14 25m 15 26-27mA> 17 20-24m 29 22-25m 33 l-4m, 20-25m, 26-28m, 23-25m 35 3a; 50 7a; 57, 20a; 58 28a; 66 36 2a; 70 22a; 110 29w 113 20-21m 39 7-9m 40 25-27m, 31-33m 42 21-23m 44 3-5m, 7-9m, 14-16m 46 24-26m 47 19-20m 48 8-9m, 25-27m 51 6-8m 55 25-2 7m 59 8-2 2 m 60 4-7m 62 28-22m 68 27-29m 78 4-9m 81 23-26m, 22-25m 84 16-20m 87 21-24m 91 2-6m 166 ÏÏ20-9m, ÏÏ8-7m, 1Ï3-2m 168 17-22m 170 2-4m 175 20« "douze paires" 177 25-28m, 27m 179 26-20m 207 26-27m 225 20-24m 228 2-4m 229 2-5m 235 4-7m, 10-12m 238 6-20m 266 23-25m, 30-31m (von Baer) 276 22-23m 300 20-23m 301 2-4m (Lamarck), 15-16m 302 20-22m 306 6-7m, 9-10m 308 23-26m 318 5-23z, 22-24m 339 1Ï4-2m 348 22-22m, 1Î4-2m 350 9m, 14m 373 ÏÏ4-2m 375 26m, 29-22m 379 2m 380 19-22m, 32-33m, 35-36m 385 20-23m 386 7-20m 392 20-23m 400 24-27m 402 27-29m, zb 403 3-5m 404 22-23m 409 23m 413 27-20m 415 2-4m 416 4-6m 422 7-20m 426 3-20m P

vol. 4, xvii ll-12mjw Schiropoda, 99 33 23-27m 44 20m 51 22-22m, 26-29m 67 22m 76 tt9-6m 79 4m, 5m 82 2u± 84 24-28m 91 9m, 10m 92 23-26m 95 32m 97 20m, 25-27m 100 7-20m 108 24-28m 110 4-6m 117 22m 118 8-9m 119 9m, 22 m, 26m 120 7m, 24m 121 24z 122 19-20m 123 32a; 2 124 27-28a; 3 128 6-20m 132 27-28Q 133 6m, 9-10m 135 9-20m, 22m 136 6a; 3 138 24m 140 3m 141 24m 142 4-8m 151 24a; 158 154 28-32m 158 22m 171 26-30m 229 3-6m 234 22-25m 235 21-22m 236 2-5m, 17-18? 240 24-29m 241 9-22m 242 20-22m 244 7-9m, 32-34m 247 2-4m, 20-22m 250 25-27m 251 23-25m 254 4-5m 255 29-30m 257 27-28m 258 5-8m, 12-15m, 24-26m 259 22-23m 261 22-24m, 32-33m 270 21-23m, 33-37m 273 27-28m 275 9-22m 278 29-22m 281 6-8m, 25-27m 286 2-5m, 16m 287 27-30m 289 20m 290 2-3m 334 4-8m, 28-29m 335 5-6m 337 24-27m 338 26-20m, 28-30m 341 27-29m 346 27-28m 542 30-39m 543 2« "mort I fuite"

vol. 5 NB p. 305 Leon Dufour has written on

stinging instruments of ants

p.291 - on antennae differing in male &

female Cynips in no. of Joints.-

206 23-25m 305 31-33m 399 23-24o; 2 403

29a; 3 408 5-7o; 5 415 20a; 8 25-27a; 9 423

22-23W 10

THE CYCLOPAEDIA of anatomy and physblogy ed. R.B. Todd, 6 vols.; London;

[page break] 178

177

Longman, Green, Longman & Roberts; 1835-1859 [Down] beh, phy, tm

vol. 2, 221a 6-12m, 8-9u, 62-66m 221b l-7m, 34u, 44u, 47u, 49u, 51-54m/54u, 56-59m, 61-69m, wb the lower eyelid acts during laughter 222a 17-26w very little about it, seems to depress eyebrows & causes frown 21-26m, 65-68m 222b 10-14m, 15c, 38-A2m 223a 26-31m, 54-55u 224a 9-13m, 24-28m 224b 6-9m, 12c/we, 50-55m 225a 31-33m 225b 27m, 33-35m 226a 48-56m 226b 3-9m 227a 6-10m, 53-56m, 62~69m

vol. 3, 90a 21-30m 93a 38-43m 94b 24-25u 98a 13-17m 566a 55-58m 566b 41-51m 722, 723 w(FD) vol. 4, 1415a 43-44u, 44m 1415b 29-32m, 30«, 35-37m/35u 1424a 3S-42m 1424b 24-27m 1425a 42-50m, 54-59m 1427b 16-24m, 31-40m, 44-51m 1427a S-22m 1428a 53-58m 1496b 4-22m, 29-36m 1497a 38-42m/ 39u 1499a wte, 2-6m, 57-61m/60u 1500a 30-34m 1500b 2-*m, 40-46m 1503a 25-29m

vol. 6, 301b 50-57m 302b 35-40m 303b 9-13m 304a 10-13m, 12u "vermiform" 304b 24-28m/25u 317b 37-42m 318b 24-36m/28u 334a 3S-47m 642a 35-37m/"..." 642b 2-5m, 2-S"..."/7c 643b 26-29m

DALLAS, William Sweetland A natural history of the animal kingdom London; Charles Griffin & Co.; n.d. [Down] p

DANA, James Dwight On the classification and geographical distribution of Crustacea Philadelphia; C. Sherman; 1853 [CUL, I] gd, hi, sp, t, ti

SB Qß

1557 No species in common to W. America

& central Pacific, except few cosmopolites

1498 On number of species in Torrid zone

(Q)

1501 less numerous but higher

1504 Tropics most prolific in Crustacean life

1528 general discussion on above heads

SA (vp. 1588-1589; part of a letter from f.D.

Dana)

1498 35-39m 1501 28-29m 1503 36-38m 1528 2-24m 1529 2-9m 1531 4-5m 1533 wtu, table.m "Hyas", wb Right (also totals in each column totalled) 1536 table.m "Cyclograpsus" 1538 table.m "Lithodes" "Paguristes" 1542 table.m "Jaera" 1543 table.m "Amphoroidea" 1544 table.m "Anonyx" "Gammarus" 1551 30x^/30-39m/34u, 39u (place-names), 35-37w Before Glacial B.G. 1552 7m, 7m, 9m, 12m, 31m/w Med & Japan 33m, 40m/w Med & Japan 1553 2m/w>, 3m/xv, 5m/w, 7m/w Med & Japan 8w 36 species with enormous ranges zb 1554 4x*&/3-9w 42 sp with curious ranges.- belong to many genera 1557 2-5m/ 4-5x*±, llu+>, 23x*&, 28-33-w Evidently far more relation between E. & W. America than in shells & more species in common: but I can hardly judge 35-37m* 1558 19-24m/ 21x^. 1561 3w a temperate genus 3x*&/w New Zealand & America 25x*& 1564 30x^ 1567 18-19x*& 1569 20-22w New Zealand & S. America 12x^, 16w do 29*^, 26u "eighty-one", 29u "thirteen\Japan"/x*&/w - New Zealand & Cape 30u "three"/x^ 1570 3x^, 13x^ 1574 7a "above" 33 7x^/w 33 species in common 15-17m, 19x^/19-22xv It is a difficulty so few being common to Europe & Cape 29w 12 Natal & Japan 1576 29u«§* "eastern I Australia", 25-28w New Zealand & America 29x/?*& 1578 22« "Hymenicus I near"/ 21-32w No representative case can be made out, as for common Antarctic land; New Zealand & America ÏÏ23-Sm/fÎ22u "over twelve"I$9x*&ß9-7w are any of these southern genera I wonder 1\lO-8w p. 1561 & temperate genus of Amphoroidea ÏÏS« "Cyclograpsus"/wb is a wide ranger, Mid Pacific Florida ÏÏSw "Paguristes"/wb wide ranger ÏÏ7« "Betaeus"/wb Indian Ocean

[page break] 179

180

DANA, CRUSTACEA

torried 115« "Palaemon"/w torrid wb Cancer none torrid N & S. America Ozius torrid 1579 3xV« "Ozius \Xantho", 13x^/u "Lithodesl Galathea"/w range equator wards? ÏÏ8-lm/u/w (ranges and climatic zones of species named) 1580 28-29x^ 1581 4u "Glyptonotus"/ 3-4x*&, 6x^/13x^/6w New Zealand & Cape & S. America 1582 7x^/10-llx*&/8-9w & Turtles &c 1583 8x^, 12x^, 18-19x^/19u "noil zone", 21x^, 27x^/w New Zealand & America 27-28u "Amphoridae\ Ozius"/x*&, 35x^ 1584 9x^, 13c "Horn"/w G Hope 22-23x/26-27x/36x^/38u "Japan" 1585 4x*&, lie "Horn" Good Hope 16x^, 27x*& 1586 13-14x^, 21-22x^, 29-30x^, 32-33x*& 1587 23-25m/13-14x^, 24-25x^ 1588 33-34x^ 1589 3-4x^

DANA, James Dwight Corals and coral islands New York; Dodd & Mead; 1872 [CUL, I] geo

NB p. 365; p. 308 Loyalty Isld Quart Jour. 1847 p. 61

7 26-30m 108 8-10m 116 9-13m, 13-16m 158 l-2m, 10-llm, 31-32m 171 12m, 15-17m 184 22-26m 193 27m "Metia or" 199 9-10m 219 12-14m 259 23-16m 267 flfim 273 25m 301 9-18m, ll-12m, 15-17m, 30-33m/33u "westernmost islands" 302 22-26m 303 3-7m, 10-13m, 14w why not 23u "occur\are", 30-31m 304 20-23m, 18-25m/23w why 305 9-12m, 13-14m, 16m, 20u "Tatoa\volcano", 28-32m/30u "evidence \ very" 306 6-8m, 12-14m, 14-17m, 20-22m 307 7-9m, 12-13m, 18-23m 308 25-29m 309 16-19m, 23-24m 310 6-22m 311 29-32m 317 S-20m 320 24-29m 321 26-20m 322 2-4m 323 17-23m 324 2-6m, 9-22m, 27-32m 325 ll-13m/ll-15"..."/12u "deep bays" 326 16-20m, 24-25u "Tutuila\coral", 28-32m 327 6-22m, 25-26w I do not trust this evidence?? 17-22m/18u "wide reefs", 26-31m 330 28-31m 331 wt Mr D also shows on authority of Mr Hale that * these islanders seem to be here held * where certain • on Ponape were sacred l-8m/4-8"...", 9m 333 22-28m/22u "the lagoon", 29u "two feet", 31-21-* 334 2-4m, 16-18m/18u "six feet"/ 14-21w This wd protect the leeward side 25-26m/w From Keeling Isld 25a "Metia" or Aurora solid coral rock 27-32m/29u "northeastern" 336 12 w "three hundred", 26u "Rurutu", 28u "high", 29u "lower eminences", 30u "hundred", 30u "three hundred", 32u "part basaltic" 337 5-8m/6u "All\ Tonga", 10-14m/12u "layer I thick", 31u "one\height" 338 4-7m, 14-17w Samoan elevtn 2 or 3 18u "two\three" 339

26m "proof\elevation" 341 22-24m 342 24-26m(24u "fourIsix" 343 29m "onelhas", 32u "full I feet" 345 27-37m 346 wt The nature of the slope - (Galapagos •) Tasman - birds Of atolls 35119-23m 365 l-7m/l-2u<^/4u "of\ Hawaii" 394a lm 394b lm, 3m 395b 23m, 22m

DANA, James Dwight Manual of geology Philadelphia; Theodore Bliss & Co.; 1863 [Down, I]

DANDOLO, Vincenzo The art of rearing silkworms London; John Murray; 1825 [CUL, pre-B]

NB 23; 244; 270

P

23 20-27m/22-23Q 244 2-3m 270 7-22m 349

25-282

DANIELSSEN, Daniel Cornelius and KOREN, Johan Zoologi: Gephyrea Christiania; Gradahl & Sohn; 1881 [Down] p

DARESTE, Camille Recherches sur la production artificielle des monstruosités Paris; C. Reinwald & Cie.; 1877 [Down, I]

DARWIN, Charles De Afotamming van den Mensch (The descent of man) trans. H. Hartog Heys van Zouteveen; Delft; Van Ijkema & Van Gijn; 1871 [CUL] p

DARWIN, Charles En Naturforskares resa omkring forden (Voyage of a naturalist) trans. G. Lindström; Stockholm; J.L. Tornquist; 1872 [CUL] p

DARWIN, Charles Het Ontstaam der Soorten (The origin of species) trans. T.C. Winckler; Haarlem; A.C. Kruseman; 1860 [CUL, I] p

DARWIN, Charles Origine délie specie (The origin of species) trans. G. Canestrini; Torino; Unione Tipografico Torinese; 1875 [Down] P

DARWIN, Charles L'Origine dell'uomo e la scelta in rapporto col sesso (The descent of man) trans. M. Lessona; Torino; Unione Tipografico-Editrice Torinese; 1871 [CUL] p

DARWIN, Charles Über die Entstehung der Arten in Thier- und Pflanzen-Reich durch natürliche Züchtung, oder Erhaltung der vervollkommneten Rassen im Kampfe um's Daseyn (The origin of species) trans. H.G. Bronn; Stuttgart; E. Schweizerbart; 1860 [CUL]

[page break] 181

182

af, ce, er, et, ds, em, ex, fg, gd, ig, oo, phy, rd, sl, sy, t, ti, tm, ts, v

SF 09Î «► (4 sheets)

Bronn's criticisms for New Edit of Origin Objects that I cannot precisely say why two species of Rats Hare & Rabbit assumed by selection their present characters - very true I can in no case say this - we know so little of use of parts & laws of correlation.- But I confess, I thus evade every special difficulty. Why one gets round and another pointed leaves.

Objects that in case of two varieties still living in abundance side by side how can intermediate races + have been exterminated - But are there such cases, excluding such vars as albinos.- Do not they inhabit distinct countries or stations - surely this is general rule.-

Do you believe in Brehms sub-species. Have you seen them?

Thinks that variation arising from external conditions are linked together by intermediate - not those produced by n. selection.-

Why of two cells, primordial, one got volition & sensation & other did not-Says I ought to answer * whether my primordial forms were created as eggs or full-grown &c- Admits that vegetable-cell wd come first. (over)

I think Schmidt says the eyes not so completely grown, at least form more related to those of external world * near extreme of case - *

I shd never suppose with respect to his supposed changes in 2 Rats, that first longer or shorter tail & larger ears were acquired, but that all were modified together.-» Might I not ask Creationist why tail longer or ear shorter? I could not ask this of him who believes that God makes his creation different for mere variety - like man fashions a pattern for mere variety.

(over)

Objects there might ® 100,000 creations as

well as one: I agree ® then these would not

have borne signs of common descent in

homologies & embryology & rudimentary

organs.

Some mistakes about my supposing several

glacial periods- Permian & Chalk

"Why shd the process of development have

always caused one race rats in all different

parts of world" I do not believe so - N.

Zealand & Australia.

♦«3> I cannot see force of your objection

because one cannot explain origination of

life - the far grandest problem of any - why

it wd not be gain to explain or account for

forms; if this could be done - so we * do

not know what selecting is, but • this its

action.-

I fully agree to your final sentence - & I fully

admit the many awful difficulties in my view.

(over)

Certainly, as he grants ® that both rats

descended from one common parent.

As I cannot justify my opinions in any one

single case, so I need not in any.- is as true

* as it is severe-

Though I can in no single instance, (except

by conjecture, as longer legs of Hare for

fleetness & not • - longer ears to hear with)

explain changes * yet the structures &c led

me to conclusion.- Laws of Variation will

hereafter be understood far clearer

1 wt With

p (missing from p. 463)

DARWIN, Charles The zoology of the voyage

of H.M.S. Beagle, under the command of

Captain Fitzroy, R.N., during the years 1832 to

1836 London; Smith, Elder & Co.; 1840-1842

[CUL]

ex, gd, ig, mg, sp, ti

Part 1, 9 wt 4 apparently the Olivallaria auricular of d'Orbigny 19-20u "Oysters''/«?•, 22-23c/xve, 22-37m 17 23-28m* 28 lOc/w already alluded to ll-13m/a "Toxodon" in several cases it deviates from 29 la "Rodent" 55 23-22 m, 20-25ml20w a Pachyderm 24a "Macrauchenia"/w animal 72 33-37m 74 29-22 m 107 2-2m, 37-39m

Part 2, 17 31-36m 35 23-25m 48 22wA> 12 73 2w 28 81 3-6m

Part 3, NB S Representative species p31; 85*

85 capital Glacial Representative, not quoted 113 Beaks of woodpeckers muddy at base 67«^ intermediate var in intermediate regions 16 (u=colourings) 4u, 5-6u, 9-10u, 10-16m/10-12"...", 29-34m/33u 31 22-23m 34 7-8Q 66 29-20Q 67 29-30Q 83 22-24z 85 9m 108 26-27a; Matutina 27c "ruficollis" 113 32m/Q 143 20-22Q

Part 4, SB1 •*

Important to find out those genera which have no marine species or migratory species. In these distribution must offer great difficulty.- Are there many? Feb./56/

[page break] 183

184

DARWIN, C, BEAGLE VOYAGE

SB2 Galapagos Fish (list of species)

SB3 Qß ®>

♦ p340 odd about Alpine forms becoming

less numerous (rest 0)

F.W. Fish

p3 True Perch in S. America

p18 Dules R Tahiti - other species Java

p79 Atherina Valparaiso - some in brackish,

some salt species

p98

p114 Poecilia Cyprinidae Lebias S. America

p120 Mesites Nov. Gen.

Salmonidae

p123 Tetragonopterus

p131 Aplochiton F.W. Genus Falklands & T.

del Fuego

p142 Anguilla N. Zealand

Part 5, 2 12w 111 4 lw 2 5 lw 3 6 16w 4 7 16w 5 8 lu/5-6u (colourings), 9-14m, 27w 6

lw 7 11 lw 8 12 20w 9 13 23w 10 14 31w

15 33w 12 17 lw 13 18 7w 121 41 3-4m 5110-12m

DARWIN, Charles (end of German translation of Beagle Journal?) [CUL] pat, phy

298 l-17w thinks palm sap owing to life being continued 299 14-23m/w in Challen Id a well person new arriving made all sick -believe in New Zealand

DARWIN, Erasmus The botanic garden part 1 and part 2 vol. 1, bound together; London; J. Johnson; 1791; and part 2, vol. 2, 2nd edn [CULR, pre-B, S] fg, gd, mhp, sp, sx

NB p. 8; p197; p200; p202

Species of Plants p. 4 to 7; 10 to 26 to 40;

p.60; 75; 125; 147; 169; 185; 186; Abstract

Dec 1857

p3 & 4 female bending down; p. 5 In Genista

the pistil Bending round to stamens which

last shed their pollen; p. 6 Labiatae similar

observation; p. 16 On Arum preventing Flies

escaping (Ch. 3); 60 seeds of Tillandria

found sticking to trees; 169 Amoen Acad on

Rams giving fleeces

vol. 1 title page wb Second * part 1790 which was published first 8 23-31m 9 1"..." 197 15-17m 17u "the\bush", 20-21m 198 1Î5-lm/w(FD) 200 14-16m, 21-22m 202 17-20m, 22-25m ( White)

vol. 2, part 1, 4 18-20m 5 8-llm, 15-18m, 20-24m 6 9~12m/8-15w These facts do not appear to me impossible, though Sprengel

denies them 7 12-17m (Linnaeus), 19u "with I only" 10 ll-15m 12 15-18m 14 12-15m, 19ml u "two\different", 23?/u "approach\pistil" 16 ll-20m 17 30-32m/31u "letter\with" 26 ÏÏ4-2m 38 20-22m 20u "Caterpillars which", 26-27m 26u "The lark" 39 llu "those I green" 60 22-24m 23m "with\on" 75 tÎ4m 76 8-9m 107 15-19m 121 ll-15m 125 20-22m 146 23-25m 147 15-23m 148 18-20m 149 7-9m 169 19-20m 185 2-6m 186 4-21 m

DARWIN, Erasmus The botanic garden, part 2 vol. 2; Lichfield; J. Jackson; 1789 [CUL, pre-B]

DARWIN, Erasmus Phytologia London; J. Johnson; 1800 [CULR, pre-B, S] beh, br, ch, che, es, fg, mhp, pat, sh, sp, spo, sx, tm, y

NB 45 leaves closing in rain 95 96 99 102 106 108 114

116,8 - direct action of pollen of beans V. fabaO

137 148 181 324 320 350 379 451 452 501 532 535 541 543 545 568 570 579 583 p207 215 Phosphorus not enough attended to but he thinks shells contain an abundance 217 use of StrawO SBÜß

106 Q Case of broom other plants bending pistil to late anthers, I doubt 116 Most curious case of rows of Beans, crossed Bath Soc. vol. 5, p. 38 451. 1746 a Mr Cooper selecting his vegetables with care, & evidently independently (shows how it may have gone on) & with this care, does not find any change of seed, necessary. Quoted from Communications to Board of Agriculture 532 On Gout produced by intemperance, children can bear less. 568 Phytolacca 1 species with 20 stamens, another with 10, & another with 8 & 8 Pistils & another dioicous - Properly Decandria & DecagyngiaO

2 3~4m 45 9-13m 55 10-12m 76 31"."132m 77 l-3m, 9...", 27-29m 79 29-32m 95 l-12m 96 lO-lèm/w will not account for sporting 97 16-19m/w How do Horticultures propagate these 99 l-3m 102 l-5m 106 ll-32m/w shows that stigma long remains susceptible of impregnation 107 l-9m 108 10-19m, 28-32m (Bonnet) 109 6-9m 114 13-18m, 21-32m 115 24-32m 116 l-3m\3-lm\llc "See\work"l 22-28m/2-28w important shows extent of crossing 117 21u "Vol. I Academic"\18-21m (Schreber) 118 5-7m, 20-29m/22u "plants\his"

[page break] 186

185

119 4r-8m 137 7-15m/llu "Fordyce" 148 29-
22m 181 2-5m 207 19-20m/19u "universally I
vegetables"/20u "sufficiently\to" 209 25-26m
211 6-8m 215 6-9m, 7m 217 6-20m 316 23m
320 2-*m 324 24r-32w so that Sir G. Sebright
explanation of ill effects of breeding in & in —
same as my grandfathers for diseases in old
trees 350 3-9m, 29-31m 379 27-32m/? 433 2-
2m, 6-7m 451 l-5m/w good 7-24m, 19-23m,
28-32m
452 2-5m, 25-30m, 28-29m 467 9-
22m 501 16-18m/18u "after flowering" 531 2-
9m 532 10-15m, 19-25m 533 24-2Sm
(Linnaeus) 535 2-4m (Linnaeus)/4u "Tracts\
Hist."
541 2S-22m 543 2S-25m 545 26-29m/
26« "Philos. I Nature" 557 7-20m, 2S-22m, 22-
25m/24u "old organizations", 30-32m
559 5-
8m 568 4w Fish? 6-10m/6u "the\organs"/w is
this so? 9w Lamarck 22-30m 569 2-26m 570
2-3m 577 27-29m 579 17-20m (Murray) 583
20-23m

DARWIN, Erasmus The temple of nature London; J. Johnson; 1803 [CULR, pre-B, S; 2 copies, one unmarked] beh, cr, phy, tm

NB 0/

p54 In Man fundus not over opening of

urethra; 63; 134

notes p. 1; p. 18; p. 25

124 Love your mother as yourself

54 consonant to the dignity of the Creator of

all things

Notes

120 Machine to speak

87 Reference to my Father on Spectra

vol.76

p11 - advantage of * Power Microscope

54 22-23m, 26-28m/24-28[...] 63 26-27m 68 22-28m 73 23-27m 124 23-22m (Socrates)/17-21[...]/18c/19ce 134 5-8m, 5-6m Notes, contents "270"m, "295"m 1 20-21m 11 5-9m 18 3-7w external or internal yolk sac - means of passage= 6-8m 23 2w* Read 25 25-29m 33 3w* Read to p. 36 45 20-23m 120 7-14m/8-12"...",21-27m

DARWIN, Erasmus Zoonomia 2 vols; London; J. Johnson; 1794-96 [CULR, pre-B] beh, cc, ch, ds, gd, he, ig, pat, phy, sx, t, tm, v

vol. 1 NB1 23; 24; 46; 50; 52; 55; 57; 103; 104; 108 Malebranche gustation; 114; 130; 142; 140; 147; 148 Expression; 150; 152 Expression; 154; 160; 162; 190 I must show habits descended and then 0; 192; 201; 203 whole chapter on sleep very good & all

marked; 214; 242; 253; 265; 267; 268; 269; 423 expressions; 425; 427 - good yawning; 483; 487; 502; 504; 505; 509; 510; 517 NB2 p. 183 centipedes cutting worm into 2 pieces

SA (pp. 504-5)

140 Q An infant soon forgets to suck - if calf once sucks cannot be • up by hand 160 Q Kitten covering spoonful of water. EttyO shaking foot, when it heard water 191 Compares Music with Instinct & when putting nose into glass 504 Lamarck concisely forestalled by my Grandfather

508 Teats on sheath of Horse (& in Mule) - Plato thought that all animals Hermaphrodite

12 24-29m 23 7-20m/8w (a) wb (a) This is strange as hungry men never dream of hunger 24 6-32m 46 6-22m 50 17-19w instinctively so 52 2-4m 55 12-15m/w the mouth alone repeats the sensation 57 8-10m, 13-29m/29u "whole skin" 58 l-9m/w hope is mental desire 99 27m, 31m 103 22-25m, 29-32m 104 7-26m 105 19-31m/23-27w does habit imply having ideas? 106 30-32m 108 22-25m/w as soon as we became locomotive 114 S-25m 139 8-27m (Haller) 140 5-7m, 20-26m (Harvey, Hippocrates) 148 14-18m 150 5-23m 151 22-24m 152 18-20m/w Sir C. Bell says because he looks back 154 12-14m/w ling to dogs in S. America 30-32m 160 15-22m 162 27-22m, 28-32m 182 9-22m, 29« "flesh\instincts" 183 9-27m 190 28-31m 191 wt There appears to be perfect gradation from concatenated movements of which is only partly unconscious.- to those which by no effort can be recollected yet, but yet one does by instinct & habit.- 2-5m, 7-2 2 m, 23-25m/a; & indeed the more she does the better wb all this is the reverse of intellectual power 192 19-24m 194 8-27m 195 24-28m Vil 4-6m 199 21-24m/w no consciousness ÏÏ4-2m 201 19-22m 202 25m 203 2-24m 207 22-27m 208 4-20m 213 4m/x 214 22-23m 215 23-26m 216 19-22m 219 l-5m/2u "tremulous convulsions" 242 22-25m 253 2-2m, 4-7m/w tastes hereditary do 16-20m 255 15-18m/w* tooth on edge sound, when earth is crushed between teeth - hear similar sound 265 4-8m 267 13-20m/18-19u "sensation"/w* I think this is 22-23m/w only by drying the mouth 268 20-23m, 24-27m, 28-31m 269 21-25m/22-27w is there or not a muscular contrivance to expel this 270 16-23m 273 26m 339 ÏÏ7m 356 14-17m/w Vjde 359 3m 387 29m 409 7m/x& 421 22m* 422 7-20m, 14-16m/14u "exertion

[page break] 188

187

DARWIN, E, ZOONOMIA

of", 24r-25m 423 15-19m, 29-31m, 32m/w over 424 25-32m 425 7-9m, ll-24m, 27-31m 427 zvt yawning, streching fidgets (see Dr Holland) convulsions affecting the voluntary muscles - muscles of jaw, perhaps soonest brought into action & likewise perhaps connected by associations with * digestive powers & therefore soonest gives relief. 7-9m/w hence yawning attacks these muscles 431 24m/x 433 5m/x (Helvetius) 435 9m/x 455 9m/x 456 15m/x&> 483 26-28m/27u "polygonum viviparum" 487 10-19m 500 22-24m/[...]/23u "lactescent women" 501 l-5[...], 3w (not CD) 502 13-26m, 26-31m/w Bell Bridgewater Treatise argues against this 503 8-16m, 25-28m 504 6-16m/12-16"..."/ll-13w Lamarck!! 505 l-3m, 5-7m, 7-llm, 12-18m 506 wt Sir Charles Bell perfectly confutes all this 7-13m/7-23w May be quoted, to show no more wonderful.- if merely proved a law of nature we are accustomed to the former. I attempt to show means - which is impossible in the one animal 507 7-10m, 10-llm/x/w variation 19u "learned"\19-20wwhat an assumption!!! 508 ll-32m 509 4a "generation /wt aided by endless attempts, of which only few are preserved.- Vide Hume's works 1-Am (Hume), 17-24m 510 27-32m/w This pro» the Dr 511 l-8m 512 25-26«; sex of Bees changed by food 514 3-22m 517 8-14m

vol. 2, 40 4-8m/5w(CD?) 43 2-6m 46 22-25m 145 l-19w (not CD) 352 27-32m 573 2u/w (not CD)

DARWIN, Robert Waring New experiments on the ocular spectra of light and colours London; J. Nichols; 1786 [CUL]

DARWIN, Robert Waring Principia botanica; or, a concise and easy introduction to the sexual botany of Linnaeus London; Longman, Hurst, Rees & Orme; 1810 [CUL, pre-B]

DAUBENY, Charles A description of active and extinct volcanos London; W. Phillips; 1826 [Down, pre-B] geo, mi, ti

94 21-25m/22-23w A 95 6-12mA>/8-9w A 104 30w&> Miocene 105 25-27m, 23-31m 170 25-16w (not CD) 171 13-14w (not CD) 180 18-27w Covington copy 28-39m, 28-34m, 30-39m/ "..."/36-37u "frequent I matrix" 188 ll-15m/w A 265 13-22m 266 7"...", ll-24wto This is correct is taken from chart of the Azores by Reade 13-24m (von Buch), 20c/we, fig.w* fathoms 24"..." 267 zb 270 27-33m, 33m 272 ll-12m/llu "Madagascar" 273 2-2m 312 9-

16m 313 20-26m 323 16-17m/w Carteret in new Britain V. Krusens*- 324 wt New Britain Carteret saw spouting l~4m, 5u "Ahryn", 7u "Tanna" 325 22-29m 326 2-6m 334 28-27m 343 27-30m 350 2-35m 351 2-22m 361 22-25*/25m, 27-35m/34we, wb * Do either of these periods include s*- Caracas & Quito case of connects- 386 9-llm/10u "pearly lustre", 26-28m, 35-37m/35u "nepheline\ leucite" 387 18-27m, 26-33m 388 2-6m 401 2-12m/2-5w* Not in shifting sands 402 20-35m

DAUBRÉE, M. Études et expériences synthétiques sur la métamorphisme et sur la formation des roches cristallines Paris; Imprimerie Impériale; 1860 [Down, I] p

DAWKINS, William Boyd Cave hunting London; Macmillan & Co.; 1874 [Down] wd

NB Used; 77 Domestic Anims; 78; 137; 382 77 25-31m 78 2-8m 137 2-23m, 25-22m 382 25-29m

DAWSON, James Australian aborigines Melbourne; George Robertson; 1881 [Down, I] beh, oo

NB White louse beaten out by black louse -

p.13

p.90 Change in Habits in Opossum

13 2-5m 90 25-33m

P

DAWSON, John William The fossil plants of the Devonian and Upper Silurian formations of Canada Montreal; Dawson Bros.; London; Sampson, Low, Son & Marston; 1871 [CUL, I]

74 21-32m 77 8-13m 80 7-20m, 22-26m

DEFRANCE, M. Tableau des corps organisés fossiles Paris; F.G. Levrault; 1824 [Down, I by F.W.H.] p

DE LA BECHE, Henry Thomas Researches in theoretical geology London; Charles Knight; 1834 [CUL, on B] che, geo, mi, t, ve

NB1 Every mountain chain may be considered as the ruin of an earthquake aided or obliterated by time! It is vain to bring first & other causes to bear they are comparatively insignificant.— ♦ 192; 198; 219; 242; 252; 293; 297;

[page break] 190

189

greenstones traversing granites serious drawback -

NB2 ♦ 12 Spec Grav of Limestone-; 13 on Sulphur; 34; 43; 44; 53; 58; 95; 97 to 100 to 109 &c. Cleavage; 128; 131 When considering M. chain; 141 Hence value of unitary System enters; 147; 151; 177 futility of lake theory well shown

12 30-34m 13 24-30m 14 l-13m 31 ll-12w of silver 34 5-9m 43 l-12m, ÏÏ5m/wb If so absence of ice in Arctic region proof of heat of bottom 44 l-4m 33 30-34m 58 7-27m/22-16w I cannot understand this 15-22m/17-18w No 19-33m/xA>/wb<& Study Mr Palmer's papers in Royal Transactions 60 19-20m, wb Something wrong because breakes from sea and swell nearly similar 61 l-31m&> 62 2-33mto 63 2-22m/&, 15-27m&> 74a 15m 74b 4m, 9m, 10m 75 ll-12m, 12-14m 93 wt Iquique l-13m 95 wt with respect to obsidian 3-30m 96 5-27m 97 19-28m/25u "subsequently"/??&>, wb whilst soft because lime blends with clay wb Iquique wbfi> anhydrite 99 14-22m<&, wb&> Fissure seen otherO to determine convulsing action.- Hence veins of quartz in many rocks. 100 13-33m/32-33m, wbe* Hollow concretion 10112-17m 103 3-8m 104 2-15m 105 14-33m& 109 4-25m 111 22-30m 128 wt Falkland Isd l-8m 129 6-22m, 12-15z 130 24-26m 131 4-llm 132 10-31m 136 ll-16m 141 17-26m 147 13-25m 149 28-34m 150 wt Hence carbon removed from primary rocks - hence hydrogen & nitrogen 151 wt X Thence all the bituminous rocks, layers of shales, because carbonic acid decomposed water 10-26m 160 15-28m 177 6-24m, wb applicable to Terraces 192 26-33m 193 l-33m 194 l-15m, wb formed by beaches 198 wt as long as stream rapid form gorge straight (why?) then zigzag, widen it, but could not produce sloping tub 12w V. p200 200 ll-18m, 19-21m, wb* hence gorge straight 212 12-31m 213 l-15m 219 10-31m 220 U-19m 221 13-32m 242 24-28m 243 l-9m 252 wt<& where underdraught not too strong.- 5-23m/H, wb&> how can the part above the sea determine the action, submarine part may do so.- 267 16-28m 292 wb Mem. carbonic Acid in Springs- 293 12-19m, 33u/"...", wb Insist upon thickness in Cordillera however difficult to understand 297 2-17m 407 23-27m&/24a& "Voluta" 0/

DE LA BECHE, Henry Thomas A selection of the geological memoirs contained in the Annals of Mines London; William Phillips; 1824 [Down, pre-B] p

DELAGE, Yves Contribution à l'étude de l'appareil circulatoire des Crustacés édrio-phthalmes marins Paris; A. Hennuyer; 1881 [Down, I] p

DELAMER, Eugene Sebastian (Edmund Saul DIXON) Pigeons and rabbits in their wild, domestic and captive states London; G. Routledge & Co.; 1854 [CUL] br, che, geo, oo, v

NB1 Carbons; Salt & Old Mortar & gravel to

floor

Runt; Turbit?; Almond-Tumbler; Carrier;

Fantail; Powter

NB2 p. 1; p. 2; p. 22; p. 38; p. 51; p. 53; p. 66;

p.68; p. 69; p. 70; p. 72; p. 75; p. 77; p. 82; p. 95;

p.114 good one Rabbit outbred other; p. 133;

139

SBQß

95 Rabbits probably in Caesars time in

Britain

114 If Warren stocked with Grey & Silver the

latter will soon be bred out (on var. beating

another Ch. 5)

141 Rabbit with longest ears known 22

inches and this length of ear great point.-

136 do not breed true.

1 19-23m 2 20-35m/22u "Columella" 3 29-33m 14 zb 17 23-25m 18 27m, 28m, 31-32m, 35m, 37m 19 3-4m 22 10-14m 30 14-lSm 32 34-35m 33 7m, 35m/u "twenty inches" 34 2-25m, 34-39m, wb Brick next Pan 35 22-23m, 30-32m 36 22-24m 38 12-17m, 25-27m, 27-28m 41 23m, 37-38m/38u "bay salt" 42 26-28m/27u "cumin" 43 22-24m, 15-16m/16u "old mortar" 44 22-24m, 30-31m 46 9-22m 51 28-33m 53 24-31m, wb marked to end 54 38-39m 56 2-7m, 8-12m, 21-23m/21u "pair"/22u "two I more", 34-39m 57 8m, 26-29m, 32-34m 58 9-2 2 m 59 27-29m 61 22-24m 63 2 6-19m, 21-39m 65 l-4m 66 8-16m, 27-29m 67 29-36m 68 2-22m, 25-35m 69 3-22m, 33-37m 70 15-20m, 34-38m 71 25-31m 72 30-35m 75 27-25m facing 76 fig.w fig.5 Copied from Mr Delamer 77 28-39m 81 24-25m 82 7-20m 95 12-22m 114 9-25m/20-22QA> 133 20-39m/-> 134 15-22m/18u "Angora rabbits" 135 24-2Sm 136 6-23m, 9-18m, 12-15m 137 2-6m, 13-17m, 33-36m 139 33-35m/33?/u "seveteen\ ear", wb See next Page 141 5m, 32-33Qä>, 36-39m, 36-39m

DELGADO, Joaquim Filippe Nery da Encarnaçâo Sobre a existencia do terreno siluriano no baixo alemtejo Lisboa; Academia Real das Sciencias; 1876 [Down, I] p

[page break] 191

192

DELPINO, Federico Ulteriori osservazioni sulla dicogamia nel regno végétale Milano; Giuseppe Bernardoni; 1868-1874 [CUL, S] ce, et, fg, mhp, oo, phy, sx, t, tm

NB1 a

e> p. 16 Utricularia (rest 0>

91 Goodenia

170 Passiflora princeps

p177 In Liguria 1/3000 of Ophrys araneifera

only get seed; a good many more near

Florence

188 Marcgraviacea

224 Ceropegia

62 George«s>0 Has seen Bees, not Bombus

visit flower of Trifolium.-

NB2 On Anemophilous Flowers (very full &

good)

NB3 337; 342 Pontederia trimorphic

Cephalantera Grandiflora^ - p149, 150

Orchids

154 - ^ male more conspicuous & visited

firsts

123 + 124 Ophrys •»

(here also Pt 2)

orchids p61-62; p60 Laburnum

L. MortigonO

NB4 A Arumi p18

SB &; ♦«>

p61 Great Laburnum flower

Serapias perhaps gnawed

Calyx commestible long discussion on 121 says Sprengel right & M. & I wrong about nectary & lower flower only visited False drops of nectar.

Cephalantera ensifolia

Waechter - news of explosion of Neottia See Part I on Ophrys

(over)

Much on Orchids in Delpino Part \_\ 211f Observazioni

Part 1, 6 4-9m 14 23-26m 15 20-22m 16 2c/ at, 30-35m 22 11-Um 29 29-32m 33 14u/wx 35 11-Um 51 19-21m 52 2-7m 59 23-29m 62 l-9m 75 24-26m 118 22-23m 119 5-8m, 35m 121 27-31m 122 l-2m 144 23-27m, 29-35m 148 7-10m 149 27-29m 158 15-17m 173 3-Sm Y7i> ll-13m 177 16-24m 188 6-8m, 15-16m 198 7-8u/wx, 10u/wx 202 4-6m 229 26-29m 258 31-33m

Part 2, fasc. 1, 22 7-9m 24 13-lSm 25 25-18m, 23-25m 37 2-6m fasc. 2, title page w 21 Ruppia 24 59 31-35w cells 60 32-35m 61 29-32m (Fritz Müller)/29-35w Kind of powder attraction to visit looseO cells 62 7-20m, 23-27m 63 4-27m (CD), 20m, 22-31w Calyx &

Petals attractive to be gnawed 121 6-34m/w thinks H. Müller & self wrong & Spengel right about false nectary - says only first flowers visited & then bees find out mistake - and that only few pods get 122 2-16w says cold accounts for bursting of Epidermia cells within the nectary 30-31m, wb Other plants with false * & true nectar- pollen both on same plant. Mem How long it is before nectar secretes 123 l-29w Despises idea that nectar an excretion & supposes false drops are rare excretion.- (Mem. common Laurel &&& Vicia.- wb Shining swelling like nectar & drops of true nectar on same plant. - thus explains case of Ophrys - Liperzia a case - I shall believe when insects seem to try & suck. ♦ 124 22-27m 149 9-42mj9-391...Jlw C. ensifolia 4 pollen-masses.- Viscid matter from stigma probably besmears backs of insects & thus pollen is carried 150 lu "Periplocea"/l-4m/w like Orchids 13-A0w W apparently did not know of CK Spengel, but was well aware of necessity of insects for fert. of Orchids & describes well the fert. of Neottia, viz. explosion of • 154 10-llm/w Read 25-32m, wb It explains male fl more conspicuous than female fl so as male to be visited first 155 28-34m (Buchan White, Spengel) 158 34] 210 23ce 337 not Dimorphic one protogynous & proterandrous 2-3m\[ 338 30-35m 342 2-4m 343 15m/xv Read 27-28m/ 28w Read 344 2-7m, 21-24m, 24-29m/25-26w Read 346 22m, 12-14m/15w Read 347 29m/a; Read 348 8m, Wm/w Read 24-25m 349 25ml w Read 351 31m

DENTON, William 7s Darwin right? Wellesley, Mass.; Denton; 1881 [Down]

DESCRIPTIVE AND ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE of the fossil organic remains of Mammalia and Aves contained in the Museum of the Royal College of England London; Richard & John E. Taylor; 1845 [Down, I by President and Council]

DESMAREST, Anselm Gaétan Mammalogie ou description des espèces des Mammifères Paris; Veuve Agasse; 1820 [CUL, pre-B] beh, hy, phy, rd, sp, ss, sx, sy, tm, v, y

NB <♦ up to "»">

p481 ; p840 to; p. 499; 434; 437

Dog p190; Cats p233x • Tortoiseshell; 391

414 Hybrid Zebra & Horse

499 Ox

p347 Rabbit white star on forehead

Important So silver grey has this when

[page break] 193

194

young on head - I think Fancy rabbits have star on forehead No Brent says not particularly often 439 Cervus of Marianne Isld »a- p193 (he means 198) Canis jubatus with curl of Hair along back female not differ from male Sexual selection

p392 Babyroussa female with lower canines smaller than male.- Wd Bartlett kn any waits (ie weights) & body proportions of animal SBÜß

190 Classification of Dogs - nothing particular, but I daresay good 233 Tortoise-shell cats all female 347 Young Hares always white star on Forehead (Silver Grey Rabbit has this) 391 Mongolia Pigs when young are striped 414 Hybrid Zebra & Ass band on legs 421 Corsican Pony small 430 Cervus elaphus smaller than common form

437 Cervus Marianus bad specimen -Sumatra species very close to 480 Goats, Horns absent in female of some Races - Horns differ in sexes & abort in some vars, either in one or both sexes 488 Wild Mouflon. Female either with small Horns or destitute of do 500 Little Zebra, Horns rudimentary periodically cast (like Deer Horns) Do not mow but grunt

504 S. American cattle several varieties! Perhaps from different stock introduced

47 wt Primates to p. 107 61a 17-19m, 18-20m 61b 20u& ±, 48-50m 65a 42u&++, 53-54u<@ "sommet I crête" 65b 2-2« "parties \ chair", 4-16m/4u "Sensiblement \ petite''j8-9u "crêtes I saillantes "/12-13u "canines petites "/ 12m/w Canines 26-17« "là\occiput", 29-30m/ u "indice I vertex"jw yet male 66b 6-15m, 16-18w see p65 20-24m/21u "par \ touffus"/ 22u&<r> 67a 21-23m 67b & 14-15u "dont\ cornet"/w ear 45-491, 50-51u "poib\haut" 68a l-4m, l-3m\2u& 68b l-2m 69a 38-42 m 69b 35-36m, 36-37m 70b 34-35m, 44-51m/44-50m 71b 19-30m/20-21uA> "par I pelage" 75a zt, 3m, 24-27m 75b 4-8m&, 17-18m 79b 28-35m* 80b 35-37m 98a 21-29m 100b 20-22m 101a l-6m 107b 34-36m 189b 26-28m 191a xvt xxx 195; xx 292 191b 37-38w Greyhound 192a 26-27m 193b 17-20m/18u "Chien courant", 38-42m/39ud 194a 24-27m 195a 30-31m/30u* 195b 8-9m/8u*/8-9u*, 34-41m/36u*, 46-50m 217b 28-30m 219a 50-52m&, zb 223a 37-42mt& 233a 3-5m, 22-23m, 43-49m, 50-51m 233b 23-24m, 30-31m, 37-38m, 50-53m, 55-57m 241b 3-7m 241a 25u "mâle adulte",

27-28u "Carinél moyenne" 243a 27« "improprement \ blanc", 20-28m, 20-23u±, 27 u "marron\noir"/29u "restelest", 33u "bifurcation Iles", 51-52m 246b 25-29m 249b 46-51m 250b 42-44m*»l43-44m 253a 9-2 2 m 256b 46-47m 267b 24-27m 304b 35-38m 347b 2-4m/w is this not common character of Rabbits? 349a 49-52m 349b 55u "Mais\ terriers" 350b 4u "neIterre", 46u "queueI dessus" 351a 43-44u "uneIjoues" 351b 8u "ne I terriers", 37u "un\sous" 352a 27« "ne I terriers" 387b 48-50m 390a 25-28m, 23-24u "canines I defences" 391a 31-33m/w Ro» Qä>, 44-46m\44u "oreilles", 44u "très pointues" 391b 2« "Siam", 2u "Guinée" 410b 27-29m 412a 23-24m 414a 12-22m/15u "la\membres" 421b 24-29m 425a 32-36m/33-34Q<& 427b 5wA) 429b 15-17m 433a 46~48m 434b 38-A0m, 44-50m 435a 40-47m 437a 3-6m, 12-13m, 19-25m/20u "envoyé I Sumatra "\2lu "à I voisine" 438b 53-55m 445a 22-27m\23w Horns 36-38m 450a 22-25m 452a 37-38m/w female hornless 453a 10-13m/w hornless 453b 53m 454a & 42-43m/43u "Corine" 455a 27-28u "brosses I pouce", 38u "brosses I larmiers", 37-39mlw Horns smaller 455b 32« "celles I minces"\w Horns smaller 32u "les I corine"/w& p454 457b 28-30m/29u "dans \ seulement"/w 17 species 466b 28-33m/30u "dans I sexes "/w 2 species 468a 30-34m, 44-45u "existant I seulement" 470a 3-7mj4u " couleur \ généralement" lw Hornless 470b 30-34m/32-33u<-*/w Hornless 471a 3~4u/m/w 1 species 471b 12-13m, 41-42u "quelquefois\femelles" 473b 28-29« "Comes\sexes" 476a 54-55m/w Hornless smaller 477b 42~44m 480a 45-47m 481a 32-34m 482b 34-37m/34-35u "les I uniformes" 483a 31-35m, 47-50m/48u "qu'en\ étant", wb x differ in sexes & abortive in some vars. 483b 27« "Point I temps" 485a 22-25m, 23-24m 485b wb 10 varieties in world 487a 43-46m 487b 33-37m/34-35u "des I mâles" 488b 25-27m 491a 8-22m, 45-48m, wb 8 vars with subvars. no particular account of French vars. 492a 3-7m 493a 23-27m 498b 30-32m 499b 19-21m, 27-29m 500a 20-22m, 22-24m, 24-26m, 30-31m, 33-40m 503a 2w Holland wb 16 French vars of which one said to be introduced from Holland - some of these vars. have sub-vars. and there is appearance of truth about whole account. 503b 42-47m 504b 3-22m, 17-20m, 29-31m, 41-45m 505a 20-26m

DEVAY, Francis Du danger des manages consanguins 2nd edn; Paris; Victor Masson; 1862 [CUL] beh, br, he, mn, pat, t, v

[page break] 196

195

DEVAY

NB p97 Close interbreeding cause of

mutants?

p103 Albinism very unsightly inheritance

p116 correlation of Deafs & Blinds - Cats

see Boudin p125 Deaf-mutes

p141 Ohio laws against marriage of cousins

Qä>

97 24-28m/25-26Q&>, wb Fish & Dogs are 103 7-8m/8u, ll-18m 117 26-28m 119 17-20m 125 21-24m/7-24w if true cause of variability 141 21-26m/23Q 142 3-2 2 m

A DICTIONARY of chemistry compiled by A. Ure; London; Thomas Tegg; 1823 [CUL, pre-B,S] che

NB1 00

Mem 1880 Assuming our well water to contain 15gr of Hard * Matter per gallon (some water contains 20) it would require 20gr (say 21 gr) or t sample to gallon to precipitate the Lime - It is said that oxalic acid is poisonous when 2 or 3 drachms (ie 60 x 2 or 3) are taken. NB2 00

ix 28-29u "Evaporation]dew" xi 5-9m 74a 20c "by"/10-59w carb of amm of shops carb A 55 Amm 30 Water 15 75a wt Nitric acid 731/ 3 262/3 nitrogen 8-46w Org carb of am 56 carbon & 43 ammonia wb Amm 82 nitrogen 17.6 hydrogen 75b 49u++ 80a 59u "= 4.5" 157a 39u "17.64" 385b 9m/u "16° colder" 386a 44-46m 386b 43-A6m 387a 25-39w swandown best substance 387b 36-39m, 40u "Charcoal I rust", 42-43m 578 wt00 582a wt Ammon. a-Chrom. a 10m*, 11m, 12m, 14m, 15m, 16m, 17m, 18m, 19m, 20m, 21m, 22m, 23m, 24m, 25m, 27m*, 28m* 584a 2-26m, 45-50m 587a 26-29w/35-36w/52w/57-58wf64w (weights of meteors) 587b 3w/4w/7w/19-20m/w/24-25w/ 34-35w/37-38w/41w/45w/51w/55w/60w (weights of meteors) 588a 4-5w/12w/16-17w*/ 22w/31w/36w/54w (weights of meteors) 806a 17-18W00, 19m, 30m, 37m 806b 18m 807 zb 810 wb 100 = 180 811 table divided by red and blue vertical lines, wb x/x/x/xâ> 814 4-lOw00

A DICTIONARY of chemistry compiled by H. Watts, 5 vols. & suppl.; 2nd edn; London; Longmans, Green & Co.; 1871-1872 [Down] che, phy, tm

vol. 1,118 33w00 125 wt Morphine 591 5-7m 727 28-30m/29u "1/1000" 781 15-26m 866 41-46m, 54-62m 922 36m

vol. 2, 21 56-64m 639 ll-13w Albumin &

Oxygen 60-64m/62u "homogeneous substance" 640 30-37m/32-33u "albumin I composition " 643 47~49m 829 25-27m (Liebig)

vol. 3, 721 28-33m, 55-60m

vol. 4, 199 57-60m/60u "and I acids"\w I used best of common 730 3-7m

vol. 5, 349 37-40m 950 16-33w the products of organic • which have played their part in the animal organisation 20-21u "the\ oxidation" 1016 l-6m, 18-21m 1019 5-8m 1020 65-66m 1021 2-7m supplement, 974 4-13m

A DICTIONARY of the English language compiled by S. Johnson, 2 vols.; 4th edn; London; W. Strahan; 1770 [Down, S of Josiah Wedgwood]

DICTIONARY of the Spanish and English languages compiled by Newman & Barrett; 5th edn, vol. 1, Spanish-English; London; Longman, Rees & Co.; 1831 [CUL, pre-B]

NB rebotar to rivet; chiquechaque, a Sawyer 75 12-17m, 60-62w rummage 84 wt nasty, narky 446 30-32m

DICTIONNAIRE classique d'histoire naturelle vols. 1-17; Paris; Rey & Gravier; 1822-1831 [Down, pre-B, on B, S in vol. 1] beh, gd, sx, tm, v

vol. 1, 17b 17-22m/19-20u "Cellel analogue" 323a 52u "Aurifera", wb no Gymnoflora. 323b wt 1815. 3u "Lepas", 4-9m 324a 16m, 20m, 28m, 32m

vol. 2, 145a ll-15m/15u "Balanus" 146a 45-48m 451a 5-22m, 13-15m, 23-25m

vol. 3 SB Article Chameau; 450 Nothing; Balancement; Bones & Hair correlation; But see the references to "Anatomie" & "Armes" 97a 20-24m 98a 9-13m/10u "bifurcus" 376b 39u "au \ mai", 41-43m, wb males an interval of eight mnths 447b 18-21m 448b 28-33m 450a 19-21m, 21-26m/w In BromptonO Dog reverse 49-52m, 50-54m 451a 52-54m 451b 6-9m, 24u "deux\garrot" 452b 20-23m, wb 3 varieties 454a 53u "Don\Theran" 454b 27-29m, 43-45m/43-44u "une \Alpaca", 50-54m 455a l-6m

vol. 4, 8a 18-24m (Cuvier)

vol. 5 SB 274 on Cyprinus; 277 on varieties of Gold Fish -

118a 24-26m, 27-28m, 24-25m, 28-32m, 34-41m, 43-47m 261b 2-5m/3u<-> 262 2-5m 274a

[page break] 198

197

9u "guère que" 274b 21-27m 275a 49-52m 276b 27-40m, 47-54m 277a 2-10m, 8-10m, 14m/u "une grosse", 20-A3mßl-33m 277b 18-20m, 46~47m 278a 3-5tn, 8-9m

vol. 7 SB 499. frog introduced from Madagascar into Mauritius

120a 17-21m, 47-49m 120b 5-9m 121b 28u "quinze \ queue", 35-39m/36w Ptel 122a 32-34m/32-33u^> 122b 15u "une\ retardé"/13-16m/Q 137a 24-25m 487a 26 "Greffe".w read 488a 24-29m 499b 46-54m

vol. 8, 274a 29-32m, 31-34m, 33-34m, 36-37m 324a 17-18m 329b 23-24m 336a 30-54m 405a 29-32m, 34m/u "M.S.Ch.E."/wb Kol-reuter#> refers to these 405b 2-7m, 26-28w Potato, Dahlia 28-38m/29-39m/29u "les espèces" 406a 7-17m, 39-40m 406b 4-8m, 8-21m, 43-47 m\46u "ovulesIavortés", 52-54m 407b 5-10m/??(7u "de structure" 467b 8-22m/ w teeth like points

vol. 9, 150a 48-53m 151a 9-16m/9-16m 324a 36-42 m 324b 22-25m 428a 25-26« "seconde I mâchoires "

vol. 10,121a 3-6m (Buffon), 15-23m, 30-34ml 31?/32u "entièrement" 121b 3-5k> only colour 34-36m, 37-38m 492a urt What direction did it arrive How many degrees of Longitude 30-32m 569b 33-43m

vol. 12, 305a 43u "clitandre", wb Preface 305b 23-24x, wb Preface 39-44m/w explanation of differn. 48x/u "rétinacte", 50-54m/ 53?lu "Belardia" 306a 18-21m, 22-23u "il\ loge" 307a 14-21m 307b 16-19m, 42-50m

vol. 13 NB Lesson; 419 Sea Elephant Penny Encycl & Vries; 402 Stemmatope F. Cuvier & GrattonO

361a 22-26m 361b 24-20m, 22« "plages", 22u "entièrement découverte" 402b 40-43m 418a 45-54m/46-47u "à\amours" 418b l-5m, 32-37w Polygamy 39-41m 419a 23-24m/««->, 25-28m 610a 38-40m/38u "Rana Pipa"

vol. 14, 10a 25-27m (Lamarck) 10b 48-52 m 131b 29-30Q

vol. 15, 18b 30-32 «<-►, 33-34u "entièrement I verdâtre", 35u "roux", 36u "élevées"

vol. 16, 195b 24-25u<-> 194a 45u++ 196a 48u "Tetrao lagopus" vol. 17 p

DICTIONNAIRE raisonée, étymologique, syn-onymique et polyglotte des termes usités dans les sciences naturelles ed. A.J.L. Jourdan, 2 vols.; Paris; J.B. Baillière; 1834 [CUL, on B]

vol. 1, 286a 45-49m/47-48u "nom\Candolle", wb Coelosperms 286b 2-2m 342a zb

DICTIONNAIRE DES SCIENCES NATURELLES, Planches Paris; F.G. Levrault; 1816-1830 [CUL] che, v

NB Vol with Conia 1818 Lépadiens w PL. 115, fig. 3.w x (2) back of plate 2 same size as B tulips in Brown - 2a good size for valve; all same size Balanides (first plate) wt PL 116/&, fig. 2.w I largish fig. 5.w versicolor or Mitra colur. back of plate 1 .-size of B. suleatum in Brown 4.- size of B. perforatum in Brown Balanides (second plate) wt PL 117/&, fig. l.w 3d size fig. 4.w 2d size

DILLWYN, Lewis Weston A descriptive catalogue of recent shells arranged according to the Linnean method with particular attention to the synonyms 2 vols.; London; John & Arthur Arch, Cornhill; 1817 [CUL, pre-B] gd, v

vol. 1 SB A (CD copies out detailed summary of distinguishing features of the following 35 shells: Chiton, Lepas, Pholas, Mya, Solen, Teilina, Cardium, Mactra, Donax, Venus, Spondylus, Chama, Area, Ostrea, Anomia, Mytilus, Pinna, Argonauta, Nautilus, Conus, Cypraea, Bulla, Valuta, Buccinum, Strombus, Murex, Trochus, Turbo, Helix, Nerita, Haliotis, Patella, Dentalium, Serpula, Teredo) (untranscribed w: CD writes "B", meaning "British")

25w 8 7w 11 6w, 20w 12 lw 13 22k? 14 9w not British 22k? not B 20w, 21-22u "interstices", 23w 15 3m, 4m/u "communis"/w no 6m, 17w, 19w (2) 37w copied! 40m "and I f."/w 16 7w, 10-15w (3) var of crenatus or balanoides 22k?, 17-19m, 25w, 30-36w (4) B. punctatus? -Yes 37-38u "substances\ abundance" 17 6u "Lepas borealis"l-^lwt L. borealis lw, 4-8w is this Ch. ChthamalusO 4-5w (5) 29k;, 20k; (6) 28u, 41-42m/41w, 42w

18 2m, 2-9u?* can this be CranchiiO 26-18w CranchiiO 29u "narrow glove-like", 32w (8) 35-36w, 37-39w = sulcatus 19 9m\uto "p. 101", 15u "striatus\Brit"/?*», 21-22m/21u "Cape\Bruguiere", 29w not recognisable 20 20-24w amphitrite? var cupidusO wb not to be recognised 21 7-15c/6-10w not to be recognized 29-22w B. amphitrite? or idoneus? 32m/31-34m/w this is curious 22 11-Uw var of tint 27w*, 28-32w vbx of tint 38k;, wb 9 24 zt, l-8m, 21w 25 28-20// 26 24-25?/u "Kurile Islands" 27 22k; 28 25-27w I 27m, 27-36m, 28m/w 1806? 30-32k? 1815? 29

[page break] 200

199

DILLWYN

24a; 30 5w, 27w, 34m 31 llw, 13u "Montagu test"lw&> 1803 22w, 22-23w • of Lamarck 25-26u "Ellis 1557" 32 3-5w var llw 33 20a; Lithotrya, 12-14m/13u "p. 197", 25w, 30u "Seba"/28-30w 1734-65 29m/w 1815 30a "Poli." 1791 33u "membranacea"lw 1808 35 7w 36 40a; 38 lxv, 6u "striatus", 26w 40 3w 41 20a; not B 24m; not B 17w 42 16xo, 38w 45 24a;, 26m "distorta"/w Ligula 36a; 46 8a;, 21w, 30w 47 3a;, 26«;, 20m "Ligula prismatica", 29w, 32u "Ligula substriata" 49 29a;, 22m "Mya pictorutn" 50 25w, 29w Mya ovalis 52 16w 55 lw, 17w 57 22a; 58 29w, 41w 59 32a; 60 7w, 22w 64 24«; 65 6w 69 30«; 70 26«; 77 24w 79 2-2«;, 5u "Solen vespertinus" 81 25«;, 28a; Tenuis 86 20a;, 22-23w Pandora inequivalvis 89 33a; 90 20a;, 24m "Tellina Laskeyi", 41w 91 22m "Tellina inaequistriata", 23w, 29u "Tellina squalida", 41w 92 30a; 94 25a; 95 22a; 96 8w, 13u "Tellina polygona", 37w 99 2a;, 28a;, 39a; 100 25a;, 38a; 101 2m "Tellina solidula", 21w 102 27a;, 23m "Cardium discors" 103 27a;, 33m "Cardium arcuatum" 104 20a;, 25m "Cyclas cornea", 41w 105 5-6w Cyclas lacustrus 25a;, 28a; Cyclas amnica 113 27w 114 24a;, 40a; 116 5a; 123 22a; 127 29a; 130 30a; 131 4a;, 26a;, 30a; 138 3a;, 8m "Cardium"fa Edentula 304 5w, 12u "Mya Pholedia"

DIPPEL, Leopold Das Microskop und seine Anwendung 2nd part; Braunschweig; F. Vieweg und Sohn; 1872 [Down]

DIXIE, Florence Across Patagonia London; Richard Batty; 1880 [CUL, I]

DIXON, Edmund Saul The dovecote and the aviary London; John Murray; 1851 [CUL] at, ben, cr, cs, phy, si, sp, t, tm, v, wd

NB1 Read Willughby & Aldovrandi Latham

NB2 Columella 8/8 Ch.; & Pliny L10.53; &

Varro 1X/2; & Aelian B3/15 Greek

Read Read Aldovrandi in Royal Soc

Willughby in Royal Soc translated by Ray

Read Latham Royal Soc.- Sloane Birds of

Jamaica not in Royal- Brisson Aves p437

Royal 1760

Read - Ray; Frisch some German Book

mentioned by Riedel

Read - Albin Royal p428 1731-38

p57 -18 days - Cocks on nest at 2 oclock

SB1 Mr Dixon

How Carrier taught to cross the sea.-

p.165, p166 ♦ rather hard to accuse of

Atheism because created - worthy of

quoting - are you not open to same on

account of feathered pigeon legs. - or even

more or less feet - Can you show that you

p.275 do not in this exalt "the idol nature in

an

Turbit p77 wd be good to get.

Linn Syst. Nat (my copy) vol.2.769. vars of

Pigeon. Read

(over) p. 6; p. 11 to 184; p. 237; p. 247; p. 428

SB2Qß

14 Pigeons feral in Norfolk Isld Qa

88 Case of Phas. colchicus & versicolor in

Q. Review 1850 - cross between the two

Pavos Qa>

97 Some crosses Runt, Fan-tail & Nuns

p110Q

155 Blue Rocks do not like other Pigeons

(Ch. 6/. p. 156Q

247 Guans very tame, but breed slowly

428 Every Goose domesticable

6 20-22m, 26-32m 7 l-3m, 7-llm 11 22-27m 12 31-33m 13 6-8m 14 7-22m, 20-22m/Q 15 26-32m 16 22-24m 17 2-3m, 8-22m, 17-20m, 28-30m 18 22-25m 20 20-22m 27 25-27m 33 22-24m 54 26-28m/27u "five\old" 55 2-2m 57 5-20m, 22-23m 58 3-5m/3u "eighteen days" 64 4-8m/6-7u "These\eye", 10-12m 70 23-24m/ 23m "lt\a"/14u "ever become" 71 2-3m 72 22-23m 74 3-6m/l-15w no argument of what wd take place by caging 9-22m, 14-16m, 21-26m/17-27w there is now little object in selecting new slight vars. 76 2-23a; even if we admit several species; these must have altered. 29-32m/31w no 77 2~4m, 13-16m, 18-20m 79 20-22m, 26-27u "Short-faced"/? 80 27m "more"/24-27m/w Geology!! 81 23-26m, 28-30m 82 25m "the\be" "1637", 17u*/18u*/ 19u "Persian I Turkish", 19u "not"/17-24w yet never feral 83 13-15u/14-15m 85 lOw 7 llw 8 22a; 9 23a; 10 24a; 11 25a; 12 - p120 87 10-14m, 28-33m 88 2-6m, 9-12m, 27-20m/QA> (Blyth), 28-32m 89 5-6m, 10-17m, 19u "Willughby"/w Date 22-23m/23-24u "than\ six" 90 19-22m 91 2-4m, ll-17m, 20-24m, wb It wd be worth to ascertain numbers in all the species in Brit. Mus. 92 16-20m 93 6a; 1.31/2 20a;A. 11 28m/«; 1.111/2 94 2-6m 96 ll-13m/12u "second degree", 14~16m, 17-19m, 23-25m 97 18-21m, 22-25m, 27-29m, 30m 98 18-19m&>, 24-27m\26u "Runts I may"\w var. 99 26-27m, 29-32m 100 3-6m, 24m "are\ black", 28-31w 2 vars. & subvars. 102 29-31m 103 4-6m, 22-24m, 29-32m\31-32u±* 106 4-llm/4u "mottled", 27-28zA>, 33-34m 107 2-4m, 8-llm, 23mA>, 24-27m, 31u "Dutch\bill" 108 22-24m 109 2-3m 110 25-26m 111 24-26m, 29-32m 115 2-5m, 19-21m, 20-22m/w No 117 8-24m 118 4-20m, 9-23m, 23-26m, 27-23m 119 6-8m 120 25-28m 122 22-25m

[page break] 202

201

123 2-5m/3u "very I them", 9-15m/w Nothing about powting 126 4-10m 132 22-31w How the Seas? 27-32m 133 24-27m 136 16-23m 137 2-4m/l-15w because direction not known or acquired but they probably cd guide themselves if this known 17-23m/? 139 24« "fleshy excrescences", 20-22m/21u "still I slim" 140 9-11 m 141 7-9m, ll-12m, 26-29m 142 5-7m 148 17-19m, 21-24m, 26-28m 152 27-33m 153 l-4m, 13-Um 155 5-8m, 25-30m 156 20-25m, 16-19m, 24-27m/26u "attributed \ Moore" 157 2S-22m 158 l-3m 159 26-28m 161 wt Bull-dogs wd not go wild 2-6m, 12-14m, 29-33m 162 29-32m 163 2-4m 164 25-29m, 31-33m 165 l-10m/3-6w does Blyth say so 27-28m, wb this ought to be considered a 4th species, if affines be a species.- 166 2-6m/w How close! 7-23m, 15-19m, 31-33m/w I wish certain 167 l-3m, ll-14m/13u "remarkable! struck", 25a "intermedia" no. • 168 7-26m 176 l-5m 184 5-7m, 12-13m, 25-27m 237 6-22m 247 5-20m 252 27-2Sm 428 27-22m/Q

DIXON, Edmund Saul Ornamental and domestic poultry: their history and management London; The Gardeners' Chronicle; 1848 [CUL, I]

beh, br, cs, ds, ex, gd, he, hy, mn, rd, si, sp, sx, t, tm, v, wd, y

NB1 ♦

Though, perhaps or probably several of our

domestic breeds may have descended from

several wild stocks, yet I think others cannot

probably have come from their crossing - on

account of one absorbing the other & without

systematic selection, the difficulty of making

thus any true Breed.

NB2 x; xiv to end; p34; 48; 69-79; 83; 87;

90; 97; 101

p. 188 good case of Hereditary accident with

growth

Fox thinks Cochin, Spanish, German,

Bantam originally distinct breeds

GGese p142.

SB1 p. 103; 110a; 112; 118-122; 125; 128;

137; 139; 146; 174; 183; 188; 196; 200; 202;

205; 251; 264; 273; 277; 281; 285, 6; 291,

2; 300; 305, 9

SB2Qß

p.314, p. 200A Cross-bred Fowls sittings

p8 Peafowls fighting & preening their

feathers

34 - The chicks of Norfolk & Cambridge

Turkey different

48 Old Canada Geese wd not breed with

Audubons, unless the young of same

species whereas the young of same species

wd

79 Guinea Fowl rolling strong eggs into Nest

87 Slight variation in China Goose

101 & 103 Contrast in Teal & Wigeon

breeding in confinement

111 White Peafowl of inferior size

115 3 vars of China Goose (so the goose

can vary)

118 Duck could fly in Columella's time Of

Mem «er Read all about Ducks

122 - Become feral in Marshes Q/&

137 Goose origin of - Apt to pair quite as

widely with other species as own Q£>

139 Gander always white - - Prolificacy

increased by high feeding

146 Barnacle Goose is increasing in power

of breeding in confinement

183 Cocks not created in Aristotles time

202 Hybrids between Guinea-Fowls & Fowls

NQ

♦ 253 Chickens of Spanish Fowls 264 of

Dorkings 273 Cochin 277 Malays; 285; 287;

306; 309; 325 of Polands; 324 chicks of

273 Cockrels of Cochin do not show

rudiment of tail feathers till oldish Q^

325 Golden Polands partly webbed O«^ Q^

326 Distinction of sex comes on late in
Polands (true) Q^

81 Peahen makes first advances to Cock

x 2-7m, 13-15m, 26-30m xi 5-7m, 10-13m, 16-17m xii 24-30m xiii rot Look at the oxen of every different country of Europe - look at dogs of do - look at men - if their variations are denied - my work might be closed 2-12w Mr Dixons opinion & Van Mons show permanence of varieties, it has same effect on them, which wild species has on naturalised, I know the feeling myself.- 22-26m xiv 13-18m/9-20w tell him about Bulldogs xix 3m, 5m 8 ll-13m, 14-17m/15u "frequently \ other", 17-19m 12 3-9m, 8-12m 34 22-23m, 35-38m 48 20~22m 49 4-7m 59 35-38m 60 33-35m 63 3-8m, 18-20m 66 25-27m, 29-31m 69 2S-20m, 27-28m 72 20m, 30-35m& 76 33-35m 79 7-9m 83 9-10m/10-llu "tubercle I neck", 24m/u "harsh I ceremonious ", 34-37m 84 6-20m, 24-26m 85 2 6-2 7m, 35-36m 87 7-13m, 16-17m, 25u "clanging\ trumpetings" 88 9-20m, 34-38m 90 21-24m 97 4-22m 101 2-3m, 18-21m 103 8-10m/w contrast with Widgeon 110 3-26w Thinks original species now dead 22-24m 111 2-2m, 4-8m (Lamarck), 20-24m 112 22-26m 113 22-28m, 29-33m 115 2-6m, 9-22m, 22-23m 118 15-24m, 27-32m/Q& 119 5-7m 120 25-35m 122 18-36m/24-26w NQ#- 125 27-29m, 29-32m/30-32QA> 126 6-28m 127 35-38m 128 24-39m (Audubon) 136 31-35m, 36"... 137 2-4m/

[page break] 203

204

DIXON, POULTRY

Qa/3...", 2S-22m, 23-27m 139 5-7m, 13-15m 142 19-23m 146 3-9m 150 5-8m 152 19-23m, 19-24m/20-21Q& 173 35-38m 174 22-22m, 26-24m, 35-37m 176 22-23m/23w No 32-40m 179 17-18m, 29-31m, 30-32m 183 2S-35m 185 29-36m, 37-38m 186 23-27m 187 37-38m 188 25-21«, 20-23m, 22-26m/22u "grew" 189 22-25m 190 26-38m 196 29-34m 197 ll-23m, 35m 199 32-33m 200 2-5m, 30-33m/Q&>, 35-38m, wb He does not appear to have any facts- 201 24-27m 202 17-21m/w NQ 36-38m 203 l-3m/2u&> "five\ ears", 4w&> 1 7w&> 2 9-10w£» 6 205 23-27m 247 3-Sm 249 5-7m, 29-30m/w pencilled & spangled 251 wt seem very upright - apt to jerk their heads 33-34m 252 2-3m 253 2-2m, 8-16m 254 33-34m, wb I saw Aug 55 an Andalusian Fowl all slate colour 255 8-18m/w Spanish Fowl 34u "blue\ colour" 264 2S-22m 265 17-20m 273 7-9m, 14-18m, 24-26m, 33-35m 275 8-22m 277 36-38m 281 34-38m/-> 285 31-32m 286 29-32 m 287 21-25m, 31-33m, 34-35m 288 14-18m 289 9-20m, 18-20m 291 3-9m, 33-34m 292 7-9m 305 26-2Sm 306 20-22m 308 16-20m/18u "Aldovrandi", 26u "CoraUGreys" 309 9-22m, 36-38m 310 33-35m 311 22 m 312 18-19m/?, 26-29m, 31-34m 314 20-23m, 24-27m 315 9-23m 316 22-25m 318 9-22m, 23-27m 320 5-8m/Q 321 26m, 25-28m, 30-34m 323 3Sm 324 18-20m/18u "white breasts" 325 20-23m/QA>, 26-28m, 29-38m 326 S-22m, 29-22m, 33-36m 327 2-5m*> 332 20-23m 333 28-33m 342 2-23m

DIXON, Frederic The geology and fossils of the Tertiary and Cretaceous formations of Sussex London; R. & J.E. Taylor; 1850 [Down, I by R. Owen]

DOBELL, Horace Lectures on the vestiges of disease London; John Churchill; 1861 [Down, I] P

DODEL, Arnold Die Kraushaar-Alge, Ulotrix zonata Leipzig; Wilhelm Engelmann; 1876 [CUL] fg, sx

NB 125; 126 I must allude to this 124 22m, 35-38m 125 24-32m/w if the sexual zoospores do not copulate, yet they germinate 126 2-4m, 3-8ml3u "Pringsheim", 11-14m 127 2S-32m

DODEL, Arnold Die neuere Schöpfungsgeschichte nach dem gegenwärtigen Stande der Naturwissenschaßen Leipzig; F.U. Brodhaus;

1875 [CUL, I] sl, tm

ix 27m 112 wt In Grey seedling a few hairs on the leaves, as a protection, may determine which out of a 1000 seedlings will survive 2-5m 115 21-22m P

DOHERTY, Hugh Philosophie organique: l'homme et la nature Paris; Didier & Cie.; 1881 [Down] p

DOHRN, Anton Fauna und Flora des Golfes von Neapel 3. Pantopoda Leipzig; Wilhelm Engelmann; 1881 [Botany School] p

DOHRN, Anton Untersuchungen über Bau und EntWickelung der Arthropoden vol. 1; Leipzig; Wilhelm Engelmann; 1870 [Down, I]

DOLFUSS, Gustave Principes de géologie transformiste Paris; F. Sary; 1874 [Down, I]

DOMESTIC MEDICINE, a handbook London; Bell & Daldy; 1872 [Down] p

DONDERS, F.C On the anomalies of accommodation and refraction of the eye trans. W.D. Moore; The New Sydenham Society; 1864 [CUL]

NB 573*^ 574 19-10m,wb 10

P

573 2S-22m 574 6-27m, 26-28m/27u "tension I accommodation", 32-35m, 37-40m/38u "without"

DONN, James Hortus Cantabrigiensis 10th edn, ed. J. Lindley; London; C. & J. Riv-ington; 1823 [CUL, pre-B, ED] mhp, tm

facing 66 w (CD?) NB Lobelia in Linnaeus is Syngenesia monogamia £> & Lindley says stigma with rings of hair wipes pollen out of anther in same manner as in that order (many other markings, presumed to be by ED)

DONNEGAN, James A new Greek and English lexicon 3rd edn; London; Sipkin, Marshall & Co.; 1837 [Botany School, ED]

DOUGLAS, John William, & SCOTT, John

The British Hemiptera London; The Ray Society; 1865 [Down] p

[page break] 205

206

DOWNING, Andrew Jackson The fruits and fruit trees of America London; Wiley & Putnam; 1845 [CUL]

ad, ce, es, ds, fg, gd, he, hy, no, oo, pat, phy, si, sp, spo, sx, sy, t, tm, v, wd

NB1 262 Walnuts

NB2 Catalogue of Books at Beginning p. viii

SB1 Catalogue of Books p. viii; p. 10 to 12;

p55; 60, 9; 75; 106; 115; 116, 9; 124; 130,

4; 139; 150, 3, 6, 8; 161; 171; 176; 184;

192; 195, 6, 8

Does Thompson give origin of Fruit Varieties

D It is important as showing what in small

things makes variation, is the sporting from

true kind, when grafted.

202; 210; 215, 6; 220; 248; 250; 252, 4, 6,

9; 260, 3, 5; 278; 280, 4; 304, 7; 310, 12,

17; 317, 29; 330; 340; 356, 8; 366; 379;

396, 99; 419, 21, 22; 447, 8; 460 to-> 5

(over)

p.469; 470, 3* to 502; 517; 524, 25, 31;

542, 7; 553, 7

SB2Qß

p.5 On fruit-trees not being true, when

grafted - Good

Facts against. Van M. viz old var. producing good plants

Crossed apple with fruit different at 2 ends

60. Every district has its fruit best adapted to

it. (Mem: Chinese)

75. A marked American Apple

116 Italian tender apple - Several hardy

ones mentioned in County of Wick & p. 124 -

Several sub-vars mentioned as (p. 130)

several Reinettes &c

150 Difference in hardiness in Almonds p473

in Peaches <m^> p488 do Raspberries p. 517

- Strawberries p. 533

157 Hardy apricot

176 American Cherry p. 184

äj 192 Sporting Cherry

195. Cluster Cherry; a flower has several

pistils & each produces a fruit - Flemish

peculiar cherry

a 198 a var. of cherry liable to attack of

insects more than other vars.

220 Mildew stops culture of Grapes in U.S

248 The wild native vines differ in quality

p.253, p254, 259/p.261. do. vars of wild

Hiccory

256 A cross between old world & new world

Grape

270 Purple Plums much most attacked by

certain diseases, never yellow vars. Many

vars. of Plums raised in America p289, 292

& Peaches <u<^> p. 469

284 - Siamese Plum - attached together on one stalk

304 Groups of Orleans Plums, when known to have descended - many plum hereditary 317 Pears not native, many vars - Pliny says * heavy most only good when cooked 422 Washington, a very distinct pear discovered in Hedge

r^ 462 The yellow disease originating with American Peaches 466 Yellow Peaches much most affected

470 Classification of Peaches by glands on leaves & serration & size of Flower-476 Most Peaches either free or clingstones, but one is on same tree always either*a> bothA cling or free xx scores of instances cd be given of this

492 Some Peaches very variable by seed, others constant & so it was with Plums 501 Smooth-skinned fruit destroyed by Curculios «■ over (over)

502. Nectarine from Peach & now true by seed

525 on selection turning Hautbois hermaphrodite

553 Northern Apples will not do in Southern States

viii 33-37m xi 5m xii 28-29m xiv 27m 1 zb 2 5m/u "chance when" 3 22-24m, 37-42m 4 20-Um, 35-37m, 45-48m 5 16-22m, 19-29m/22u "toiof", 23-28m 6 15-19m, 24-25m, 33-35m, 4&-48m 7 4-8m, 10-12m/ll-12u "subdue\ luxuriance", 16-17u "he\shortens"/w this does not look like excess of food 18-20m/19u "vigourItrees", 29-31m, 36-42m/w why more in America than in Europe 8 6-8m, 9-10m, 40-45m 9 34-37m/zo are these species V. table 40-42m, 43-47m/w any case of crossed species like this 10 l-2m 55 l-2m/lu "single I moths" 60 5-9m/w Is this selection or adaptation, latter I think 69 16-17m, 27-28m 75 ll-13m 106 4-5m 115 28-29m, 32-33m, 36-37m 116 36-37m 119 14-15m/w sub-var 124 23-24m 130 21-22m, 37-44w\wb 4 Reinette; several Pearmain; several Russett; several Sweeting; p. 139; Spitzburghs 134 wt 4 ll-13m 139 32-35m 150 4-9m 151 5-9m

20-23w Study all. I have only skimmed

43-45m 154 ^ 2-4m, 3u "have litle", 6u "Stone I bitter", 35-39m, 39-41m, 44u "adhering somewhat", 45u "Kernel sweet" 155 ^ 7u "Kernel bitter", 12-14m, 15u "compressed", 32u "Flesh separating" 156 12-16m*&, 13-15m 157 24m, 31-35m, 38u^ 158 19-21m 161 13-16m 167 l-3w p9. Heart & Bigarrieu have been

[page break] 208

207

DOWNING

crossed by Knight 171 25-29m 176 2-5m, 3-6m/6u "called" 184 10-15m/13-15w Mem Graft 189 18-21m*& 192 6-llm 193 5-8m, 9-11m 195 l-5m, 39-40m, 41-42m«&, 48mH«& 196 4-6m, 34-36m, 35-37m 198 16-17m, 24-26m 200 35-37m*& 202 4-lOm/w I suppose only one original species & no possibility of Hybridising 204 15-22w vars in size of berries & bunch colour sweetness & time & fruiting 25-26m 205 7-9m 210 12-13m/13u "perhaps I hardiest" 213 10-llx/10W»i» "one fourth" 215 25-28m/27u "1491 considered"/ 28m^, 38m, 40-45u± 216 4m/u "Early", 20u "obovate"/22u " oblong"/24u^ "oval" 217 * 14u "hangs", 33u "flavour\rate" 220 31-34m, 36-41m 248 25-36m 250 46-48m 252 34-38m/ 34u "Prince I describe" 253 2-7m, 23-24m/23-24u++ 254 15-18m/24-28m/30-34m/l-37w all this sporting must be in state of nature & seized by Selection as owing to little general cultivation of country 255 l-3m, 35-37m 256 17-18m/17-18u "habit I here", 24-41w Ascertain whether this comes under the Fox (V. Labrusca) p. 253 group or under some other (V. adlum or Prince), if so case of two species blended by crossing, though unintentionally crossed. 25-26w p240 Old World Grape; a native Grape 257 43-44m/ 44u*+ 259 l-12m 260 7-10m 261 2S-22m/Q*> 263 3-6m, 20-41w the number of American plums really surprising wb x it cannot be extra food which makes so many new vars. of apples Peaches & plums in N. America -V. further on - climate or soil very favourable 265 33-35m/^>, 39-46m 266 22-27m 267 48m 270 9-13m/7-21w colour & constitution - is there not something about peaches & nectarines? 42-46m 271 29-30w 1 272 22-23w 2 30-31w 3 41w 4 273 ll-12w 5 275 7w 6 27a; 7 27-28w 8 37-38w 9 276 ^ 9-10m, 40-41m 277 22w> 10 24-26m, 38w 11 278 31w 12 32-33m^, 34-35m, 43-45m 279 3m/3-Au "has I shoots", ll-12m/12u/[...], 33w 13 280 31-32w 14 34-40m, 34-39m 282 4-5w 15 33-34W 16 284 15-19m/17w 17 31w 18 35-36m^ 285 Wm/u "handsome round", 22m 287 39-40w 19 289 13-19m/13xv 20 38w 21 291 28-32m/28w 22 292 29-20«; 23 22-33m 293 5w 24 18w 25 24w 26 35m; 27 296 8-9w 28 299 29-30w 29 300 7m, lOw 30 301 8-9w 31 302 5-6w 32 303 22u> 33 37w 34 304 6-38m/w There have been several cases of fruits thus classed, where reproduction is known or inferred 305 l-3m/w 35 307 wt I have noticed that most of the varieties differ in all respects as well as in fruits 2-2m 309 3-4w 36 13w 37 33w 38 310 12-13m*&, 41-45m 312 37-39m 313 36-38m/w 39 314 7-

8m*± 315 26-27«; 40 317 24-26m, 39-46m, 46m 329 7-22m 330 l-6m 340 l-5m 356 29-25m 358 4-8m, 12-14m 366 33-38m 379 34-35m 391 37-46m 396 37-39m 399 S-9m 415 33-36m 419 3-6m/w numerous cases such as this 421 40-44m 422 23-25m, 23-2 6m, 19u<+ 442 19-25m 447 3-5m 448 39-42m 460 17-19m, 21-22m/22u "twenty years", 25m* 461 44-48mH 462 27-22m, 23-24m, 36« "established I question", 39-40m/43-44m/39-45w new disease originated in America 463 7-9m, 2S-29m, 31-33m/32u "many \peach" 465 37-38m, 41-42m 466 25-27m, 20-22m, 23-25m 469 10-15m^, ll-13m, 17-22m, 26-28m/21-30w almost certainly though probably derived from Eng. seeds 41-48m*& 470 2-4m, 23-26m, wb I rather doubt how far genealogical wd be best it wd be the most scientific classification of varieties even putting crosses on one side wb 4ss for p. 475 not hereditary 473 20-22m 475 20m, 36-Alm, 36-41m*±, 37w&> H. 40u*& "absence I glands" 476 14-18m, 30-31w many American kinds 478 22-22m 485 32m&> 488 29-32m/30u "garden I New" 489 20-22m/20mA>, 23u "is I variety", 34-38m/34-38m^/34m^ 492 23-24m&/22-29m/w others contrast p489 p494+ 493 2-5m 494 2-5m^, 2-5m/4-5m&>, 7-9m/7u^ "reniform", 15u*& "without glands", 25-27m, 44-45m/45m**/u "frequently\ with" 496 22-22mA> 501 12-14m, 15u** "smaller", 26-31m<&, 27-29m, 33-35m/34u "all I soils", 39ui& "Vol. 14, p. 53" 502 23-26m«&, 24-25m/24u "was\a", 36-38m*&, 37m 505 ä> 29m, 35m, 37m 510 23-25m 514 21-23m 517 17-18m/w V. p514 523 34-38m<& 524 2-6m, 2-4m^>, 22-23m, 26-30m^ 525 ^ <«*> 25-27m, 17-18m/ 18u, 19u, 21u, 22u, 23u, 33-47/37^40w selection producing 526 lw N American

527 22-23m, 22-23m^/23u+>, 28u "seeds\
imbedded", 35-37m/36u "Fruit
I size", 38u+*

528 25w Surinam 531 7-8m, 7-8m*&, 20-21m
532 2-3m/3m**/2w Pine 23-25m 533 3-5m
534 22-24w English origin 37-40m«& 535 25-
27m 542 26-29m 547 42-42m 553 35-Alm 557
27-22m

DOWSON, J. Erasmus Darwin: a lecture London; 1861 [CUL.1900]

NF6 Dec 1871

DRAYSON, Lieut-Col. On the cause, date and duration of the last glacial epoch of geology London; Chapman & Hall; 1873 [Down, I]

DREHER, Enger Der Darwinismus und seine Stellung in der Philosophie Berlin; Hermann Peters; 1877 [Down, I]

[page break] 210

209

DROUET, Henri Mollusques marins des îles Açores Paris; Baillière; 1858 [CUL] gd, sh, sp

NB 8 No Fresh-Water Shells 9 Many land-shells Endemic - very few Marine - peculiar

Species common to Mediterranean Canaries & Antilles

Much Sargasso weed p26 2 sp of Littorina

8 31-32m/u "illAçores" 9 9-13m/12u "Antilles", 23u "139", 25u "75"/w 5/75 new 29m "70\30", 30u "inédites"/31w perhaps more endemic 11 5-17m, 22-24m 12 5-6m 13 8u "nombre I doublé" 24 19-22m 26 3-6m/3m, 11-14m 34 17-20m

DRYSDALE, John The protoplasmic theory of life London; Baillière, Tindall & Cox; 1874 [Down, I]

DUB, Julius Kurze Darstellung der Lehre Darwin's Stuttgart; E. Schweizerbart; 1870 [Down]

NB 0/ P

DU BOIS-REYMOND, Émil Gedächtnissrede auf Johannes Müller Berlin; Königliche Akademie der Wissenschaft; 1860 [Down]

DUCHENNE, Guillaume Benjamin Mécanisme de la physionomie humaine, ou analyse électro-physiologique de l'expression des passions Paris; Jules Renouard; 1862 [CUL (Plates at Down), S] beh, h, phy, t, y

NB 2 woodcut of facial (rest 0)

SB09ÎA.

Duchenne 8vo Edit

Part I

p.31. showing absurdly how all examples

created.

38 * describes facial muscles continuous.

seem quite aware of many sources of error

- Huxley says discovered muscles.

Part II

p8. eyebrows - move least under will

-29 separation of pyramidal & frontal

36, 43, 53 antagonism of sourcifier & frontal

75 triangular of lip

(not CD) 180 On the pyramidal bringing

down the brows

184 In a false laugh the zygomatic is alone

contracted

Part 1, 5 4u "1805"/4-5m, 6-7u "a composé" 20 15-18m 22 22-26m/w only one muscle used!! 26 17u 18-19m 18u 29 15-22m 31ÏÏ22-l"..."/1\l0-6u±/ ttll-2m 1Î12-9«;* (as in the many Limb movements of our limbs.) ÏÏ22-6m/!/ w* good to show how theory fails 1Î5-lw+lwb* Praise his book. Well-known for other excellent Treatises, & add much undervalued, in my opinion, by other writers - a vast step in advance wb\ After speaking of the movement of the limbs, he turns to the ph. of the face, & remarks 33 20-22m 34 17-20m 36 10-12m 38 l-5m/w All muscles continuous - says it is an illusion 25-26m 39 l-3m, 7-8m, 21-23m 40 ll-14m 42 ll-25m 43 l-34m, 17-18m/17-21w in Laughter upper palpebrae, also; but these diurnal in young because associated with intense & painful attention. 47 3m/iv eyes 51 13-16m 52 20-12m/w No. endurance 53 7-10m 59 3-5m

Part 2, 2 fig.w (identifying little and great zygomatic) 8 15-17m 16 12-15m 26 2u "ces I gonfle"lw by mere corrugator 27 7-8m/8u++ 28 5-8m 29 7-22m, 23-25m 30 5-8m 31 8-10m 32 3-6m/w The contraction of orbiculars by themselves do not give look of Hardness 36 7-9m 43 8-llm/3-16m/w Judging by his experiments, the movement does seem entirely due to something which I suppose opposes sourciller 18-21m, 23-26m 44 2-2m, 3-5m, 6-7m 53 l-3m 56 20-2 2 m 61 22-24m 62 15-16m/15u "paupière inférieure", 17-22m/ xv See Large Plates 63 13-14m, 21-26m 73 16-18m 75 15u "lèvre", 16u "peu\avant", 20-21m 76 l-4m 78 20-23m 85 7-20m 87 22-25m 89 20-22m, 25-27m 90 6-23m 91 6-9m, 10-13m 92 23-27m 104 22-24m 105 l-3m 106 3-6m, 26-27m 107 21-23m 176 23-26m/w the eyes being open to see 180 14-21m 184 23-27m

DUFRÉNOY, Pierre Armand, and ÉLIE DE BEAUMONT, Jean Baptiste Armand Léonce Mémoires pour servir à une description géologique de la France 4 vols.; Paris; RG. Levrault; 1836 [CUL (vols. 3 and 4 only)] geo, mi, se, t, ti, ve

vol. 3 SF1 ♦

There appears to me great force in De Beaumont opposition to lava basalts (which certainly have been most fluid) stretching into wide sheets at inclination as great or narrow streams of lava on planches of cones

p.255. says superficial basalts of Auvergne resemble those of submarine at Teneriffe ?? forgets flatness of bottom of sea-

[page break] 211

212

DUFRÉNOY & BEAUMONT

p.254. Proofs of recent elevation at Canary Islds -(over)

p256 M. Babbage says part of crust, when volcanic forces have acted most likely to be elevated -

With respect (p257 &c) to thinning out of lava, round craters of elevation, not at all satisfactorily explained

It is very foolish giving one theory to any craters of elevation -States that beds thicken towards source -are strata upset at Cantal? Yes-The foundation of Theory original explosion Says Vesuvius &c all active volcanos put out of the question by both parties. C. Prévost p. 315 Bull. Soc

SF2 Are the lower trachytes of M. Dore subaqueous?

p.241. Cantal different streams, unequal contradiction to first statement Good god leaves out the Sea Says Basalt must have had greater fluidity -Which agrees with supposition of being under water -p.243. Basalt Terrestrial p. 246 Cause of no cones subaqueous Good. (over)

Is it certain Basaltic platforms lavas of Ccantal flowed in air? Is Cantal perfect crater is basalt so uniform

He himself slightly contradicts himself on latter point.

His rigid comparison with Etna alone most unsophisticated

p.217 important on inclination of lava without becoming basaltic

243 15-22m/19u "plaines I plateaux" 246 12-19m 287 18-23m 288 21-26m 291 l-8m 295 15-19m 302 22-24m, 25-28m 303 l-2m 309 zt

vol. 4, SB1 (6 numbered pages)

1

Elie de Beaumont Recherches sur les

Terrains volcaniques des deux-Siciles

a Vol. IV. Mémoires pour servir a une

description géologique de la France

p57 M.G. Rose first published fact that

(Annales des Mines 3° Tome viii p3) * lavas

of EtnaA Labrador Pyroxenes & some

peridodt, fer TitaneA

also Stromboli & some streams in Auvergne

a have lava of same constitution

p95 as far as argument has yet gone, no

proofs of the ancient lava being ancient -

a N.B. though no proofs every one seems

to consider they are ancient

- & therefore all this argument about small

quantity of recent ejections trifling

p98 says the successive ejections only tend

to make cone of Etna L° of 8.- or rather *

uniformly less than Central gibbosity - p. 97

compare it with * volcanos - ??

a seems to leave out of question case of all

eruption being from centre

2 (top line 0)

can scarcely doubt AscensionO a * cone if

eruptive, but no proofs

(part a) The whole argument appears to me

founded on assumption that eruptions must

always have * proceeded from the same

points as they now proceed.-

p.102 Theory of Etna given in few words

p103. dike theory, p115, p116 clearly given

p.106 matter thrown applicable to separate

volcanos in Cordillera

p.118 — Theory well given of Etna: ask will it

not explain domes of Trachyte

p331 (he means 131 - text erroneously has 331)

dike ought to incline * outwards in Val del

Bove a if the strata had been originally

nearly horizontal

p331. parallel Bands of cellular rocks in

dikes from stretching a - theory of Keihan's

dike.-

p133 Etna dikes are often accompanied by

faults - how are Cordillera dikes? a in this

respect? » great difference in formation a

of the kinds of dikes

3

p.132, some dikes join like roots to

streams.-

*| Dikes generally run to ENE & therefore

the elevation (cause of them) does not tend

to form "noyau centraux

p137 Valle del Bove like the Taoro in

TeneriffeA

p141 argue badly against cavity under Etna

142 - then argues fluid near surface, &

hence eboulement of Val del Bove; & hence

elevation of noyau centraux (non sequitur)

p144 are not centres of elevation, now all

given up (see Bull. Soc) Noa are they not

all Eboulement-

p.145 Wishes now to consider dikes as mere

feeders of ancient lavas

a & forgets by his own argument they show

elevation.-

4

p. 149 argues that dike T the union not

minutely •; viz thickness at point of junction;

coarseness of lapilli at spot

a the loss of parallelisms * which he says

would surely happen if streams hot flowed

[page break] 214

213

over great slope, rests on supposition of

lower cones being points of eruption instead

of solely upper ones.- *, is their * breadth

* is a quality so explained

p151 Volcanic cones are generally from 18°

to 40° in inclination

p158 the argument of gibbosity from his own

showing here, may be invalidated because

this is tending to form two kinds of slopes,

where * everything takes place from one

point.

0

p161 -Talus depends on form of fragments

a> & is the same in air & under still water !

good.-

5

p161 - curious error repeated at 182 in

reasoning could not have been formed

beneath the sea because they are recent -?

Perhaps they overlie Tertiary strata??

a Gradual elevation of the slope would

exactly counterbalance the decrease of

slope from the thicknening of the end lava

stream at bottom of cone.-

a There is a fallacy (165 166) in arguing as

if Val del Bove» was entirely formed from

loose matter & not partly from lava

p182 says streams have great horizontal

extension - how ascertained - a by section

at head of valley

p.188 seems to consider * elevation of Etna

quite sudden

p.doÄ) line of elevation in Etna - not true

"crater of elevation"

6

p191 considers Val del Bove engulfed like

Papandugong.-

192 considers subsidence of Val del Bove

like the pits formed on the crevasses in Etna

- *

thinks elevation sudden because of discordance between ancient & more modern lava.- N.B. part must have been gradual whether dikes point to centre or not

Think it was so because subsidence probably sudden why was it not for collection of gaz

ä> De Beaumont talks of the play of the

fragments on Etna excellently expressed

p.116»

a> Etna must consist of two volcanic hiv

from the point of eruption having changed &

the older part dislocated & inclination of

beds - added to from distension.-

SB2 Dufrenoy

p.286. Somma extensive 26° strata 23°-30°

349. Tuft of pumice Siliceous infiltration

Pompeii

354 soda in Vesuvian formations potash in

Volcano of Camp-Phlegreens Read Naples

geology in Lyell

356 Trachyte first, Somma beds 2 Trachy 3.

Veins lava of Ischia Vesuvius & Mt Nuovo

(over)

p.361.- I conclude when the great eruption

of Vesuvius took place, there was

accumulation of Pumice & Trachyte Matter in

Upper part of Volcano - Somma being base

of ancient great cone, the summit of which

was trachyte. If Teneriffe fell & was then

then blown out, first great eruption would be

trachyty & the central one might be basaltic

like flank- Study Lyell - The tuft on Somma

shows central trachyte mass.-

p374. Lava streams diffuse composition or

surface - in body -

(over)

p.382. Feldspar & Albite not * in Lava! .-.

little Silex

Compare the Analyses of the substances

from upper & middle part of stream p372

112 12-15m 131 26-28m 173, 174 (pages cut and restuck) 175 wt (CD transcribes part of p. 174) 178 12-15m 183 21-27m 191 19-20m 272 15-18m 371 l-8m

DUHAMEL DU MONCEAU, Henri Louis

Traité des arbres 2 vols.; Paris; H.L. Guérin & L.F. Delatour; 1755 [CUL, pre-B]

vol. 2, 233 21-22m/21u "racines I endroits"

DUMONT, Léon A. Haeckel et la théorie de l'évolution en Allemagne Paris; Germer Baillière; 1873 [CUL]

NB 15

7 2-5z 15 12-16m, 26-27m

DUMONT, Léon A. Haeckel et la théorie de l'évolution en Allemagne Paris; Germer Baillière; 1873 [Down] p

DUNCAN, Andrew The Edinburgh new dispensatory Edinburgh; Bell & Bradfute; 1826 [CUL, pre-B, S Charles Darwin 1826] che

106 25m, 27-33m/29u "pounds I grains ", 39-41m, wb Correct by Almanac wb+u 107 10-12wu, ll-14m/w Correct by Almanac 110 ivtcc 111 wt 8750 = 1 Pint of distilled water ie 1/8 of 101b or 70,000 Zw&> Penny Encyclop says 280 grains Zw<& Mr Baxter says 1 fluid oz of distilled water at 60F certainly contains 437.5 gr. apothecaries or

[page break] 215

216

DUNCAN, A.

FI oz; ce, wb correct I do not doubt x 437.5 x • Almanac wbt& 1 fluid oz contains 455.77 grains 480 grains

DUNCAN, James Matthews Fecundity, fertility, sterility and allied topics Edinburgh; Adam & Charles Black; 1871 [CUL, I] beh, br, ds, no, sx, t, v, y

SB °»

53 Variation of weight of infant according to

age of mother

59 of length of do according to do.

100 on Twins produced chiefly by women

between 25-29 years old.

252 on ages at which women may marry &

produce only Malthusian numbers of children

NB 53; 59; 64; 100 Summary on Twins; 262;

334 Important Descent; 382 do. Death of

males

53 7-15m 59 8-12m 64 14-24m 100 18-23m
262 25-30m (Malthus) 297 23m 302 6-2 2 m
334 13-21m 382 24~25m

DUNCAN, John Shute Analogies of organized beings Oxford; S. Collingwood; 1831 [Down, on B, I to Lord Widmouth]

NB 54

54 25-28m

DUPONT, Edouard L'Homme pendant les ages de la pierre Bruxelles; Macquardt & Cie.; 1871 [Down]

45 5-llm, 16-24m

DU PREL, Karl Freiherr Der Kampf ums Dasein am Himmell Berlin; Denike; 1874 [Down] 2nd edn; 1876 [Down]

DU PREL, Karl Freiherr Die Planetenbewohner und die Nebularhypothese Leipzig; Ernst Günther; 1880 [Down] p

DU PREL, Karl Freiherr Psychologie der Lyrik Leipzig; Ernst Günther; 1880 [Down] p

DURAND, Jean Pierre de Gros Essais de physiologie philosophique Paris; Germer Baillière; 1866 [Down, I]

NB 0/

NB 32; 88; 138 Eyes imperfect Helmholtz; 90; 93; 138 Lamentin, 141 Hallotherium allied to; ♦ 137 Steenstrup on Sole & Turbit SB 88; 158 on Eyes imperfect; 93 The hinder legs of Lamantin subserve as tail 141 on gradation in structure of Talpa, with figure of Humerus

43 32cä> "pas" 64 16w& qui 88 7-12m/w Does this apply to normal organ p. 332 90 18-25m 91 9-10m 92 26u/xe 93 5u "queue anatomique", Su "résidu \ destitué" 129 6m/w (refs. to figs.)&> 130 Wa/w, 12a/w (refs. to figs)f& 131 la/w, 2afw, 7ajw (refs. to figs)&> 132 4a/w, 5a/w (refs. to figs.)A> 137 10-Um* 138 11-Um 141 19-25m 144 28-32m 158 2-6m

DUTROCHET, René-Joachim Henri Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire anatomique et physiologique des végétaux et des animaux Paris; J.B. Baillière; 1837 [Botany School]

DUVAL, Joseph Histoire du pêcher et sa culture Paris; De Roret; 1850 [CUL]

NB Nothing

DUVAL, Joseph Histoire du poirier (Pyms sylvestris) Paris; De Roret; 1849 [CUL] phy, wd

NB A

p.2 Certain Pears known to have been wild

seedlings

«3> 32 p41 p47*<&

Two Pears which do not take well on Quince

stock

2a 61-64m 2b 16-20«, 44-57m, 59-64m 5a

49-52m 32a 31-39m 41b 4-12m 47a 32-42m

48a 22-30z

DUVAL, Joseph Histoire du pommier et sa culture Paris; De Roret; 1852 [CUL] beh, wd

NB 0/

2a 2-8m, 57-59m, 57-64m/w origin probably of orchards

[page break]

DURAND, Jean Pierre de Gros Les origines animales de l'homme éclairées par la physiolgie et l'anatomie comparatives Paris; Baillière; 1871 [CUL] ig, phy, tm

218

217

EATON, John Matthews A treatise on the art

of breeding and managing tame, domesticated

and fancy pigeons London; the Author; 1852

[CUL]

beh, br, cs, em, f, he, phy, si, t, ti, tm, v, y

NF1 Annals & Mag. vol. 19 1847 p. 105 variability of Pigeons

NF2 Of noblemen &c p. vi coming after p88 NB1 p. 62. Powter grand Passage; p. vi NB2 Facility of * crossing & Keeping Breeds pure - Value as Carriers -It will be all important to find whether the vars. vary in the points, which characterise them as vars. Questions

About fertility of crosses; Young Birds; Feathers in tail of Fan Tail. NB3 First Part

p iv; p xiv; xvii Buy; p26; p34; p. 40-50, 52-to; p. 62 Second Part

p.iii to vi; p21 - Important about not telling qualities of Birds in nest.-; p. 22; p32; p. 37; 41

p.vi 2d part funny Passage noblemen & gentlemen vi of Almond Tumbler (not CD) SBQß

Special facts on Pigeons not given always x XV advice to young Fancier to keep to one kind (Ch I) 1/2 quoted S%> 40 Total length of Carrier Q 46 On tendency to degenerate in highest-bred breeds, ie selection not perfect S«^ 49 Mayor on flight from Bury St Edmunds to 1 London in 2 1/2 hours

51 Length of Pouter Q 65 Fashion varies

56 On ill effects of not intercrossing Pouters

p.v about changes effected during last 100

years Q

vi "the field is as still open for competition as

it was 100 years ago" Q (on limit of

variation)

9 Advice to keep on Goldfinches head S1^

x 11 Advice to young Fanciers not to try for

too much Q S^

11 on great variability in feather in Almond

Tumbler - a Selected first & now variable

21 on difficulty of judging young Tumblers

33 believe many of the shortest beaked

birds perish in egg Q (Ch 6)

p.32 Beak may still be shortened S1^

Part 1, iv 4r-6m xv wt Hence many vars. 2-3m/2u "this I knowledge "/3u "Turlœ I Morocco " vi 21-23m, 37-Aim xvii 4-9m, 23-24w&> This Yarrell has 27wA> "1765"/...][..., 30."][...,

36m/w I have Delamers work published by Routledge 40u "Bees I Rabbits"'/->/36w Buy it wbfa A Treatise on Domestic Pigeons, London Printed for the Proprietors (no date) 2.6.old. lent me by Mr Evans - before 1809 for owner name has this 26 26-29m 34 48-49w 1765 40 wt Did old Aegyptians keep Pigeons? 8-9m/8u "Tavernier", llu "but \ the", 22-26m/23u "fifteen", 33-35m 41 wtec, 3-4m, 34-38m, 48m 43 28-30m/30u "of \ half" 44 25-17m, 19-21m, 29-32m, 33-36m 45 18-23m 46 l-3m, 31-37m/32-33u "there \ back"/34u "cast offs", 39-41m, 42-A5m 47 l-5m 49 2-3m, 10-13wu, 17-18m 50 8-14w very different from now 27-28m\28u "Horseman I Cropper" 51 2-3m, 9-llm, 15w in 1765 21-22m/22u "wantingI quarter", 41w<£, 41-42u "mere\ inches", 42u "seven I it", 43u "in I length", wb Ask Mr Bult 52 l-3mll-Ax^lw MarredO 27-29m 58 2-4m, 9-19m\9-43w The Horseman being thought by some to be a cross between Carrier & Powter 21w Dutch Powter 59 2u "English\ miniature" 61 33-41m 62 20-24m, 35-38m 63 18x^, 21-25m/22x^ 64 2u "jowlter\eye"/l-8mlw Rollers? 33-34x<^, 39-42m 65 l-3m, 5-12m/8-9Qi&, 15-17x^, 29-33m/31u "bald I beard", 40-44m 66 4-9m 67 2-2m 68 35-38m 70 5u "turned I duck", lu "bending \swan", 8-llm/9u "his I bird", 29-30m 71 3-6m/4-5u "three I long", 5-7m, 22-27m\23u "Runts I Runt"/27u "have\half", 41-43m, 45-46m 72 22« "and\more", 12-14m, 23-26m 73 3u "blues"/wt probably bars 2-2m, 5-7m, 40u "sometimes blue" 74 9u "six\feathers", 20u "there I blue", 21-23m 75 8-24m, 29-30m, 33-34m 76 2-Am 77 19-21m, 22-24m, 30-31m, 36-37m, 45-47m 78 wtee, ll-12m/u "six\tail"/ w var. 81 3-8m, 26-27m/2-28w This shows variability in the tumbling fraternity 5u "though\this", 12-14m, 20w Probably the same as Finnikin & Tumbler 23u "Dutch\ Drager", 24-27m, 48-49m/49u "Archangel" 82 5-22m, 6-8"..." 83 4-22m, 51-56m, 51u "Antwerp I sharp", 52u "sharp \ cunning" 84 2-4m/lu "Roman nose" 86 44-49m

Part 2, iii 41-43m v 46-56m/46-50m*/47u "seven-eighths", wb V. p. 9xx vi 6-9mQ<&/6-7"...", 30-36mjxj'"...", 49-51m 8 19-21m/14-21w ie variable 9 5-6m, 8-12m/xx/u "five-eighths", 13u "three quarters", 16-18m, 19-26m/"..."/20u "the\beak" 10 6-13m, 51m 11 3-6m/3-4"..."/Q&>, 7-10m, 12-16m, 25-29m, 34-38m, 40-45m 20 50-52 m 21 l-9m/6-8m 22 37-41m 32 50-57m 33 13-17m/w Q Ch 6 37 47-55m 41 34-40m

Part 3, ii 14-16m

220

219

EATON, John Matthews A treatise on the art of breeding and managing tame, domesticated, foreign and fancy pigeons London; the Author; 1858; [CUL, bound with:] MOORE, J. Columbarinus, or the pigeon-house, being an introduction to a natural history of tame pigeons London; J. Wilford; 1735 [pre-B] beh, br, cs

NB p60 Pouter; carr p44 Carrier

Frontespiece Tumbler 100 Barb; Jacobin;

Fantail; Turbit

SB 78 Qä)

86£d Fashion goes in extremes with

Fanciers- Q«&

120* in Beards

Qaj 145 Blue Tumbler bred from Splash

Cock & Kite Hen see p.

78 53~61m/55u "original Columbarian" 79 24-30m 86 43-55m, 57-60m 120 48-53m 127 42-45m 145 3-6m

ECKER, Alexander Die Anatomie des Frosches 3 vols.; Braunschweig; F. Vieweg & Sohn; 1864-1882 [Down] p (some marks by FD)

EDGEWORTH, Michael Packenham Pollen London; Hardwicke & Bogue; 1877 [Down]

EHRENBERG, Christian Gottfried Mikrogeologische Studien Berlin; K. Akademie dr Wissenschaften; 1873 [Down, I]

EHRENBERG, Christian Gottfried Vorläufige Nachricht über das kleinste Leben im Weltmeer, an Südpol und in den Meeres-Tiefen Berlin; L. Voss; 1844 [CUL, I in each part, S] gd, geo, ve

Part 1, 3 9m 4 23m, 32m 5 9m, 17m, 26m, 34m 6 1m, 21m 7 8m, 14m, 23m, 25-28m, 29m 8 9m 10 27m 14 27m 15 3m 16 23m, 15-16m, 31-36m (Darwin) 18 8m, 13m, 25m, 36m 19 8m, 32m

Part 2,12 21a\c%

Part 3 title page w Nothing

Part 4 title page w Matter Dust

Part 5,11 32-34m

Part 6 title page w Patagonia -Infusoria- B. Bianca - Pampas 10 19w&> 25 11 15-19w with some fragments of Infusoria 12 14-16m/ 4-16w volcanic character more clear & number of Infusoria increase each time 13 13u/wx 14 5u "verglühter", 25c "A", 26-32m/ 27c "B", 27m/wx, 29m/xvx, 30m/wx, 31m\w, 32u "8"w (locations of species), 33u x, wb land

forms 15 3w though near 8u "Süsswasser", 9u "verschiedenen", 10-16m, 14m/w, 15mlw, 16w (locations of species), 25c&> "A", 26~31m/29a& "B"l 30m/27xv p90 wb p. 175 16 wt no. Infusoria 2-4m, 2m, 2m, 4m, 5-6w 13 7-9m/7u/ wxl9u/wx 19 22-26m, 19-24m, 34-38m*

Part 10, 51 Sfl/CfÉ &

part 11 title page z 333 26m/26c/w€ 339 12a/ c€ A 359 9-25m

Part 12 title page w Nothing

EICHWALD, Eduard von Geognostisch-palaeontologische Bemerkungen über die Halbinsel Mangischlak und die Aleutischen Inseln St. Petersburg; Buchdruckerei der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaft; 1871 [CUL] p

EIMER, Theodor Untersuchungen über das Variiren der Maureidechse Berlin; R. Stricker; 1881 [CUL, I]

204 20m 212 20m 219 2m

ÉLIE DE BEAUMONT, Jean Baptiste Armand Louis Léonce Leçons de géologie pratique Paris; p. Bertrand; 1845 [CUL] beh, ch, geo

137 22-27m 140 22-27m, 22-24u "terre\ diminution", 26-29m, 27-30"..." 141 16w Buildings 17-19m, 19-20u++, 23-27m, 29-32m 142 l-7m, 2-3"..." 143 23-32m 145 23-32m

148 24-29m, 25-26u "permanence I végétale"

149 S-23m, 22-25m 150 l-5w has changed
very little 2-6m, 3u "Van 451 " 152 wt He did
make sections, & I shd thought may have
been steeper 2-6m, 30-32m 153 2-4m 160 wt
Tumuli in many parts 164 4-9m 165 1-llm,
17-22m
168 6-20m, 6-29w I think earth-
castings when they come to bottom of slope
must be carried away 169 21-25w He forgets
new Humus formed 182 26-32m 187 29-33m
189 20m 226 29-32m

P

ÉLIE DE BEAUMONT, Jean Baptiste Armand Louis Léonce Note sur les systèmes de montagnes les plus anciens de l'Europe Paris; 1848 [CUL]

124 17-29m

EMERY, Carlo Fauna und Flora des Golfes von Neapel 2. Fierasfer Leipzig; Wilhelm Engelmann; 1880 [Botany School] p

ENCYCLOPAEDIE der Naturwissenschaften Breslau; Trewendt; 1879-1882 [Down] p

221

222

ENGELMANN, Wilhelm Bibliotheca histor-ico-naturalis vol. 1; Leipzig; Wilhelm Engelmann; 1846 [Down] gd, wd

NF Äj^0

NB1 Any of Nillson in French?; 305 Is

Nillson's Handbook in German or Swedish?-

I think not; 367 Wagner on Geog Distrib of

Mammals; Pritzel Thesaurus Literaturae

Bot. 2.2 (in Athenaeum Club); Steudel

Nomenciator Bot. 33 in Linn Soc.

NB2 Tidsshrift p133

Danish Tra. p57

p289 Vermischte Zoolog, includes domestic

animals

Ancheria p749

Sardinia p157

p531 ; p. 636; 73; 142

ix llmlwifa, 12m 38 46m, wb England &

Amer p38 France p61 48 9m 57 52m 61 35m

103 27m 133 22m 157 49-53m 240 wt% 303

6m 304 3m/w Meyer - got 45m 311 48m 320

31-34w 1st edit about 1816 36m (Cuvier), 38-

39w this is mine 338 39w€ 339 43m/w out of

print 341 39-47w\wbu, 44-45u "1789-1813"

429 42m 486 32m 527 31-32m, 41-43m (F.L.

Delaparte) 531 30u "RAXXXIX" 554 3-7m

149* 19m 754b 5m 785b 44-48m

ENTEN, Schwanen und Gänsezucht Ulm; Ebnerschen Buchhandlung; 1828 [CUL] f, v, wd

NB p. 25; 28,36; 78; 83; 87; 143; 144

SB Qß

p25 Goose sometimes top-knot

p36 Wild Goose 10-12 Eggs p28 tame lays

13-18

p87 Tame Duck will lay 80-100 Eggs in year

p143 Details of Rearing wild Ducks in

Sweden - Tiburtius reared them for 3

generations & they did not vary in least in

taste or feather.

25 22-24m 23« "selten isabellgelb" 14u "Straus" 28 î\7-5m 36 !Î20-9m 74 lu "un"I? 78 ÏÏ20u "wilde\Art"/ü 79 24u "BusMKopfe"/ w what tl20u "hängende", ÏÏ3-2m/ÏÏ3u "China\ Vaterland" 83 ÏÏ4-lm/w/wb one considers the handsomest tufted Ducks those, whose tufts are made of many little tufts. 87 6-20m 143 13-15m/15-25w Has reared & formed useful Ducks from wild Birds Q/& 144 5-10w Have kept for 3 generations feathers & taste like wild Ducks

ERCOLANI, Giovanni Battista Nuove ricerche sulla placenta nei pesci cartilaginosi e nei mammiferi e delle sue applicazioni alia

tassonomia zoologica e all'antropogenia Bologna; Gamberini & Parmeggiani; 1880 [CUL, I] p

ERCOLANI, Giovanni Battista Sull'unità del tipo anatomico della placenta nei mammiferi e nell'umana specie e sull'unità fisiologica della nutrizione dei feti in tutti i vertebrati Bologna; Gamberini e Parmeggiani; 1877 [CUL, I] p

ERICHSEN, John Eric The science and art of surgery 5th edn, 2 vols.; London; James Walton; 1869 [Down]

ERNEST, J.A. Dictionary, Graecium lexicon London; J. Rivington; 1816 [Botany School, pre-B, ED]

ERRERA, Léo Sur la structure et les modes de fécondation des fleurs Part 1; Gand; C. Annot-Braeckman; 1878 [CUL, I] v

NB 212; 62, 65, 66 Cleistogamic Flowers; 70; 117; 144; 123; Plantago 170 variation passing from Entomoph into Anemophilism; 129 Table of terms; 133; 146 Index of terms; There is also much on variation of Pentstemon

62 3-29m 65 5-25m 66 26-28m 70 22-24m 84 22u "à I guêpes", 24u "Linaria sriata" 85 4u 111 2-23m (Sprengel) 122 27m 123 5-27m, 18-21m 124 6-20m 133 5-22m 135 28-30m 136 26-27m 154 22-29m 196 22c "portaient" 212 24-31m 213 20-24m

ESCHRICHT, Daniel Frederick, REINHARDT, Johannes Theodor and LILL-JEBORG, Wilhelm Recent memoirs on the Cetacea ed. W.H. Rower; London; The Ray Society; 1866 [Down]

NB not read

57 32u 66 23-27m, 22-24m/22u, 30-39z 74 6-

9m 78 26-31m

ESCHWEGE, Wilhelm Ludwig von Beiträge zur Gebirgskunde Brasiliens Berlin; G. Reimer; 1832 [CUL, on B] gd, sh

NB 36 66 486 Shells at Bahia & St Pauls The last chapter I have marked, but must be read again carefully 36 6-12m/7u "aufgeschichtet"

&

469 24-25m 471 5-7m 472 2-2m/u "Bergbau I getrieben" 478 7-9m 479 22m 483 2-22m 484 9u "Granitmassen "19-16m/u "nichts "115-16m 486 6-2 6m 488 9-23m, 34-3Sm

223

224

ESPINAS, Alfred Des sociétés animales; étude de psychologie comparée Paris; Baillière; 1877 [CUL]

beh, co, in, oo, or, si, t, ts, wd

SB Qß

p14

47 Instinct of Aphides

54 Actions performed without distinct

reasoning - good

&> 196; Much on instinct

& the mental qualities of animals &

individually on sexual selection, but I have

not read all carefully.

p.300

* 305; 308; 317

(over) &

Except in the coral instance I do not believe that either corporeal structure or mental ability are + due * to the preservation of single individuals

a> I have never alluded to the very useful work of definition, but it seems to me that the term social ought to be confined to * animals which are induced» to * live together through mental attributes, independently of any physical bond, & if so corals &c cannot be said to be social even in the lowest degree, any more than the buds on the same tree.- but it is rather beyond my line of work, being too philosophic or •

I have now read your work, but I have nothing particular to say It seems an interesting & very valuable Work & you have been great adaptible in acquiring great knowledge from all sources. Every one alluding to the mental power & nature of animals wd be bound to study it./p54 As you hardly admit to principle of evolution we view all subjects from such widely differt points of view, that it is not surprising that we should often differ. Allow me to point out that you have unintentionally misrepresented me at p. 47 I have not discussed the origin of the instinct of domesticity, & have only alluded to them with respect to the question whether the aphides have any advantage from giving to the ants the socialO instinctsO I shd have added differs from conscious

14 2-5m 47 26-24m 54 24-32m 55 2-22m 57 7-27m 196 l-9m& 300 7-13m/w fear makes cluster more together? 305 l-8m&> 308 1-3m<@ 309 wt a Cat & a Dog brought up together will love one another 9-22m«^, 22-23? é? 317 8-12mé? 351 12-18m

EURIPIDES Hecuba Oxford; J. Vincent, H. Slater, J. Mawman, Deighton & Sons; 1836 [CULR, S Charles Darwin, Christ. Coll.]

(here and there, translations and paraphrases of text)

EYTON, Thomas Campbell Osteologia Avium 2 vols.; R. Hobson; Wellington, Salop; 1867 [Down]

225

226

FABRE, Jean-Henri Casimir Souvenirs entomologiques, études sur l'instinct et les moeurs des insectes Paris; Ch. Delagrave; 1879 [CUL, I, S] beh, v

NB p122; p. 129; p174; p. 211; p241; 271, 2 SB •» 121 p. 122 124 variation p. 122 124 Instinct good; 129; 176-177 some variation of; 211 on finding way; 241 ; 318. » 168 cutting off Antennae; 172 shutting up cell; 177 parallel case

title page u (author, title) 73 26-27m 121 31-35m 122 wt Gauchos killing by pittingO 6-17m, 36m 123 19u "criquets I habituels", 36m 124 l-3m 125 32u "dernier siècle" 126 28u "guêpe" 129 33-36m 168 31-35m, wb antennae or palpae when former cut off 169 17-20mll9u "tous\palpes", 30-36m/-» 170 2-5m/3-4u "six\oviscapte", 19-22m 171 34-36m 172 9-15m, 17-22m 174 2-13m 176 31-36m 177 1-Am, 14-22m, 25-31m 211 15-24m, 27-29m 241 25-32m, 33-35m 262 14-29m 271 21-28m, 32-35m 272 27-32m 274 ww 296 18-26m 297 18-24m 299 26m 311 8-21m 315 30-36m 318 28-32m

FAIVRE, Ernest La Variabilité des espèces et ses limites Paris; Germer Baillière; 1868 [CUL, I] et, em, f, he, phy, spo, sx, t, v

SA (pp. 12-13) 091 £>

Dom. Animals

Faivre Var. des Espèces

♦ ^ p. 44. various sports enumerated some

good.-; p. 100 on certain cuit, plants which

lose their character in certain sites

p71. for Pangenesis, on special action of

poisons CI. Bernard ♦«»

♦^ p 111. Pangenesis on embryonic limb

grafted & developing itself, p. 132 do; p114

on permanence of new race of Datura Tatula

obtained by Godron.

♦<b> 119 Cases of Reversion by seed.

155 vitality of pollen

^112 good (on Canna)

7 13-20m, 36-37m 10 36-37m/30~37w Termites 8 forms!! 22 2-9m 23 l-14w or rather a state of Direct action Polymorphism 16-31m 25 36m 44 24-28m/26-27w Sport 36-38m/w Sport 45 4-7m, 12-17m\w Sport 37u "Carrière"\37-38m 71 35-38m 90 9-16m 95 27-35m 100 10-37m 101 2-18m 102 21-36™ yet has said before few + natural races!! 103 ll-21m 110 33-35m, 36-37m 111 wt Pangenesis l-4m, 38m 112 l-6m/2u "membre anormal"I4u "cette I plan"\l-2wPan 114 11-

15m 119 9-16m 132 34-37m 133 10-17m 141 33-35m 155 12-Um, 25-28m, 36-37m 156 15-19m 158 15-18m, 16u "Balisiers", 16-19w Canna Diet, class. 159 9-llm, 19-24m, 26-30m 177 8-15m, 18-22m

FALCONER, Hugh Palaeontological memoirs 2 vols.; London; Robert Hardwicke; 1868 [Down, I in vol. 1] tm

vol. 1 NB 577 Canines; 581 xv 18m xvii 16m, 18m, 20m, 28m

P

Sil 24-25ml25u "canines I jaw" 581 33-40m

vol. 2 p

FALCONER, Hugh Report on the teak forests of the Tenasserim Provinces Calcutta; F. Carbery; 1852 [Down, I]

NB 30 30 ll-22m, 25-31m 31 34-39m 32 20-24m 33 6-10m

FARRAR, Frederic William Chapters on language London; Longmans, Green & Co.; 1865 [Down, I] beh

NB Gesture language 104 104 l-19m 113 w (not CD)

THE FARRIER and Naturalist edited by a member of the Zoological Society of London 3 vols.; London; Simpkin & Marshall; 1828-1830 [CUL, pre-B] ch, si, tm, wd

vol. 1 NB Those struck out read in Vol 1; 338*; 380 ♦; Q 452♦; 466 change in Wool in sheep; 469*; 547* - Guinea-fowl on St Helena in 1588

338 l-3m/Q 380 6-13m 452 wt All Q 17u "the sorrel", 20-21m, 26-28m\26u "often" I27u "black\dark", 28u "often"IQ 32m, 45m 453 lu "sorrel", 3-5m, 25u "tinctured I claret" "brown", 25-31-*/31u "dappled", 39-41-^ 455 5u, 7-8m\7u "fallow", Wu "because\goes", 12u "thence I backed ", 19-21m/19u "fallow I duns "I 20u "faintly dappled", 40m 456 26-30m\w Q colour 466 32-Alm 467 l-7m 469 33-35m 547 21-22m, 26-27u "pintados"

vol. 2 NB Dog

♦ 151; 349; 365; 368; 379

Allude to Wilson Essay

151 25-33m 349 26-31m 365 24-26m 368 10-

14m 379 20-24m, 39m 380 7-12m

vol.3 NB ♦ 17; 115

Rabbit & Hare not crossing Qä>

228

227

FARRIER

17 9-20m, wb no selection by men 115 16-

25m

FAUNA UND FLORA des Golfes von Neapel, Monografien 1-4 Leipzig; Wilhelm Engelmann; 1880-81 [Botany School] p

FAYRER, Joseph The royal tiger of Bengal London; J. & A. Churchill; 1875 [Down, I]

FENWICK, Samuel The student's guide to medical diagnosis 2nd edn; London; J. & A. Churchill; 1871 [Down, FD]

FERGUSON, George Illustrated series of rare and prize poultry including comprehensive essays upon all classes of domestic fowl G. Ferguson; Beaufort Library; 1854 [CUL] af, beh, br, cc, er, es, dg, f, fg, he, hy, in, si, sx, wd, y

NB I must be careful about trusting this

man.- Mr Tegetmeier says not known as a

Farrier. Mr Brent does not know, but says he

offered to sell Coops & Aviaries - so must at

least have kept Birds.-

Tegetmeier has commented The whole Book

a pack of lies & compilations

SBl 091 ♦*>

iv*; iv; v*; v; vi*; p. v*; vi

23; 27; 31; 32; 35; 49; 67*; 69*; 75, 75*; 82;

85*; 91; 93; 108; 151; 162; 163

♦ /& see p. 27 to explain

a a good deal of remarks on Polish

Spangled Cock & Hen; Cocks & Hens

almost always different Spangling v. wild

Hen which is I think barred

(e»; ♦/&) Cuckoo Poland; Cocks & Hens

almost always different from part Spangling

& barring plannedO in Hens

SB2 317; 320; 333; 342

(äj; *e>) Always put after Page names of

Breeds (Shangae) (Game) &c; connect

perhaps * by dots (See p. 27); Clean

well the pencil marks.-; Keep Book Clean.; Write smallish on one side, number your pages. (over)

♦ a ->^ Mr Norman put in name at top
171; 172 *; 176; 177; 186 ♦ £> Good
example of Malays; 187; 192; 201; 206; 230;
254; 260; 262; 277; 281; 284 ♦ KissingO
each other; 296 see Weight of Malays 297;
299; 302; 304*; 305; 311; 313

<<&; ♦e>j Look at weights of Malays

over

SB3 Qß ä)

p vi. no ancient selection Q«s>

p. 23 Black-red Cock Shangai resembles

game Q»

- 27 on power of male Cochins in courting

shy females

35 Shangai eggs granulated Q»

49.- slowly feathered

75 Prefer breeding from bad bird of good

pedigree to good bird with bad pedigree

83- experiments on interbreeding Spanish *

causing Degeneracy.

93 Grey Dorking like male X«^

108 about ascertaining & selecting flavour of

flesh when killed * preserve brother: with

respect to neuter insects.- X8^

162 Fanciers select each point to excess, a

little peculiarity * valueless - a great more

valuable or. - quote.- X8^

172 All birds more readily acquire than lose

a peculiarity.- Polish Fowls heads very

hereditary » see Poultry Chronicle a> Easily

grafted by a cross

186 O^ Malay Hen 10 caudals - crow

peculiar.- individual differences

(over)

192. Deist - believes of multiple origin Q»

201 Hybrids with Pheasant - Lies <u.«s>)

285 on proportion of Male & Females -

Males in excess.-

297 Eggs of Black Bantam different shape

302 Cuckoo Bantams Q»

311 Highly-bred Birds - many eggs

unproductive

313 - change of locality lessens injurious

effects of interbreeding

317 Freemans Game stock degenerating

from interbreeding

iv 14~20m v 23-30m, 34-35m/34[... vi 1-lOm/ 3-AQ 23 13-17m 27 l-6m, 20-24m, 26-33m 28 l-10m 31 16-21m 32 8-17m, 18-23m 34 12-13m 35 ll-21m 49 22-26m 67* 28-33m 69* 30-33m 75 30~33m 75* l-4m 82 24-32m 83 2-5m 91 5-8m 93 31w Grey Dorking 32-33m 108 5-llm/Q 151 22-27m 162 24-32m 163 2-3m, 4-15m 171 19~28m 172 5~12m 176 28-33m/30w Dixon 177 3-27m 186 7-20m, 29u "13"/28-32m/w see Bantams 187 17-22m 192 2-5m 201 4-29m 206 20-29m 230 25-28m 235 20-26m 252 33u "The\varies" 253 lu "from\ cream", 7u "hens I unusually" 254 26-31m 260 4-8m, 13-16m, 17-18m, 18-24m 261 15-25m 262 24-33m 111 32-33m/wb Pencilled H. 282 l-4m, 7-llm 284 31-33m 285 l-2m, 9-15m 287 6-22m 296 2-6m, 15-17w Cock & Hen same plumage 19-22m, 29-33m 297 15-22m\ 19z 299 8-22m 302 wt Cuckoo Poland mentioned l-3m 305 ll-15m, 23-26m 311 30-

230

229

33m 312 l-5m 313 5-10m, 20-29m 317 22-32m 320 3-9m 333 l-8m 342 7-22m (67* means second p. 67 etc.)

FERRIÈRE, Emile Le Darwinisme Paris; Germer Baillière; 1872 [Down]

NB 0/

FERRIÈRE, Emile Le Darwinisme Paris; Germer Baillière; n.d. [Down, another copy]

NB O/

FERRIS, Benjamin G. Origin of species, a new theory Ithaca, N.Y.; Ithaca Democrat Print; 1871 [Down]

FICHTE, Immanuel Hermann Die Seelenfortdauer und die Weltstellung des Menschen Leipzig; 1867 [Down]

xlvi 9-46m\10w%

FISKE, John Darwinism and other essays London & New York; Macmillan & Co.; 1879 [Down]

FISKE, John Outlines of cosmic philosophy based on the doctrine of evolution 2 vols.; London; Macmillan & Co.; 1874 [Down]

vol. 1,129 7m, 8m

FITTON, William Henry Notes on the progress of geology in England London; Richard Taylor; 1833 [Down, on B?, I]

FITZGERALD, Robert David Australian orchids vol. 1 i-vii, vol. 2 i, iii, iv, v; Sydney; Thomas Richards; 1877- [Botany School, I] f, fg, gd, sp, tm

vol. 1 i, 1 26-27x0, 27m, 28u*, 34u*/34-39m, 35-38m/36-41w How in other parts of range? 40u "in\seed"/x0/w seed with every 44-A7ml44u "or\ time", 49-5Om/x0 2 wt Is this native rate - Try with own pollen F. Müller & Scott (in Fs letter one is perfectly fertile if own pollen placed on stigma) 2-3m, 34-40m/?, 50-52m 3 l-5m/x0, 5x0, 12x0, 16x0 \w0 rare 4 l-6w As the seeds did not germinate, it cannot be told that nat fertilisation occurred 13-15x0, 16-17m, 26-30m, 47-49m+0 Pterostylis longifolia 8-9m, 14-19m/15u "from\half"/16u "one\five", 22-27m/22u "instantly carried"/24u "two I pollen", 33-35m, 36-39m, 40-42m, 43-44m Caladenia dimorpha 7u "lip I column", 7-9m/"..."/w Genus like 20« "without]such", 24-26w are

not the calli nutritious

vol. 1 ii, Spiranthes 15-17m/x/16-17u

"touchlstage", 20x/u++, 23-27m/x/26u "under\

fertility" Adenochilus 14-16m/x Saccolabium

2x

vol. 1 iv Thelymitra 13-17m/16u "have\the",

18-25m, 28-A2m

FITZROY, Robert and KING, Philip Parker

Narrative of the surveying voyage of H.M.S. Adventure and Beagle 3 vols and appdx.; London; H. Coburn; 1839 [CULR, 2 copies of vol. 3, one marked by FD] gd, geo, gr

vol. 1 NB ♦ 2; 8; 56; 136; 140; 204; 210;

258; 306; 328; 337; 363; 375; 385; copied

out

SB (not CD)

2 25-27m 3 21-27m 6 3-6m 8 2-4m 56 32-34m/w Feb 57 22-24m 58 2-3m 59 5-7m 87 24-26m 133 29-33m 136 6-10m, 29-34m 140 9-22m, 19-20m, 22-28m 204 20-28m 210 18-25m 258 22-26m 306 3-9m 307 22-26m 328 9-22m 329 9-20m 337 lu "some\which", 14-21m/16-21w 168 ft!! 42ft 126 28-31wu 343 7-8m 363 20-23m 375 20-28m 385 l-6m 398 24-30m P

vol. 2 NB1 ♦ 251; 277; 415; 418; 420

copied out

NB2, SB (not CD)

39 30-31m 43 23-25m 65 5-7m/w no 131 (markings not by CD until) 251 33-34m 277 30-33m 412 20-25m 413 20-23m, 2S-20m, 22-28m, 33-36m 414 2-23m, 15-23m 415 l-7m, 18-20m 420 5-15m 421 2-7m, 33x/u "twenty toises" 485 32m 486 27-2Sm 488 22-23m 490 23m/m/u "1832" 496 27-30m 498 22u "James Island", 12u "side I Charles", 8-14m/w the leeward side compared with 502 9-llm, 35-37m 504 19-22m 505 15-18m/16u "northwest", 30-34m, 36-37m

vol. 3 NB 209 & 210 Law of succession of life in S. America

153 Distribution not always

(many markings not by CD, except) 153 2-4m

154 27-22m 184 wbu 185 wtU 201 wtU 209
4-6m 210 6-9m 215 32a "The"\31-33c\31-37w\
wb
puma, with the condor on its train follows
& preys on the guanaco (Habits of.) 216 2-7c
272 16-17m, 25-26m 273 9-20m 307 wbu 460
4-7m (Henslow) 556 3-4m 585 3-25m

Appendix NB p. 145 p. 143 p. 146

131 2-20m 132 ll-20m(CD?) 143 3-22m 145

25-2Sm 146 22-26m

231

232

FLEMING, John A history of British animals

Edinburgh; Bell & Bradfute; 1828 [CUL, pre-

B]

br, tm, v

NB p. 264 -Analogous to Pigeons - on vars of Helix nemoralis coupling together.-(untranscribed w are -page-number references) 59 9w, 37w, 42w 60 4w 94 lw 116 20w, 33w 117 lw 148 15w 162 13w, 35w, 49w 177 wt acanthopterygious 22w, 37w 178 lw, 19w, 29w 202 2w, 8w, 29w, 36w, 39w 203 lw, llw, 22w, 38w 224 A 9w not in this volume 12w 225 A 4w, 8w, 9w, lOw, 14w, 15w, 17-19m/w, 21w, 25w, 26w, 28w, 29w, 31w, 33w 226 A 12w, 25w 264 13-20m/16u "Reverend\ Sheppard"/14-16w Linn Trans? 27-29wu 281 a 33w, 34w, 36w 296 a 3w Scutibranchia 12w, 13w, 15w, 20w, 27w, wb Cryptobranchia Heart entire detached from rectum Scutibranchia Heart with two auricle traversed by the rectum. 297 a> 12w, 16w 328 A 5w, 12w, 17w, 23w, 29w, 32w, 36w, 39w 329 A lw, 2w, 5w, 8w, lOw 381 A llw, 22w, 29w, wb Siphonida. Cloak more or less closed forming syphons .... 408 382 a lw, 9w 408 A 2w, lOw, 26w 409 A lw, 17w, 32w, 43w 410 lw, 7w, 14w 467 A 23w 472 A 3w, 7w, 9w, 13w not in this volume 473 a Sw>, 20u>, 12w, 13w, 18w, 20w 474 9w, 17w, 20w 505 A 2w, 3w, 5w, 7w, lOw not in this volume 506 A> 9w, 24w, 27w, 35w, 43w 528 A 3zü, 5w, 12w, 19w 538 A> 20zy, lSw, 23w, 27w, 31w

FLEMING, John The philosophy of zoology 2

vols; Edinburgh; Archibald Constable & Co.;

1822 [CUL, pre-B, S in both vols.]

beh, br, cc, fg, gd, is, mg, oo, phy, sx, t, ti,

ud

vol. 1 NB1 See Class Index in next volume. NB2 almost all first relating to Instinct 20; 50; 52; 221; 224; 229; 231, 2; 236; 241 - good; 246; 254, 6 to 268 to 274; 277; 298; 302; 308; 409; 425; 427xx; 429; 430; 432 20 10-15m, 27-34m/30u "instinctive\injuries"/ 28-32w how loosely worded 50 19-21m 52 15-18m (Linnaeus) 220 8u "Association I Ideas" 221 2-6m/6u "recollection", 9w dreams 224 19-23m/?, 23-26w* 225 2-8m/w how known? 229 7-9m, 32-33m 230 26-30m 231 23-27m 232 4-9m/w like Audubons Water-Dog 20-17w Old Greyhounds will not run if Hare starts at a distance 233 25-31m 235 23-32m 236 5-llm/w shamming death + My Rio de Janeiro spider shows insects know their 241 %w/wt The individual who by long intellectual study acquires a habit, & can perform action

almost instinctively, does, that in his life time, which successive generations do in acquiring true instinct:- instinct is a habit of generations,- each step in each generation, being intellectual for in lowest animals some intellect? No] 23-25m/27-28m/u "rather I impulse"/ %w the distinction between these habits perhaps important wb It is strange according to my theory that habit which results often of intellectual processes, -Habit may result from any train ie only incidentally effect of reason or (of intellectual processes) - is so related to instinct, which analogy of plants leads one to believe to exist, independently of intellect.- 243 5-9m, 10-16w How wonderful young of Kangaroo sucking 247 wt/l-6w & turning round before sleeping - covering dung &c show that principle may possibly be laid down that every instinct preserved is not changed & some of these may once have been important. 7-10m/x 254 4-6m, 7-8m, 31-34m 255 12-13m 256 19-23m 257 l-4w station & home confounded 258 29-32m/w monkeys pulling things to pieces - looking behind looking-glass 259 28-32m/30u "immediate\ individual", 33-34m 261 8-14m, 26-30m 263 l-2m/w monkey with dogs 265 wt the sudden way insects recover from feigning death shows it is not effect of fainting - do insects such as Byrrhus contract their legs in dying??? 3-7m, ll-12m, 12-13u "Affections\ pain", 14-17w !!! Baby's affect, to Mother!! 268 l-3m/w difficult to be accounted for 9-12m, 19-22m 272 27-31m/w difficult 273 27-20m 274 4-7m/w dogs - wolves porpoises 277 9-13m/w By nerves in * some compound animals 298 2-6m 302 9-lSm/w !!!dogs running Hare p304 304 18-21m, 29-35m 305 20-27m, 23-30m 308 24-26m/21-28w What are active powers? 309 l-6m 409 19u/a "neuter"/17-19m/w of both sexes my theory like plants 425 l-4m/w Has true Eggs 15-17m/15u "toi confined", 19-29m/w I think infusoria properly breed 426 l-2m 427 5-18m/13u "Soc.\268", 23-30m/w argument not conclusive also x by flowers not being permitted, wb Hypothesis - such plants were originally long lived and have become annual, having been transported (by nature) to cold climate. 428 ll-14m/w* in course of time, every 25-28m/w this is merely same as successive buds on trees 31-34m/33u "acotyledonous", 36-38m, wb Hence one can only say - strongly tempted to believe, only true reproduction is seminal- 429 wt/l-6w makes vast distinction between plants & animals 7-9m/8-9u "preventive\

234

233

aversion"'/w ?assumed V. p. 430 note.- 27-29m, 29-34m/? 430 7-8m, 29-30m, 30-32m/ 32u "which \ exhibited" 432 9u "procreating", lOu "of species"/10-12w only applies to plants

vol. 2 NB1 The sexes of Nightingales

arriving at different times, is illustrated by

sexes separating as in chaffinches, where

there is no migration.-

NB2 good Chapt on migration of Birds

5; 6; 8; 10; 12; 30; 33; 35; 40, 3, 4.; 108;

140; 149; 355; 356; 362; 379; 407; 530; 535;

578; 618

SB09Î

231 C. cornix breaking shells

& 233 All here excellent illustrations of

reason in animals-

241 some good remarks on instinct

vol.2

10 Horse in Zetland pregnant only biennually

Q

42 Flight of Birds Rate of - Hawk-case.-44 On birds knowing time & direction 149 on masculine instincts in old Females 356 Fecundity of Fish

5 24-30m 6 9-10m/10u "excite\vomiting" 8 22m "produced \ stature"/w sometimes 14-16m, 19u 10 20-2ÏQ 24m "his I year"/25u "twelfth"/ 26u "above\years"/24-29m/w How other horse - goodish - How in cattle 12 9-33m 13 16-20m 30 8-16m 32 34m "leafing I elm"'/28-34m (Linnaeus, Stillingfleet) 33 l-5m/2u "leafing\ sycamore", 19-24m, 31-33m 34 wt/l-5w These facts show how much influence small differences of temp - have upon -distribution of Birds 5-9m 35 2-22m, 21-24m, 30-32m/w Zoology of those Islds 36 l-7m, 9-13m 41 l-8m, 25-34m 42 wt In Montagus Diet it is said from Dr Show that a Falcon of Duke of Cleve flew out of Westphalia into Prussia in one day - but this too vague. 4-37w In Montagu Col. Thornton estimated that a Falcon after a Snipe went at rate of 9 miles in 11 minutes = 49 miles per hour but independently of numerous turnings 43 3-7m\ w all correctly quoted 8-13m, wb "certainly 100 miles is not beyond a fair computation for migratory continuance". Montagu. 44 7-26m/15-19w =very good= 20-23w Pacific also wb proves a faculty - useless in indulge in mere conjecture as has been done, showing * that electrical currents 108 9-llm, 30m, 31u "fallow-deer", 32m 109 25-27m 140 5-30m 149 3-16m, 19-21m

P

355 l-4m 356 l-4m, 20-35m 357 21-24m, 27-29m 362 l-5m 366 28-32m 379 10-12m/w Secondary male characters 21-22m 407 21-

24m 530 6-8m, 35-38m 535 6-10m, 33m

P

578 14-23w is presence of neuters universal

in these genera

P

619 4-8m/w possibly serve for reference 10-

16w See about Royston Crow

FLOURENS, Marie Jean-Pierre Examen du livre de M. Darwin sur l'origine des espèces Paris; Garnier Frères; 1864 [CUL]

NB 48 64 nothing

48 l-5m 64 8-9m 65 l-9m

Catalogue p

FLOURENS, Marie Jean-Pierre De la

longévité humaine et de la quantité de vie sur le

globe Paris; Garnier; 1855 [CUL]

br, ch, es, f, geo, he, hy, pat, t, ta, tm

NBp.50;p.84;p.105-9

p120; p130; p146; p. 148; p156; p. 173; p185

SBÜß

109* 143 Hybrid Dogs & Wolves sterile from 4th generation - p. 156 - Q p144 On Prevalence Q of types in crossing Assen &/fa Horse/fa Dog & Jackall &c &c

145 reduced in 4 generations to pure form Q
148 It is succession, not resemblance which
makes "a species". (Ch. 4)

185 vis medicatrix

title page u (author, title) 50 tÏ25-2m 84 $w/ wt How utterly the law fails in insects, How in Birds? Pigeons mature very quick; yet they live pretty long 104 ÏÏ4-lm/H 105 5-8m 106 tTllM "le thur"/mi-8m 108 ÏÏ6-lm 109 6-12m, ftà-4m, ÏÏ2-lm 120 4-15m 130 V-lm\wb Has a Man seen an escarpment worn by the sea? 134 wt argues against an inherent tendency to change. 135 6!/u "aucune\ espèce", 9-lOm 140 1\l5-lm/wb Yet Cuvier believed in Dogs. 141 Ïïl5-lm/w (a) wb (a) shows only the difficulty of deciding 143 ÏÏ2m "dès la lw at wb context shows this meaning 144 wt This shows, means in & in. The interbreeding may have aided, only aided, the natural sterility of the Hybrids. l-2m/w (a) 4m "bientôt", 6u "Mes expériences"/6-8m, 12-13m, ÏÏ20-9m, U-6u±, tÎ6-2m 145 3-6m, 7-16m, 18-19m/w crossed with pierpoints Q/&

146 2m "bientôt", 4u "bientôt" 148 M-4m 149
12-13m/? 154 ÏÏ22-20W 156 4-8m, 9-12m/w
161 male 133 fern tÎ7-5m 157 wtu 173 l-4m
185 10-15mlw always forming the bones &
therefore capable of forming a lost part V.
ante

235

236

FLOURENS, Marie Jean-Pierre De l'instinct et de l'intelligence des animaux 2nd edn; Paris; Paulin; 1845 [CUL]

beh, br, es, ex, f, h, hy, mg, sp, t, ta

NB p. 26; p. 32; 50; 57; 85; 88; 97; 101; 106; 110; 130; 141; 175 (he probably means 173); 191; 200

SB Qß

27 Condillac on instinct Q

32 Instinct a Primitive Force, Q like

intelligence

50 man alone reflects

57 Q/& F. Cuvier has compared instinct to

Habit - Well discussed

85 On Breeding of Monkeys & Hybrids in

confinement, 88 do

97 On Breeding of Chacals & Hybrids of

101 Camel & Dromedary produce sterile

mules

106 Breeds of sheep all fertile & with

Mouflon

108 Zebra - crossed with Cattle Hybrid

fertile

111 Q Beavers always amassing material in

Cage

121 Thinks Fox & Dog will never couple p

131

131 Dog & Wolf sterile from 2d generation

(Think of savages)

191 Cat exercise Kitten with Mice NQ

200 He saw bear wash poison off cakes NQ

26 12-15w He thought it actual habit 27 7-9m/w in that generation 32 15-18m 47 vot bird modifying nest not migrating 18-lSm 50 17-20m/l-21w except by consciousness of oneself, how can this be told? if not there are no proofs that animals do not reflect 57 8-llm 58 3-6m, 13-20m 60 He "habitude"! llw intelligence 19-21m 85 (at top of page a portion of The Times is stuck, concerning Duke of Northumberland giving Cercopithecus griseo, Grivet, and C. viridis to Royal Surrey Zoological Gardens; dated 10 August 1847), 10-12m/w p. 88 14-17m 88 4-9m/6u "makilblanc" 97 ll-14mll5u++, 18-19m 101 3-4m 106 4-6m, 19-21m 107 16-19m 108 6-7m, 12-Um 110 9-13m/Q 111 9-llm 114 2-5!/m, 11-Um 116 2-Sm, 9-15m 121 9-15m 130 wt/l-lOm/w no doubt Pallas theory presupposes the extinction of many aboriginal species 14-23w only tenable by getting a little blood of some other species in.- 131 7-10m, 20-24m 132 14-17mll-18w the Pig good to state Pallas hypothesis from. 133 19-21m 141 ll-13m 173 18-20m 191 ll-12m 200 l-2m/lu^

FLOWER, William Henry Catalogue of the specimens illustrating the osteology and dentition of vertebrated animals contained in the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons of England part 1; London; David Bogne; 1879 [Down]

FLOWER, William Henry An introduction to the osteology of Mammalia London; Macmillan; 1870 [CUL, S] af, ds, phy, rd, sx, tm, v

NB 64 Caudal Vertebrae *

p.265-268 - good for * plates of

Homologies of Limb-Bones

270; 279 Analogy; 291 Rudiments; 294

Descent

Descent 325 spur of male Echidna

296 Ligamentum teres

303 Rudiment

321 foot of Marsupials origin

SB a Flower Osteology of Mammals

p.265-268 excellent figures of Homology of

Bones of Limbs

♦ p. 270 va

p279 - good case of analogical resemblance

in bone of foot

p.291. Rudiment of Limb in Cetacea, used

for attachment of Bone of Penis

p.296 List of animals which do not possess

Ligamentum teres to thigh-bone - Orang is

one. Have I not read case in Man doubtful?

Mivart says cavity in Orang & Chimps

variable

303 Rudiments of Limbs present in an

ancient Sirenia, but absent in all existing

species

64 13-15m/14u, 18-21m 270 24-30m 279 l-8m 291 25-33m 292 5-10m 294 12-17m, 22-24m 296 l-7m 303 l-6m, 15-17m, 18-21m 321 28-33m 322 l-6m, 7-12m 323 l-33m 325 3-5m

FLÜGEL, Johann Gottfried English-German & German-English Dictionary part 1; Leipzig; G. Liebeskind; 1838 [Down] p

FOCKE, Wilhelm Olbers Die Pflanzen-Mischlinge Berlin; Gebrüder Borntraeger; 1881 [CUL, S, I]

P

464 5m 483 20m

FOL, Hermann Recherches sur la fécondation et le commencement de l'hénogenie Genève; Henri Georg; 1879 [Down, I]

FOLLEN, Eliza Lee The life of Charles Folien Boston; T.H. Webb & Co.; 1844 [Down]

238

237

FORBES, Edward On the Asteriadae found fossil in British strata (offprint) [CUL, I] at, ds, em, fo, sp, t, ti, tm

SB1

p.458 &c

A) p526 This paper must be read after

looking over Von Buch

to end - I am not at all convinced by it -

SB2 Qß

458 Crinoidae & Echinidae essentially
"chronomorphic"

- Knowledge of Fossils confined to N America & Europe, evidently one region.-460 Silurian star-fish a recent genus 526 Table of affinities of Echinoderms, showing that does not go with age p531

457 lu "Asteriadae", 2u "Forbes", 12-16m 458 l-6m, lOu "chronomorphic", 14-20m, 42-43m

459 21-25m, 35-38m, 43c "corresponding"/w&>
Silurian 460 ll-13m 461 3-12m 463 33a&
"Lower"
464 5c "Lower", 21c "Lower" 526 not I
table.wfo
How absolutely without Law is the
development of groups ie nothing like *
embryonic metamorphosis lu "Echinidae"/
wt&>
doubtfully palaeozoic p458 lu
"Asteriadae"Iwtfa
existing genus Bala. .-.
oldest p. 459 3m/w carboniferous ?Older?
table.wfa Silurian table.w I do not see why
Cystideae may not have been the parent
form & given out 3 lines; as well as be
inserted between Crinidae & Echinidae.
table.m "Crinoideae"/w Lowest order + order
wb I do not see why Cystideae placed above
Crinoideae; the only sd. argument ought to
be derived from simple organization.- 527
25-27 mi^ 531 16-23m0», 33u "first"/w I fancy
not in time 532 11-121, 13u "negative \ polar",
24-36w
absolutely unintelligible 533 8-9!/9u
"exactly
I value", 15-171, 38m, 39-40!

FORBES, Edward A monograph of the British naked-eyed Medusae London; The Ray Society; 1848 [Down] sy

NB ♦ 40 Remark on nomenclature

FOREL, A. Les fourmis de la Suisse Zurich; Zürcher & Furner; 1874 [CUL, I] beh, es, em, fg, he, ig, no, or, pat, phy, r, sp, sx, tm, ud, v

SF Qß ->

Kreisirrenanstalt Munich

NB Page III

13-19 121-134 144-147 116-121 258-269

272-274 «3T276-283 285-293 299-300 308-

310 341-351 314-315 371-374 386-388

391-396 440-449 443

SB1 Qß •«•

All marks from beginning to end

SB2 •*

p. 14 on differences of worker Ants

p.123 Brains of male female & neuter very

curious

135 Ants clean each other, 152 take old

nests & modify them to their own use

p.203 Make or work on roads.- 206 invent

new methods & vary their work.

208 adjoining colonies friends 248 in cutting

off heads of other ants - knows position of

ganglion

249 courage varies according to number of

community. 250 * attend to slightly injured

ants - leave badly wounded.- 251. Friendly

ants rather perish than attack each other for

food. 258 263 allied ants of distant species-

274. In fighting tactics of different species

different. 280 association of 2 species

286 On ants recognising each other for a

time & at last forgetting - Huber error

296 A few ants determine course of others -

301 signal communicated

304. Ants get mad with rage when fighting &

are calmed by the others

307. Stupidity of Rufescens in not taking

cocoons on ground, because will try to find

entrance to supposed nest, p. 321 number of

slaves 20,000-25,000 under 1 year by p.

rufescens They examine previously the nests

to be attacked.

343 In one genus concludes that all crossing

except between Brothers & sisters male

cannot leave Nests (dimorphic!) (but I think

courting •)

(over)

p341 a slave-maker.- 347 gradation towards

perfect slave-maker.

p.359 F. sanguina number of slaves very

variable p. 363 Errors of F. Smith

363 Different tactics of 2 species in fighting

365 364 var of rufa F. rufa normally makes

slaves 366 * number in nest -

367 sick one attended to by comrades 367

play

373 Mixed colonies, not explained.

394. Nymphs of Ants cannot open cocoon

for themselves, without aid from others,

often aid them in removing the skin

397 same female fecundated by several

males - 398 fecundated female does not

enter old nest

399 females fecundated are often caught &

brought back by force to natal nest, & these

must have been fecundated by males of

same nest.

240

239

[page break] FOREL

417 not known how new colonies established.

419 very curious evidence how rarely ants of distinct nests intercross. 421,422 Ants protect their Aphides from all enemies - so mutual service. 440 excellent summary of Whole; approves of what I have said of origin of slave-making 441. thinks atrophy of ovaria in Neuter may be due to development of their brains.- 441 trace of castes in neuters very general -about intercrossing 446 Indecision of Mind & Struggles between opposed instincts.

14 9-26m, 18-24m 15 l-4m, 6-8m 7u "règle\ distincts", ll-12m, ÏÏ6-4m 18 16-20m 19 1-Sm 123 1Ï2S-26m, ÏÏ23-20m 135 1Î24-22m 152 11-16m 203 6-8m/8u "travaillent Iles" 206 10-12m 208 5-llm, 12-17m 209 ÏÏ6-2m 248 15-19m 249 fÎ22-9m 250 1-Am lu "exceptionellement", lÏ3-2m 251 10-12m 258 ÏÏ2S-25m, ÏÏ9-5m 262 2-3m, 10-14m lOu "fraîchement écloses"/llu "travauxIdes", 18-20m/19u "troisIjours" 263 3-7m 274 ÏÏ24-22m/ÏÏ24M "tactique\ est"/w of different species 280 ÏÏS-2m/w association of 2 distinct species 286 15-20m 15-16u "Voilà I origine" 287 l-4m lu "compagnes\mois", 18-22m, 23-24m 296 ÏÏ18-14m/ïïl8u "la\donnée", 1\3-lm/î\3-2u "elles I arrière" 301 1\l2-7mßl0u "un I toutes "f\\9u "dans I direction "\w clearly signal 302 ÏÏ25-22m 304 ÏÏ20-3m 307 8-lSm, 16-18m, 20-24m, ÏÏ7,/u "esclaves I reconnurent" 308 ÎÎ22-Sm/ÏÏ20M "Revue\scientifiques" 321 11-lSm, ^7-4m 325 5-6m/w ponte larva 26-18m 17-18u "tandis" 343 ÏÏ4-2m 344 l-5m, 1Î7-5m/tt7u "P. rufescens" 347 ÏÏ3-2m 359 1Ï8-4m 360 4-9m 362 6-8m 363 2m, 4-Sm 6u "faisaient \ du", ÏÏ5-2m 364 24-25m, 27-20ml8u "savoir\plus" 365 ÏÏ2S-26m 366 ÏÏ9-3m/ttSw "5000\500JOOO" 367 27-29m, ÏÏ6-2m 369 ÏÏ24-22m/ÏÏ24-23M<->. ÏÏSm 373 tÏ20-2m 394 7-22m, 13-20m 395 lT23-9m/ÏÏ22-22u "sel sew/es" 397 20-22m 398 4-5m 5m "deIdiverses" 399 ÏÏ25-22m, ÏÏ20-9m, 1Ï7-5m 400 fÏ2-2m 402 1Ï24-20m 417 22-25m 418 ÏÏ24-22m 419 22-2£m/m 421 5-8m, 9-22m, ÏÏ22-9m 422 7-9m 436 ÏÏ2-2m 440 ÏÏ14-6m 441 2-7m 5« "teldu" 6m "atrophie \ secondaire", 10-12m, 18-20m, 21-23m 442 îm, 15w Sexual differences ÏÏ27m<->/ ÏÏ25m "travail \ tout "fÏÏ9-6m/w not transmitted, but given to neuters & thus indirectly acquired by by males & females, very curious. ÏÏ5-4m, ÏÏ3m "am I autre" 443 8-9m/w I ought to read again about Strong, testaceus 20-23m, 19-22m/21u "dans I manière"'/22u "d'une\d'autres", 24-26m/w & most dominant on earth ÏÏ3-2m 444 2-20m 3u "tandis\ besoin", 9-12m 445 22m "les Isont", 1Î20-2Sm,

ÏÏ23-22m, V-Am, ÏÏ3-2m 446 3-25m, ÏÏ20-7m, ÏÏ7-4m 447 2-3m

FORSTER, Johann Reinhold Observations made during a voyage round the world London; G. Robinson; 1778 [CUL, pre-B, S] beh, co, gd, geo, gr, is, se, sp, ve, wd

NF Classes Islands p14

a> p. 27 Tanna volcanic and has I certainly

think elevated coral on coast

NB ♦ 21; 22; 179; 183, 5; 187, 9; 193

(Abstract)

187 Besides two domestic Mammals only

Bat in Western isld; & Black Rat in Society,

Friendly & New Hebrides p188 in Tanna 2

species of Bats.

p188 Hogs of same breed in the several isld

193 Natives of Society & Friendly Isld catch

& tame Pigeons & Parrots -

14 2-23m, 7u (place-names)/5-8w Maatea a little to SE of Tahiti V. p 93 8u (place-names)/ xv close together 17 4-5m 20 2-2m 23 18-23m/20u "formed of corals" 24 2-5m*> 26 20-23m 27 26m 69 8-20m 70 2S-22m 147 7-26m/ 7m "one\only"/w V. 173! 20-24ry NB In Cooks voyage nothing is said about Forster landing here 27m "Turtle Island"/15-20w ?ought this not to be written Savage Isld In journal (his own) says passed by it, no anchorage 155 28-23m 173 8-16m/10-llu "raised\ water"/13u "grew \ without" 179 27-29m/-> 180 2-5m 183 18-21m/w stuck to rocks 185 22-24m 187 4-6m, 18-19m 188 7-9m, 16m/14-16w implies same var. 17-20m 189 8-16m/9-10w implies same var. 193 9m "at I size", 12-15m 229 25-28m 235 5-9m 237 24-2 7m 238 2-7m, 26-27m 251 23-24m 326 2-3m 327 28-29m 364 22-23m 384 tÎ7-5m 403 4-5m 432 22-23m 450 23-25m 459 6-8m 554 ÏÏ9-8m, Îf2-2m 560 2-4m 561 22-2 6m 562 20-26m 567 2S-29m 569 9-22m 588 25-22m 589 1-Am

FORSTER, Thomas A synoptical catalogue of British birds London; Nichols, Son & Bentley; 1817 [CUL, pre-B, S Charles Darwin 1826] SP, y

facing 2 îoa The Ringtail in Turton's British Fauna is made a distinct species, under the name of Falco Pygorgos - as does Lewin & Wolcot facing 11 wA 77.78 These are considered by Turton, on the authority of Dr Latham, as only the young & very old ones of E. Nivalis

FOSTER, Michael, and BALFOUR, Francis

M. The elements of embryology part 1; London; Macmillan & Co.; 1874 [Down]

241

242

FOSTER, Michael, and LANGLEY, J.N. A

course of elementary practical physiology London; Macmillan & Co.; 1876 [Down, I]

FOURNIER, Eugène De la fécondation dans les Phanérogames Paris; F. Savy; 1863 [CUL] die, fg, gd, mhp, oo, sx

NB 56 Read; Fert of Lilium

p.52.- Lopezia curious contrivance for

fertilisation

♦ 61 Drosera
68 ♦

73 Flowers under water make ball of air -

♦ 117 to 130

61 Parietaria like Nettle (wind)

on fertilisation of grasses

Dichogamy

120 Moicous like Dioicous in fertilisation Cucurbita Pepo monoicus & dichogamous

52 15-20m 56 2-10m 57 25-30m 61 2-13m/5u "acide cyanhydrique"/5-6u "lesIacides", 23u "Pariétaires" 62 12-21m 66 6-11 m 68 13-25m (Hofmeister) 70 3-9m/l-5w no doubt wd visit occasionally 73 10-14m 117 18-25m 118 14-16m, 26-31m 119 22-26m 120 9-12m

FRANCISQUE-MICHEL Du passé et de l'avenir des Haras Paris; Michel Lévy Frères; London & Edinburgh; Williams & Norgate; 1860 [CUL, S] beh, v, y

SA (pp. 81-82; a fragment)

NB 7 Horse imported into France 705-7

47 different colour valued by end of 15th

cent

X/& 50 Arab do

♦ *> 84 only end of 8th century -
Charlemagne gives precise valuation about
Stallions; 90 Prince of Wales bring a Stallion
in 1305

SB ♦ p7; p. 47; 50; 84; 90; all classed

title page u (title, author) 7 2-4m/3u "arabis", 15-19m 47 6-8m, ll-13m/12u "liart pommé" 50 wt/5w*/7w (not CD), 5-10m/w arab superstition about calves Hoof 51 19-21m&> 84 l-2m, 6-7m/6u "desI reproducteurs", 11-12m 90 9-1 Ou "Edward I Canterbury", ll-23m/ 13u "et\äalons", 15u "beau I servir", 16u "prêter"/20u "bien Iramèneront"

FRANK, Albert Bernhard Beiträge zur Pflanzenphysiologie Leipzig; Wilhelm Engelmann; 1868 [CUL, S] mhp, t

5 26m 8 26-28m 9 30-31m 10 20-26m/w 1 28-31mjw 2 11 14-20m 15 27-28m 16 30-31m 17

26-28m 19 ll-21m/14-15u "mussIauswärts", 25-27m 25 23-33m 26 26m 32 ll-12m 38 22-25m 39 25-26m 42 15-18m 43 8-14m, 22-23m&>, 24-25m 46 13m 47 22-24m 54 33-34m 55 30-32m&> 56 U-17m 57 3-5m 59 7w 15/9 17-27m, 28-30mto 61 15-17m, 21-22m/21u "Dielvöllig", 25-26m 70 table-columns.,w V X' V X 72 17-23mll7-19m/18-19m 76 6-8m 77 wt Good Boy 78 23-25m/24u "inneren Schichten" 80 4-19w inverted radicles, quite perpendicularly yet moved downwards 81 1-4m/wt Explains by growth not being equal all round 83 32m 85 18-27m/21u "Heliotropismus "/24u "Geotropismus " 86 4-5u "hängenden] trauernder"/w geotropic 23« "Sie\ während"/12-14m/w capable during whole growth 88 7m 90 17-20m 91 2-6m, 17m, 19-26m/20u "Decandolle", 23w br 97 lm, 3-5?, 24-27m, 26u "concentrirte Zuckerlösung", 27u "Krümmung unverändert" 98 wt+,l-3m, 12-14m*

FRANK, Albert Bernhard Die natürliche wagerechte Richtung von Pflanzentheilen Leipzig; Hermann Weissbach; 1870 [CUL] ad, beh, cc, mhp, phy, t, v

SB1091

From final chapter

p.90 Organs will grow in all directions some favourable & some hurtful - will change into favourable position - I suppose individ. movements.-

Movements become so firmly associated with certain external influences such as light & gravity that the latter suffice to cause the same process of growth or movement, good/ like instinct - compare with chicken seeing food & eating it an associated habit in this case over (over)

We must say that we + take nearly the same general view as Frank does about the manner & means by which all the parts of plants adapt themselves to the position in which they stand & to external agencies; but with this considerable important difference that we now know that each growing part is continually in circulation, ie bending to all sides, & if it be advantage to a part & to the plant, for it to bend in any direction with respect to the remainder of the plant, or to any external agency, if this agency produces any effect which can be perceived by the plant, then the circulating movement can be modified to or for such agency, or the time of such movement can be modified in

243

244

[page break] FRANK

atten.O to such agency as in the shape of *

Leaves.- no darkness may be cause, but

not of direction.

SB2 Qß A

A.B. Frank Die Naturliche Wagerichtes

Richtung von Pflanzentheilen 1870.

p.2 speaks of sense for attraction

says position of all horizontal stems due to gravitation & light; but at

Light always preponderant over gravity 20 Fragaria stolons see to this movements very slow.

leaves stand at right angle to light -inclined when light strike one side

leaves rise up in darkness - ie are apogeotropic & light causes them to be horizontal.

in short an organ will put itself in any position with reference to light which may be advantageous; but then the rising in the evening is odd.

52 twisting confined to petioles.- & not to
jointsO how different from Pfeffer.

62, 64 leaves of tree which do not rise in

darkness.

75 Hofmeister nearly discovered trans-

verseO - geotropism & Heliotropism

2 wt a sense for attraction of gravity 2u "ein\ßr" 17 12-18io&> at least often get into horizontal position by epinasty 18-23m, wb Nothing * else 18 10u<^/10-12m 20 22m, 33-34w Fragaria 35-39m, 40u "erfolgende\ gediehen", wb takes place very slowly 21 9-13m, 13-16m 22 10-12m, 24u "vertical aufrecht" 23 7u "Achsen", 14-19m, 24m 24 8-9m, 26-27m 25 33-38m 26 14u "aber \ die", 15u "der\gleich", 24-27m 27 25m "horizontaler Richtung" 28 31-35m, 36m, 38-39m, wb He overlooks epinasty 29 17-20m 30 27wA "eine Incurvation", 29-32m 31 A 7-8m, 12m, 14-16m, 36-38m 32 A l~4m, 34-37m 33 A l-2m 34 A 17-22m 35 8m 36 A 12-16m 45 18-21m, 21-22u "Beziehung I steht", 24-27m/w inclined when one side shaded 29-36m/31-33w evidence of 46 ll-16m/w leaves rise up in darkness 15-24w & is an apogeotropic but says that light causes them into horizontal 52 9-15m/10-llu "eigentliche I übernimmt"/l-12w * twisting confined to petiole; *, 19-21m/19u "der Stiel"/17-25w How different from Pfeffer

53 l-10m/w Use of compound Leaves 14-
17m/w
especially when fixed by tendril
19-21m, 33u "Clematis"/->/22-25w Mutisia
Bignonia Fumaria O 55 11m 59 23-28z(zb,
34-39w
This might be tested by Klinostat 60
3m, 28-38w/wb This is the same thing as
epinasty Origly caused by light afterwards

guided by geotr. 62 26-30m/23-34w I thought he said rise in darkness 32-33m/32u "Letztere] und"/33u "ihreI horizontal" 63 32-35m/33u "wenig I aufrechter" 64 lw in darkness 3-7m, 8-13m/8-9u "durch\können"/12u " ausgeprägte \ Lichte", 13-17m/14u "Schwerkraft ILicht", 35-39m 73 5-8m/6u "Achsen"pu "anderer\ durch", 10-15m, 23-27m 74 21-27m 75 l-3m/l-2u++/2u "Hofmeister" 76 15-19m, 25-32w goes on growing 34-37m/w fulvinus I believe error Pfeffer 77 llu "der\in"/14-17m/ ll-17w seems to consider it a direct result and not mere excitement 26-30m/27-28u "Transversal]Heliotropismus" 78 34m, 35m<-* 81 wt I seem always to consider the movement direct effect of light 5m, 9-32w this assumption appears to be merely lazy so it is 85 28m 89 Xw He believes that the individuals which originally chanced to have, for instance, plumule erect & radicle vertically downwards, would survive; but this as yet does not apply to movements, & still less to cases like sleep-movements.- 90 2m, 3m

FREKE, Henry On the origin of species by means of organic affinity London; Longman & Co.; 1861 [Down, I]

FREMONT, J.C. Report of the exploring expedition to the Rocky Mountains in the year 1842, and to Oregon and North California in the years 1843-'44 Washington; Gales & Seaton; 1845 [CUL] (p beh, br, gd, is, si, y

NB1 It might well happen, as in Horses of Falkland, that the old animals might live at ease & not be driven to search new countries, open to them (as is evidently the case with the Buffalo) and the pressures are chiefly falling on the young.- It is important to observe that no selection cd aid Horse in Falkland.- or Horses in Paraguay except strength of constitution & breeding at diff time of year; but that cd be effected only if a little earlier or later was more favourable NB2 Windhom Mountain Lat 43°N; 84; 124; 174; 144 166»

Abstract Feb 57

p144 The Buffalo only crossed R. Mountains lately owing to persecution

84 44-51m 124 45-49m 144 43-46u±, 49-53m 166 wt*/Xw* Previously there was good evidence of the Buffalo having been driven into new districts by Hunters one race of Indians much obliged for this

245

246

FREY, Heinrich The histology and histochemistry of man trans. A.E.J. Barker; London; J. & A. Churchill; 1874 [Down] p

FROHSCHAMMER, Jakob Dos Christen-thum und die moderne Naturwissenschaft Wien; Tendier & Co.; 1868 [Down] p

GALLESIO, Georges Traité du citrus Paris; Louis Fantin; 1811 [CUL, pre-B but read later: S C Darwin Feb 1842] cc, es, f, fg, gd, hy, ig, mn, oo, or, pat, spo, t, tm, v

NB1 p146 Orange; 143 32; 40; 46; 62 to 85 to 167 line across page (hereafter page-numbers by CD but some words possibly not) 193 to 222 Hist of Citron, marked but unimportant to 286 - ditto ditto

p.292 &c &c Sweet Orange different from bitter & later introduced p. 297 * Origin of Sweet orange p. 321

p.327 to end

p.359 the only passage on acclimatisation of orange

NB2 Nothing important in all these extracts below the cross line -» (to NB1 line across page)

Nov. 47 I think that experiments cd be worth looking over again.-Look at the Synoptical Tables first-SB 09Ï

34. Sweet & bitter oranges & almonds & Peach & nectarine always true 40 orange fruit affected by pollen of Lemon! 46 crosses with pinks analogous, striped & some pure white & red. 67 The Lemons which depart most from type, (or are monstrous are sterile) p331 147 Mixed orange, lemon & citron °» 359 curious case showing how slowly & rarely real attempts have been made at naturalisation (u^) a poor Book

30 23-25m 31 ll-13m 32 18-20w It is not different in W Indies 20-22m, 22-24m 34 1-2m 40 18-23m 45 24~26m 46 l-5m/w Like chrysanthemums latter prbly a cross of 2 vars. 12-16m 47 a. 12-15m 62 9-15m/10u "grande] mélanges"lw polyadelphia *, 23« "nombre infini de races" 63 9-llm/9-10u "plusieurs] événements" 66-67 ivt xox according to this view, a plant as soon as it became accustomed to new conditions, would produce more seeds, & therefore in most cases would produce + less fruit & hence would be said to degenerate!! 66 7-Um, 16-17u "ils\variétés"I15-22W* shows how little weight he puts to character of sterility 25-29w for he certainly admits * varieties distinct from hybrids 18-19m/w both hybrids 66-67 u>frA>, part e» * This is quite new view of varieties being born sterile, it is

247

248

[page break] GALLESIO

certainly case with many pears, apples &c &c not due to mere effects of conditions on the actual + plant, but + is born with xx tendency to be sterile (& hence good fruit or fine double flowers are produced) - think Kolreuter found certain individual hybrid-crosses * more sterile than others, thus if pear seeds are sown, some seedlings are more sterile than others 67 3-4u "celles\ stérilité"/l-5rn, 13u "leurs I toujours", 20-21u*+, 22-28m, Xwfo in animals out of conditions no case of offspring being born sterile (? do not perhaps get full fecundity for some generations?) but in plants it is very frequent case ||= very importante view - e> xxx XOX 68 17-18u ''pour I distinction''/w fiato oxen!! 71 10u<r> 73 7-10m 83 2-5m\2u "ces noms"/ lu "innombrables" 85 4-8m 90 27u "plusieurs siècles", 28u "conservée" 91 lu "variétés", 3-5m, 3u "Dès\ colline", 5u "multiplier\ semence", 6-7m 92 26-28m 95 7-8m, ll-18m 96 2-3m\3u "souvent" 97 16-20m/ 19u/wx 100 15-17m 102 20-22mlu±/wb This is not like Kolreuters certain hybrids 103 3-8m 109 12-Um 116 20u "vulgo Pomum" 117 19-20m/20u "jamais pu" 118 3-5u±, 9-12m 119 12-14u±/10-16w Every one of his hybrids as yet conjectural wb Has the Bergamot seeds?? 121 9-llm/10u "lUsemence" 125 27-28m 126 l-3m 129 4u "n'offre\jaunes" 130 14-16m 133 24-25m/u "ils\dépine" 135 4-5?, 22-23m\u<* 137 8u "feuille \ crépue", 9-lOu "la\limonier", 12u "orangier", 21-23m/23u "hybridesIse", 26u "variées\proportions" 140 18u^, 23-24m/24u "en \ 1270" 143 22-28m\ 22u "Ses \ espèces"/23u "blanchâtres" 146 Su "1644", 24-27m 147 6-Wm/l-lOw/wt X are the several cases of citrus above given with flowers & fruit of different * forms cases of hybrids sporting.- ll-20m, 22m "aussi \ point "I 24~28m/25u "une\de"/wb/8-28w These are extreme cases of sporting & hybrids - no more probably like Laburnum - like mottled Hollies sporting back to pure leaves 148 1-2u "arbre\formes", 4-7m\7u "oranges\sans", 14-16m/15u "orangers\cédrats", 18-21m, 22-25m 154 6-7u "qui\ d'épines", 7-10m, llu*+ 155 4-6u "etIordinaires", 8u "quelquefois\ semis" 156 19-21m/20u "couleurI de" 157 3-5u "ne\chäives", 6u "c'est\fécondation"'/7u "ill pépins", 8u " se \ semence"/5-8w not a hybrid because no ways intermediate 9-24m\23-25m 158 27m/u "exclusive \ Chine" 159 25-28m 165 13u "du\de" 166 7-9!I9u "qui\espèce" 167 18-19m 194 10-llm/llu "en Médie" 197 17m, 18u "Palestine" 198 19-20m/19u "Théo-phraste"/20u "description dans" 203 4-5m 207 l-2mj2w conjecture ll-23mll7-20u±/7-22w

proofs of old cold climate V. Arago 25u "que\vigne", 28u "elle\point" 208 3-5m, 6-8m/7u/? "certainement" 210 20-21m 217 8-15m/8a "Paludius"I15u "dansIsiècle" 218 14-16mfl5u "le\quatrième" 222 20-22m 223 3-5m/4u "plus I transmigration" 227 12u "MadèreI Canaries", 13u "dès 1463" 252 20u "1383", 22-24m 257 5-8m 270 13-15m 287 14-17m 292 9-12m, 16-19m 293 ll-16m 295 l-6m 297 5-13m/8u "de I transmigration" 321 10-llm 326 27m 327 l-3m, 9-llm, 15-16m, 22-24m, 26-28m 329 l-2m 330 6-8m 331 4-6m\6u "celui I stérilité", 8-9m/8u "cette\ singulière" 334 l-6m, 18-22m, 25-30m 344 9-22m, 24-26m 345 llu "d'Acosta", ll-22m, 22-25m 349 7-10m, 13u "l'Espagne", 14u "un\ orangers", 16u "tous I greffés", 19u "demi\ commencé", 20w to sow seeds of Sweet Orange 1Î3m/M "oranger\Sauvageon" 351 15-17ml 15-16u "Dans I adroite" 352 l-7m 355 11m "1709\Ligurie" 357 4-6m, 7-8m/xv in Liguria 17u "unelportât" 359 l-6m

GALTON, Francis The art of travel, or, shifts and contrivances available in wild countries London; John Murray; 1855 [CUL, I, S]

NB1 (by FD)

NB2 91 Authority; 115

2 7-9m 3 l-3m, 6-13m 4 13-14m 5 23-26m 8

31-32m 9 12-15m 14 10-14m 15 7-8m/7u 16

5-12m 17 l-3m, 26-28m 18 26-27m 26 5-6m

31 25-29m 35 23-25m 91 16-17m 115 25-30m

GALTON, Francis English men of science: their nature and nurture London; Macmillan & Co.; 1874 [Down, S]

(markings not by CD)

GALTON, Francis The narrative of an explorer in tropical South Africa London; J. Murray; 1853 [CUL, ED]

GARROD, Alfred Baring The essentials of materia medica and therapeutics 3rd edn; London; John Walton; 1869 [Down, FD]

(markings not by CD)

GARROD, Alfred Henry The collected scientific papers London; R.H. Porter; 1881 [Down] p

GARTNER, Carl Friedrich Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Befruchtung der vollkommeneren Gewächse 1. Teil; Stuttgart; E. Schweizerbart; 1844 [CUL]

cc, es, die, em, f, fg, gd, he, hy, in, is, mhp, no, oo, pat, phy, sp, sx, t, ta, tm, v, wd

250

249

NB a> *» N.B. p 137. on varieties of

Verbascum crossing » used

p.212 Fruchnoten (ie Fruchtknoten) =

Germen; griffe! = stylus; narbe = stigma

SB a Oct. 1855 This book abstracted &

abstracts & references distributed.-

SA1 (pp. 622-3)

This is Index of whole volume

p75 on Honey to p92.

p. 104 on time of shedding pollen

to p119 on contabescence

to p128 on richness of pollen; 137 on pollen

varying in species & individuals of Dianthus

p137 on fertility of vars of Verbascum

according to colour

to p. 148

p.220. p222

p242; p250 on concepcion. to p. 253.

p.328 on periods of concepcion; to p367

p.440 on abortion p. 444

See over Page

(over) p528 on * dispersion of Lychnis

(quoted from Tausch) diurna & vespertina in

hermaphroditism.- I presume the number of

seed here refers to cultivated Plants

p539 on crosses taking place at distances

p.550. do

p560; p564

p571 on crossing &c to 577. do.

p598. on number of seed in Lychnis

vespertina-diurna; p600

p366 self-fert often fails in * Lycium,

Tropaeolum, Mirabilis & Campanula &

Lycium -

All these references have been recopied out

into papers in * Hybrid Chapter

SA2 (pp. 622-3)

136 368 386 497 - 138 - 134, 135; 136;

386 567 595

•^ p. 128 on quantity of pollen.

135 Each embryo requires more than one

pollen grain -

226 Narben-fuchte (ie feuchtigkeit) secreted

from stigma at various points

236 secretion of stigma of Nicotiana took

months to dry - so very different from that of

Orchis.-

256 Reichenback Vol.I p. 120

345, 347 quantity of pollen required for full

fertilisation

351, 600 Successive application of pollen

necessary

for Orchids

(over)

♦ In Corn & Hemp Fields & Palms clouds of

pollen p107 •

Cop

p116 Contabescence

SA3 (pp. 622-3)

Dichogamy Gärtner Kenntniss s.539 on

plants 6-800 yards fertilising each other very

good. P551? p573-577

(Keep)

xi 6m/w Read 7-lOm/lOw Read 12-15m/13w Read 17m/w* Read 20m/w Read 21m/w Read 32m, 33m/33-34w because it will show crossing 34m, 35m/w read 36w read, 37w read

P

75 2w read 18-21w nectar before opening of flowers 76 5-6w after pollen 18-19u "Wandelbar fanden"/w secretion variable *, no doubt due to conditions 24u*/24-25m/w no * secretion 31-38m/w sometimes honey in hermaphrodite, but not in unisexual flower of same species. Sometimes in male sometimes in female 77 7-13m/w quite absent in many flowers 78 14-15w increases * flower falls 79 l-7m/w quite sterile Hybrids have nectar 80 l-10w They do not seem to know about Vetches 85 9-16m/w does not think nectar can be accounted for by for insects alone to favour fructification 87 9-Um/llu "Tilia europaea"/8w No nectar!! 22-22u "Tilia \odorata"/ll-14w small & nectar do not go together 89 wt generally the period of concepcion, the spreading of pollen, secretion of honey, & opening of flower all together. l-4mßu "den meisten", 8-10m/w often put out by circumstances 26m, 18-20w Sometimes nectar before opening of anthers 23u "Leguminosen I Cruciaten "/23-26w In these most nectar, when pollen is mostly or quite shed.- 90 22-27w Thinks no relation between secretion of Honey & density of Pollen - many Families have no nectary 31-34w no relation in quantity of pollen & nectar 91 l-2u*/w Pollen not dusted yet much Honey 3u "Dichogamen"/4u*/4-7w Male flowers of these no nectar - but females have 8-9m/w castration no influence on nectar 12-14w Absolutely sterile Hybrids have nectar 18u "Leguminosen]Cruciaten"/ 19u "Dehiscenzl Anther en"\17-19win these nectar begins after opening of anthers. 20-21w But then in Legum: pollen is brushed out by stigma 26-30w When fructification has taken place nectar ceases though pollen not shed. 95 10-llm 104 U-16m/w pollen shed before opening of flower 19-33m 106 4u*/5-8m/8u "verstäuben"/l-8w Pollen usually dispersed in air, except in families where of large size as these. 10-14w a cloud * 1 1/2 inch in diameter 107 22-25w clouds of pollen in corn & Hemp fields. 108 12u "6-8"/ll-15w

[page break] 251

252

GAERTNER, BEFRUCHTUNG

emptying the anthers takes these hours.-109 12-13m/u "Malvaceen\scheint"'/w wind much influence 113 23-28xv castrated flowers seldom visited by Bees, than even quite sterile Hybrids 117 lu, 2ua, 3-4w Contabescence of anthers 17-19w colour often changed of anther 27u*/26-27w sometimes filled with Water 28-29uh, 31w grain ill-shaped 118 311 /l-3mjw even no pollen anther shrivelled up. 5-8m/w rarely sometimes only 1 or 2 anthers or 1/2 anther thus affected 13-16m/w Generally all flowers affected 17-22w When one flower has one another affected, all flower more or less affected. 25a "superbus" Europe 25-36m/33-35u "Wenn I haben"/26-27w gradations in contabescence 29a "barbatus" Germany 119 wt N.B The contabescence probably due to effect of conditions on parents, at least in many cases.- l-4w these anthers can be perceived at earliest period of development 10-12w affections permanent in individuals 14-15w except in Silène 17-19w cannot be altered by cuttings &c or in new soil &c 19-20u\ah Europe, England, Germany/w These species continued so for 4 years 22-23u*l 22-31w a plant taken out of wild of Lychnis did not alter in the least. 22-32w Nor did these alter when moved from pots to plain ground. 1\8-5w Doubts whether hereditary, for experiments give different results 1-25wj This is a point of resemblance to Hybrids which keep sterile during whole life.- wb A All this vehemently against my notion of change of conditions, indeed, almost disproves it- I am not so sure any peculiarity wd be propagated by layersO 120 7-Ww concludes since an individual in earliest stage.- 10-15io seems to occur in all plants, but more common in some than others, & most common in Hybrids. 14u "Caryophylleen"/w most common in free & cultivated Caryophyllea 18-19u> next cases 20a* England, S. Europe, Britain, Italy 22-23u±, 27u*, 28-30mM28u "Unfruchtbarkeit I Gewächse", 34-36m/w/wb In these female flowers, sometimes stamens occur in same state as the contabescent flowers 121 17-28w In these, contabescence hastens conception period, & praecosity of stigma always connected with contabescence; yet perhaps not necessarily allied 122 8-23w Contabescence has no destroying influence on female organs: but this not universal, for has observed instances with both sexes imperfect, very in -» (to "Verbascum", "Dianthus"), 12u*/10-17w These species with quite sterile stamens produced normal

number of seeds & no more wb Contabescence no effect on lengthening life of plant, even when conjoined with female impotence 123 wt [Must never forget the great fact that exotics most subject to these affections.] l-5m/w above shows that contabescence confined in its action to the stamen alone. 7-10w Generally female organ not affected, when stamen are contabescent 20u*/16-22w many have attributed this affection to planting in damp earth; but his found in light sand on mountains 26-30w These plants produced more pollen when nourished by pure water, wb (no doubt cause of contabescence, must be very early in life of plant, we know that state of plants one year determines its fruiting next year CD) 124 2u*f2-17w These plants were quite sterile for 4 years on female side but produced pollen.- affects from it became quite contabescent & female organs remaining sterile Ïïl6-lw/wb 3 of this plant was quite fertile & all flower & * twigs which had flowered were cut off, & then all the flowers which came were more or less contabescent & many with precocious stigma & small corollas: (a) subsequently perfect flowers were again produced- (b) Repeated same experiment with same results next year 125 14-16rn/w (a) note on last page 24m/w (b) 26-28m/26-33w never saw a male of this species with contabescent anthers, thinks therefore state is connected with hermaphrodite condition 126 5-12w/-*/wt Thinks that contabescence of Hybrids & pure species must be something distinct. It is evident there is no difference in appearance in the two classes of facts 12u "Treviranus"/ 14-19w Trev attributes to fungi; G. inclined to think this is a secondary cause. Leaves it all unexplained 127 wt Pollen when some degree 0 part gathered & placed in water or in transplanted plants, but female capacity much more easily injured -l-llm/4w (a) 128 wt I do not doubt this shedding has caused belief in impregnation in closed flowers CD. l-3m/w In these anthers shed pollen when closed. A 12u "ungekörnter"/ll-13w ungrained pollen powerless 23-24m/23-30w Richness of pollen always great [I think can only be explained by crossing.] Of course dioecious & Monooecious plants must be excepted IÎ3-2u "8-20", ÏÏ2u "80-96"\w has ten times too much 129 32-34m/w some monoecious plants little pollen 131 29-35w no relation between size of stigma & quantity of pollen 132 29-33m/w quantity of pollen has no relation to wind or insects 133 7-8m, 10-

254

253

12w little pollen few seeds 20-22w few seeds richer in pollen 31-32tv many seeds little pollen 134 6-7w many seeds much pollen 135 22« "ein Eychen"/ll-15m 136 22«*/23«*/ 12-16m/w great size of pollen; yet size varies greatly in some of the species. 24-28m\w size of pollen no influence on hybridising 30m "Kleinheit I Unförmigkeit"ßlu "bestimmten"/ 321 I 137 ll-13w Pollen different in Petunia 16-21m, 21u "Tulpen", 16-25w Pollen generally same throughout genus but different in different species of Dianthus & in varieties 34-36m/31-35w most important compare Kölreuter experiments & Gaertner's wb good pollen known by bright colour as well as regular shape 138 25-35w Proved that pollen in same species of different shapes, but G. doubts whether all effective 145 15u "Caryophylleen", 16u "48\kräßig", 17u "Conception"/w 4-6 days 20u "dritten", 33u "9."/w 9 days 147 6-16m/w Henschel's cases in fact showing natural crossing; did Henschel castrate? if so useful facts.- 148 9-16m/w in water all the grains do not explode, but some become transparent 153 wb Finished from 104 - to 153

P

220 21-37w N.B When many pistils, then number variable [when many of any organs apt to be variable; Why. Hairs &c &c vertebrae of serpents] wb Nature does not keep count 222 15-22m/w says anthers open in Labiatae before flowers open & implies impregnated then 226 ll-15m 229 wb Read to here 236 9-llm 241 9w Read 242 5-12w concludes * all C.C. Spengels dichogamy depends on the abnormal praecosity of pistil!! 247 28-35w Mere opening of stigma of Mimulus does not show yet ready for impregnation 250 17-26w power of conception varies in individuals, sometimes absent without apparent cause 251 3-7m/2-13w want of power of concepcion most often observed in exotic from warm countries, as in examples, but sometimes observed in home plants. 17-28m/w influence of fresh air, & light seems necessary to fertility of some plants, as in these when placed in pots in chamber, though pollen was produced. 27aim/w (a) ftëw/arc, wb unhurt roots appear very important for concepcion for plants + if they have not * mourned over transplantation, But seldom give good seed.- has often experimented on this.- 252 wt In many cases Plants in pots with roots coming out of vent-hole in bottom, taken up with greatest care, & with pots placed in saucer with water, though development of flower

continued as much & pollen good was produced, yet ovarium was * remained undeveloped & unfertilized - so never in cut-flowers in water 253 wt But Digitalis has stood transplanting out of open ground into pots, & has yet retained capacity of being fertilised- l-7m/w (a) wb Chester Read wb/ -> (to "Brassica Rapa") But roots were left p333 wbH (to p. 252, 23m/ 31-34m) cases of Coniferae producing seeds in cut flowers & cases of Monocotyledons plant doing same.-328 l-14m/w From general way of speaking of coincidence of stamens & pistils evidently does not believe in Conrad Sprengel 23-28m/w In these Fam. pollen shed & partially spread on stigma before flower opened ÏÏ5-Im/w occasionally within flowers 329 1-Sm/w/ wt In these sometimes corolla ready before stamens 9-18m/w Pistils generally ready after stamens ÏÏ7-3m/wb The relation of development of flowers & organs of fructification not very fixed, especially in Exotics 332 Urn, 13-20m/w From this it almost follows that artificial self-fructification was done in House 333 l-2m/wt Many plants more fertile in wild state than in Garden or greenhouse. 22-Ï2« "Gràsern\u.s.w./13u*/ 14u*/15w Nothing 5-15m/w In some, rich food makes more seed, in others a withdrawal of food. In former, those with dark. 26« "Henschel"/w Has written on the above 335 ll-12w aid of insects overrated by some, underated by others 23-24« "Labkten\Irideen", 35-16m/20-25w admits to considerable extent service of insects in impregnation wb Ch. Morren worth reading 336 22-31m 337 4-16m/w In most flowers stamens & pistils so near together that by the twisting of anthers must be impregnated; & the co-temp ripeness of both bears on this point. 20m 338 12w Campanula 344 ll-16m/ 14-15u/llw Kolreuter 22m, 25-27m/24-31w In these genera, one stamen suffices to impregnate all ovules 2« "Geum"/w 1/8 345 23/w 10 pollen 26-27w failed 30w 20 pollen ÏÏ2-2w 30 gr failed 346 wt Malta 1-lSw Some grains seem used to exact position of capsule &c 5u "Vierzig"/w 40 25-26« "die\ versehen", 28-» (to p. 347, ÏÏ20), 21-29w In Malta 40 grains required for even imperfect impregnation 347 6m, 23w S. p. 351 ÏÏ9w saturated 349 6u "15\20"/7w failed 24-25« "30\35"/w failed 26u "vierten", 34u++ 350 36u "nicht I von" 351 5-8m, 16u "wiederholte" 353 22m, 27-31m/w signs of fructification slower after evening fructification than after morning fruct. Is not this like Hybrids.- 358 32u*/31-36m/w/wb became more fruitful & almost

255

256

[page break] GAERTNER, BEFRUCHTUNG

exclusively female by the destroying of male flowers - Bernhardi has observed opposite in Cannabis 364 ÏÏS-2m, wb When seeds few number constant, when many seeds variable.- Law of variability - Lower animals, generally most vegetation. 365 1-lOm/w/wt (a) In artificial impregnation number of seeds + often more variable, accounts for it by isolation out of free air ll-15m/w But in some cases can hardly account for difference 17-20m/w some * are as fruitful in Chamber as in free 22w not castration wb All above shows how easily & inexplicably fertility is affected- Xw All these observations show that he must have considered all causes affecting his standard of comparison for Hybrids xvb «sr p. 600 important experiment showing the repeated application of pollen necessary for full impregnation & this is not done artificially 366 23-25m/22-23w How observed pollen out of another individual in these 3 genera more efficacious ie advantage of crossing - ïïll-lm/wb artificial self-impregnation often entirely fails, for reasons quite inexplicable - Very odd that he never seems to have included Primula in this Category.- 367 6m, llu/wx, 12u "verharren", 14u/wz 439 wb Read & skimmed 440 15-18m/w Thinks quantity of pollen merely for security of impregnation. 20-23m/w But pollen is perfected. 441 29-23m/w abortion commoner by artificial than in nat. fruct. 442 36u "500 Eychen"l33-36m/w In polyspermous plants, always some ovules abort- (0 443 23-24u*/27«A/22-35m/2S-26u; curious experiment try to remove fertile flowers & see whether sterile wd become fertile 444 28-33m/w cuttings &c give plants apt to abort 33-34w luxuriant fruit 459 36m 528 ft20-3m/u> p618 Tausch in Flora 1833 p. 225 533 2311 535 26-32w 1 2 3 539 wt above 500 experiments we thought it sufficient if our experimental plants were from 6-800 steps from their like kind, when castrated, but was much deceived 8-llm/9u "hinreichend"/w (a) ll-12u "derIhatten", 16u "zweV'lw 2/2 flowers 20-22c^/w 0/2 23-25w 3/5 flowers gave good seed 32a; 2/2 35w 6/9 540 Xw [numbers of flowers giving good seed, as previous page], 1Ï3-2w 25 were impregnated wb In these castrated flowers no doubt stigma wd remain far longer ready for impregnation than in hermaphrodite yet it shows how much pollen of same species is carried to same flower (V. p145) 550 table.wu, " After-befruchtung 202" lw Very striking this many out of 520 flowers dusted with foreign pollen wb No doubt others refer

to pollen left in flower or brought from outside 560 ÏÏ4-3u*jw Is this Lilac, if so no seed. Yes it is 564 9-10m/12uA/8-17w Many exotic plants produce fruit but no seed, rather owing to bad pollen than female organ- 565 zt 571 34u "Frühzeitiger"/34-36m/ 33-34w precocious good word wb Power of concepcion in frühzeitig stigma causes impregnation before flower opens 572 2-6w stigma in such cases goes on growing 20-26w chief cause of after-befruchtung lies in act of Castration. 573 10-12m/8-15w has observed after fruct in Nicotiana when 80-100 yards distant; on account of fineness of pollen.- 16m/w read. 574 5-35m/13-15w all cases of after fruct. 16w\26w\2Bw\32w\wb (number of species and genera totalled) 575 2w\ 1-Awu, U-Um/wx 576 4« "520"/6u "202 Afterbefruchtung"Iwt 499 (remains 29 whose seeds did not grow) wb 8 577 wt 8 31w 70 wb The fewness of these after befrucht have compared with those given before in experiment out of doors, show that the latter received pollen from other flowers, I think 598 5-9m(7u "234" 600 5-17mjw repeated impregnation necessary to full impregnation of Tropaeolum 604a 23m\w Kolreuter on Contabescence 25m/w What books is this of Sprengel V. Pritzel (I have looked & there is none) 610b 26-27m, 30-33m, 34u "1838 Vol XIl" 611b 6m, 36m 618b 42-47m, wb on distribution of some LichnisO 619a 3m/wt Mustel on fruit in glass cases not having seed

GÄRTNER, C.F. Versuche und Beobachtungen über die Bastarderzeugung im Pflanzenreich Stuttgart; 1849 [CUL]

af, br, cc, che, es, et, die, ds, em, ex, fg, gd, h, he, hy, ig, is, mhp, mn, pat, phy, oo, rd, sl, sp, spo, sx, sy, t tm, v, wd, y

SF a Oct. 1855 * This work is abstracted &

abstracts distributed, except the Bundle

herein enclosed.

e> p521 top. p524 on germination of Hybrid

seed. & all seeds.

The abstract has been carefully compared

with those of all Kölreuter & Herbert &c &c

&c

NF1 Gaertner Bastard When read make

Abstract; & read one abstract of Koelreuter

& make abstract of Herbert & look over

Portfolio When finished read Berkeley

Criticisms on ...

NF2 I think began Sept 15/54/

1849 a>

258

257

NF3 p602 Mothers name first p. 444 Definition of Gemischte & Zusammengesetze Bastarde & Ausnahmen typus p502 Better definition & examples Griffel style

p.602 Nicotiana glutinosa female mother -perenne male father

p429 Explanation of Kolreuter "aufsteigenden Grad" absteigenden grad p. 451 NB Books of great importance to Refer to Note 62 67 17 p. 734 of this Book p. 157 Seeds long retaining vitality p142 See to this important p577 fertility of dogs

Has he ever experimented with the umwandelung of Varieties? a p. 640 Genera which produce good pollen & ovules & yet require pollen of other species to fertilise them p. 418 Ask Author

p.387 Digitalis for comparison with Herbert There are facts on variation.-Ask Author: p. 84 Were any of the Mongrel Peas reared? p. 92(?)* Stet p. 102 =Table of Primula= p577 p578 p. 579 86 duration of pollen 322 Maize p292

Treviranus ought to be read. He seems a Lamarckian. SAl (p. xvt)

The real odd thing is in Hybrids, that not * varieties not thus affected & 2d that offspring are sterile.

Does he give any case of two wild varieties when crossed, producing a more variable offspring than two true species? in first generation, because the difference in variability he makes so important distinction in vars & species (p581) (over) Hybrids

Does pistil or stamen ever become monstrous?

Stigma * becomes more divided In Hybrid offspring Does Male sex sometimes fail & sometimes female or always both equally? which more often Relation of Hybridisation to Variability Dissimalirity of Mongrel offspring Did Kolreuter cross many Silène vide p. 140 of Gaertner?

Do not two Hybrids breed easier together sometimes than each with self - for this wd upset Gaertners explanation of weakened pollen.-

SA2 (pp. 728-729) A> «a» For p. 178

(a list of species, and some editorial comments) (not CD; note on application of the terms

"calycantha", "communis", "veris" and

"officinalis")

» (C.C. Babington)

vi 17-21md viii 26-29m/29u "Uebereinkunft"/ w great agreement in animals & Plants in Bastardising xi 6-7m xiv 21m xv 15w Compounded 5 ll-12w confirms Köelreuter 7 15u/wx 8 7-19m/xv under apparently similar circumstances produce difft quantity of seeds. Hybrids few seeds 26-27u++/24-28m/ w these have succeeded only once or twice. 9 12-14m/xv cause of failure chiefly in female organs. 10 l-2m, 5/7/8u/un, 21-22w* Herbert p. 371 22u/urt, 25-29w all injurious influences more injurious to hybridising. 11 wt N.B. As damp & rain so injurious to fructification it makes it odder that flowers are not * regularly impregnated in closed state, for they can be impregnated häufig in this condition. In cases of Campanula which are impregnated in bud, are these foreigners? & wd they open in own country, 22« "häufig\ Blume" 12u "bloss", Uu/xvx, 22u/vn, 25-29m, 31u/wx, 33u/wbx, 34-35m 12 10-12m/w some effect of variability on hybrids Q 14-17m/w no great difference in hybridisation of wild & cultivated 19u/xoz, 28-31m/w Disputes Herberts case of fertile hybrids 35u/wi, 35-37m/w thinks has mistaken the fertility of some hybrids, with the results of a first impregnation. 13 lu/un, 2-5w some hybrid fruits are richer in seed, than the fruit produced by first union. 3/6/9/23/27/31u/un 14 30u/wx 15 5/10/24/26u/wx 19 21u/wx, 23-26w condition of pollen on stigma changes sooner or later according to relationship 21 hu/wbz 22 9u/wx 23 5u(zvz 28 17-21w fruit falls off, from imperfect impregnation 29 6u/ wx 30 wt It is not Hybrids - but Hybrid-fructification. Most important distinction which I have overlooked. 18-21m/w Hybrids never produce full abundance of seeds. 21u/mx 32 7-10w Hybridisation requires all outward circumstances favourable. 34 7u "fremden"/w Never the least effect- 35 23w no mixed effect 33« "rustica"/w female prefers paniculata 32w female 33-34w prefers Langsdorf 43 22-27m/w pure & hybrids out of same capsule, but no tincture. 45 ll/27u/xvx 46 5-6m 50 l-8m/w Q case of variety with characters like other species 3u Ansätzel Zähne" 52 20m "dreifach \gemischten"/8-10w 3 sorts in same capsules 55 l8-22w* Herbert believes in tincture 56 2-16«; This is what might have been expected mere physical difficulty?? 17-28w This slowness is important as it is character in parents & not

[page break]

260

259

GAERTNER, BASTARDERZEUGUNG: 56

in hybrid. 29-32m/w injures the other ovules 58 28u/iox 64 lOu "einem I Pollen", 12u "rustico\Langsdorfii"l7-14w In Hybrids father or mother's pollen makes own powerless, so does quite foreign pollen sometimes 15u/w%/ 16u "erotischen", 20u/a "Lobelia" Example 15-22w In some pure, specially exotics, own pollen will not impregnate, whilst that of other undivided, or even other species, get own pollen good- 28u "W. Herbert", 28u "Zephyranthes "/27-31w p. 355 so Herbert with Zephyranthes but not good example see xx next Page. 32u "Bosse", 32a "Hippeastrum"/ wb Amaryllidae p. 371 - in this case it is Hybrid with hybrids 33-34u "Passiflora" 65 wt xx This like Herberts Zephyranthes case; p. racemosa can be fructified by pollen of coerulea, but stigma of coerulea cannot be fructified by pollen of racemosa or by its own - we may say female organ of coerulea injured. 3u/wx, 5-9m/w xx 10-12m/w takes the view given above xx 13/14/19/25u/wx, 21-23m/w compares with snails 66 28-31io seldom any pollen has no action on stigma 67 5-9m/w sometimes stigma decays & flowers fall without slightest fructification. 68 16-20w gradation of affinity shown by time of decay of stigma & flowers 69 27u/iox 72 9-19w Thinks the fruit of hybrids is not due to pollen-influence, but to that power of forming fruit, which the most sterile hybrids without any pollen do produce Repeated p106 73 1-3m/w mother not more powerful than pollen 13-15w Hybridising generally no effect on seeds. 22-24w apple half sour half sweet.-28/29/31-32u/wx, 29u "Hess", \-34wcastrated pear-blossoms in orchard bore much fruit, showing crossing 35m/w thinks experiment not careful enough 75 10u/wx, wb Disbelieves (perhaps very truly) all these cases of direct effect of pollen on the mothers fruit.- 76 llu/wx, 19u "Pelargonium"/w Qäj sport in 23u*/w sports in 24uh, 28u*/w sports in wild 77 2/5/9u/wx 78 l-5w Discussion on Koelreuters 3 cases of seeds directly affected by Hybridisation. 14-15m/w seeds vary much, wb Disbelieves seed ever really affected; the only difference he has ever observed being solely in size.- 80 wb see p499 & p135 81 $w* This most important, * if crossing varieties * has had anything to do with diverse coloured seeds, then they are crossed naturally by Bees.-wb+ Has tried Wiegman experiments with quite different results, ie seeds never affected see next several Pages ïïlOw All a mistake. ÏÏ7-6m/fÎ6w "reine"/w* The self-impregnated flowers gave same result as the

castrated & cross impregnated & these showed colours altered 82 l-2m/w most constant vars. 19-25m/w here seeds were coloured 28m/w+ were these mongrels 83 2-3/5/10/16/34U (colours of seeds) 84 lu/wx, 20-24m/22u/wx 85 10-llm/w & Berkeley's 10u/ wx, 13u±/w see account p. 14 15u "geringer Fruchtbarkeit", 18-25w plants from Wieg-manns Pisum oticia he rather thinks varietats-Bastard rather than a hybrid, because, flower impregnated with common impregnation & pollen of Vicia had no effect. 29w ie offspring of Wiegmans Piso-vicia 86 25u "sondern I war"jw Conclusion mere variety, & says nothing about mongrel. 30-33m/w cd not make any of them cross. 31m/ wb Loudon makes these distinct species besides vulgaris 87 lu/wx, 6-8m/w Leguminosen opposed to Hybridisation 8-12w If then mongrelising takes place easily; yet cannot at all between Wiegmanns hybrids 13-15m, 18a "annua" Cruciferae 18-21w W doubts about seeds in Matthiola what to say 19/21/23/25u/wx, 33u "einer I die"/ 31-35m/wb Mays not affected 88 wt also Berkeley did not artificially cross.- 89 wt xx It seems he does fully admit that cross fertilisation does in Pisum affect seeds, & as Wiegmann did not artificially impregnate, shows that Peas, when * not castrated, are crossed naturally. Be sure read Book mentioned in note 62 p734 (How strange considering sweet Peas) 9xx, 12/15/21u/wx 90 17-19m/w female sterility transmitted in cross. 17/18/19u/wx, 30-35m/wb The tinctures on half-bastards of Koëlreuter, Wiegmann & Herbert are upset.- 91 10-17 m/w Father & Mother element more powerful in some 11/ 16/17u/wx, 21-26w Hybrid pollen more effect on own stigma than on other pollens; but the converse no effect 31-33m/w another severe case of different effects. 92 8u "Lych-nicucubalus"'/w Hybrids, I suppose lOu "Lychnis diurna", 22-24w colour & size of pollen no relation to fructification 28-30m/w most important see his other work. 28u "Varietäten "/wb speaks p181 of species so holds good with species too From table at end really species 30u "fruchtbare"/wb more fruitful, .-. crossing cross colours less fruitful .-. perhaps Hollyocks thus accounted for. So he says most distinctly in his Beitrage p137 in regard to Verbascum. 93 19~20w (a) wb (a) Koëlreuter * confused imperfect impregnation in the first cross, with the imperfect fructification of Hybrids, but this shows how similar the case is.- 94 5-12w imperfect fructification differs from no fruct, in

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seeds being more perfect 7u "Grosse", 9-llm/10u "ohne\worden", 17-20m/u±/w first cross * never quite fertile as of cross of pure species. 96 10-12w no relation in state of capsule & state of seed. 17-27xv fertility of original act of hybridisation so different, that even in flowers of same plant, that it is difficult to make scale of fertility or consequent relationship, wb (a) * Grades of Fructification, imperfect to normal & perfect pollen no more effect than foreign dust; occurs even not seldom in species of same genus, "from want of sexual affinity"- (mere words) 97 3-4m* 101 1&-I7u "er\aus"/Q 20u "schwachen I Leben", 21-24w out of many imperfect seeds & 1000 buds apparently perfect, * not one germinated. 25u "nichtl gekeimt" 102 l-2x/wt every gradation of imperfection in capsule with one or more seeds, capable of germination. 4-7mjw Important 7u/wx, 12-14m/w most fertile hybrids 103 2u "Sageret", l-2w See to this Annales des Sciences Nat 105 2-6m/wt can the effect of pollen of plant in producing capsule be analogous to Ld Moreton's case? 108 llu "Morton", 12-17m/w Morton attributes power of hybridisation to capacity of domestication.- 109 9u "grosser"/8-9w greater number will not hybridise llu "700", 12u "250" 12a "Bastarde" different sorts? 1\l4u "versagt", Ïïl3-llm/w unions which failed with Kölreuter 110 Ü15-14u "eine\ Elemente"/w a certain sexual harmony necessary for union.- (I presume in contrast to general affinity) ÏÏ4wx, ÏÏ5-3w pollen does not adhere to stigma 111 8-15w even when pollen does cling to stigma fructification very often fails In hybrids the stigma fails 1tl0-9u "wie I scheint "/w (a) Ïïl0-9w Only certain individuals can be hybridised wb (a) I cannot but think hybridisation commoner with animals than plants.- 112 3u/wz 113 22m "Prof.", table.w shows natural crossing ïïlOw 14 genera 1\9u "AllelSamen", ÏÏ9-5m 114 lOu/un, table.c/w no scarcityO table.w List of Families which have admitted of hybridisation 115 table.m/w failed with these, but experiments not numerous enough to show cause.- 116 table.u "Primuleae"/w easy table.w Fams. of easy manipulation 5-7m/w capacity for hybridisation not liesO in Family Character.- 10u/wx, 13-18w* In families with regular species, subdivided into not real genera, most hybridisation 19u/wx, ÎÎ9-S«*/ Ml-6m/w The spec of most natural Families very • resist hybridisation 1\2u/w No hybrids in Compositae 117 22m "Apocineen"/w is not this * Vinca 25u\wx, 26-30w thinks

Orchideae & Asclepiadae wd be hard to cross, from structure of flower 119 7u "Gymnogramma", 17w Disputes from hybrids, thinks only variations observed only in Gymnogramma 120 16-20w Dioecious less easy hybridised than hermaphrodite 121 3-5m/wt The capability of * fructification * lies in more special character, than those characterising any whole family 2-4m, 13m 122 2-10w No distinct relation between polyspermous & oligospermous plants & capacity for hybrid, fruct.- 123 wt Dioecious plants a longer capacity for impregnation, wt I see uses Dichogamous = Dioecious 2-2m/ m "in\Blüthe", 4u "neun", 5u "zu Conceptionskraß" "Lecoq"/w a book on Hybrids ÏÏ22-9m/rt> (a) wb (a) Dioecious plants less capable of Hybrid-fruct: at least than some hermaphrodite 125 7m, table.w (asterisks added)Iw other observers have suceeded, though he failed 126 8wx, 9wx, ÏÏ6-5m "Aquilegia"/w* Hooker thinks all same species \\10-lw/wb closely allied genera differ greatly in tendency to hybrid-fructification several examples & I believe quotes Kolreuter but observes only few species in each experimented on.- 127 6-22m 128 2nd table.m, 8wx, Wu "Afterbefruchtungen", 13-14u/wz, 15wx, 3rd table.mlw All this shows that when anther removed, how much crossing can take place from adjoining plants - i.e. intermarriage 129 lwz 130 ÜU-lOmlw I do not know whether Kolreuter or self, he suceeded anyhow. ÏÏ7-5u*/w Dichogam crosses ÏÏ2m "wiederholten Versuchen" 131 lwx, 3we, 2-3u "vergeblich\ hatte /m/w (a) wt (a) Reverse case which always failed with Kolreuter succeeded once with him,- but was very difficult Hybrid Plants no ways different - 14we 132 4-12w none of these bigeneric seeds germinated, though some had embryo Ïïl0-4w only ones known Bigeneric crosses we 134 ÏÏSm 135 ll-14m/w universal law that pollen of parents fructifies hybrids more then own. 20we 136 IÎ3-2m/M "Canis\Mouflon"(wb ram or he goat 137 ÏÏ3we 138 wt (a) Against limit of genus being determined by power of crossing, even Herbert does not pretend all species can cross, though when any true species do cross, he says they must belong to same genus - so the "reverse crosses!! & cases of Crosses which after years succeed only once, go against law of genus by crossing being connected. 8-22mjl2-15w sense given above (a) ÏÏ3-2m "innerenl Arten"la "in" power of uniting depends on 139 l-2u+*\w Hence a sexual & systematic

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relationship 15w<t, 17-20w genera formed of diverse * characters 140 wt When two genera have united, the species do not always in these genera readily unite. Tormentilla & Potentilla, though so close, will not unite, lwe, l-3m, 6-16m/->, 17-30w it is quite wrong to infer because some species within a genus, will cross that all will; generally only a few. Herberts cases, however, rather contradict this. Hippeastrum, Azalea, Calceolaria 141 wt (a) Sections of genera will sometimes unite & sometimes not l-5m/w (a) Ü18-10m/16-14w Sections of genera ^8ß6w*€, ÏÏ6-5w "blauen \gelben"/m, ïïïu* 142 8-12w in his Treatise speaks of species see to this 9-11??, Um/u/w+x, 13/ 15we, 13a "Pepo" pumpkins 14a "Citrullus" Water melon 15-17w Girou succeeded in these 15wt, 19xvz, 20-30w The list of sections of genera which will not cross, shows no necessary relation of genera & crossing.- 143 6u±/6-15w sexual affinity belongs only to species, & often to only individuals, & cannot be externally recognised. Different Times of flowering do not prevent hybrids. ÏÏ3-2w», wb+ Bush with plant? 144 Inn, 3-Sw annual, biennial & perennial cross. 16-19w evergreen with deciduous cross 21wx, 22-32w many hybrids wh succeed in summer, & fail in Autumn -some succeed so seldom may be called accidental. 1Ï2-3m, ivb the most different varieties can cross.- 145 3u*/w can cross 14m "Lecoq"/w see to this 147 ÏÏ12-10u "Nicotiana\glauca"/15-7m/w Pollen of some plants can impregnate others, but not be impregnated by them. t7-lm\w case of Nicotiana which will neither impregnate or be impregnated by other close species, wbt& 8 specs 148 ïïlw "jene"/wb species 149 wt Van Mons thinks stability in first generation & variability in first distinctive character of species. 1m "diese"/xv varieties 8-llm/xv analogous to some organisms not varying in domestication 8-10u±/9-15w some hybrids as these keep constant in 7th & 8th generations but this rare.- 14xvz, ÏÏ12m "Blyth"/w see to this ÏÏ10-9xvz, ÏÏ3wx, wb I had better give cases of closely allied & identical species in different climates to show species, & very different species in similar climates to show not direct effect of climate 150 lwx, l-15w I quite agree very near or identical species may have been created, but this has to be decided. 14m/M/ xvt, 20xvx, 17-22m/xv (a) 20-30w Seems to agree with Blyth, I must study him - xvb (a) A great power of place - attraction has no

relation to geographical range.- in direct opposition to my view, but agrees with Hooker on Compositae. 152 9/llxvr 153 5/ 6wx, ïïlOorr, ïïlu*->/w genera with many doubtful species 154 2/6wx, fÏ7/ÏÏ6wr 155 18xvx, ÏÏ5WT 156 1ri2/trnwT 157 ÏÏ4-lm/xv seeds long retaining vegetating Power 158 l-12m/8-12xv Wheat-seed identical Ïïl4-8m/w These plants identical before So cross with recent. 159 Ïïl7-13m/w says varieties go back 160 fllSurc 161 lxvx, ÏÏSwn 162 ÏÏ17xvx, ÏÏ9wx 163 lOwz, 15u "nahe verwandte"/xv♦ hybrids from close species when united with another, show their differences even plainer than whilst pure 8-llxv I think it means only the result of A.B.C where % differ from each other (a) 15u "nahe verwandter", 18-19u "z. I fulgens"/15-21m, 21-22u "geben \ Bastarde", 22-28m/w Remarks This very odd if these close species descended from common ancestor. ÏÏ8-3m/w The existence of species consists of fixed sexual relation to other species wb (a) Is there any case of two close vars. when united to a 3d var. producing very different mongrels. 164 llwz, lSwx, 17-18u "die\ fruchtbar", 16-20w Kolreuters Law of sterility can hardly be accepted. 24ua/w do they seed? 23-30w These 2 Penstemons though so like, as to be considered varieties, cannot be crossed. wb «" || rarely certain individuals will not be impregnated see G. Beitrage. 165 5wx, ÏÏ17-13m, wb X There are two p. gentianoides in cultivation the one commonly so called is the Hartwegi so misnamed - the true gentianoides is rare in cultivation differently shaped and not red 166 9u "der\seie"/8-12m 167 ^14-llmlw nearly related but will not cross ÏÏ4w "H. Lecoq" 168 l-5w I fancy that this is only that parents have originally crossed. 3wx, 12u/a "Vareitätsbastarde" I do not understand, are circumstances * as the second generation of species - bastard Will explain more afterwards 13wx, 14-24w Holds good with some wild + species which fructify each other but do not sport like true vars whereby these plants are characterised like true species. 19-26mjw Get information on these - wild * species Fertility tested by himself ÏÏ6m/w (a) wb (a) Genera with species agreeing in Habit, as above, hybridise most, Yet some species of these will not cross. 169 4-8m/w These species cross easily, yet other others of the genus, will not cross. 9-17w Though power of crossing sometimes goes with external resemblance yet the most natural Families & genera as here do not hybridise well.- 14-

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16u*r 1\l3wx, Ïïl2m/w Hybridises differently 171 2« "Umbellaten"/w No Hybrids tried on Umbellifera Ïïl6-12w Thinks wd hybridise from being so variable ÏÏ9« "Cruciaten"/ÏÏ9-5m/w all failed 172 1Î27« "Labiatae"I17-10w Labiatae little tried, but I know that Mimulus has succeeded 173 l-4m/w Most Natural Family 9-llm/w all failed ÏÏ20u "Sageret" "Lecoq"/w quotes from Sageret 1\9u/w%, ÏÏ22-9mfWll-lw Sageret & Lecoq has found vars of Cucurb. will not cross promiscuously (References hardly bear out conclusion) 174 l-6m/wt cases of only few species in very close genera uniting, new species which are hard to specifically characterise- table.w cases of very close species * or more exactly, species having the same habitus which will not unite.- ÏÏ5w*, fÏ5-2m, wb cases of species having very different habitus which do unite, chiefly from Herbert, except darksO 175 2-7m, 9xox, 1\l4-7m/w So Kolreuter shows, that propinquity does not go with power of hybridising \\6-lm/w other examples of the same law 176 ll-13m/w so says Morton of Beasts 14-20m/w The non-success of reciprocal impregnation clearest proofs that hybridisation not * result of affinity. Ïïl3we, ïïll-3w cases of non-reciprocal fructification 177 2a "Langsdorfi" cannot be fructified by the 4 named sorts, though it can fructify them & some easily. 10-20m/w even when mutual crossing does take place in closely allied species, yet facility not alike (this is new) 22w*/m/w closely allied, yet unite with difficulty & will not be reciprocal. 178 rut* |(officinalis & acaulis not in Loudon.- p721 officinalis = veris = Cowslip - I see it is barely possible without consulting Babington to know which is which wt Here are vars which will not unite l-2w Most important 3-4u/wx/w on Babington's authority see Table 4-8m/w* Compare these very difficult 10-14m, ll-15w very different in Habit, yet unite easily.- 179 7-llm/8w Herbert lOu "Cereus", llu "schon längst", 13-19w Cactus or Cereus Melocactus Echinocactus, Echinopsis, Phylocactus 20u "H. Neubert", 21-22u "Cereus\Ottanis", 24u*, 24-25u*, 25u*, 27-28u*, 24-28w Neubert has succeeded in these crosses 180 3-6m/w Mongrels sport & he has seen same thing Cucurb. 1t29-26m, ÏÏ22-&1? Flowers very unlike yet cross ÏÏ4-2m/ w Colours of Verbascum 181 l-5m, fÎ9u<->/m 182 9-13m/w These succeeded with G. having failed with Koel: Ïïl0-2m/w shape of pistil no effect in hybridising 183 ÏÏ7-3m/w> size of pollen no effect 184 ÏÏ6-5m 185 ÏÏ7/1Î6/

ÏÏ2iut 186 6-8m/lÏÏ8w cause of Hybridising a Vital action & allows that the sexual relations is mere word 15wz, 19-20u "sondern I beide"/ m, Ïïl2-lm/w Summary but nothing new 187 l-15m/w Summary but nothing new Ü16-8m/ w cases when fructification has taken place, once after repeated failures.- 188 6-14m/w cases of plants differing chemically, compare this with difference in their sexual affinity lOwx, 15wx elective affinity 189 13-20m/w The closer or less close affinity, is shown by action of pollen on stigma & corolla.- 1Ï20-7m/w a chain of graduated affinities 191 20-13m/w* Yet in table does not put K. but i a 15-17m/w reverses with fewer seeds 194 wt Fertility of Hybrid, * is in even less reation (ie relation) to affinity of parents than facility of first * union or hybrid-fructification. It seems no relation between case of getting 1st hybrid & this hybrids fertility. This is case with the common Mule.- 4wz, 7wx elective affinity 3-13m, llu "manche"/12u "leicht"/10-15w many plants easily cross, whose hybrids are quite sterile ll-16m, 16u "sexuell\ verwandt", 16u "49", 17-18u "waren\ fruchtbar", 22-25m/w and fertility of similar Hybrids very variable 25wx, table.w Hyb. fruct. of great difficulty wb I think Verbascum is case in point. 195 ïïl&-14w seeds in pure * parent cross ÏÏ15u "80 \ 120", 1\l2u "paar\ Samen"lw numbers of seed Hyb.fruct. * when crossed ÏÏ20w "151"/ÏÏ9u "29"/wb numbers of seeds in reciprocal <u£>> Hyb. fructification wb (hyb.-fruct. best expression) wb (pure, fructification) 196 wt ** Bad simile We might as well as deny that the different were really different, because they had no "elective affinity" (I use word of Gartner) whereas other two had strong elective affinity & wd unite & make a third- 4w sexual non-reciprocity of the "elective affinity".- 197 wt The reciprocity of sexual alliance is not only different in strength, but is often entirely deficient l-4m, 6-8m, 12-24m/w cases of slight unequal reciprocity in very closely allied species, some even thought to be varieties, table.m/w cases of more unequal reciprocity 198 1\l0-lw cases of sexual non-reciprocity 199 4wx, 14-15u*/w most striking example ÏÏ23w (a) wb (a) Special potency of pollen to impregnate other species of genus occur in Verbascum nigrum & Geum * coccineum 200 wt In cases of entire sterility of one side of the reciprocal union, the other side generally only slightly fertile.- l-4m 201 wt (z) || The absence of perfect reciprocity even in nearly related species, shows that male & female

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power of union do not go together: but the difference of male & female has no effect on the hybrid offspring 8m/w (z)-> 202 î\16-lw/ wb Hybrid A + b, crossed with pollen of C, hybrid is always like C. Repeated on p. 273, & speculates, but does not explain says vital power of Hybrid is subordinated to the pure species.- 203 wt (a) N. rustica will not unite with N. glutinosa, but hybrid N. paniculata -rustica, will with glutinosa, & the character of rustica is seen in offspring.- 8-12m/w (a) ÏÏ7-5w -> do 205 l-13w as in Primula & Verbascum (?) But thus question of what species are is begged - 15u "Kölreuter", 16u "hybride Befruchtung", 14-17w First cross + never bring so many seeds as nat. fruct. ÏÏ4u "jedem Eichen"'/w from each 1Î2-2m, wb Remarks that Herbert's Crinum was not growing in own climate - But he says every ovule was impregnated. 206 2-4ml4u "Calceolaria bemerkt", 1\12-5w The number of seeds in Hybrid though dependent on conditions does not pass certain maximum 207 wt (a) Can judge of scale of elective affinity by number of seeds in hybrid-fruct., as compared to normal fruct. l-18m/w (a) î\16w%, ÏÏ9u "nicht constant", ÏÏ8-7u++, ÏÏ2-2u<->, Ïïl5-lm, wb an average of seeds taken from a number good plant growing in open nature 208 tl5-12mlw seeds variable in colour & size wb as far I understand this, properly to count good seed, all ought to be tried by germination & growth, but then more elements of growth & death of seeds come into play 209 ÏÏ22-6m, wb on account of unfavourable conditions, we take maximum of seed of hybrid cross. 210 l-6m/w always requires repeated experiments.- ftl3-8m/w only single instances of these unions. 211 2x, 13-22m/w in wild Plants number of seeds do not differ so greatly as to cause much difficulty in estimating numbers. ÏÏ5-lm/w There are * differences in flowers of same plant in being impregnated by foreign pollen.- 212 3~8w as individuals differ in some respect, as last page, several must be experimented on.- 8-9m/u<^, 16-19m/w cases of individual plants wh were femally sterile î\14-lw as the difference between nature & artificial self-impregnation is never so great as in Hybrid fructification; he has taken wild plants as base of calculation, which seems to me to be an error. tt4-3u "selbst I käme "/wb Effects of crossing every plant by self injurious.- see Beitrage p. 366 213 ÏÏ24m, ÏÏSwt 214 Zw Sexual affinity calculated by maximum of good seeds till further experiments ever increase this

maximum fÎ7-2m, wb experiments shd be tried at different times on different plants. 215 wt (a) Take average of number of seeds capable of germination under normal circumstances as the standard for comparison of best fruits 5u "vollkommensten "/m/w (a) 14u "keimungsfähigen", ÏÏ6-2m/ÏÏ4« "20 Versuchen", wb very important, if this smaller number be not due to * art used in the fructification. 216 table.a "polline" naturally * impregnated table.w Scale of sexual elective affinity, inferred from maximum seeds from hybrid-fruct, not from Hybrids themselves 217 î\8-3m/w (a) wb (a) Gartner thinks that these tables of affinity show that pure species are aboriginally formed sterile.- It is contradicted absolutely by his vars. 218 ïïlw Silène of Steudel wb Here a genus more fertile than other species wb 777/7000 219 wtu, table.w 3 genera before other species 220 4u "Kreuzung"\w with G. & Kolreuter implies reciprocal fertilisation ÏÏ2-lm/wb cases of non-reciprocal fructification. 221 17w Reciprocity holds good generally when hybrid is intermediate in character. 20-23m/w Reciprocal case ÏÏ3-2m/w (a) wb But when hybrid takes after mother or father type, then reciprocity will not take place.- This seems very curious 222 4w Mother type 6-9w Father-type most numerous. î\14-llm/w (a) ÏÏ7m, wb I fancy that the predominating power of one of 2 species, as shown in the hybrid - prevents reciprocity.- But there are exceptions. 223 l-24w self & Köelr. find the reciprocal crosses exactly alike. 29« "allgemeine"lw This is general rule, specially in wild plants, which are not varieties. 22-23u "Abweichungen IFarbe", 26u "Ausnahmstypen", î\10-lw/wb Difference from animals as Mule & Hinny also hybrid animals differ in same litter; but in animals all half domesticated 224 l-5w Diff in animals & Plants owing to sexes separate in animals. Wl6-12m/nl5u "Differenz I Habitus", Xw In comparison of sexes we must suppose habit the same, & form of parts direct result of sexual peculiarities. Whiskers in Man!! ÏÏ7-6m/w Hybrids varied wb Whiskers & Mane cannot be thus accounted for wb No difference in Habitus of Plants, when sexes separate (because I say do not struggle for female: so lower radiata. 225 8-12m/w exceptions to uniformity of reciprocal crosses $18-8w curious exceptions in Genus Digitalis; not reciprocally alike 227 17-20w slight variations in hybrids 228 24m 230 1\l7-l2m/w Double flower raised from male or female 231 wt Differs from animals for sex no effect on

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Hybrids 4r-9m/w a 10-14m/w see to this 232 13-19m/w Form of hybrids stable in 1st generation 20-24m/w -» does not hold good with animals. 233 8-lOm/w experimented with wild plants 234 Xw/wb It is proved by long course of his & Köl's experiments that bastard even in 1st generation from same parents are always alike; & return in constant course to either parent when repeatedly crossed with such. -> (a) Thinks this evidence of permanence of species; but I do not see more than ordinary generation keeping true; perhaps tests the trueness in another way: but a plant does not vary in first generation, when part out of normal conditions. ÏÏ23-4m/w; (a) Notice this argument 235 wt (a) Hybrids unions therefore follow same law in first generation as the union of pure species.- 5-7m/w a 6wx, 9-19zv Thinks the few exceptions to this normal structure of hybrids is due to variation 29-21 m\u±+\w (a) Ïïl3-5m/w (z) wb (a) Rather hard, it seems to me to draw distinction; but Gaertner (z) urges the resemblance of Hybrids made at same time & after long intervals from same pure parents. 236 8-14w The normal Hybrid type keeps constant in succeeding generations only in the most fertile hybrids, generally. 237 lwx, 6-14w very rarely sometimes single sports in a set of normal hybrids out of same fruit; & 9u "einzelneI Bildung", llu " sehr\ einem", 12u " doch \ mehreren" 238 2m/u "Digitalis, Lobelia''/wt only genera in which these exceptional types have been observed: (z) These exceptional types from same species always resemble each-other!! 12-15m/w (z)-> Ïïl2-6m/w on two years a peculiar yellow rare, so unlike as might be thought different kind. The mother type prevailing 239 12-17w From this cross obtained common normal & abnormal type. 240 5-8w one species of abnormal type, wb I observe that these abnormal types often take after one parent 242 2-5m/xvt 2 plants of Passiflora differed from each other. 243 6-8m/6-12w neither father nor mother exclusive influence on abnormal types but depends on likeness to one or other. 15-27->, 19-22m/w These abnormal are not vague, but fixed production. ÏÏ7-lm/w similar unlikenesses occur in these several cases 244 11m, 16-23w <sr abnormal types generally quite sterile; (this very curious) W~4w compares these abnormal types to atavism ÏÏ6/ÏÏ4urt 245 ll-15w In abnormal types like both parents but most like one. 246 2wx 247 ïïlôw (a) These varieties seldom repeat each

other. 1\9-7m/u +->/w They occur chiefly in such species as are so closely allied, as to be held mere varieties wb The irregularity of reappearance, & slightness of differences seem only distinct differences with his abnormal Hybrids of the previous chapters.-249 12-16m/w (a) wb (a) The abnormalities in Hybrids has observed only in plants, long cultivated in gardens, & not in wild plants; but I remember that only one side wild in Kölreuter is sufficient 250 ïïll/ÏÏ6wz 251 20-25w not seldom * in Hybrids one side or species prevails over other; & their prevailing is not accidental but is constant. 252 ÏÏ4-lm/ -*/wb most difficult which of two parent-forms a hybrid comes nearest to 255 3-7m/ wt Does not believe that Hybrids are ever unlike both parents 256 ÏÏ20-15m/w cases where one side in Hybrid preponderates. til4-13u*/w strongest instance w-6mlw (a) wb (a) N. paniculata is almost lost in N. paniculata-vincaeflora, whereas in N. quad-rivalvi-vincaeflora, vincaeflora is almost lost.- 257 5-7m/w Father type in this mixture prevails 13-16w seldom in Hybrid two parents of equal force. 258 wt (a) When two hybrids * unite, & one offspring takes almost exclusively after one side, hybrid is sterile, lwz, 5-7m/w (a) llu*, ll-12u*, 14-18m\w* one spec took most closely after father; was fertile. 259 13-16m/w Hybrids generally higher than pure; seldomer dwarfed. 261 4-5m/w Hybrid Verbascum generally woolly in Pots. 262 ^13-lw odd that this hybrid no rudiment stamen, considering structure of both parents. 1Ï5-3m/ w (B) wb (B) Female organ generally shows no signs of imperfection even when perfectly sterile. 264 1tl0-9m/u++ 265 9u "Thiervari-etäten", 19-21m, wb The entire differences, of different authors in ascribing more or less to Father or Mother shows there no real rule. 266 1tl5-12m, ÏÏ25-14"...", 1Ï23u '"pater major"/w seems pretty true 268 nl7-llw in Plants neither father or mother has exclusive influence 269 fll2m 273 3m, 5u "oben\202", l-24w See in Kolreuter whether vars. with a species give very similar Hybrids - 19a "Specifische" (a) 19-20u", 23u "Stramonium \Tatula"/22-25m/w (a) different species because hybrids different Ïïl3u "ganz\Bastarde", ïïll-9u*/w These with N. glutinosa give quite similar product & therefore considers them vars. ÏÏ9a "asiatica" not in Loudon ÏÏ9/w and these vars. of rustica wb (a) (On Datura see my Abstract of Kolreuter p. 8/Bis) I see no reason why varieties shd not equally show this

271

GAERTNER, BASTARDERZEUGUNG: 273

distinctness in same way. Does not Ancon sheep impress offspring very remarkably?? 274 11-15W External conditions no special influence on character of Hybrids. 275 4-8w Hybrid Dianthus more stabile than other genera- 12u*/w * Mongrels follow different laws to Hybrids 13-16xv Digitalis peculiar in its sporting, & exceptional. ÏÏ27-25m/o> G TtSiy In embryo plant no alteration in Hybrid from Mother ÏÏ7-6m/w embryo of mother wb G Thinks the by far greater number of normal to abnormal Hybrid types opposed to their resulting from external circumstances. 276 zvt In Hybrids, form of the cotyledons affected 277 12-19m/w differ 20un, wb/Zw I think children of pure parents, thus go after either one or other or intermediate but as he says for Hybrids how + difficult to judge & compare 279 Ïïl7-10w Exactly intermediate in number of segments of Pistil, & in sterility of stamens î\7a "ruber" of same parents 280 wt In the cross Lychnis quite prevails over Silène, so that Hybrid is like var. of the Lychnis 2-4m, 7m 281 table.w Really intermediate Hybrids Kölreuter thought they too many intermediate tî9-4m/w most difficult to settle whether plant most like Father or Mother 282 2-5m/wt commonest in close species 19w When one part more resembles (but is never identical with) Father, another the Mother; this part this, that part that &c-

9-15w This gemengte character constant in those species, where it occurs. Ïïl6-lm

3w sterile 14o, 18w sterile 20-22«<->, 22o, 24o, 27o, 30o 285 13-14w Puts strongly how these 3 classes blend into each other.. 14w When a hybrid most strongly resembles either parent fÏ2u "decidirt\ mütterlich", wb These terms used when the two have been crossed not reciprocally - Relativ-vaterlich &c used, when they do cross reciprocally & takes after the father in cross specified.- 286 10-15m/w No relation in closer resemblance to Father or Mother to fertility of Hybrid 15-17m/15-23w reciprocal crosses take place though * the offspring take decidedly after one parent. 20a "syphilitica" Decided types generally sterile, but not always as in Lobelia \\4w strongest example ÏÏ3-lm/wb * These Hybrids, * are a cross of Hybrid * & a third species - ♦ How is it called when two Hybrids cross? 287 6mfw strongest case 288 5-9w some exceptional types * come into this class. 289 wt Perhaps gemengte (or 2d class) the commonest p. 282.- 4m/w (a) ÏÏ7w> (a) wb (a) So there are species of genus which a prepotent fertility * power on other species; so others have predominating

272

influence on structure of Hybrids; but these
two are not connected 290 5u "Gat
tungstypen", 4-10m/4-25w
These kinds
specially influence structure of Hybrids of
other species, as -> These are generally
very distinct species- Even these are
sometimes overborne by other species; or
rather there is a series of these gattungs-
types 291 l-2m/wt Even in the mixed types,
one part now resembles one parent, now
another part the other parent- 292 wt No
relation between facility with which A will
impregnate B or be * impregnated by it, in
different cases, & the resemblance of hybrid
to the parent.- 10-17m/10w (a) ^2-lmlwb
This seems a Lamarkian 293 lwx, 1\l0m 295
wt (a) Always something new in appearance
of Hybrids; but not absolutely new, but
appear so from odd unions & opposition of
parent forms l-3m/w (a) 7-9m/w (a) 27m
"Mirabilis"lw cases of in 17-20w N.B Both
sporting genera 296 Ïïl8-llm/w Day sleep of
Lychnis blended * & modified 297 15-20w
power of reproduction by shoots &c Much
exceeds that of pure parent 298 ÏÏ8«
"Morton" ft8-3w Dogs vary from 10-6
nipples; thinks owing to crosses 301 Ïïl7-12w
Colour variable often, in crosses & •>

unexpected 302 13-20w Variations in colour d

in Hybrids 303 13-18m/w flowers do not take
after Mother or Father in colour.- ÏÏ2u±fi4- %

lw/wb Some simple Hybrids retain in 4

successive generations their colour as in
Dianthus &c. But generally (next Page) case
very different; colour most variable 304 wt >

variation said to keep true.- Vinca rosea a
store Plant. Syringa Lilacs p743. The Book
quoted probably cd not be consulted 2-5m/
-*/3-4u "Vinca \coerulea", 8-14m/w
very
variable colours in successive generations of
Hybrids 19-24w complex Hybrids even more
variable in colour. tÎ20w "zusammengesetzten"I
Ïïl0-4w
These hybrids take almost always
colour of father. 305 wt Sports l-5u±, 3-7m,
8u "drei
Iverschiedenen", Ïïl4u*/w Sport 306 \

ÏÏlOm, ÏÏ9-7m/w (a) wb White flowers commoner here than more South.- 307 wt ** Important on account of * Kolreuter Verbascum Lychnite with white flowers rarely with yellow on sandy Places - (So Kolreuter case goes for nothing) l-4m/w (a) 8-12m/w seed from yellow gave chiefly white 14-20ml w when crossed colours did not mix, but came pure yellow or white 6-20w See 3d Fortset. p. 35 308 ÎÎ23-22« "gelbe\ Blume"/w vars. 309 ïïlO-6m/Zw In Henslows List considered as varieties: I am nearly sure has been experimented on. Watson in Cybele

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274

seems to consider them distinct: says perhaps or probably 2 species both varying. Refer to experiments of Magazine of Nat Hist V. p. 493. & VIII.634 & Phytologist 2.164 ÏÏ6m/ÏÏ20-6w Ask Babington- 310 Ml2-8m/w colours changing during summer 312 ÏÏ25u>e 313 10-12w Blue & Yellow seldom unite 19-22w curious ways colours unite. 323 wt (a) In Mongrel Maize self-impregnated seeds of two colours 6u " selbst"\4-8mlyo(a) 324 4-27«; in 2d generation of Hybrid Maize seeds variously coloured 325 ÎÎS-4m, wb It is decided that seeds of Zea not affected immediately as in Pisum. Yet Next Page 326 15-17m/16u "wie\Pisum", fo-2m/w The Peas in second or hybrid generation varied in colour independently of immediate action of Pollen.- 329 1\8-7m/w (a) wb (a) Hybrids are affected especially in Male organs, with exceptions 332 5-22w anthers & pollen in appearance sometimes good yet hybrid quite sterile 333 ÏÏ9« "Liliaceen"/w often mentioned ft9-5m/ÏÏSu "und\ Gewächsen", ÏÏ9-2m, u*/1Î9-lw In these plants, pollen, though in appearance good yet no impregnation follows ♦ (may be faculty of female organs) CD] pollen though swells, does not burst, in water, yet admits it may be owing to female organs, or structure of roots 334 10-18m/l-18w But in cases, where plant can be impregnated by other individuals or species, we can infer pollen is bad. 22« "candidum" p745 Duvernoy 18m, Ïïl2-8m/w In most fruitful hybrids, pollen is unequally developed.- 336 6-9w The contents of pollen grains commonly fails. ÏÏ6-2w seldom give out contents when placed in water 339 wt (a) In this hybrid M. Jalapa-longiflora, own pollen more powerful than own concepcion power.- 2-7m/w (a) 340 18-21m/w in Hybrid Birds no spermatozoa ÏÏ6-lw thinks in animals as in plants, male organs more deficient than female. 344 13-17m/w even in most fruitful hybrids normal number of seeds never produced & always mingled with bad ones. \\14-llm/w compares this fact to result of Hybrid fructifications. 346 7-10w Kolreuter failed in this Reversed experiment 347 1Ï24m 348 29m 350 î\7-5m/u "dass\vermögen" 353 8-12m/w Power of fructification in Hybrids always weakened 17-22m, wb Speaks of bisexuality as quite exceptional in vegetable Kingdom- 355 wt (a) insists male organs more & earlier affected in Hybrids than female 10-15m/w (a) 356 17u*/15-19w case of pure species with female organs impotent while male perfect 22u*/w so Passiflora tï9w "freien \ erzogenen''/ÏÏ8u*/w so this ÏÏ2-lm/wb

On other side pollen fails, yet female organ quite perfect & potent; in some Dianthus, this happened only with individuals plants.-357 Xm/w The wonderful cases, where in Lobelia, Verbascum & Zephyranthus, pollen wd not impregnate own stigma, but wd impregnate other species; these * stigmas being also impregnated by pollen of other species ftS/f^we 358 wt (a) The foregoing cases seem chiefly in plants brought from a warmer climate.- l-4m/w (a) 5-9m/w Such anomalies much plainer in Hybrids 14u++/w Hybrids 3 forms of sterility 17-18w cases of I. 359 lu*/l-5w case in single individual of the Hybrid ^20-lw Gaertner has great advantage that the sexual organs certainly are weakened, as producing so few seeds fo-3m/w (B) 1\2u, fou/wx, wb (B) Puts this under category, that male less potent than female in each case; but surely Herberts is more true, viz advantage of crossing. - See to Herbert- 360 wt (B) In this III. pollen of Hybrid wd not act on self, but in both parents; & pollen of latter impregnated Hybrid, accounts for this (not as I shd by advantage of crossing, & which I still think must hold in Herbert's case) but by believing (& it is probable) that both male & female organs weakened & cd not act on each other but only pure parents, or even the Nicotiana on a 3d species. 4u/w (B) 5-8w Is there any parallel III case in pure species? 10-25w These (I, II. & III) cases in Hybrids wonderful parallels to what happens in joining pure species!!! 361 wt (a) Reurges male organs fail first & most in Hybrids 2-4m/w (a) 17-20m/w says above * analogous with animals 22m, ÏÏ13-10m/w (B) ÏÏ8-2m, wb (B) In Dioecious plants not hybrids, in females, male organs sometimes imperfectly developed, yet can fertilise; but in male rudiment of pistil never acquires power of conception. 362 l-25w/wt In L. Vespertina, in female flower, the rudiments of stamen much smaller than in L diurna, & consequently only in latter are anthers sometimes found. Does not this well show that a rudiment has something essential & real in it - Very Good We can prove Mammae in Male to be a reality.- Wings in insects & Here we can prove in another way. Gaertner somewhat suggests in Carrot to cut off the fertile flower early & see whether other flowers wd become fertile. At p345 & p. 330 long description of crosses of Dioecious plants study it all.- 1\l4w (z) 1Ï22-5w Similar changes take place easier in Monooecious than in Dioecious 363 15xx,

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275

276

GAERTNER, BASTARDERZEUGUNG: 363

1Î22-8w In doubling male organs always change first wb Reasons why male organs more affected than female; seasons quite worthless.- May it not have some relation to Falconers Law of external parts first affected 364 wt accounts for hybrid breeding easier with parents than with self by own pollen having less strength; so in cases as below (zz) l-6m/->, ÏÏ8fit7u*/m/w (zz) ÏÏ5a "333" 357 1Ï5u4>, ÏÏ5-2m, wb I cannot see how his explanation holds good, for the pollen of L fulgens (s.64) did impregnate two other pure species. 365 wt (a) says much experience has shown him that hybrids, after 8-10 generations, have their procreative powers weaker & weaker; & hence cannot be prolonged.- (But then all crossing avoided) 4m, 8-13m/13u "wie\hat"/!/10w (a) 366 2w quite sterile ll-15w Some individuals of these Hybrids quite sterile! 'Wlô-lw/wb Degree of fertility in most Hybrids, except the quite sterile, generally very variable, even in Hybrids from same capsule & reared alike (This shows how innate, & is opposed (written over "compared") to its being a character of species, as species.) - (P) Hence different accounts by different authors, as follows,- 367 wt A) This unfixedness of fertility of Hybrids, their special character, & not observed in pure species.- 5-6m/w A 13-23m/13w (B) wb (B) Some Hybrids, produce only seed at end, or middle, or (generally) beginning of their flowering, & are at other times sterile.- This a peculiarity, confined (when so pronounced) to Hybrids.- 368 î\10-7[]/w Does not believe 369 wt Cases in pure Dioecious plants of changes in sexual relations l-3m/w (a) 7-12m/w Female sterility of D. Japonica transmitted to offspring in Hybrids, \\7-3m, wb Hybrid Plants which produce an extraordinary number of flowers & are quite sterile; caused by sterility p. 372 370 wt Same thing sometimes occurs in pure species l-6m 373 wt ??ln Hybrids crossed with either parent, & thus assuming fertility & the ancestral form, yet fertility variable in such individuals; in the successive generations.- 2u "eigenen", 5-8m/w (a) 377 wt (a) seems to attribute sterility of Liliaceous Plants to state of roots.- 23« "der\Liliaceen"/w (a) ÏÏ5-2m/w all sterile Cape of Good Hope Oxales 378 wt My point that plants often sterile & yet not unhealthy not touched on.- G. gives only obvious cases of infertility. 12-15m/w Hybrids in pots more fertile than in open ground. 20-22m/w In fruitful years more birth from domestic

animals 24m, ÏÏ4-3m, wb More often cause of infertility on male than female side; as in Caryophyllea & Verbascum 379 12-16m/w cases when pollen good but female organ 27u "manchenIunseren", 20-30w often in exotics, pollen & female organs are ready at different times, & so can be impregnated artificially X Ïïl0-7m/w insects less important than wind!! ÏÏ4-lm/w Infertility through long cultivation by layers &c wb * Would he say that C. Sprengel's facts were due to climatic influences? 380 lwx, 2-5w Reported by Reichenbach 10-30w case of wild Verbascums & in pots, with certain flowers sterile & certain fertile; cannot explain, like Kolreuters cases 381 Ïïl3-10w Female mules in warm country breed. tt7u "erwähnt \Crax"/ 7-5m, fÎ4-2w> Black swan with white 382 6u "männlichen"/w Male Hybrid pheasant sterile 15-19m/w Morton thinks relation between capacity of Hybridising & domestication ÏÏ5u "Fruchtbarkeit"lw (a) wb (a) Fertility a fixed attribute of pure species (in natural conditions CD) Mem. cases of moss not breeding, (these are probably Dioecious) in Hybrids a varying attribute. 383 3wx, 7u+/w fertile according to Kolreuter 384 22-24u<-», 15-19m/16u "immer", l&-18m/w In pure species artificial impregnation has not always yielded full number of seed 1\7-5m/x[ftl0-5w I do not think G had Green House he always speaks of ZimmerO wb Hybrids always less seeds than pure parents, as in following examples.- 385 wt See in Beitrage p398 Lychnis vespertina - diurna gave with own pollen 234 seed. l-4m/w see to Kolreuter about Datura 3u "200-280", 4u "600-800", 7u "192 "18u "2101 Samen "/7-8m/w differences between natural & artificial impregnation ÏÏ6-2m/w (B) wb (B) Great differences in different individuals of same hybrids & in different years, in fertility striking.- 386 2m, Ïïl2u++/î\14-12m/w Genera with most fruitful Hybrids 387 lu*/wt Henschel says this fertile, but reverse quite sterile. See Henslow. 13-20w No relation between fertility of pure parent & the facility of uniting, or with these Hybrids having fertility IÎ22/ïï9wn 388 lwx, 5-8m/w Hybrids nearly as fertile, but never quite as pure parents.- table.w The reverses of these not equally fertile. "Lobelia".w (K) in Table "Matthiola".w This not in list -> as repeated at p. 402 -> The table is probably wrong "Verbascum".w Some great mistake Not in List!!! wb in little degree fertile, which is commonest case 389 table."Verbascum".-> to previous table, 8u "Absolut unfruchtbare" 390 table.w/l-5m/w

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277

The above numbers show that in Hybrids greater inclination for sterility than for fertility. \l9-7m/14-3w Fertility so variable at different times, & in different individuals, that simple classes of fertile & infertile Hybrids will not do. 391 wt (B) Here are 4 cases, in which other authors find fertility whereas Gaertner finds great sterility: was he bad Gardener? 5-10m/w various striking cases of difference fertility, as found by different authors. 8u "unseren", 8w (1) 9u "total steril", llu "bei uns"/w (2) 23« "bei I total", 14-19m/w one year so fertile as to self sow, in next year very sterile. ÏÏ24« "immer total"/w (4) (B) 1Î6-3m/P, wb (P) cases of Hybrids out of same capsule, of different degrees of fertility & some quite sterile.- 392 7-15w In the greater number of Hybrids sterility belongs more to the individual than to the kind; (ie some are or may be fertile) ÏÏ24-3w in same category stands fact (x) that Spring or first flower of Hybrids only bring seed generally. 393 5« "ersten Früchte" 7u "40 Samen", 8u "2-3"/w Examples of above laws % ïïll-6m/w In pure species the difference in no. of seeds in early & late flowers inconsiderable ÏÏ9u/wx

7m, 8-14w Variability of Fertility cannot be accounted for by luxuriance 17-20w In pure species, when periodically infertile not very luxuriant 1\4-3m/wb Fertility does not stand in inverse relation to their Luxuriance

9-14w Herberts' case of fertility after 16 years might be due to pollen of pure parent. \\6-lwNo art or * culture will alter or improve the organs of generation in Hybrids.

lOwx, 16z, w-7w Fertility does not go by genera ÏÏ5wa, ÏÏ4u±, ÏÏ4r-lm 397 ÏÏS-2w The inequality of fertility in hybrids from same generation, shows that fertility cannot depend on outwards circumstances 398 2-4m/l-8w Hybrids in pots easier bear seed than in open land, because too much luxuriance thus checked ll-16w tried experiment to see effect of different culture &c & cd perceive none.- 399 wt *& \\ Certainly a priori, one wd have expected a gradation in fertility of hybrids & old mongrels as Dogs In Gaertner Tables there is appl to this. 4m, 1Ï22wrc 400 3-23w> Contradicts Wiegman that maternal or paternal types fertile individuals sterile. ÏÏ23-Iw Chief conclusions (1) Unfixity of fertility in same hybrid The varying form of the * Hybrid is the abstract which can be divided into following classes. 402 ÏÏ2/ÏÏ2m 403 4-6m 404 ft2-2u<-> 405 wt (a) Hence resemblance of Hybrids to either parent no marked influence on fertility.- luh\w male 5-7m/w

(a) 1Ï20-22m, tÎ20w (B) 1Ï20-3m, tilOw Examples ÏÏ7u "256", 1Î5u "diesen l Bastarde", ÏÏ4m "absolut unfruchtbar", ÏÏ3w Examples ÏÏ2-2m/ÏÏ2« "49", wb (B) These authors think law of relation between fertility of Hybrids & the affinity of parents; but if we judge of latter by seeds yielded, there is no relation to fertility of Hybrids when reared from them 406 9-10m, 9-llm/8-13w We conclude that fertility of hybrids stands in no near relation to * elective affinity of parents.- 25x/16-19w Yet strong exceptions on next page 20-30w When plants cross easily both ways, hybrids most commonly fertile. This fertility seems to depend on resemblance in Hybrids of parents, but with exceptions 407 wt (a) In Hybrids from reversed crosses, even when quite like each other, Yet fertility not same, & in one case even on one side quite sterile. X «• Important as shows not in essence of Hybrids- 2-12m/10u++/w Yes for see p. 385 13-16m/w Ease (he probably means Case) when reverse cross easy, yet Hybrid sterile 1Î6-2m/w (B) wb (B) From * facility of union cannot infer fertility of product 408 9-10u/8-13w It seems that systematic affinity of Parents favours the fertility of Hybrids see p. 410. ÏÏ7-5m/w Above law it seems has been discussed table.w see p. 414 Hybrids from these have remarkable fertility & were considered by Kolreuter as varieties, wb When we consider these facts we might conclude that fertility of Hybrids indirect relation to affinity of parents 409 2-20«; But on other side (-» this other side seems most strong) many close species will not unite, & (2d) that some species will unite & produce more fertile hybrids than more closely allied species, examples. 18-20m, Ïïl3-12m 410 lu "Herbert", 5-7w Examples as before 12][, table.w Examples of nearly related species having hybrids quite sterile 1ÎS-4w Most unlike dogs breed & produce fertile offspring. tlm/wb concludes that likeness in Habitus cannot be ground cause of fertility or sterility of Hybrids. 411 22m "constitutionellen"/w considers this an unknown element ÏÏS-5/n, wb Repeats that as fertility varies in Hybrid from same parents, it belongs to the individual & not to the Kind 412 wt Even in quite sterile plants in both sexes, yet flowers remain longer when stigma dusted with pollen of either pure parent so in truth not utterly ste.rile 2-7m, 8-llm, ÏÏ8-lm/w argues against the several explanations of Herbert of special cases of sterility 413 14-18w not on account of evergreen & deciduous leaves. 414 23m, table.w considered varieties

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GAERTNER, BASTARDERZEUGUNG: 414

by Kolreuter from fertility "Datura", "Malva".zv ia (others).w o o means not tried by Gaertner "Dianthus".w XX 2nd table.w o not tried These 2 are added, though Kolreuter cannot dare to call only vars. ÏÏ4m "parum vel", wb XX. V. My M.S. p. 19 on Kolreuter, showing that all Botanists agree in thinking these only vars. 415 table.w/wt ia But as several of these are probably rare it is very important that G. says not so fertile as pure parents, for we get then a series table.w also highly fertile Hybrids "Matthiola".w Bentham says var. 3-5m/w but yet not so fertile, in any of above cases, as pure parents. 3u "allen diesen"/3-10w Yet he has not tried all Koelreuters must mean these last alone 4u "ausgezeichneten", 5-6u "nietnals\hervorbringen" 417 wt (a) Agrees with Herberts constitutional doctrine (which I think means only some internal difference. 3-8m/w (a) 418 \ll2-8m/w (a) 5-2m, wb (a) The most fertile hybrids always lose fertility in successive generations.- some sterilish plants if artificially fertilised increase in fertility 420 12-25w In 2d & other generations of Hybrids, fertility becomes unstable & often less, so that even parent-pollen will then have little or no effect. This sterility, however, varies much in different individuals & depends especially on the individuals 23-18m, ÏÏ9-6m/w A \\5-2m/w Fertility never greater in 2 generation, than in first, ttlurt, wb (A) In Mongrels, fertility even greater in second generation, than in first, see further on; for this perhaps implies less fertility in crossing varieties.- 421 wt (B) This decrease of fertility in second generation has been observed in less fertile hybrids of Nicotiana, & fertile Dianthus hybrids, as in example given. As this is only second generation cannot be due to want of crossing.- l-4m/w B 8-9m/w So in animals according to Morton 15-25w sometimes fertility increased after repeated artificial impregnation in succeeding generation, but this plant has commonly gone back to either father or mother type 20wx, 25-27m/w D wb (D) Many very fertile hybrids propagate themselves, with unaltered type like pure species, as in list, but always with decreasing fertility. 422 3-4m, 5-lOm/w In 2d & succeeding generation hybrids sport much * ^6-lm, wb some remain like hybrid others go back to either grandmother or grandfather 423 wt (a) The * manner in which type divides, & goes back, varies much.- 2-8m/w (a) 13u*lw offspring of this varied more than from reverse 15u*/w greatly & î\15-9m/w

Kolreuter compares these with hybrids crossed with pure parents. 424 15-21m/w The exceptional or abnormal hybrids, when fertile, generally produce normal hybrids. ÏÏSm 425 12u*/12-16m/w with own pollen 4 seeds with pollen of D. barbatus 10. seeds.-16m "29 gute"/17u "67 hervor" 116-17 mll6-23w so again, & thus often.- & likewise so with very fertile hybrids.- 1Î8-3w> & so with quite sterile hybrids, corolla remains longer when dusted with either parent pollen.- 426 11-14w examples as last page Ïïl2-lw/wb when parent & hybrid pollen mixed, latter rendered quite ineffectual, so that no need to castrate; just like when foreign & own pollen applied to a plant, own eliminates quite effect of the foreign.- This Curious. 427 wt (A) Pollen of a third kind will sometimes produce more effect, than own hybrid pollen. l-2w (A) 3u*, 5u*/3-6w 13 seeds with own pollen; langsdorfii 16 seeds. 18wz 428 15-19m/13-30w The pollen of the two parents has no regard to their sexes in the effect they produce, but that pollen, which has most power of metamorphosis or umwandelung, which will be discussed afterwards, I suppose that pollen which soonest converts hybrid into pure species, produces also most seeds in Hybrid. ÏÏ18-7m/tïl3iu A wb (A) Niger again variability of offspring of self-impregnated hybrids.= so mongrels are.- 429 l/2/4wn, 12m "aufsteigenden", 16wx, 17-18u "väterliche Bastarde"'/w Paternal Hybrids - are offspring of pollen of * same species twice ÏÏ6m "V'lwb If this * hybrid had been crossed with pollen of atro-purpura, it wd have been a "Muterliche Bastard" or "absteigenden" grade p. 451 430 l-8w by Father pollen more seed generally then by Hybrids own pollen, but generally not so many as in first cross of pure parents 14u "einfache", 15-17m/w much unfixedness in this class of Hybrids 17m, 18-30w Like second generation of simple hybrids, these Paternal Hybrids vary much & differ much in fertility, out of same capsule. So very different results from repeated experiments with same species. 431 l-3m/l-10w The more fruitful hybrids vary less, & go back more to paternal type, but have often reduced fertility, as, - examples 9wx, $T7-7w When they take less after paternal type & are much less fruitful, so vary much.-generally under 3 types, in accordance with resemblance to ancestors & parent.- tlOu "schwächeren"/? 432 wt Different species have different tendency to communicate their variability; old cultivated plants 9~llm\w (a)

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ÏÏ24-2m, wb In these cases the * type which normally approaches to father or double pollen side is less fertile 433 wt I am not quite sure that these two pages are fully understood 8-13m/w Here the type which came nearest father was most fertile. 17wx, 18-25w all sorts of variability in type & fertility 1Ï2u 434 2m, 16-20m/w It is clear that fertility does not always at all increase * in resemblance in succeeding generations, with t«^X ancestor ÏÏ22« "fünf"fl\16-12w 5 different types out of this "paternal" hybrid 1\l0-8m/w Here case of coming near the paternal type with considerable fertility 435 wt A Commonest rule or appearance in this stage of conversion is that the more the hybrids differ from mother & approach the paternal type, the more they suffer in fertility.- Thinks the reverse more probably really the law. 12-16m/w A 18wx, Ïïl2-6w Female organs recover first their powers-ÏÏ4-2m, ïïlu+/wb Fertility in this in such as -> always very variable 436 4r-8w Examples of above variability in fertility 10-30w These "paternal" hybrids are when self impregnated, generally more fertile, than in former generation, & of themselves tend to approach the paternal type; ie even when self impregnated & are variable in structure. 1Ï20-9« "in\Generation", 1tlO-3m/t18w B wb B This particular hybrid came by itself more fertile, which he seems to consider normal result of repeated impregnations of own pollen 437 wt Think the above like avatismus in Animals l-4m, 8-9u "in I Generation", 8-12w when go back to Mother, not quite & unequally. 16wx, ÏÏlOztrc, ÏÏ9w "Puvis" "Van Mons"[Ü9-4w So these authors wrongly dispute tendency to avatism 438 8-12w Thinks all variation from cultivation when free tend to go back. 19/20wx, 19-22w tends more to mother than Father ÏÏ20-4m/ÏÏ9u> (A) ttearr, wb Happens oftener with same genera than with others; never in the very fruitful Hybrids- 439 6u "Lavateral Generation", 7-lOw This first time more to mother in another case more to Father. 14r-20w In these going back progenyO of Hybrids, fertility less, sometimes gone, never increased. ïïl3/ÏÏSurc 440 lOwz, nl6~4m, ÏÏ9wx, wb I believe he here argues that going back of Hybrid offspring, & of varieties not crossed, is evidence of aboriginal foundation form of species. «er So it is some evidence - V. p. 455 my Note. Good. 441 wt Thinks the former Laburnum case a proof of sterility of species & tendency to go back. l-3m, 9/ lOwz, ÏÏ23-3w The occasional approach to

father in simple Hybrids or in second generation of Paternal Hybrids, is rarer than the approach to the mother. 442 8-13w amongst simple Hybrids Those that approach Father are more sterile. 19ull9-20m/w These are apt to tend to Father 1T22-lw The Paternal Hybrids in 2d degree which go back to father have increased fertility. These cases liable to error. 443 6wx, 6-9w All the above facts like avatismus in animals. 444 lwz, ÏÏ3-2m/1Ï2w "weiteren Generationen", wb in very fertile hybrids these goings back to mother or father have not been perceived, so prevented apparently by strength of sexual organs. 445 wt (A) These goings back agree with the Abnormal types, except these latter are the result of the crossing of pure parents: they also are very sterile. 2-3m/w Law of variation 6-7m/w A T7-20w In successive generations more variability ÏÏ23w*/iï23-22w These sorts of Hybrids give most variation. ttSw D. barbatocarthusia,-carthusium. ÏÏ7« "väterliche Bastarde", ÏÏ7-3w variation seldom then in last case (* next Page on do) ft2w "paniculatorustico-glutinosa"/ wb These hybrids always with one exception approach father (or 2d species) & commonly totally sterile Yet I think they were sometimes more fertile than with own pollen.- 446 4m, 6-10w Male more power in causing variation than female. ÏÏ24-6a> Cause of variability lies in act of generation perhaps aided by circumstances 447 ÏÏ26ua/ Ïïl6-12w not to be distinguished from pure N. rustica, but less sterile ÏÏ8u*/ÏÏ8-6w & even in this generation less fertile z/wb Mother Father« pure * paniculata Grand Father ♦ Mother Gt Gr. Mother (3) Grt Grt grandFather (4) was paniculata 448 l-8w Different species are changed at very different rates with the paternal type, but this varies in same species 449 3wx, 8-10m/3-lOw colour of flower does not vary more in later generation than in first, which is different from other variability ÏÏ25w A 1Î7u*/ tt7-2o; Even some of these quite sterile in both sexes wb A In some case, especially such as are slow to be converted, the fertility is lessened, especially on male side, even when hybrid has gone back nearly to paternal type. 450 wt A Such Hybrids with own pollen improve fertility & of themselves go nearer the paternal type, lm, l-12w Even some fruitful paternal hybrids in 3d degree were quite sterile on male side. Generally with higher degree of Paternal hybridism, so much more fertile. 14ua/w A tt23wx, ÏÏ22u*, wb In each paternal degree this became

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more sterile on female side, because it approached D. Japonica which is naturally sterile on female side. 451 tîlOarc 452 l-4w More fertile than corresponding paternal Hybrid 9~12w varies more * than paternal hybrid x-> chinensis-barbatus female barbatus male table.w These bore 6-15 varieties Ïïl0-lw Most of the vars have approached very close to pure maternal type 453 wt xxx I shd think caused by female side of Hybrid being most fertile & other side being crossed with same type, through a male, caused their greater fertility. & is partly proof of more fertility on female side. 8m, 10-14w More fertile than corresponding Paternal Hybrids xxx 17-28w But even here amongst those most closely resembling Maternal type, quite sterile individuals are found. Here also male side fails in fertility more than female. ÏÏ22-9m/w A wb A In further generations, when self impregnated, become of themselves more like mother & more fertile & less variable- 454 10-20w The more fruitful stick to the hybrid type longer than the less fruitful. Rate of going back varies according to Kind 455 wt/l-5w A Neither vaj\ shd be an aboriginal form. This makes me believe the reported fact that Mongrels go back: Bell insisted on this to me one day, in regard to Pigeons, & I think Dixon did. ««■ So Gaertners remark that this proof of Real Species fails, for applicable to Varieties 2-15w -» But it might be said that one var. was an ursprungliche forme.- 8u "zur Stammmutter", 7-18w The law that these (I fancy both paternal & maternal, anyhow the latter) of themselves, self-impregnated go back to type of Mother, most important. (A) 22-23w The metamorphosis of one species into another like a variety into another seems opposed to species being something distinct as Entity- XX %-5w In Toilets case of Malay Fowls so long affecting breed is case of a van with stronger tendency than others to go back, like species wb XX It is argued that the sterility of hybrids, shows that species are a distinct entity, then surely the points in which they agree, may be fairly adduced to show that they are not essentially different 457 lOwz 458 ÏÏ7-4m/w (a) wb (a) The rate of metamorphosis depends chiefly on the species employed; but also in less degree on the variety (This rate has narrow limit) of the individuals employed; on account of different degree which they go back in type 459 13-16w The shorter the period of Metamorphosis the less variable 26m, 19wx, ÏÏ24-22m/ÏÏ26-5a; In

reverse cases, the metamorphosis at different rates, even though the hybrids from the reverse * be alike. Thinks this proof of aboriginal creation. ÏÏ2-lm/w A wb A Always approach to type of ancestral form before organs of generation quite perfected; ie these are last restored. 460 wt It is not likely we shd understand the slow restoration of the generative organs, as long as we remain so ignorant regarding the esesential action of these organs; & why two sexes necessary.- 8-10m/6-16w Not seldom quite like pure parents & yet even quite sterile, specially male organs; sexual organs universally * in some degree affected 22-22u "alien I Ausnahme", ÏÏ16-12m/w Law, that male organs not only more easily affected but slower restored. ÏÏ7-lm/w do not understand. 461 Xw extreme variability of fertility during the umwandelung, not connected with any law.- Never suddenly appears by a jump. Yet one almost exception by Kolreuter, with unusual approach to pure type, and Gaertner one other case with relatively little approach to pure parent. These cases show that the gain of fertility * is due to peculiarities of the individual 27-22u± 463 wt (A) As in first generation, decided types (Given in last page & p285) arise close to one parent, so it is evident the number of generations required for metamorphosis must vary much. 6-12m/8w A table.w on average 464 tt23-7w As far as yet known never requires more than 6 or 7 generations tl0j7wx, 6m 465 wt A Attributes the variability not entirely to the difference of the going back of individuals, but also to variability due to long cultivation, for has not perceived it in the wild-growing, nor in the more fruitful hybrids.- ll-19m/12w (A) 1îl4u "oben\220", ÏÏ23z, ^13-lw In reversed crosses, even when hybrids are alike yet they are not metamorphosed with equal readiness, which shows some difference in their nature -> ÏÏ2-lu<^/w example wb+ Thus Dianthus 466 wt Hybrids may be considered as a united brother & sister 17wx 467 wt/l-lOw Would not "Reduction" good be term for Umwandelung = inversion in Diet. -» Absorption by Father form wt Reduction by the Father or of mother or by paternal pollen or maternal pollen 7-10m/7-17w (B) Fertility of hybrids stands in no special relation to capacity for metamorphosis: Examples- very sterile & yet in 3 power almost reduced to D. car. 13ua, 16u "dritten Grade", 20-24m/w fertile but require 5 powers &c &c ÏÏ2m, ÏÏ2w other

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reasons for (B). 468 ÏÏ8-5m/w A wb (A) Generally with less * "sexual affinity" of first pure parents the Reduction * slower, & the reverse with * more fertility 469 8-10w Exceptions to * last rule Ïïl5-12w Examples of above rule 470 wt Foregoing examples show no fixed relation between periods of Metamorphosis & sexual affinity of Plants.-l-2m/iv A 8u "der I Typus"/6~15w A species with this power of producing a decided type will reduce a species in the reverse manner 1Î23-20ra/w There is also relation to systematic affinity of species, wb Systematic affinity must mean "likeness of characters externally visible. 471 î\14-6m/w Examples of last Rule 1Ï3-2w> Exceptions to 472 wt (Q) The different powers of reduction in hybrids from reversed crosses, show no fixed relation to "systematic affinity of parents 9-13m/w Q 473 wt (B) Returns to parent-forms through self-impregnation are very slow, & require many generations. ll-15m/w (B) 23m 474 6-10m/w The goings back seldom observed in wild plants when experimented on 22a "428" 438? 13-20w Conclusions (1) Facility of Reduction not absolutely depends on sexual or systematic affinity.- (2) Returns more often to Mother than Father. ÏÏ8-6w Not all embryos affected alike. 475 Zw I suppose he wd say there was a hatred in the Vegetable Kingdom to these crosses: perhaps his argument directed against those; like Herbert who believe in hybrid origin of species. 2wx, 16-17'u*/13-18w In reduced hybrids traces of parental character may be yet discovered. 19wz, 1\l3-8m/Üll-l0u '' unzweideutigen ''/w (a) fïlorc, wb Thinks the Reduction of species affords "unequivocal" proof that the limits of species confined & fixed. How curious. I can see force in this argument in reductions by self-impregnation.- 476 lwx, l-6m/w Excessive care in preventing parent pollen, Kept in chamber.- 1\9-8w The old stories of Grasses changing into each other.- 1Î4wx 477 8wx 478 5wx, 4-6w Hornsuch defender of transmutation 13wx, 17u "Berg" 496 Ü7w/ ÏÏ4w/wbx, wb Amongst seed of Vetch, some chickpea, which produced 2 vars. like Vetch 497 \\7-5wAmongst the seeds he found 4 vars. 498 18-23w 4 vars of Peas, very slightly different, raised out of bought seed-499 8~16w no variously coloured seeds produced & it is clear he wd like pairs to prevent crossing ÏÏ22a "51" 3 correct ÏÏ3/ ÏÏ2wr 500 (fn nos corrected), wt (a) Remarks that many plants when put out of proper conditions do not vary, & those that do, their

union retain & power of union suffer much less 7-10m/w a ll-16m/w Cases of change of Form chiefly in Lecoq 16-18u±/m/w these very fixed 1\l4wx, î\10-8w long cultivated plants as î\6u "Cerealien, Leguminosen"f\\4-2u "Dianthus\Tabacum"/m/w vary 501 lm/wt same cause makes them + easily depart from normal Bastard-type 7-9w varieties tend to go back; no facts given 8wx, (fn nos corrected), Ïïl2-6m, wb Quotes Herbert, that domestic variations do not affect organs of generation 503 22wx, 23-24w There are 6 of these classes. 504 5-8w Simple Hybrids of own type 2nd table.w I cannot think why Reduced Hybrids per patrem are here omitted wb -» (a) & (b) Hybrids alike & so also (c) or Reduced Hybrid per matrem. 505 9m, Urn, 23m/w (C) 506 wt (a) It is only the quantity of blood from either side which makes a difference. 4-17w Thus these are alike (a) But when one factor is more powerful in its influence, then there is a difference, as. 12-17m\w very variable & generally very sterile with exceptions. 507 Iwx, 2m/u "ausIFaktoren", 19u "'sindIsteril"/ 15-19w Excessively variable & generally absolutely sterile 22-23w compounded. 3 species same as last only mother a hybrid Ü2-lm/wb In type always (yet a prepotent type in any species has some influence) go to Father: * but in different degrees.- (So Kolreuter also says) fertility varies generally little.- 508 4-5u "vermittelnde"I3-5w are very distinct from class 5 6-10m/w In this subclass the 3 pure parents are somewhat allied table.w very little fertility in one foiling case very considerable fertility ÏÏ2-2-* 509 ÏÏ7m, ÏÏ5w (A) wb (A) In the second subclass, species are used which will not cross without the intermediate & 3d species, & therefore are very little allied in sexual affinity.- These always most closely resemble pure father. Excessively sterile 511 14-19m 512 13-15m/w a tendency to vary even in individual plant 17-24m/22w (a) wb This extreme closeness to father very singular & against ordinary laws of Hybridism, explained by greater potency of pure pollen of Father, as likewise is shown in the 3d class, in which Mother is pure & yet it seems no leaning to either side. 513 ÏÏ29-22w* It seems that where pollen pure & ovules hybrid, then appr to pure & less variability î\9-4m/m, wb not so variable, apparently owing to the potency of effect of pure parent.- 514 wt A Conclusions (1) that hybrid ovule or pollen cause of variability. (2) that the pollen, even of hybrid origin has preponderating influence over

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female !!! I do not see how second conclusion l-6mlw (A) 5wz, 6m 515 4wz, table.xo Here whichever species has the most typical strength, the offspring resembles it -quite sterile table.w Not one is Double 516 table.w 4 species united table.w In this the several offspring resembled all four parents table.w Excessively variable, no two individuals alike. Fertility lost. 517 wt It is clear that the more complicated the unions the more variability ensues. 1Î24-22w Hybrids can be told from pure only by variability 1Ï6w "schon I ersten ", ÏÏ5-3u "niemals I Arten "/m/w repeated over & over again ÏÏ2m^ 518 2m^, 3m%>, 8m*&, 20-23u<~», 14m«&, 15m*&, 16m**>, 17-18m/w not more subject to mal-conformation than pure species 18-19u*-> 519 wt Some hybrids can be much more easily impregnated when growing in pots than in open land, because too much luxuriance checked.- Good instance of ease of effect of too much luxuriance l-7m/3w (a) ÏÏ4-2w some seeds look poorer 520 l-10w of these many seed fail quite or seedlings live very short time or rather longer or only just flower 16-17w examples of above Ïïl3-4w The above one exception to rule, & may be due to greater susceptibility of outer causes 521 Ïïl4-13u++/x, ÏÏn-20w "Sageret\aus"/ïïll-9m 522 lu♦, 18u "11 \ Bastardarten "/m/x/1-18w+ Period of germination in Hybrid seeds very various 523 13-14m/x, 1ÎÎSm "Bastardsamen I Art "/Ïïl8-16m/x, ÏÏ15-13m/x/ î\13-12u "weil Iwerden", ÏÏ12-llm/w (a) 1ÎS-5->, wb The typical strength of a species over the other is shown in affecting period of germination of Hybrid seeds 524 13-17m, h6-15u "daher\grosse"/til6-8m 525 1Î4-lm, wb Hybrid seeds do not appear to keep so long as pure seeds 526 ÏÏ4-2m/w all observers agree about luxuriance of hybrids 527 5w long stems ÏÏ22-S«? Easily propagated by cuttings &&c ïï9m "stocken sich"Iwb Even in stocks "make offsets" ÏÏ7-6m, Mu "Seitenästen" 528 8-9w Proliferus 17-23w Thought to be related by Kolreuter to sterility of Hybrids 21wx, ^9-lwlwb Opposed to this is the fact that luxuriance begins before development of sexual organs I do not think this objection 529 3-8w (3) all very sterile hybrids are not luxuriant 12-17w (4) These hybrids which are most fruitful are the most luxuriant Ïïl4-10w concludes luxuriance a peculiar quality of Hybrids. Ü9u/wi 530 4-lùw Hybrids flower earlier with exceptions 531 13-19w unseasonable flowers This is odd. Is it not like double flowers? till-4w stamens & stigma increase in number

sometimes, but not both wb rare exceptions to above, when very distinct species united. 532 13-25w Kolreuter accounts for above by sterility, but doubts as most fruitful * Hybrids, are those which produced most flowers 27« "diejenigen Bastarde", wb * Yet these are in some degree sterile 533 ^16-8w absolutely sterile hybrids have * their flower long preserved, when dusted with pollen of either parent- 534 $15-13w Flowers longer ÏÏ2-2w some exceptions 537 Ïïl8-5w Because Bees freely frequent quite sterile hybrids, for Honey, thinks no close relation between dissemination of pollen & nectar. * Might as well as say elytre not connected with protection of wings, because present in apterous insects Itllw "Fruchtungsvermögen" 539 ÏÏ6-lm/w Thinks Kolreuter wrong in concluding these are only vars 540 1\20-I5m/ ÏÏ20-5w Never gives so many seeds as pure parent. As pure species are often sterile sterility cannot be taken as proof of hybridism 541 wt can offer no explanation of Sterility l-6m 542 wt Duration of plants whether 1 or 2 years always very variable 3-5m/5u "Koch", 7-17w Hybrids longer lived, strong character of such plants, as below ÏÏ4-3u<-> 544 ÏÏ3-2m, wb attributes above partly to sterility, but - 545 4-15w objects that some quite sterile are only annuals, & objects that castrated parents have not life prolonged. 17wx, 16-18m/w (a) ÏÏ27-22w In crossing hermaphrodite to 2 unisexual plants sexual organs repaired, wb In dioecious plants organs imperfect of one sex. in Hybrids perfect, but functionless 546 wt Hybrids become decrepid in successive generations. l-4mlw (a) 1\l5-lm/w Hybrids can bear cold better than parents, which is connected with their tenacity of life 548 5-lOw However Some hybrids from little related species are tender. 549 ft2S-27u "denI Tulpen"/w These vary during life of individuals but then variable flowers ÏÏ26-2«; In This Hybrid (perhaps only a mongrel iy) some of the flowers in middle of summer & autumn went back to Mother in flowers 550 3-5w other cases of above 14-17m/w Suspect the 2 Tropaeolum only vars, yet very different. ÏÏ7-5m/w a ÏÏ7a "specwsissimo" female 1t7a "phyllanthus" male wb (a) This hybrid for first three years had angular 5 sided stigma, & then became like Phyllanthus.- 553 12-13u+>/15u*/10-20w cases of hybrids in which type has kept very constant, in this case for 10 generations, but with lessened fertility 19x&>, 21x&>, ÏÏ8-4w above only examples of progeny of hybrids

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not varying 554 2-18w Fertility even more variable than other characters. Rarely becomes more fertile in 2d generation but generally, even in most fertile Hybrids, much more sterile. 556 wt The tendency to go back, he argues, wd prevent new species being formed by variation; but overlooks any mention of selection picking out the new form adapted to new end.- l-5m/w (a) -> î\16-8w Local & constant varieties are different as long as new conditions are present, but change them & the species will go back 557 wt (a) as opposed to those who believe genera are made by crossing of species, brings case of Verbascum with species most difficult to distinguish, yet most sterile.- l-6m/w (a) 9-15w Thinks monstrosities not occurring more in Hybrids than pure species, though Kolreuter did think so.- 558 wt Has made 1000 artificial impregnations l-2u "anIBefruchtungen" 559 Ïïl7-13w cases of Dwarf Hybrids enumerated by Kolreuter 561 llu*/14u*/ll-16w The doubling of calyx & colouring of do., even in these genera, not once observed. 564 wt Hybrids become double like pure species-Does not seem more apt to be double l-3m/ 2u "Jäger"/wt Has described double flowers in all classes. 565 8-12m/w rare case of double hybrid, if parents single 1\ll-8m/w sparing & retarded dusting with pollen, most apt to bring double flowers 1\5-2m/w (a) wb (a) Hybrids more inclined to double than * pure species 566 10-15m/w It wd appear that this stock was impregnated by Plants 100 yards off - 567 7c/w£, til4c/we, ÏÏ23-7w luxuriant growth no doubt necessary for doubling, but some other cause shown to exist *3-lm/w near Hot Spring several Plants double 568 l-4w cases of wild flower double ïïâwx 569 wt (a) This seems to agree with male organs being most easily rendered sterile in Hybrids. 4-7m/w female organs more often spared from changes in double flowers (a) 7m, 10-14w The coupling of stamens in Hybrids the opposite of Doubling. tl0~5m/w Pistil more often converted into Petals in pure species than in Hybrids. 571 Ïïl3-10m/w Monstrous Sea-hound with 2 heads 572 7-10w It is remarkable that vegetative strength owing to sterility does not disturb rest of flower nl5-lw The Pollen & ovules themselves must have to be modified: the variation is not due to mere mixture of two kinds of cells ÏÏ3-2m/w/wb very strange that corolla as altered * stamen is not modified in Hybrids, wb In the second generation of Hybrids we have much

variation, which is kind of monstrosity 574 wt xxx This remark very curious & bears on what I have shown The large genera var most. I do not know whether remark applied to wild or tame. If wild * as I fancy all is right. If tame it wd indicate that my explanation of spreading & favourable conditions must be superseded by some new law. Could it be tested by Loudon, ascertaining the proportion of genera with single species, by Lindley??? l-2w Shd this rule hold for domestic plants, then we may account for it by variability being necessary to improve plant. 2-3w As I thought of doing with Domestic animals. Wd it be good to take domestic Plants & see proportion of species to genera??? (or do it all by Loudon, that wd be best) according to Nat Family & whole Kingdom. 5-7w Maize has one (or two Molina!?) species) 8-10w Rye has only 2 species Rice only one? î\12u*/w Hardly vary at all anywhere 1\10-9u*/w These vary vastly î\10-4m/w (B) ^\7-4m/w xxx (a) ïïlw aescutus Horsechesnut la "macrostemma" Red Horsechesnut wb (a) Q Some have thought that single species of genera do not vary (Man!) much, but case of Platanus given wb (B) But the Platanus of Pavia have more than one species as far as I can find out 575 wt Admits the crossing in cultivation must check the ausartung of plants but doubts whether this holds in wild Plants!!! 1-9m, 15-18m/w variation affects every part of Plant. Î\l3-7w crossing of species & varieties an evident cause of variation ÏÏ4-lm/w variability quite * owing to mongreling than to external agency 576 l-3m/w Van Mons 2 kinds of variation 13-17m/w some varieties are constant but crosses of where vars. very variable 18-22m/w White Dahlias not one white seedling \ï3u "zum Theil" ß5-lm/w/wb all agree that vars cross & produce partly more fertile * offspring, than the pure parents.- But exceptions as on next Page 577 3a "von "/wt at p. 87 says these two vars grown in garden always kept pure. 3-4u "Cucurbita\major", 3-8w These unite with great difficulty, but offspring very variable & fruitful 8-l0m/Q&>, 8-10m/w says some vars of Dogs, some crosses are more fertile than others Ask 14-18u*/w K. calls these stabile vars. (Gaertner the following; some Botanists consider as species 22« "unserer I fortpflanzen"/w finds like Herbert the vars of Hollyock constant. 23u "Lychnis"'/24u "phoenicea"/w (A) *, 1Ï22-5m/w Mongrels like offspring of simple Hybrids, only more variable, (which surely might be expected

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GAERTNER, BASTARDERZEUGUNG: 577

CD) ÏÏ6-lm/w case of variability in varieties wb (A) These true species in relation to variability like Mongrels, in fertility like Hybrids.- Yet Lychnis is wild & not cultivated Plant see p. 582 at top 578 wt In Cucurbitae, on same plant often two kinds of fruit in shape & flavor lu*/l-4m/w (B) 6wx, 7-8u^/ w Important 8w intermediate & this is commonest in close species see p. 283 13u ''früher''/16m/9-20w The uninjured & often increased fertility of mongrels, accounted for by luxuriance of Hybrids (I do not see this) & says he finds garden Plants varied from crossing vars. are earlier than ordinary vegetables. (The earliness is hardly same as greater fertility.) ? ask tableV to each line/w On account of greater but not equal to pure species fertility. Kolreuter considered these as only vars: * G. thinks from actual experiments * only the Hyosciamus as true varieties, because by cultivation one turned into other, wb Steudel makes agrestis a Synonym of H. niger G. says they turned into each other 579 5-6u*/w same conclusions regarding these 7u "Bastard", lOu "Bastarde"/llu " absolut "/8-14w says fruitfulness of Hybrids not absolutely * proof of parents being only varieties 7-8m, 9-llm/ w ask author, I fancy means only some fertility, wb Examples of Hybrids very fertile but not as fertile as pure parents wb* These are not hybrids, but nearly the union of two pure species. 580 table.w The hybrid from these quite sterile 1\20-lw seems to admit quite the crossing of varieties left to themselves & may be cause of return of vars to parent forms, says mongrels in their variation in successive generations may be classed like the Hybrids, which he has classed. 581 wt Says besides infertility Mongrels differ from Hybrids in * varying in the first generation whereas Hybrids vary in 2d or in paternal & maternal reductions. He gives no case of wild varieties, when first crossed varying more than mongrels; at least I cannot remark any. l-4m/w (a) 6u "andere\Bastarde"/w in other respects like Hybrid only more like to pure species. 8m, 10-25w He evidently considers these very important characteristic differences (just respecting p. 273) between * crossing species & varieties 1\4-lm 582 l-4m/w mainly repeats p. 577 9-10w more accessible to impregnation of other vars 12-13w More tendency to revert to parent form 14-17m/w more variable 18u "gewöhnlich"/18-19w commonly more fertile 1\6-lm/w (a) wb (a) Lecoq states great variability in Iris,

supported by observations of Berg, hence suspect that there may be variety-bastards -So necessary to show no need of crossing look at Potatoes & Maize & Rice!!! * 585 4-7w The smaller proportion of Hybrids are "intermediate" 586 î\14-12m/w speaks of law of both organs being ready at same time! 587 2a "VJimmer" * 15/ all foiling numbers wrong fïlOroe, wb see Corrigenda 589 16c/ we 590 2uts/w Natural Hybrids 5-8m 591 7-17m/w cases of Verbascum self-formed Hybrids, yet offspring these Hybrids excessively sterile. 598 1\l5-llm/w (a) wb says not know how long & in what limits keep true, but wheat shows how long can be preserved under same conditions. 601 8-lOm/w The inner nature of Plants cannot be judged from outside.- 602 4u "paniculata"/3-6m/w He puts Mother first & Father after, some have followed an opposite course 605 î\8-3m, wb Thinks the facts of Hybridisation show that original species forever remain true 606 6-7wfa all Q ÏÏ4-lm, wb as varieties can generally be propagated, as known for centuries, any alteration, if they ever occur, requires careful observation.- 607 1\8-3m/w (a) wb Points in which grafted Plants do differ from same raised by seed 608 6-10w sometimes less fruitful, sometimes more.-10?, 16u "vollkommenere"/17u "zahlreichere"/ 18u "Geschmack\Früchte"/16-22w seedlings generally bear more perfect & more numerous seeds than when grafted. fll3-7u> sometimes life rendered longer, sometimes shorter ÏÏ4-lw longer in foreign trees 609 10-14m/w evergreen oak grafted on common cast leaves & Daphne laureola flowered in winter 15-22w effect of one Pear grafted on an earlier kind was to make it actually later! 23wx, ÏÏ10W* 10 true is right %wx, \\3c/w<£ 611 ïïllu "Oleander"/w cases of mottled leaves affecting the Stock. 613 5-9w Even the wood keeps distinct at place of grafting.

2u "allein \vermischte"/5u "selbstIzu"/l-lOw a statement that two kinds of grapes -branches split & joined longitudinally produced striped fruit & crossed foliages. G. does not believe. 1\8-5w other similar cases

9-13m, 1tl2-9u7 objects that these are cases of sporting ÏÏ5-2m/w ughO 628 5-25w case of sport in common Laburnum with flowers like C. Adami Is not this like the orchard case? Were they sterile? The sport & parent in Austrian Bramble are sterile. (Herbert has shown are sterile, in Hort. Journal) wb (B) He is dreadfully puzzled about the Laburnum case & says not analogous to anything known 629 4-12m/8w

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B Ïïl4r4w Power of grafting * much longer than of hybridising; even very different genera (A) (It makes it the more remarkable that certain vars. shd. not do well together.) ÏÏ22/ÎÏ9w«ê, ÏÏ7/1t6arc, wb (A) I think I have heard it said same Family, wb Syringa Fraxinus Olea Chrisanthus - all Oleaceae 630 wt The relation of the different kinds which can be grafted on same stock is very different from the relationship on which hybridisation depends 2-7m, 8m 631 7-13w A certain affinity necessary beyond doubt. 22c/ we, î\16w%, ul5u "organischen Structur", ÏÏ9-8u h'diel Individuen füll-5w The above influences not only possibility of graft, but * fructification & duration of life if5-2m, ÏÏ6w "Familien-Affinität"'/wb Family affinity, though greater difference between the graft & stock in wood, yet permits the graft. 632 8-9m/u "schlagen \ Diel"/Q/3-13w great difference in powers of grafting. Pear & Apple though altered will with difficulty graft.- Difference in reverse case 18w Will not hybridise. ÏÏ25-12m/w can be grafted but not hybridised 633 llclwi 635 5-7m/5-12w Puvis speaks of grasses modifying but not exactly crossing. Has Wiegman shown that grasses cross? 1\10-4m/w 2 colours in turnips not capable of crossing 639 1t24-22m/ÏÏ24-2w Genera which have perfect pollen & ovaries, but produce commonly no good seed, but will produce if impregnated by pollen of same species, specially by pollen of another individual 641 î\4m 648 9-12w Mainly how they worked p. 354, 369, 374) 25m "Herbert"/m/w See 651 i\8-7m/u "Unkenntnis \ Gewächsen", wb Ignorance of process of fructification in some plants has caused * failures 653 wt cases in wh he failed but others succeeded 4-7m/7u "oben \ 126", 1Î23m 654 9-13m/w has never seen ill effects from castration, except when all castrated. ÏÏ9-5m/w (a) wb Dichogamous plants less * capable of hybridising; & very liable to crypto-hermaphroditism.- 655 l-20w (Can the pollen of another individual or var overpower own pollen?)- 8-9m/8-12w Best generally to castrate at moment of opening of flower. 29« "Leguminosen", 20u "Malvaceen"'\18-22wNecessary have cut or open or partly or wholly cut away petals 22-23u<^>/25-28w Oenothera Epilobium Fuchsia Clarkia 22-23m/w (a) (Quoted) ÏÏ9-7w Lecoq says pollen of Fuchsia not shed for 3 days after flower opened t5-lw even whole corolla can be removed without injury to seeds wb (a) Anther * ripe before opening of flowers in these Families & the fructification takes place not only some

hours, but even days before flowers open. Then how do Cruciferae & Peas cross?? 656 16w Pincers 657 14-18w cut with scissor or pull off stamens, not touch anthers 658 ÎÎ26w (a) ÏÏ4m, wb Stigma of Lobelia in own climate seldom protrudes till lost capacity of being impregnated, & hence species bears no seed, but if anthers drawn over stigma produce plants.- I think this is meaning. 659 l-2m/w Pistil grows in Geum after impregnation. tÎ25-22w By many plants pollen & ovaries not ready at same time IÎ7-4m/w Impregnate easily, because Pollen keeps its strength wb Stigma generally ready when flowers open, but sometimes not ready for some time afterwards 660 9-12w Repeats impregnation several times. 662 wt Cultivated in Pots so thus excluded from cross impregnation l-4m 663 î\9-lm/w The artificial impreg of many flowers on same plant injurious to it.- 664 wt (a) The impregnation with own pollen, * fertility always greater than in any Hybrid, & equal or at least near Natural fertility, but sometimes less.- Really this accounts for the (i a) of Hybrids.- 2-10m/w (a) 20m 665 ll-15w Plants to be fertilised in chamber facing S.E. 666 Ic/wz 667 ll-15w Many Hybrids bring seed in Pots, but not in open land. 670 Im/wt Isolation only superfluous in exotic plants when only one present 4-5u "Die\Nothwendigkeit"/2-8m/w speaks of the absolute necessity of isolation (& so does Lecoq) which all shows how some crossing goes on. 8m, 14~16w cutting off all flowers injurious 674 (fn nos corrected) 675 3m 677 (fn nos corrected) 678 ÏÏ5"®" 679 4u "ganzen Habitus", 5u "M. longiflora", 14u "5,2", 15w intermediate 26m "22,5", 27m "3", ÏÏ20-9« "Farbe\Jalapa", Ü8u*+, 1Î20-5m/w seed of this Hybrid returned to two distinct parent forms. wb+ & so in Maize I am nearly sure 2. vars of seeds in Mongrels 683 1Î28-25w fertility varies more in different experiments. 684 wt (Get Hooker to read over this list) There are important facts * in this Table not noticed in my abstract or results. 3-7w instances of series of fertility 12-13w count how many pure species have (K) when self impregnated See whether any difference in two vars., I have seen to Verbascum 22w Mothers name first ÏÏ22w succeeded with Kolreuter 1\llw = arvensis Loudon Cat. ÏÏ20w = arvensis Steudel ÏÏSm "9", 1\l5-3w I do not think same species Herbert succeeded see p. 653 are these the English species? (yes.) t?2w no of flowers no of fruit wb See how many genera no result, & genera I believe

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GAERTNER, BASTARDERZEUGUNG: 684

with close species: this bears on vars. wb I shd trust this more * (see case p. 706) more information given ? of results of self impregnation The very near to approach to (K) & yet the rarity of actual (K) makes me think the effect of artificial fecundation. 685 wt Hooker thinks that probably Canadensis & atropurpurea, are merely synonyms: Hooker thinks Canadensis & vulgaris distinct 5w Siberia 8w var. Hooker 9w of vulgaris ?? 12-13w Steudel var of atro-purpurea 14w This means hybrid crossed by Father 22w What Ask author Steudel makes var of atropurpurea 26w/27w var of vulgaris 28w var of atropurpur fl23?, ÎÎ20?, Ïï3w var. of vulgaris wb viridiflora is a Siberian species of Pallas var. of atropurpurea according to Steudel 686 wt In this country Hooker says C. littoralis or maritimum is considered a very close but distinct species Iw var of vulgaris 3m, 12-15m/w Steudel makes synonyms 13w Prop. Poll fl23-27w Dr Hooker considers undoubtedly vars. except steticumO Ü22w Prop pol \\19wwild var ftlSw Prop poll w wild var î\16-lw In text p. 197 & elsewhere Maritimus is spoken of as crossing with C. Behen Must be a misprint, anyhow C. Maritimus = S. inflata according to Steudel.- Ü15w very different Hooker ÏÏ24«, fl24-2u? all these i a &c are from crossing varieties, wb (species names equivalent to Silène inflata Steudel) Some authors think Silène italicus, pilosa There is nothing in Loudon Catalogue to make me doubt the conclus 687 19m, 25w = incornis of Kolreuter 688 wt Asa Gray considers the D. tabula as var of D. Stramonium & introduced into America Dr. Bromfield in Phytologist says he has tried every gradation between these two forms & yet here not fertile (K). This then is case of some sterility, if we are to trust the same class of facts as we infer sterility from- %w See p. 385 for degree of sterility of D. tabula & stram 1Î23zu ActaO ÏÏ23w = plumaria Linn. 689 1Î20u> Prop. Poll 695 17w Prop. Poll. 696 ItlSw Croatia ÏÏ22U;*, fllw perhaps var. 697 wt [p.225 Much important on reciprocal crosses in Digitalis.] llw var of last Lindley makes 22zü perhaps * var 17w some think var of 2. last 17w ambigua of Kolreuter p. 175 ambigua anyhow probably distinct 19/20w perhaps var î\19w var. of ferruginea ace to Lindley 698 2m/wt = angustifolium Steudel (u henceforth: numbers in cols. 2 and 3) 6u/w Prop pol 7u, 6-15m/w crosses more fertile than with own pollen. lOw Yet Newman says quite fertile 15u/w Prop. poll. 22w Prop. Poll, flSw Dr

Salter Bell says quite fertile Phytologist 699 18m, 1\l9w = niger 1\l8w = niger Probably vars. ÏÏ23w = niger? ÏÏ22w = niger fl22-22w perhaps vars. wb p. 578. G. says agrestis = albus as known by experiment - Steudel makes albus distinct - 700 lOw = undulata 1\20w I think* Herbert p. 345 succeeded & they sowed themselves. Ïïl9u/!, 1\l3-l2m, î\8-7m/w Prop. Poll 701 \tl3mdfx*, Vx/w Prop, poll 702 7-8md, 11m, 1tl8w Prop, pollen 1Î23m/w Prop Pol 1Î20w This is speciosa fertile according to Herbert p. 346 703 14w = sylvestris 15w Prop pollen 15-20m/w see my slip of Paper about Synonyms 18w yar. self im 20w = dioica 23m, 24w = Silène nicosa 1\l8m, Ïïl3w = Silène wb It is evident from Steudel that Silène, Lychnis & Cucurbitum all most closely allied 704 9w p385. contradicted 1\16-12m/w Here it is evident that first cross normal 1\l6-7m/w Prop, pollen

705 22m/23m/25m/23-25m/w see Beitrage
p598. & compare with p. 385 of this Book.
Shows that (K) is quite correct 1Î23/ÏÏ22/fl22m

706 4u\l-4m\w What differences 29«, 20m/!!,
24m/u, 25m, 27m, 19-27w
(This very
important) see Koelreuter about this. 23m^,
30m^, î\19x/w
Loudon ten week start O
ÏÏ2#m, 1\16x/w smooth fl25m, î\7m/w Prop,
poll, wb These seem distinct + 707 2m/w
Kolreuter raised them 4m/?, 25m/w Sageret
raised them p. 35 î\5m, wb according to
Steudel nearly all these are true sjpecies of
Nicotiana 708 26m/w f 29m 709 \\15m711
1\9m/w*» Prop p. 713 4m, 9m 717 27w =
Lamarckian • 718 22-23m/w p. 168 some
authors think vars. 1tl9u/m/w Prop tl8u,
tl8-llm/w
More fertile than with own pollen
î\12u/m/w others have succeeded 719 6w<é,
9w
or cocanus 16w cocanus 20w = vidacea
St 22m/w see Herbert p. 379 More fertile than
either parent 720 3w = vulgaris 14-30m/w
Here are plenty of undoubted vars.
producing only i a.- Great effect of artificial
impregnation or separation in House. 14m,
15m, 20m, 21u<^/m, 29m, 30m, 32m/w
This
really only cross between two peas 32m,
33m, 34m
721 wt number of Flower wt of
Fruit 5w Prop. Poll 15w Prop pollen 22w vars
fertile 1\24w Florist var of Oxlip. Oxlip
primrose 1\24w Not normal or K fl23-22m,
^20-19m^, î\17-15c (c henceforth: entries in
cols. 2, 3 and 4 crossed out), 1\l4w
Oxlip 1Î23-
3w p. 247 it is evident that he did cross
elatior & officinalis, Table not correct 1Î23-
22m, fl22c, ÏÏ20c, tÎ9-8m, Îl7-5m/w cowslip
fl4u> cowslip Elatior fl4-2m<&, wb* If this be
elatior calycantha, most strange 722 wt I see
he has not tried Primula proprio polline 3c,

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4c, 5w Cowslip 6w primrose 6-7m&, 8c, 9c, Ww Oxlip var 22a; Oxlip. 16w = floridum ft26a; Prop. poll. ÏÏ25a; Silène inflata Ïïl4m/w

ÎÏ23a; S. pilosa 1Ï22w S. italicus 723 26w Prop Polline ÏÏ20a; Prop. poll, wb I see Moerch considers same species p549 Gaertner says perhaps only varieties 724 wt It is impossible to make out whether vars. albus & luteus are put first & second on principle or by chance 3u^, 3-4w*, 4w Yellow? Yes says p. 280 5-7md, 10w+, 8-14w* Colour? If Yellow half agrees & opposed to rule of vars. of same colour most opposed 22w agrees with 20-25m, 30w 1845 1827/ 18 Hl4w Blattaria flSw Colour? ttfim/ wb Steudel make = virgatum, which is yellow ^lx^lw 286 161 725 3-4m, 9w yellow 20-13md/w opposed to rule 17w Probably yellow, both parents being yellow 17-27w Even Babington admits there are 2 coloured vars of V. lychnitis