RECORD: Harker, Alfred. [1907]. Catalogue of the "Beagle" Collection of Rocks. Sedgwick Museum, Cambridge. Edited by John van Wyhe (Darwin Online,

REVISION HISTORY: Transcribed from the Darwin Online images by Christine Chua and edited by John van Wyhe 10.2019. RN1

NOTE: This catalogue was photographed by John van Wyhe and Kees Rookmaaker in June 2007 with the kind assistance and permission of Sarah Finney of the Sedgwick Museum.


Charles Darwin's geological specimens collected during the voyage of the Beagle (1831-6) were used in writing his geological accounts of the voyage. See Geology of the Voyage of the Beagle. The collection was later donated to what is today the Sedgwick Museum of Earth Sciences in Cambridge in 1896-1897. The petrologist and honorary curator of the Cambridge Petrological Museum, Alfred Harker (1859-1939), made a fair copy of Darwin's original four geological specimen notebooks. Harker explains his annotations here. Records of the original notebooks can be found in the Darwin Online manuscript catalogue: CUL-DAR236.1, CUL-DAR236.2, CUL-DAR236.3, CUL-DAR236.4.

John van Wyhe

June 2007




[title Page]

Sedgwick Museum.

Catalogue of the "Beagle" Collection of Rocks

made by Charles Darwin during

the voyage of H.M.S. "Beagle". 1832-6.



  12  -  224.   Cape Verd Isles.       3021 - 3049. Peru.

 235 -  252.   St Paul's Rocks.        3067 - 3134. Chile.

 255 -  263.   Fernando Noronha.    3136 - 3217. Peru.

 310 -  628.   Brazil.                     3220 - 3289. Galapagos Islands.

 649 -  682.   Uruguay.                 3376 - 3387. Tahiti.

 693 -  854.   Argentina.               3395 - 3412. New Zealand.

 878 - 1042.  Tierra del Fuego.       3424 - 3444. New South Wales.

1078 - 1136.  Falkland Isles. 3447 - 3502. Tasmania.

1353 - 1355.  Uruguay.                 3533.            W. Australia.

1365 - 1849.  Argentina.               3569.            Keeling Island.

1853 - 1373.  Tierra del Fuego.      3618 - 3625. Mauritius.

1886 - 1944.  Falkland Isles. 3639 - 3685. Cape of Good Hope.

1969 - 1995.  Argentina.               3700 - 3724. St Helena.

2057 - 2079.  Straits of Magellan    3732 - 3798. Ascension Id.

2085 - 2593.  Chile.                      3830 - 3881. Brazil

2598 - 2760.  Traverse of Andes.    3883 - 3899. Cape Verd Isles

2762 - 3020.  Chile.                      3908 - 3914. Azores.



The following is a transcript of Darwin's annotated catalogue of specimens collected by him during the voyage. The original of this catalogue, in four small red-covered volumes, is now in the Sedgwick Museum. In many cases the first entry is supplemented by descriptive notes made after closer examination of the specimen, and these additional notes are distinguished in the transcript by parentheses ( ).

Notes by any other hand are placed on the reverse of the opposite leaf, facing the entry to which they refer. Some of them have reference to thin slices of the rocks, and the numbers of these slices in the Sedgwick Museum collection are given in brackets [ ].


[Times Literary Supplement Oct. 26, 1933:]


Sir, May I add a footnote to the interesting leading article in last week's number of the Supplement?

The rock-specimens, some two thousand in number, collected by Darwin during the voyage were presented by his executors to the Sedgwick Museum at Cambridge, where they may now be seen. With them came the original catalogue, contained in four little red-covered notebooks. Under each number is a record of locality and manner of occurrence and a condensed description of the rock as seen by the eye and the lens. On the opposite page are additional observations, also made on the voyage, under the adverse conditions described by your reviewer and with further handicap of perpetual sea-sickness. They show that the young observer could make admirable use of the simple appliances at his disposal – goniometer, blowpipe, acid-bottle, and magnet. There are also a few remarks added at some later time, sometimes noting the opinion of Henslow or Miller on some question referred to him.

I am yours faithfully,


Sedgwick Museum, Cambridge.

[see also Geol Mag. 1907, p.]



Narrative of the Surveying Voyages of Her Majesty's Ships 'Adventure' and 'Beagle' ......vol.iii.

Journal and Remarks, 1832-1836. By Charles Darwin. 8vo. London, 1839.

The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs. Being the First Part of the Geology of the Voyage of the 'Beagle'. 8vo. London, 1842.


Geological Observations on the Volcanic Islands, visited during the Voyage of H.M.S. 'Beagle'. Being the Second Part of the Geology of the Voyage of the 'Beagle'. 8vo. London, 1844.


Geological Observations on South America. Being the Third Part of the Geology of the Voyage of the 'Beagle'. 8vo. London, 1846.


[page 5]

+ c Hand Specimen

13. [4703]. Analcime- Basalt or Monchiquite. See Geol. Mag. 1907, p. 103.

25, 26. See Geol. Mag. 1907, p. 103

35. [49952]

48. [4704]. Limburgite. Geol. Mag. 1907, p. 102.

      [49950] [6209]

51 [33906] Limburgite.

59 Limburgite

60 [33909] Limburgite.

62 [33910] do.



St. Jago, Cape Verd Isles.

The following were collected at Quail Is. Pto Praya.

+12. Felspathic rocks forming a cap for island.

+13. [ditto]

+14. [ditto]

+19. The lower bed of 13, resting on cemented sand.

+25. Curious white concretions, often becoming pisiform;

+26. lower bed of white sand.

+35. Breccia forming at present day.

+36. Cementing matter of this breccia.

+48. Beds beneath the white sand, & the foundation

+49. of the island. Amygdaloidal occasionally containing

+50. in the cavities minute white crystals.

+51. [ditto]

+53. Rock with crystals of augite & olivine, in same

+54. position as amygdaloid.

+58. These two undergoing decomposition.

+59. [ditto]

+60. Crystalline rock.

+62. Contemporaneous dyke.

[page 6]

64  [4705]. Monchiquite. This is Doelter's 'limburgite' of the 2nd

      kind, with colourless base. See Geol. Mag. 1907, p102.

      [49941] patchy – Limburgite- Limburgite basalt.

67. [4706] Monchiquite without olivine ('Fourchite' of JF Williams)

      This is the 'pyroxenite' of Doelter, which Rosenbusch names 'augitite'.

      Geol. Mag. 1907, p. 102. [49951]

68. [49932] augitite

71. [33911] Analcime-Basanite.

82. [33907] Limburgite

83  [49931] augitite-basalt.

85  [33908] Limburgite.

86  [33912] Phonolite, with melanite.

92  [49938] Limburgite



St Jago. Cape Verd Is, continued.

Quail Island, continued.

+64. Lower augitic rocks.

+66. [ditto]

+67. [ditto]

+68. Lower rocks.

+69. [ditto], partly decomposed

+70. [ditto]

+71. Upper felspathic rock.

+72. The very top.

+75. Modern breccia (of the present day).


The following rocks were 2 miles W. of Quail Island.

+82. Upper series, with minute crystals of olivine.

+83. Dyke in lower series.

+84. Bordering rock with crystals.

+85. [ditto]

+86. Various mineral from the lower series.

+87. [ditto]

+89. Conglomerate of amygdaloid in white crystalline aragonite.

+90. [ditto, 89-93]




[page 7]

101  [4707].  Limburgite. Geol. Mag. 1907, p.104.

103  [33913] Theralitic Olivine Dolerite

104. [4708].  Limburgite. Ibid.

105  [49948] Camptonite

106. [4709].  Phonolite, with melanite. Ibid. pp. 105-6.

107  [33914] Phonolite.

108. [4710].  Phonolite. Ibid. 105.

116-120. See Geol. Mag. 1907, p. 103.



St Jago. Cape Verd Is, continued.

N.W. of Porto Praya.

+101. Various crystalline rocks forming the more central part of the island.

+102. [ditto, 101-105]




+106. A small pap of felspathic rock peeping up amongst the above.

+107. Do. rather larger, apparently of more recent formation.

+108. [ditto]

+109. Altered rock in neighbourhood of the latter.

          Rocks from 101 – 109 come under or are connected with pap-like hills.

+110. Scovier from Red Hill (600 fast high).

+111. [ditto, 110-115]




+116. Carbonate of lime with mixture of scovier.

+117. [ditto, 116-120]



[page 8]

121. [33915]. Monchiquite.

123. [4711]. Monchiquite. Geol. Mag. 1907, 104.

124. [4712] Monchiquite. Ibid.

126. Evidently number misplaced, the rock now inserted 126 being a phonolite.

128 [49944] Nephelinite

129 [49937] Nephelinite

130 [49942] Olivine nephelinite Lamprophyre

131 [49943] Olivine nephelinite

132 [49934 ] Olivine-basalt.

135. [21938] Monchiquite.



St Jago. Cape Verd Isles, continued.

Flag-staff Hill, N.E. of Porto Praya.

+121. Mingled in confusion with [scoriec.]

+122. [ditto]

+123. [ditto]

+124. In neighbourhood of Flagstaff Hill.

+125. [ditto]

+126. Incrustation, line of former coast.

+127. Table-land N.E. of Praya.

+128. Central chain ('pap-like' hills).

+129. [ditto]

+130. [ditto], with mica.

+131. Pebble with crystal.

+132. Highland near St Martin.

+133. Rocks between St martin & Ribeira Grande [E. of

+134. Porto Praya] surrounding a conical hill of cellular rock.

+135. [ditto, 134-137]



[page 9]

146. [4713] Limburgite Geol. Mag. 1907, pp 102-3.

147. Biolite in ?limburgite.

148-150. Contents of amygdaloidal cavities in the limburgite lavas

153 [49946] Phonolite

154 [4714]. Rock allied to monchiquite, but with felspar. Geol. Mag. 1907, p. 105.

157 [33916] Camptonite

158 [49935] Augitite



St Jago. Cape Verd Is, continued.

+146. Part of one of the very numerous dykes that cross & interlace among

          the breccia and augitic rocks, W. of Quail Is.

+147. Mika from augitic rocks.

+148. Minerals from do.

+149. [ditto]

+150. [ditto]

+153. Pap-like hills round Fuentes, lower part.

+154. Rocks composing precipice round St Domingo.

+155. [ditto]

+156. Lowest small concret. rocks, 2m N. of St Domingo.

+157. [ditto]

+158. Basalt resting on it

E. coast from Praya.

+160. This rock where overlying coast becomes a breccia with

+162. white base of carbonate of lime.

+163. [ditto]

[page 10]


164 [4715]. Phonolite, with melanite, hornblende, &c. Geol. Mag. 1097, p.106.

       [49930] [ditto]

165 [52680] [ditto]

166 [33917] Phonolite with melanite.

167 [49933] Hornblende-melanite phonolite

170 [21624] Monchiquite, with a little felspar.

174 [21939] [ditto]

180 [33918] Monchiquite.

233 [49945]



St Jago, Cape Verd Is., continued.

+164. N. by E. of Praya.

+165. Pap-like hills composed of vitreous felspar.

+166. [ditto, 165-168]



+170. Rocks composing a high hill, N. by E. of Praya

+171. [ditto, 170-180]










+181. Alternating with foregoing rock on top of hill.

+182. [ditto, 181-184]



+224 Aragonite, near base of former coast.

[page 11]

235. [4719] Metamaphosed Amphibole - rich Peridolite


237 [53953]  Serpentine

239 [53,635] Serpentine

241. [4720]. Metamaphosed Dunite with amphibole


244. [6211].

246. [4721].



St Paul's Rocks.

  235. Serpentine, highest part of island, with felspar  

+237. & chlorite.

+239   Serpentine

+240. Do.

+241. Do.

+242. Euphotide or diallage-rock, with mica & serpentine.

+243. [ditto, 243-245]



+246. Veins or beds of conglomerate; matrix and base the same

+247. [ditto]

+248. [ditto]

+252. Veins of decomposing vesicular masses.

[page 12]

256. [4722]. Phonolite

258 [33882] Trachyte Phonolite,

259. [4723]. Phonolite, richer in nepheline.

261 [33883] Monchiquite, amygdaloidal,

262. [4724]. Monchiquite: slide figured Harker, 'Petrology', 4th ed. fig 42, A.

                   The crystals are of hornblende (brown) with some augite, & the

                   rock is more precisely a hornblende-fourchite.

[263] [12815] Do. do.

265 [33884] Nepheline-Basalt.

266 [33335] do - do

267.[4725], Nepheline-Basalt.

268 [21619] Do - do



Fernando Noronha.

+255. Crystal of vitreous felspar & hornblende in petrosiliceous . from the highest peak in the

+256  island

+257. [ditto]

+258. [ditto]

+259. Do. of a slaty structure & regular cleavage; lower parts. 

+260. [ditto]

+261. Basaltic amygdeloid with crystal of augite, forming dykes near landing-place.

+262. [ditto]

+263. [ditto]

+264. Do., base decomposing, earthy.

+265. Basalt with numerous crystals of augite & olivine, collected from fallen masses, near

+266.: do. the rock is evidently above them.

+267. [ditto]

+268. [ditto]

[page 13]

311. [24633]. Granulitic Charnockite.

312  [32470] Biotitz-granite-gurins, protoclastic.

313. [32,272]. Microperthite injected with tongues of quartz.

314  [32471] Granulite (little mica).

319. [32273]. Tholeiite

320. [32425]  Plagioclase-Amphibolite



Bahia [San Salvador], Brazil.

Section of coast S. of city.

  310. Primitive greenstone.

+311. Do. gradually passing into gneiss.

+312. Varieties of gneiss.

+313. [ditto]

+314. [ditto]

+315. Veins of gneiss running through both former rocks.

+316. [ditto]

+317. Do. containing carbonate of lime & chlorite.

+318. Calcareous earthy vein in do.

+319. Broad dyke pf hornblende-rock.

+320. Hornblende-rock entangled in the gneiss.

+321. [ditto]

+322. [ditto]

+323. Surrounding gneiss containing large crystals of

+324. hornblende (& felspar & quartz).

+326. Thick superficial bed of decomposing gneiss.

+327. [ditto, 326-329]



+330. Vein of quartzose rock left undecomposed and traceable to the proper gneiss.

[page 14]

344  [32472]. Biotite-Orthagneiss, conglomtratic,


Bahia, continued.

+331. Ferruginous sandstone (rounded grains of quartz

+332. cemented together) on coast over peninsula, SE. of Bahia.

+333. Jaspery vein in do.

+334. [ditto]

+335. Jaspery vein in adjacent bed of clay.

+336. Oxide of manganese & iron in do.

+337. Breccia on the coast

+338. [ditto, 337-341]




+343. Syenite interlaced in every direction amidst a fine-grained trap.

+344. In gneiss: a fine-grained mixture of mica, hornblende, & felspar;

          the felspar collected into granular balls, giving at distance an

appearance of conglomerate.

[page 15]



Bahia, continued.

+369. Rock from a more modern formation at [Bornsin.]

+370. Hard, fine-grained sandstone, containing mica,

+371. & overlying coal.

+372. [ditto]

+373. A softer bed.

+374. Coal, half-inch bed.

+375. Bed of sandstone in formation of blue clay.

+376. Soft clayed sandstone (stratified into enormous balls?)

+377. Clay iron-stone? in veins [Case-in-cone.]

+380. Aluminous calcareous rock, in quantity on beach, 

          containing in numbers of Hanobis, Melania, Lymnsia

          (Nerite & Cyclas?).

[page 16]

408. [32270]. Oligoclase - Dolerite.

409. [32271]. Analcime - Dolertite.



Abrolhos Islets.

+396. Sandstone cemented by ochreous particles; upper beds.

+397. [ditto, 396-400]




+401. Argillaceous slaty bed from which some salt water exuded

+402. (muriate of lime?)

+403. [ditto]

+404. [ditto]

+406. This curiously weathered by the action of the sea.

+408. Greenstone in large beds, cutting through the sandstone;

+409. containing much iron, colour greyish-green.

+410. Arborescent covering on the trap (not carbonate of lime).

[page 17]

467 Harker 152815

468. [32426] Garnet-Biotite-Augen-Gneiss

470. [32427] Garnet-Biotite-Augen-Gneiss

471. [32428] Quartz-Dolerite, with hornblende & biotite.

474. [46247] Quartz Dolerite

475. [46256] Dolerite

497. [32429]. Garnet-Biotite-Gneiss.

523. [32430]. Foliated Biotite-Gneiss



Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

+467. Mica-slate with garnets, lowest beds: (gneiss).

+468. Mica, quartz, & felspar (porphyritic with large crystals

+469. of do.) arranged in plane; containing garnets & joining to 467.

+470. (it is a true gneiss,  most beautiful rock.)

+471. Greenstone containing pyrites, well crystallised, very tough;

+472. enormous blocks lying in great quantity on the granite. (Not to be

+473. distinguished from the Abrolhos greenstone.)

+474. [ditto]

+475. [ditto]

+495. Compact gneiss with garnets, forming a small pap amongst the

+496. stratified decomposing gneiss. (This rock is remarkable from its

+497. tough fracture & absence of cleavage: is composed of glassy felspar,

+498. quarts, mica in small block plates, garnets.

+499. The stone when fresh broken has a very beautiful appearance).

+500. [ditto]

+521. Specimen of decomposed gneiss forming rounded hill: red colour.

+523. Gneiss, inferior bed & passing into mica-slate.

+524. [ditto]

[page 18]

525  [32431] Quartz-Dolerite, with hornblende & biotite.

526 [46262] Cordierite-sillimanite gneiss (granalite)

527. [32432] Cyanite-Biotite - Granalite



Rio de Janeiro, continued.

+525. Greenstone, same as 471 etc, but from a different site & in great quantities;

          the blocks were decomposing in concentric layers. (I could not find the dyke or bed).

+526. Blocks of rock with a tough cleavage & not decomposing into concentric layers;

+527. apparently consisting of felspar, mica & hornblende (very little or no quartz).

+528. [ditto]

+539. Inferior mica-slate (fine laminated gneiss); little mica, few garnets stained in lines

+540. by iron (granular white felspar).

+541. Porphyritic gneiss; crystal large.

+542. Do. ; crystals of felspar containing garnets.

+543. Junction of the inferior mica-slate with porphyritic gneiss (junction of the two kinds of

          gneiss, viz. 539 & common porphtc gneiss.)

+544. Siliceous rock, in which quartz is abundantly arranged in

+545. parallel lines (like pegmatite); occasionally a plate of mica.

+546. [ditto]

+547. Siliceous rock (near white, impure).

+548. Do. abounding with iron.

+549. Nearly pure quartz.

          These six latter specimens are part of a large bed E. of Lagoa.

[page 19]

557. [32466]. Garnet-Biotite-Microline-Gneiss.

558  [32467]. Garnet-Biotite-Gneiss.

560  [32433]. Garnet-Biotite-Gneiss.

561  [32473] Garnet-Biotite-Microline-Gneiss.

603  [32474] Garnet-Biotite-Azorn-Gneiss.

607. [32475] Richly garnetifuous band in Garnet-Biotite-Plagioclase-Gneiss.



Rio de Janeiro, continued.

+556. Gneiss; very little quartz, granular white felspar;

+557. these rocks all look like mica-slate; sandy feel, few

          small garnets, thin layers, little mica.

+558. Gneiss with much mica in dark small plates.

+559. (with occasional layers of quartz).

+560. [ditto]

+561. Gneiss, like 556; coarser crystals.

+562. Vein of granite; felspar flesh-coloured.

+563. Granite; quartz embedded in nearly compact felspar; very little mica.

+576. Granite, fine-grained; mica small plates, black; felspar reddish;

+577. neighbourhood of Tajenka.


+579. Greenstone, with little pyrites, part of numerous large boulders, [Yajenka].

+603. Porphyritic gneiss, same as 467, prevailing rock,

+604. [ditto]

+605. [ditto]

+607. Gneiss with mica & garnets in rows or bands, embedded in gneiss.

+608. Siliceous rock, with talc, like 544, on N. side Corcovado.


+609. (granular mixture of quartz & white earthy felspar & silvery talc.).

+610. [ditto]

+611. Quartz, cavernious; part of vein.

+612. Impure quartz, containing much iron; forms bed in lake site on northern side of

+613. Cancovado.

[page 20]

621. [32,468]. Quartz-Dolerite (little quartz).

622. [32,469]. Quartz-Dolerite, coarse.



Rio de Janeiro, continued.

+620. Rather fine-grained dark-coloured greenstone dyke

+621. cutting through mica-slate.

+622. Do., coarser-grained, in very tough balls.

+623. (Often coated by decomposition by yellow substance).

+624. (very heavy; black crystals distinguishable.)

+625. Rock like those connected with serpentine, also forming same dyke, in large

+626. angular masses. (This rock sends off small veins into the mica-slate).

+627.  Small elongated crystals of white earthy felspar, porphyritic in a nearly compact

ferruginous base, in 625, 626; but 627 almost composed of smaller & less perfectly crystalline felspar, never quite white).

+628. Granite, form a large vein, in big crystals.

[page 21]

649 [53816]


650. [46236] Muscovite-biotite-epidote oligoclase gneiss

652  [46242] Hornblende schists fine reverse

655 [46237] [ditto 655-682]

656 [46238]

657 [46224]

658 [46239]

660 [46244]

679 [46240]

680 [46243]

682 [46241]



Monte Video.

Rat Island.

+649. Fine hornblende-slate (like 652) penetrated most curiously by veins of quartz, which

          proceed from gneiss in which the slate is enclosed.

+650. Gneiss, small crystal, half-rotten

+651. [ditto]

The Mount.

+652. Finely crystalline dark green hornblende-slate (striated appearance) passing

+653. into slate, forming with gneiss lower part of the Mount.

+654. [ditto]

+655. Hornblende-slate, occurring near the last & gneiss (Nearly same as 652; crystal larger,

          large proportion hornblende; crystals elongated, appear placed lengthways.)

+656. Near summit of Mount, passing into fine slaty greenstone, conchoidal fracture.

+657. [ditto]

+658. Do. , sonorous, conchoidal fracture.

+659. Summit of Mount; more coarsely crystallized greenstone, tough, highly sonorous.        

+660. little slaty: in large more compact masses.

+661. (Hyaloclastite) White finely granular felspar, greenish mica, & very

+662. little quartz in patches.

+679. Hornblendic slate, moderately coarse.

+680. Summit of Mount; slaty greenstone, conchoidal fracture.

+681. (682. Blackish green; minute elongated crystals of hornblende can be distinguished;

+682. fine-grained very compact rock, very heavy, straight even fracture).

[page 22]



Bahia Blanca, etc.

+693. Granite: felspar small crystals, little mica; perhaps gneiss; brought up from the

          bottom, lat. 38° 28'S. long. 58° 4', 3 or 4 miles from coast of Patagonia.

          (Fragment was not rolled).

+762  Bottle

+770. Included layers of whitish compact marl; Monte Hermoso, Bahia Blanca.

+784. Thin marly & argillaceous layers in the lower parts of the gravel, Punta Alta, Bahia

+785. Blanca.

+835. Calcareous fine sandstone in beds in the 'Tosca', occurring in the bank on which the

          city stands, Buenos Ayres.

+836. White indurated marl, layers of concretions in 'Tosca', Buenos Ayres.

+852. Gneiss on which Monte Video is built.

+853. Syenite forming the rocks at Las Pietras.

+854 [ditto]

[page 23]

878  [46283] Earthy Slate

918. [33928]

919. [33929] Hornblende-granite.

920. [33930] Do.

922 [33931] Diorite.



Tierra del Fuego.

+878. Slate, siliceous, with iron, forming the hills N.W. of harbour, Good Success Bay.


Hermit Island.

+916. Crystallised felspar & hornblende, with pyrites; lower part of island. (Rather a pale-

+917. coloured felspathic greenstone).

+918. Dark greenstone; do.

+919. Hornblende in acicular crystals:

+920. Plain pale-coloured greenstone: both from summit of Kator's Peak, a sharp cone 1700

          feet high.

+921. Fragment of very impure reddish limestone, resembling that of Plymouth, in fragments

          on the beach, Wigwam Cove, I should think the bed certainly was in the island.

+922. Greenstone, whole Jerden Island; highest peak conical, about 900 feet.

[page 24]

927 [152817]

928. [

940 [46254] Appinite

941 [46252] Garnet biotite cordierite hornfels

943. [33,932] Diorite.

945. [33,933]. Crystal Tutt.

946 [46261] Tuffaceous felspathic grit



Tierra del Fuego, continued.

Good Success Bay.

+927. Slate, fine-grained, dark grey, very fissile; plates smooth (tatcose?); the most

          abundant rock & found at the summit of all surrounding mountains.

+928. Rock almost composed of specular iron & silex in layers, in slate at summit of

          mountain S.W. of harbour.

Beagle Channel.

+938. Hornblende-rock, with green mineral.

+939. Hornblende-rock, with felspar.

+940. Hornblendic greenstone, alternating with…

+941. Slate, altered, semi-sonorous, harsh. These four specimens from about 6 miles east of

          entrance into Ponsonby Sound, within Beagle Channel.

+942. Compact dark-blue slate, conchoidal fracture.

+943. Greenstone, part of dyke.

+944. Felspathic rock, easily fusible; slate (942) altered by junction with last specimen.

          These three rocks at east entrance of Ponsonby Sound: 942, the general rock.

+945. Felspathic rock with crystals of do. & bits of slate; easily fusible.

+946. Same as last; curious specimen; on one side fragments of slate distinct, on the other

          blended together.

[page 25]

953. [33,934].



Tierra del Fuego, continued.

Beagle Channel, continued.

+947. White felspathic greenstones, alternating with slate.

+948. Slate on summit of hill; mud laminated. These four specimens (945-8) from the

          settlement within Ponsonby Sound.

+949. Gneiss; fine white felspar, with layers of quartz.

+950. More distinctly crystallized; mica, no quartz.

+951. Micaceous slate, where constituents are not discernible. (Green glossy slate; irregular

          granular structure, few garnets: gneiss, fine-grained abounding with green mica.)

          These three specimens (949-951) from near junction of micaceous rocks & clay-slate

          in Beagle Channel.

+952. Mica-slate with garnets; grand chain in N. arm of Beagle Channel. (Thin layers of

          quartz parted by seams of mica).

+953. Hornblende-rock, part of dyke in clay-slate at its most northerly termination. (Black

          trappean rock with acicular crystals of hornblende, by goniometer.)

+954. Micaceous slate.

+955. Green slaty hornblendic greenstone.

+956. Granite, white; quartz in large crystals.

+957. Granitic rock (gneiss); constituents irregular, with green mineral. (Irregular mixture of

white quartz & felspar with chlorite & mica, the two latter appearing to pass into each

          other. These form (954-7) from north arm of Beagle Channel about off Gordon


[page 26]

958. [33,935]

961. [33,936]. Hornblende-Plagioclase-Gneiss

965  [46255] bionite Prophyrite



Tierra del Fuego, continued.

Beagle Channel, continued.

+958. Fine-grained black greenstone.

+959. Imperfect gneiss; mica not developed; alternating with the last.

          (White granular felspar & quartz, with little irregular patches of

          chlorite, obscurely linearly arranged.

+960. Granite with hornblende crystals. (Brilliant granitic mixture of white felspar,

          black hornblende determined by goniometer well crystallized, & black large

          scales of mica abundant. I cannot see any quartz.) (Miller says albite by goniometer.)

          These three (958-960) from islands at termination of N. arm of Beagle Channel.

+961. Greenstone, heavy, greenish-grey; slate?

+962. Syenite (?), southern arm of Beagle Channel. (962. The external forms are those of

+963.  granite, & I saw some crystals of quartz, but there is little.)

          (962. Same ingredients as 960, but finer-grained; quite granitic character. 963. Do,

          coarser; large crystals of felspar & hornblende, no mica: felspar same state as in

          gneiss, same 3" long.)

+964. Common clay-slate at bifurcation of Beagle Channel.

+965. Felspathic greenstone, passing into porphyry; W. entrance of Ponsonby Sound in

          Beagle Channel.       

+966. Greenstone, irregular fracture; S.W. end of Navarin Island.

[page 27]

975 [46247?] Rhodonite with Basalt

989 [46259][illeg]Dolerite

990 [46264] Paphyrite hornblende andesite (or dacote)

992 [46263] Hornblende (resates) - andesite

995 [46251] Hornblende-quartz dionite



Tierra del Fuego, continued.

Orange Bay.

+975. Compact felspathic rock (altered slate).

labelled 889? = 988. Greenstone, coarse-grained, sonorous, conchoidal fracture, angular


+989. Do. almost composed of long crystals of hornblende; an abundance of veins of pyrites.

          (Miller says very obscure: as far as can make it out, thinks augite with pyrites).

+990. Felspathic rock with crystals of hornblende (determined by goniometer) & felspar.

          (Trachyte, intermediate with phonolite; much felspar, crystals partially decomposed.)

          (Harsh white crystalline felspathic base with numerous elongated crystal of

          hornblende & definite glassy felspar.)

          All these four from Hardy Peninsula, W. of bay

          N. of Orange Bay.

+991. Singular small concretionary angular rock.

+992. [ditto]

+993. [ditto]

+994. Syenite (?). (Same as 960, 962-3: a beautiful rock;

+995. few scales of mica.

+996. Felspathic rock, same as 975, only more slaty in structure & character.

          These (991-6) from same locality as the preceding lot.

[page 28]

1018 [46250] Hypersthene dacite



Tierra del Fuego, continued.

  +997. Weathering like breccia; lime in interstices; Capt. Fitzroy brought them from W. side

  +998. of Ponsonby Sound. (I conceive they are crystalline semi-rounded fragments of

  +999. ancient submarine volcanic rock cemented together. One embedded bit is decidedly

+1000. vesicular; many broken volcanic crystals; the whole cemented into hard & heavy

            rock, but with irregular nubbly fracture.)


Orange Bay.

+1015. Basalt (some elongated crystal of felspar), semi-conchoidal fracture; with spots free

+1016. from crystals.

+1017. Irregular drusy cavities with opaque white crystals, & form intermixture with some

+1018. mineral fusible. (Pale grey harsh trachytic base; no crystals of felspar but numerous

           ones of ... Numerous irregular cavities drusy with same & more perfect crystals.

           (Note by Miller: The focus of the white crystals are not sufficiently perfect for the refl.

           goniometer. They are mastly turns, & in their appearance resemble zeagonite. See

           fig. 4 to Mr Brooke's paper on zeagonite in the Phil. Mag. vol. 10.)*

+1019. Hard grey compact sonorous crystalline felspathic rock, most obscurely porph.

+1020. Earthy red porphyry with white specks. (Reddish purple rather hard claystone base,

           irregular fracture. Porph. with numberless imperfect white crystalline specks: white


          Nos. 1015-1020 from same locality as 975-996.

          Nos. 1017-20 occur above 1015-6.


[page 29]

1030 [46260] olivine basalt



Tierra del Fuego, continued.

Wollaston Island.

+1029. Varieties of greenstone. (1029. Irregular fracture, trappean highly crystalline rock;

+1030. brownish green mottled colour; chief embedded crystal glassy felspar: then yellowish

+1031. crystals same as in 992. 1030-1. Fine crystalline compact basalt with numerous

+1032. decomposed crystals, which certainly appear to be olivine.

1032. Compact, grey, tinge of purple base; porphyry with very numerous crystal

small well-formed of glassy opaque felspar.)

+1033. Do. with nodules & veins of agate. (1033-4, Rock same as 1029; blackish green;

+1034. irregular cavities amyg. with agate & a dark brown substance which can be cut with

           knife or nail, externally fuses & blackens & hardens.

+1035. The agate & chlorite (green earth) are intimately united in spherules.

           1035. Appears like conglomerate, interstices calcareous matter, but matrix is

            trappean as much as pebbles. I do not doubt whole trappean rock putting on

            deceptive appearance.)

+1036. Red scovia, abundant in conglomerate (part of small breccia, with other fragments,

           cement non-calcareous.)

+1037. Highly vesicular purplish brown finely crystalline lava in this conglomerate.

+1038. Amygdaloid with carbonate of lime, in the conglomerate (Blackish brown very fine

           crystalline base, highly amygdaloidal with elongated spicules of carbonate of lime.

           These (1029-1038) occur in the north end (or distinct island) of Wollaston Island.

[page 30]



Tierra del Fuego, continued.

Wollaston Island, continued.

+1039. Variety of felspathic rock with angular fragments of slate, passing into a crystalline

+1040. rock; 1042 showing the latter form

+1041. 1039 the former:

+1042. is the chief rock central N.E. side of Wollaston Is.

[page 31]



East Falkland Island.

+1078. Granular quartz-rock, with white friable powder aggregated in small interstitial

+1079. spaces; strong aluminous smell; range of hills N. of Berkley's Sound.

+1080. Resembling a breccia; same range. (Angular fragments of true quartz embedded in

            a hard siliceous paste, which strong aluminous smell & in parts yellowish colour

            shows not to be pure.)

+1081. Quartz-rock, near slate formation; Johnstone Creek. (Same as 1079.)

+1082. Pale coloured clay-slate, sits do. (Micaceous; i.e. containing scales of mica.)

+1083. Common clay-slate, compact, bands of dark & white alternating; do.

+1084. Quartz-rock, being of finer grain looks arenaceous; S. of Berkley Sound.

            (Fine-grained siliceous sandstone, with thread-like veins of quartz).

+1085. Black slate with scales of mica, near quartz-rock; S. of Berkley Sound.

           (Almost made of minute silvery scales of mica, whole structure becoming crystalline).


[page 32]



East Falkland Island, continued.



+1132. Exceedingly compact peat of great sp. gravity; bottom of 12ft bed.

           (Possesses very little inflammability)


+1133. Quartz-rock with specks like mica & little aluminous powder; structure rather slaty;

S. of Berkley Sd. (Has a granitic structure; the black patches consist of a soft mineral, which in the most perfect patches divides into scales, & is evidently mica; the white & yellowish portion shows no trace of crystallization. Black points arranged in lines.)


+1135. The passage between quartz-rock & slate, Johnston Creek. (Rather coarse greenish-

            brown slate, micaceous & obscurely crystalline structure; points fusible; H. says

 resembles a greywacke.) [H. is Henslow.]

+1136. Obscurely granular crystalline quartz-rock, without aluminous matter; some miles to

            the N. of Berkley's Sound.




[page 33]



Maldonado, near Monte Video.

+1353. Limestone, N. of head of Laguna del Potrero.

+1354. [ditto]

+1355. Calcareous & ferruginous sandstone concretions, common in general alluvial


[page 34]

1372 [46265] Chut, (!silicafied slate)

1373 [46266] do.




+1365. Selenite, from the cliffs, E. entrance of St Joseph's Bay.

Cape Blanco.

+1372. Hard heavy blue highly siliceous slate, quite infusible; from C. Blanco,

           hill 60 ft high.

+1373. A quartz-rock (not pure) with interstices earthy particles; Cape Blanco.

           (An obscure brecciated structure, the fragments having the character of flint:

            the rock is not granular, excepting that the interstices make it so. Must not be

            compared to Falkland Is. rock.)

+1474. All numbers from 1515 to 1530 collected by Mr Stokes in the small schooner,

           coast of Patagonia.

+1520. Red claystone-porphyry with whitish opaque crystals of felspar & specks of quartz,

           Port St Elena [near Camerones Bay].

+1521. Quartz-rock, Cape Blanco.

+1522. Lava, summit of Pineda, Malaspina Bay [near Camerones Bay.] (Very pale lilac,

           divided into an infinity of layers like ribbon-jasper; hard, not scratched by steel; got

           sandy feel; fuses easily into white enamel; allied to base of claystone.)         

+1523. Quartz; island in front of Malaspina Bay. (Appears as if part of vein.)

+1524. Port Redonda (sugar-loaf hill), near to above. (Dark purplish-brown base,

           porphyritic with crystals of red felspar; a compact claystone-porphyry.)

[page 35]



Patagonia, continued.

+1525. Compact porphyry; E. of Camerones Bay. (Ditto, rather redder; few small vesicular,

            irregular cavities. These porphyries resemble those of P. Alegra.)

1526.   Quartz-rock; islands front of Malaspina. (I should think part of vein or amygd.


+1527. Jasper (?), ; Malaspina, S.E. point. (Rosy red, layers of rather easily fusible claystone

           with thin veins of quartz, which sometimes lines drusy cavities; layers not even,

           slightly convoluted.)

+1528. An impure nearly white clay, fine-grained, adheres to tongue; with water does not

           become clay; upper bed, New Bay.

+1529. Earthy clay, with small shells, lower bed, New Bay.

           (Strikingly resembles bed at Parena.)

Patagones, Rio Negro.

+1530. Hard, grey, fine-grained sandstone, spotted with manganese, bed generally narrow.

+1531. Soft common bluish-grey sandstone (quite friable beneath fingers.)

+1532. Tosca bed, South Barranca. (Very pale-coloured, fine-grained, earthy, slightly

indurated substance, adheres to tongue, earthy smell, non-calcareous, a kind of

mud.) (Marked A in sketch S. Barranca; cliff 120 ft high South entrance fig. R.


+1535. Pumice pebbles cemented together by sandstone, a strong conglomerate; blocks at

           foot of S. Barranca; could not find the bed


[page 36]



Patagonia, continued. (etc.)

Patagones, Rio Negro, continued.

+1536. Light white rock; bed 3 or 4 ft thick, N.E. of Patagones. (Non-calcareous, snow-

           white, remarkably light; so compact as not to be broken with fingers; yet friable in

           small fragments; fuses very easily; ? perfect decomposition of volcanic ashes; not at

           all adhesive with water; adheres to tongue; aluminous smell.)

+1537. Friable soft sandstone, calcareous, cementing gravel on the surface; Patagones.

           (Called by me "mortar".)

+1539. Gypsum occurring amongst gravel, finely crystallized, mingled with sediment, not


+1543. Bivalve shells, found on sand-banks, Arroyo de St Juan, S. of Las Vacas, 1 or 2 miles


+1545. Iron-sand, large quantities below high-water-mark, Hog Is, Bay of St Blas

+1546. Black iron-sand, Island of St Catherine

+1547. Green (curious) sand, island in the Uruguay. These three sorts of sand were given


+1549. Very hard argillaceous calcareous stalactitiform concretions from red Tosca, E end of

           Barranca. (cf. St Gregorio, Monte Video)

[page 37]



Bahia Blanca & Buenos Ayres.

+1550. White compact argillaceous calcareous superior bed, grand ridge between R.

           Colorado & Bahia Blanca. (This specimen is uncommonly pure & compact.)

+1551. Argill-Calc. great bed, surface of plain, N. of Fort Bahia Blanca. (Not quite so pure;

+1552. brecciated state; fragments compact & breaking with a fracture approaching to

           stalactitic: by stalactitic I mean smooth instead of earthy fracture, approaching to

           crystalline.) (1552 to Dr Carpenter.)

+1553. Argill-Calc., N. side of the Sierra de Quetro-horguè; very pale brown/

+1554. Felspathic rock from do. (Brownish & grey, finely crystalline, felspathic (in one

+1555. specimen distinct crystals can be seen), fuses into white glass.)

+1557. Arg. Calc. rock, rapids in river near town of Tapalguen

+1558. Less hard, browner arg. calc., pass of R. Chucho, near Buenos Ayres.

+1559. Earthy arg. calc., Arroyo Pabon, road W S. Fé.

+1560. More crystalline variety, waterfalls, Arroyo Pabon.

[page 38]



Santa Fé Bajada, on river Parana.

+1561. Bed of nearly white hard arg. calc. in red Tosca (lower part of bed) above limestone

           S. Fé Bajada. (Patches with earthy fracture, patches with compact; latter marked by

           dendritic manganese.)

+1562. Arg-calc. small concretions, upper part of the same bed, together with fragments of

           fossil bones; St Fe Bajada. (The arg. calc. rocks differ a little in compactness &

           quantity of lime. I have generally called them Tosca rock from occurring frequently in

 earthy red Tosca. These rocks generally are coloured dirty flesh colour.) (May

 perhaps be called highly aluminous indurated marls.)

+1563. Ferruginous cylinders, common in yellow bed, ... near R. Carcareňa.

+1564. Crystalline cellular limestone. (Fragments & casts of shells firmly cemented together

+1565. & containing rarely a few rounded grains of quartz; all the drusy cavities lined with

           minute & brilliant crystals; rock white). St Fè Bajada.

+1566. Common compact variety. (Nearly compact, finely crystalline structure; few cavities;

           obscure marks of shells.)

+1572. Found in large oval balls, in the inferior yellowish clay; finely vesicular, organic.

           (Appears at first a fine-grained slightly ferruginous calcareous sandstone; looks

           organic; small rounded grains of transparent quartz embedded in calcareous.) 

[page 39]



S. Fè Bajada, continued.

+1573. Petrified wood, said to be found in ferruginous sandstone; Ēstancia de las

           Conchas, near Arroyo of that name. (Excellent authority.)

+1576. Fine greasy clay (magnesian) beneath limestone, above yellowish sandy clay;

           between teeth very soapy taste & feel. (When cut with knife, fine polished surface,

           dark olive green, irregular fracture, conchoidal on small scale.

+1577. Black bituminous clay in curved strata, beneath yellowish clay.


[page 40]



Port Desire, Patagonia.

+1633. Salt (salt-petre) encrusting deep flat muddy place or valley on South Plains.

+1634. Porphyry, where earthy felspar in almond-shaped concretions affects a laminated

+1635. structure. (Colour pale purple, vesicular.)

+1636. A compact variety of porphyry, with angular patches or crystals & earthy felspar,

           very slightly laminated, together with other variety with quartz.

+1637. Two compact varieties of red porphyry, lying above 1636, with some crystals of

+1638. felspar & quartz. The above five specimens (1634-8) all come from the foot &

           neighbourhood of the two hills which are N.W. of the Anchorage.

+1639. Purple porphyry, abounding with crystals of quartz & felspar; Britannia rock.

+1640. White calcareous clay sandstone, upper bed of great North Plain.

+1642. Pitchstone, beneath porphyry, opposite Guanaive Island.

+1643. [ditto]

+1644. Base porphyry with iron? Vesicular cavities lined with quartzose rock & containing

+1645. crystals of quartz; in porphyry; same locality as preceding.

+1646. Ironstone, from porphyry; same locality.

[page 41]



Port Desire, Patagonia, continued.

Cliffs two or three miles W. of Anchorage.

+ 1647. A jaspery-looking porphyry, fusible, in thin bed above 1649. These two varieties

+ 1648. occurred near together: 1647 is evidently more porphyritic than 1648.

+ 1649. Base felspathic? particles of silex & small pebbles of porphyry.

+ 1650. Compact semi-cryst. whitish felspathic rock, above such rock as 1649.

+ 1651. Earthy white soft felspathic rock with particles of silex, lying on 1650. The above

            three rocks (1649-51) have same dip: 1651 looks singularly like chalk or calcareous

            matter: points fusible with difficulty.

+ 1653. One of the lower beds in cliffs with red porphyry: white vesicular cavities lined with

            oxide of iron.

+ 1654. Pale purple compact tough porphyry with few crystals of earthy felspar: this is a

            common variety. (Dull purplish base, fracture rather rough: a very few amygd

            cavities; porph. with few crystals of opaque white felspar.) (From behind the Fort.)

+ 1655. Pale reddish brown porphyry, slightly vesicular, with few small crystals; beneath

            rock like 1651.

+ 1656. Reddish purple porphyry, with imperfect crystals of earthy felspar; position same as

            last rock. Nos. 1655-6, rocks opposite Guanaive Island.

+ 1657. Bluish & reddish porphyry mingled together in concretions; vesicular, with few

            crystals of glassy felspar & quartz, &c.

+ 1658. Do, where fragments of extraneous porphyry appear to be embedded in a basis of

+ 1659. reddish. These four specimens (1657-60) come from the rough hills next end of

+ 1660. creek or mouth of river, about 21 miles in the interior: 1657-8 the commonest


[page 42]



Port Desire, Patagonia, continued.

+1662. Earthy, very soft, fine dirty white impure sandstone; same geological bed as 1640.

           [? from great North plain.]

+1663. Whitish yellow soft, conch. fracture, claystone, (soft taste?), decomposing into

+1664. angular fragments; not effervesce. (Geological [position] is beneath 1662: contains

           layers of fine crystalline gypsum.

West Cliffs.

+1666. Whitish-yellowish hardish earthy felspathic rock: beneath 1667-8 (same dip.)

+1667. Same as 1673, vide infra.

+1668. White, hard, rough fracture, felspathic rock (with patches of silex?); not effervesce.

+1669. White, hard, conch. fracture, fine-grained uncryst. felspathic rock; lying on & same

           dip with 1647-8

+1670. Rock from dyke; felspathic rock; much black mica, green crystals, (& quartz?)

+1671. Rock from dyke (1652); mixture of crystals of mica, felspar, quartz, cemented by

           ferruginous matter.

+1672. Yellowish felspathic rock, hard, earthy, conch. fracture.

+1673. Whitish-yellowish hard semicrystalline porphyry, with embedded white crystals.

            1672, 1673 From the great mass of the cliffs: in this instance they are both inferior

            to 1674.

+1674. Hard earthy red porphyry, abounding with white earthy crystals of felspar.

+1675. Same as 1651; like mortar or chalk.

+1677. Fine dull red porphyry, hard, conchoidal fracture, square white earthy crystals, very

           little quartz: lies above 1678 & 1679.

+1678. White hard felspathic rock; many scales of mica.

+1679. Pink-red semicrystalline porphyry, with specks of earthy felspar.

           Both (1678-9) beneath 1677.

[page 43]



Port Desire, Patagonia, continued.

West Cliffs, continued

+1680. Pitchstone, mass intermediate between porphyry 1677 and rock 1678-9.

+1681. Felspathic rock, hard, very few specks of mica, semi-crystln; occurring with 1675.


Near the Fort. (These rocks were obtained from a quarry opened by the Spaniards to build the Fort and to the East, 1/4 of a mile.


+1682. White felspathic rock, lying above 1683.

+1683. A coarse, softer, earthy variety, in which upper parts show lines like water deposit:

           this is seen on a great scale, sometimes horizontal, sometimes waving.

+1684. Pale purple porphyry, with some crystals, lying over & having same dip with five

           following specimens, which pass & alternate with one another without any fixed


+1685. White compact felspar, with very few crystals; a free-stone.

+1686. Pale purple; part of same block with the last; used in building.

+1687. Do. rather coarser, paler coloured.

+1688. White, softer, much coarser (quartz particles).

+1689. Reddish, do.,  do., do.

+1690. Rock more perfectly porphyritic than 1684, of which it is a continuation.

+1691. Porphyry; same structure as 1634, lying above & same bed as 1684 & 1690.

+1692. White porphyry or felspathic rock, hard, vesicular, with quartz; occurring in a

            common red porphyry band.

[page 44]



Port St Julian & Port Desire, Patagonia.

Port St Julian.

+1711. Porphyry, with much quartz, earthy & cryst? felspars; basis ferruginous; common

           rock, lat 48". 56' [i.e. N. of Port St Julian.]

+1729. White, soft, little sp. grav.; argillaceous bed lying above the oyster bed & alternating

           with the gravel; S. entrance of ....

+1730. Line of dark grey hard calcareous sandstone in concretions, almost forming a bed.

+1731. Concretions of hard grey limestone; a nucleus of coralline

+1732. Stalactites of pale arg. calc. rock, lying in pale earthy bed, above gravel, in which are

           bones. (1722-28). (Cylindrical & irregular concretions, not very hard, of calc. sand,

           passing into indurated marl, & fine calcareous sandstone; minute transparent

           particles of silex embedded.)

+1733. Pale soft argillaceous bed, with trace of Turnitella; entrance of inner harbour. (Called

           'sitio del yeso' from immense quantity of gypsum found in this bed. The impression of

           the shell is the only organic remains I have ever seen in these beds.)

Port Desire. These five specimens from North entrance point of harbour.

+1764. Paste like porphyry, concretionary; vesicles with quartz, resembling grape-shut.

+1765. Do, common variety.

+1766. Purple common porphyry, with crystals of earthy felspar.

+1767. Soft striatified rock like 1749.

+1768. Porphyritic rock with crystals of quartz.

[page 45]

1792 (47122), felspathic grit.



Port Famine, Patagonia, etc.

Port Famine.

+1789. Compact calcereo-slate, surrounding [concretions with fossils.] (Compact heavy blue-

           grey calcareous clay-slate. It is a clay-slate without laminated structure, easily fuses,

           greenish black enamel.)

+1790. Common slate (not calcareous); the harbour. (It is very compact, but very little


+1791. Calcareous grey earthy harder beds, frequently alternating with the slate. (Coarser-

           grained & appearing crystalline; not laminated; approaches to character of

           greywacke; easily fusible into nearly white enamel.)

+1792. Trap rock, little crystalline, fusible; cutting both latter rocks in dykes.

+1810. Coarse yellowish slaty rock; abundant, summit of Mt Tarn. (With decided tendency to

           slaty structure.)

+1811. Blackish-grey rather coarse slate (Henslow says a true fine greyscale) with fragments

           of a bivalve; Rocky Point. (Not laminated, slightly calcareous. All these are, I should

           think, mudstones.)  

+1812. Mudstone, calcareous; angular green fragments; alternating with last rock. (Hard

           strong rock, with a rough straight fracture, full of crystals of felspar, which certainly

           appear there crystallised yet obscure, but sure traces of shells & grains of quartz.)

+1815. Pale grey, extremely fine-grained, muddy soft alluvium with pebbles, in S. Gracia,

           second narrow, Straits of Magellan. (This is the whiter variety, part of great alluvial  

           bed E. entrance of [Straits].)

1847.  Muddy fine-grained non-calcareous sandstone, with impression of leaves.

+1848. The hardest sort, in concretionary layers, calcareous, with leaves. These (184)-8

           from entrance of St Sebastian Bay or Channel (from head of alluvium, S.E. side of


+1849. Piece of wood in do. [Bay on E. side of Tierra del Fuego.]

[page 46]

1853 [47129] Epidiorite

1855 [47130] Epidiorite

1856 [47131-2] Cordierite biotite slate hornfels.

1857 [47133] [ditto]

1861 [47127] grossular - epidote prehnite rock.



Tierra del Fuego.

Wollaston Island.

+1853. Blackish-green rock; higher parts of hill. (Hard, sharp, angular fracture, & decided

           though fine crystalline structure; probably altered slate.)         

+1854. Pale yellowish-green felspathic rock. (Divided crystalline structure without any

           distinct crystals: included patches & layers of black fine-grained altered clay-slate.)

+1855. Black fine-grained rock, occurring with the above. (Basalt, perfect conchoidal

           fracture, full of fibrous green crystals: black enamel.)

+1856. Porphyry: base of peak: base black; crystals very numerous, not very well formed.

+1857. More perfect do. ; summit of peak. (Crystals larger, fatty, hardly any cleavage,


+1858. Irregular layer in slate, compact calcareous fine-grained sandstone; Thetis Bay.

           (grey, allied to the slates). 

+1859. Various curious mineral, chiefly garnets, &c, occurring in the three varieties of rock

 +1860. 1853-5. (1860. Miller says has much appearance of prehnite)

+1861.  (1861. [Miller says] green is epidote by goniometer & white appears by blowpipe

+1862.  &c to be prehnite.)

+1863.  (1863. [note by Miller.] The green mineral is epidote, by reflective goniometer. The

+1864.  brown mineral cleaves parallel to the faces of the dodecahedron; it is ∴

+1865.  probably garnet: fusible without much difficulty before the blowpipe into a slag

            which attracts mag. needle: I have no doubt of its being garnet. Th white mineral is

            calc-spar.) (1865. Angle 116° 40' ; Red, L 115° 30'.)

[page 47]

[Repeat of Image 46]

[page 48]

1856 (47124) Epidotised chloritized basalt

1870 (47125) Vesicular chloritized basalt.

1873 (47123) Felspathic grit



Tierra del Fuego, continued.

Wollaston Island, continued.

+1866. Hard blackish-green rock, lower part of island. (Altered clay-slate passing into a

           trap-rock: black enamel.)

+1867. Do. with greenish crystals. (Nearly similar base, rather more earthy fracture, with

disseminated crystals & circular small aggregations (grains) yellow partially 

decomposed epidote or the granular mineral in series 1859-65.)

+1868. Green finely-crystn rock (felspathic base) apparently containing fragments of slate.

           (Fragments small, almost blended together, black, compact, non-crystalline.) These

           three (1866-8) occur together.


+1869. Greenish rock with red crystals. (Base more felspathic than 1867; epidote quite

           decomposed: blackish-grey enamel.)

+1870. Occurring with greenstone. (Dark greenish-grey crystalline felspathic slaty rock:

           numerous specks of iron pyrites & thread of calcareous matter: surfaces of thick

           laminæ with parallel striae as by fault.)

+1873. Dark bluish-grey slate with small crystals of altered felspar; top of hill, 2000 ft.,

           South side of Beagle Channel, WSW Picton Is.

[page 49]

1890 [47134] Sandstone with biotite etc

1892 [47128] sandstone



Falkland Islands.

New Island (one of the most westerly of the group).

+1886. True granular quartz-rock, with little interstitial powder.

+1887. Do. with some iron.

+1888. Do., still more impure.

+1889. Do., from lower parts of New Island. Excepting from analogy I should have supposed

           this a mechanical aggregation of particles. (Coarse sandstone, not very hard, not at

           all metamorph.)

+1890. Grains of quartz cemented by white earthy matter; near Cape Meredith, S.W. point

           of West Falkland I. (This is interesting, as being exactly like the rock of Berkeley

           Sound; two extreme points of the whole group if islands.)

+1891. Black scovier; picked up on beach, do. (Probably drifted from one of the Antarctic

           Islands.) (Seems a proof of great Southern current.)

East Falkland Island.

+1892. Granular quartz with black specks of imperfect mica; main chain of hills, E Falkland I.

+1893. Brown siliceous fine-grained sandstone, micaceous, compact, irregular fracture.

+1894. Do. possessing a highly perfect cleavage. (Cleavage like paper, perfectly flat, formed

           by minute scales of silvery mica, which do not appear to occur within stone, which is

           browner & more earthy than last.)

[page 50]



Falkland Islands, continued.

East Falkland Island, continued.

+1895. Rather soft, white granular quartz-rock, with earthy white particles surrounded by

           rocks nearly similar to 1894. (Has not a crystalline appearance: each grain is

           coated with white powder & so cemented.)

+1896. The last variety passing into slate. (Dirty greenish-brown siliceous sandy clay-slate)

+1897. The passage almost completed. (Some kind of fine-grained siliceous sandstone,

           mingled in irregular threads and blending together with a compact black clay-slate.)

           All [?1895-7] obtained from a regular succession in Johnson Harbour.

+1903. Sandstone with shells, from same site as last year, near the Town.



+1939. Gorgonier? in micaceous sandstone; organic tissue still present; about a mile further


+1944. to up the harbour; sandstone in slate.

[page 51]

1980 [21636] Basalt rich in olivine, with dark glassy base.

1982 [47135] Olivine Basalt

1984 [21635] Tholeiite.



Santa Cruz, Patagonia.

Opposite the anchorage.

+1969. Common pale earthy sandstone with gypsum and (salt 946): generally more lined

           with ferruginous marks. (Under micro. much angular & semitransparent with opaque

           matter). (Non-calcareous. Every characteristic as for decomp. felsp. rather less

           pure, hence not so white or so light: fuses very readily, pale glass.)

+1970. Hard calcareous concretionary spherical masses in above.

+1971. Hard fine-grained calcareous sandstone, containing shells, especially Venus in every

           large concretionary masses, spherical.

On bank of River, presumed from oyster bed formation.

+1976. Wood.

+1977. [ditto]

Specimens collected up River.

+1980. Superior surface of lava, cellular, from some of first or most Ely. part of bed;

           generally even much more cellular. (Black basaltic crystalline lava with numerous

           oval vesicles: black glass.)

+1981. Common highly sonorous lava, with olivine.

+1982. Common lava, hexagonal, with olivine. (1981-2. Rather more crystalline base, with

           very few air-cells: a few specks of olivine.)

+1984. Black fine-grained basalt, with not one vesicle, conchoidal fracture.

[page 52]

1986 [47156] Porphyritic Basalt

1988 [47136] Olivine Basalt

1989 [47137] Olivine Basalt



Santa Cruz, Patagonia, continued.

Specimens collected up the River, continued.

+1985. Black fine-grained basalt, porphc. with white crystals. (Base not quite so fine-grained

           as last, but true fine-grained basalt-porphyry with large distinct crystals, well formed,

           of glassy felspar: base fuses into perfectly black glass: base not at all harsh; no


+1986. Do. greyer, coarser, with very many of do. crystals. (Do. very slightly vesicular,

            abounding with the white crystals of glassy felspar, many minute & disseminated,

            yet glass quite black: crystals of glassy felspar much fractured, not possible to

            obtain cleavage-planes.)

+1987. Do., cellular, yet with large crystals, but not abundant.

+1988. Grey lava with few large crystals, often much laminated, of the glassy felspar; a very

            rare small vesicle: with strong lens the whole rock black & white specks, yet a jet-

            black glass.)

+1989. Dark heavy compact lava with grey spots.( A blackish-grey very heavy compact

            basalt; no vesicles: spotted with pale grey which appear the rudiments of crystals of

            glassy felspar, some of which are perfect: decomposing externally, rich brown.

+1990. Essentially same as 1969, but [more laminated & ferruginous, line crossed] of a

            pale green colour. ( Cause of colour not distinguishable; rather more compact than

            charact. Decomp. felspar.

+1992. White decomp. felspar (not effervesce): slightly flocculent beneath microscope.

[page 53]



Santa Cruz, Patagonia, continued, etc.

Specimens collected up the River, continued.

+1994. Immense blocks of this rock scattered over whole surface 72-71° longit. : certainly

            the common rock of Andes in this latitude. (Pale, mottled with brown, siliceous

            translucent hornstone; edges can just be touched with blow-pipe: irregular fracture;

            porphtc. with few crystals of felspar & not infrequent grains of quartz.

+1995. Do. do, do; not quite so common. (Granular quartz mingled in small masses &

            thread-like veins with a dirty green highly crystalline slate, which readily fuses into

            white enamel.       

[page 54]

2058 [47138] gritty sandstone with bioliteste

2075 [49139] Biotite hornfels  



Straits of Magellan.

+2057. Interfolding beds of blackish hardened mud, with fragments of slate; Cape Virgins

           [at E. end of Straits].

+2058. A compact brown micaceous hard sandstone; common rock, P. Egmont.

+2059. Conglomerate containing following shells (2060-2065); Rocky Point, Port Famine.


Magdelene Channel; Cape Turn.

+2074. Black slate with distinct cleavage (but none in hand-specimen) but excessively hard,

+2075. heavy, altered; specks of iron pyrites.

+2076. Do., which was enclosed between two great dykes or..from a mass of greenstone:

+2077. in 2076, beside the main contact, a thread-like vein is present: slate highly but finely

 crystalline, pale coloured, felspathic. (In the first of these, 2076, mass enclosed, the 

 slate quite passes into a fine-grained greenstone: in the second, 2077, it is merely

            a grey highly crystalline (without distinct crystals) felspathic [rock]. The junction of

            this well defined; in the former the two are blended together, so that for two or

            three tenths of an inch it is not possible to say which is junction. The greenstone in

            both coarse-grained; crystals of hornblende acicular, those of felspar rather large &

            tending to become porphyritic.)

+2079. Greenstone with mica (& quartz-veins) forming mass of hill, cutting through &

           overlying slate. (Fine crystals of hornblende (55° - 30'); many scales of mica;

           crystals of albite (95°, 95°.20', 94°.40'; these differ much) but two macles 7°.15

           & 6°25': numerous specks of pyrites: heavy compact rock, coarsely crystallized.)

[page 55]

2087 [47140] Basalt

2096 [47141] Basalt

2097 [47142] Basalt

2100 [21634] Basalt.



Chiloe Island, Chile.

+2085. Grey lava, with earthy fracture; in close junction with 2092-3. (Streaks

            approximating to pitchstone) (Fine crystals of glassy felspar.)

+2086. Close compact blackish-grey basaltic lava; commonest varieties. (With brown parallel

+2087.  few streaks, slightly vesicular in centre) (2087, white glass)

+2088. Lava, highly vesicular. (Parts purplish grey, parts yellowish, parts decomposed

            brown, mingled together; cells lined with ferruginous & yellow matter).

+2089. Red porphyritic lava. (Reddish purple compact lava, smooth fracture, sonorous,

            porphtc. with numerous crystals of glassy felspar; base scratches glass, very

            translucent, points fusible with extreme difficulty; includes irregular patches of

            brown lava with earthy fracture & easily fusible, junction of the two almost blending


+2090. (Yellowish partially decomposed lava, harsh fracture, abounding with glassy felspars,

            & rather light from number of minute irregular vesicles.)

+2092. Pitchstone: the less compact specimen is very abundant: quite white glass [before

+2093. blow-pipe.] (Rubbly fracture: the greater part consists of a pitchstone, but with a

            fracture not very brilliant: this seems to pass into an earthy lava: melts into white


+2094. Pebble of coal.

+2095. Micaceous? carbonaceous? veins in volcanic breccia. (Like hepatic limestone.)

+2096. Various varieties of lava, common on the coast S.S.E. of Anchorage.

+2097. [ditto, 2096-99]



+2100. Laminated grey lava from highest part of road to Castro, near to S. Carlos.

[page 56]



Chiloe Island, continued.

All the following specimens come from the peninsular of Lacuy

+2114. Pale brown indurated earthy stone, fusible in blowpipe.

+2115. Do. with earthy white fragments.

+2116. Do. purer, whiter, harder, with numerous white fragments, forming a breccia.

+2118. Calcareous sandstone, concretions in above.

+2119. Siliceo-aluminous concretionary masses, with mica, in above.

+2120. Blackish-grey laminated clay-slate.

+2121. Yellow earthy stone.

            Varieties between this & 2114 form the commonest varieties in the peninsula of


[page 57]

2140 [Later note] (Finely crystallized epidote, with little felspar: angle 116°30' obscured by

        taking the brightest planes; omitting one, real angle 115°30'.)



Valparaiso, Chile.

+2140. Prehnite?? forming mass in granitic vein. (I believe the mineral named prehnite is

            all epidote?).

+2141. Felspar, hornblende, mica, forming globular mass in gneiss, granitic, coarsely


+2142. Blackish-grey sonorous, even semi-conchoidal, porphyry with many acicular crystals

            of glassy felspar & common do. & hornblende; forming part of contemp. vein.

            (It has character of phonolite.)

+2143. Greyish felspathic base, porphtc. with opaque felspar, forming a dyke in gneiss.

+2144. Upper part of do. dyke, much altered, reddish. (The whole stained brown by

           ferruginous matter; harsh earthy fracture, but otherwise character perfect.)

+2154. Greenstone, with cleavage; Cascade. (Black crystn. greenstone; felsp. quite white;

           an obscure slaty structure from position of crystals.      

+2155. Petrified wood in a conglomerate; Placilla.

+2156. Black schorl? in granitic vein.

+2157. [ditto]

[page 58]

2230 [47143] Basalt

2267 [Zeolitized Porphyrite]




Chile: various localities.

+2230. Compact, fine-grained dark-coloured greenstone; much iron.

+2231. Coarsely crystalline trap (Do not understand nature of either): between Talguen

            & Porpico.

+2232. Black, very compact, angular f. limestone; Porpico.

+2233. Greenstone; foot of St Lucia, St Jago. (Base almost pure felspathic rock, porphtc.

            with acicular glassy & common felspar; conchoidal fracture; nest with brown

            ferruginous matter; rock altogether compact.)

+2234. Brown trap, finely crystalline; much iron; St Christobal St Jago.

+2235. Compact, conch. fract. dull purple claystone-porphyry; hill above St Christobal.

            (Crystals of glassy felspar; one or two angular dark-coloured patches, as if included


+2236. White friable calcareo-aluminous substance; interstices of tops of hills; St Jago.

+2237. A rather compact, nearly white trachyte, with few crystals of glassy felspar; base

            with strong lens seen mottled with minute brown specks, also brown streaks from

            elongated decomposed crystals; like some of the rocks of Ascension; fracture rather

            irregular; hill near St Christobal.

+2238. Greenstone, highly porphyritic with opaque felspar.

+2239. Do., coarser, base crystn.; Andes, front of St Jago.

+2240. Tosca rock, cream-coloured, part pink; upper surface irregular compact

            stalactitiform; containing extraneous particles; Podaguel, St Jago.

+2241. Horn-silver; Coquimbo, Mr Caldcleugh.

[page 59]

2250 [45145] Basalt



Baths of Cauquenes, Chile.

+2243. Blackish-brown fine-grained trap-rock, porphtc. with very few irregular crystals of

           glassy felspar.

+2244. Dark-brown fine-grained trap, from dyke cutting the above.

+2245. Conglomerate; matrix stalactitic carbonate of lime.

+2246. Compact blackish-purple hard claystone-porphyry, abounding with semi glassy

            crystals of felspar; a few irregular vesicular cavities.

+2247. Rock allied to 2292; felspar in small plates. (Grey base abounding with small

            elongated crystals of opaque felspar & small balls of  green earth & irregular

            cavities filled with silex.

+2248. Trachyte, cellular, with lengthened crystals of glassy felspar. (Brown trachyte,

            vesicular, abounding with crystals of fractured glassy felspar: greenish-grey


+2249. Pitchstone; porphyritic, with minute crystals of glassy felspar: white glass

+2250. Compact heavy fine-grained blackish trap; a few most minute acicular crystals

            of felspar.

+2251. Cellular crystalline rock (?). (Cellular, semi-decomposed trap, cavities lined with

            oxide of iron; porphyritic with glassy felspars: may be semi-decomposed trachyte +2252     Pale brown, earthy fracture, felspathic base, with small crystals of felspar &

            hornblende, few; high up valley. (Cryst. 127°15', real angle 124°30'.)

            (Pale brown sandy-looking base, porphyritic with few crystals of augite (?) &


+2253. Allied to 2247 & 2292. (Reddish brown base, 2253, porphyritic  with numerous

+2254. elongated crystals of semi-glassy felspar, with vesicles lined with green...& filled with

            brown radiated substance cut by nail) (2254. With irregular amygd. of carbonate of


[page 60]

2259 [47146] Felspar-quartz porphyry



Yaquil, Chile

+2257. Syenitic rock; quartz, felspar, & with nests of imperfect crystals of hornblende,


+2258. As above; lower down mountain. (This great rock of axis: white opaque crystals

            felspar, moderately well crystd. green hornblende, very few scales of mica, quartz??)


+2259. Do., passing into eurite?

+2260. Copper pyrites, gold, plumbago, from Duraruo mine; rich in gold.

+2262. The regular gold-ore, as dug out of ground; Bazos mine; (same as above, but still

            more friable, in state of powder.)

+2263. Compact (crystalln. structure just distinguishable) dark slate-coloured, angular semi-

            conch. & fracture, felspathic rock; melts readily, black enamel; Sierra & Chilicauqua.

Campana Mountain, Quillota.

+2264. Opaque, irregular crysts. of felspar in red claystone base, not very hard; obscure

            embedded fragments. (With perfectly clear traces of breccia structure.)

+2265. Red claystone base (not hard but difficult fusible, strong aluminous smell), angular

            fracture irregular. (This, various degrees of hardness, base of all the porphyries.)

+2266. Blackish compact porphyry, with crysts. of felspar, some minute acicular ones, &

            rarely amygd. with quartz.

+2267. Pale stony felspathic rock, with cleavage. (Grey lava-like; few small irregular

            vesicular cavities lined with iron-rust.

+2268. Yellowish-green do., much more crystd. & porphtc. with yellow crysts. of felspar.

            (Has not character of lava.)

[page 61]

2280 [47148] Tuff.

2282 [47149] Albite Porphyry

2283 [47150] Albite Trachyte



Campana Mountain, Quillota, continued.
+2269. Imperfect very pale purple porphyry, freckled with green stony mineral. (Purplish

            grey base, freckled with green, & earthy fracture, porphyritic with few small crystals

            of felspar, & containing most obscure traces of embedded fragments.)

+2270. Compact, pale purple porphyry, with rather imperfect crysts. of white felspar.

+2271. White stony felspathic rock, with patches of white earthy felspar & green mineral

            (serpentine?) (Best tinged green, shows obscure cryst. structure, angular patches

            resembling serpentine; irregular fracture, translucent, fine dark green, soft, almost

           [cut] by nail, easily fuses, pale glass, agrees best with soapstone.)

+2274. Coarsely highly crystd. greenstone, with veins & disseminated crysts. of epidote;

            summit of Bell.

+2275. Bronzite? in greenstone base. (Miller. Decomposed rock, perhaps augite, having only

            one good cleavage, containing octahedl. crysts. of magnetic iron oxide.)

+2276. Slate-coloured felspathic rock, semi-crystn. base, semi-conch. fracture, like altered

            slate; allied to 2267-8.

+2277. White compact, irregular fracture, felspathic rock. (Approaches to character of

            domite, or very compact trachyte; base minutely freckled.)

+2278. Same as 2276; rather more porcellanous aspect; altered slate.

+2279. Greenstone, pale grey, felspathic.

+2280. Purple compact, very irregular fracture, porphyry (Claystone base abounding with

            nodules & thin layers of white felspar: these lines frequently show tendency to

            contract & form crysts. of felspar. There are also crystals of epidote.

+2281. Do., breccia structure not visible, conch. fracture. Felspar & epidote better crystd.

            patches, not so linear form, & with occasional decided cleavage. (yet exterm. form


+2282. Black-purple-grey do.; breccia struc. not visible; base with crystals small, not


+2283. Pale grey do. do. do. , with epidote.

+2284. Red compact perfect claystone-porphyry (crystals small.)

[page 62]

2286 [47151] Augite Audesite



Aconcagua, Chile.

+2285. Coarse pale purple porphyry, with a breccia structure tolerably clear?, angular

            or rounded. (Patches of a white hard felspathic stone, showing in part a well

            developed cleavage structure.

+2286. Greenstone-porphyry (partakes of the nature of both); breccia imperceptible. (A

            mottled purplish green base, with crystals of felspar: a porphyritic trap.)

+2287. Felspathic passing into greenstone, porphtc. with felspar, compact; great dyke. (Pale

            greenish grey felspac. base, porphtc. with few crysts. of glassy felspar.

Mines of Jajuel, Aconcagua.

Jajuel is at very base of Andes, near Aconcagua.

+2288. Coarse purple-grey porphyry (with grains of quartz) & crystals of apague felspar.

            (Angular & semi-rounded embedded fragments of a dull red slightly crystn.

            claystone: some of the smallest fragments become porph.)

+2289. Compact, conch. fracture, pale purple porphyry breccia, closely allied to a porphyry:

            angular fragments intimately united & blended together. (The porph. structure of

            base is very obscure, but certainly exists: mottled with minute fragments.)

+2290. Do., but clearly porphtc., not so clearly brecciated. (it's one of these characters

            predominates, other sinks; observe the green mineral.) (Even angular fracture;

            fragments (many of which are green & appear like jade in the red claystone)

            blending & running together; whole mass, fragments & base, decidedly porphtc.

            though few crystals very perfect.)

[page 63]



Mines of Jajuel, continued.

+2291. True pink claystone-porphyry, with quartz & felspar.

+2292. Curious rock; base as before; plates of reddish felspar & balls of green mineral.

            (These plates are often cruciform.)

+2293. Blackish, irregular angular fracture, altered clay-slate? siliceous, infusible.

+2294. Compact pale greenish grey felspathic rock, like the base of 2283, with very few

            crysts. ; also like allied felspathic slate. 

+2295. Fine-grained grey greenstone; slightly granular struct. (Or syenite greenstone.)

[page 64]



Chiloe Island, Chile.

  2348. Abundant silicified wood; Lemuy [islet]

+2349. Less perfectly petrified wood; front of Lemuy.

+2350. The commonest variety of lignite; Lemuy.

+2351. Lignite, also common, Lemuy.

+2352. Lignite, showing leaves; coast in front of Lemuy.

+2353. Common very soft yellow sandstone, grain unequal size; where lignite occurs,

            Lemuy. (Though with numerous grains of quartz, yet whole fusible; black enamel.)

+2354. Do., rather finer & harder; where silicified wood is embedded; coast front of Lemuy.

+2355. Layer of hard pale-grey calcs. sandstone, composed of minute grains of quartz &

            broken crystals; Estero del Castro

+2356. Layer of hard black-grey calcs. sandstone; near lignite, not common, Lemuy.

+2357. Ash-coloured sandstone, excessively fine-grained (even under high power particles

            scarcely visible), much laminated, easily fusible to black enamel; S. extremity

            of Lemuy.

+2358. Darkish grey friable sandstone (mudstone), earthy fracture; common formation

            of Huafo (Capt. Fitz-Roy.)

+2359. White semi-crystn. felspar, with crystals of do. & ferruginous patches; forming

            regular columus near Castro. (Compact trachyte; white crystn. base of glassy

            felspar, with few distinct ones, & elongated decomposed crystals of brown…

            & patches thereof. Fracture straight rather than harsh.)

+2360. Layers of quartz thickly coated & enveloped by blackish grey micaceous; Castro.

            (District plates can scarcely be distinguished; this micaceous mass large in

            proportn. to pure quartz.)

+2361. Twisted layer of quartz coated by a grey silvery mica; San Pedro.

[page 65]



Chonos Archipelago & Tres Montes, Chile.

Chonos Archipelago

+2378. Thin layers of quartz, thickly coated with black micaceous substance, passing

+2379. into an ampelite. (Will just soil white paper, like black lead; layers deeply striated;

            fuses into grey glass; a larger piece whitens under blow-pipe.

+2380. Greenstone, from dyke traversing the above schist.

+2381. [ditto]


Cone Harbour, Tres Montes promontory.

+2382. Smoke-grey rather earthy greenstone, porphtc. with imperf. crysts of felspar & green


+2383. Contemps. vein in above, fine-grained green chloritic greenstone. (Base rather

            earthy fracture, apparently mixed with much green earth, obscurely porphtc.

            with very few imperfect crystals.)

+2384. Pale yellowish & grey pseudo-breccia; fragment blended together, altered in their

            nature, non-calcareous; (exact locality??). (Compact strong stone, easily fusible.)

+2385. Finely crystn. grey felspathic rock (? altered slate); fusible.

+2386. Bluish grey do., cemented into homogeneous felspathic rock, with minute specks

            of quartz & crystals of felspar.

+2387. Black altered slate; extremely sharp irregular fracture; fuses into white enamel.

+2388. Pale do., obscurely brecciated, [both, crossed] (like 2386 but more irregular & not so

            porcellanous  a fracture; minute crystals of felspar.

 Both these (2387-8) from the Cone Hill; latter highest part.

[page 66]



Tres Montes, Chile, continue.

South Promontory.

+2390. Brown & blackish-grey cellular lavas, with few small crysts. of glassy felspar.

+2391. (2390. Albite, 86˚42' & 92˚46', real angle being 93˚30' & 86˚30'. Vesicular

+2392. cavities lined with green earth.)

+2393. [ditto]

+2394. [ditto]

+2395. Greyish-black compact lava with few cells.

+2396. [ditto]

+2397. Rubbly brecciated brownish-black imperfect pitchstone, with little lime in interstices.

+2398. Lava dyke, compact. (Blackish brown highly crystn. lava; appears nearly all

            crystals of felsp. & lava fuses into pale glass.)

+2399. Agate in sphere in lava. (Agate stained externally from dark red organic matter

+2400. (probably for blackens under heat.)

+2401. Indurated volcanic sandstone. (Brown volcanic sandst. with blacker patches, as if by

+2902. decayed vegetable matter.) (Indurated brown volcanic sandstone with small curious


Cone Harbour.

+2403. Brecciated layer in the above. (The greater number of fragments appear like

            rather compact pumice: the rock is hard, with harsh fracture, tho' not very


+2404. May be a very highly cellular white trachyte rock cemented by crystn. carb. of lime.

+2405. Varieties of lava. 2405. Blackish brown, black glass, irregular fracture; very few

+2406. crysts. of glassy felspar & irregularly amgyd. with fibrous zeolite.

            2406. Greenish brownish black very highly crystn. lava, almost made of crystal of


[page 67]

[2447] 47159



Tres Montes, Chile, continued.

Cone Harbour, continued.

+2407. Varieties of lava.

+2408. 2407. Fine-grained compact pale & blackish brown lava mottled together, with few

+2409. small crystals. 2408. Blackish rather compact lava, porphtc. with very numerous

           large crystals of glassy felspar. (albitic)

           2409. Reddish brown base, highly amygd. with zeolites & quartz, with few crystals

           of glassy felspar.

+2410. Pap of breccia-like pitchstone. (The brecciated structure is evidently angular concret.

            interstitial substance, greenish brown glossy, small in quantity, porphtc. with glassy

            felspar. N.B. This concretionary structure seems to accompany all glassy volcanic


+2411. Dykes traversing the five foregoing sorts of lava.

+2412. 2411. Dark brown very finely crystalline trap, tolerably even fracture.

+2413. 2412. Like 2398.

Dark Harbour, middle of outer coast of P. Tres Montes.

+2437. Micaceous schist. (Grey glossy striated compact (easily fusible) slate, appearing hard


+2441. Do., with some grains of quartz & small crysts. of felsp.

Yuche Island, N. of Tres Montes.

+2442. Grey crystn. felspathic rock with grains of quartz; easily fusible base, white glass.

            (Nearly perfect crystals of felspar, few scales of blood red mica, rounded grains of

            quartz unequally disseminated; highly crystn. rock.)

+2443. Do., which becomes finer-grained, with semi-conchdl. fract.

[page 68]

2460. [Later note] (Mica-slate in very fine laminæ: granite small-grained & perfect, but mica

          in very small quantity: at junction itself, to the distance of few tenths of an inch,

          granite rather quartzose.)



Tres Montes, Chile, continued, etc.

Yuche Island, continued. (Cone base of granite range, S. of Island.)    

+2459. Tolerably regular layers of quartz, separated by broad intervals of dark purplish black

            micaceous mass. (Numerous minute scales of mica probably united by siliceous


+2460. Do., resting on granite. (The laminæ are directly on the sloping face of granite: in

            this individual specimen the granite is not so well characterized as usual.).

+2461. Dyke of white decomposing porphtc. eurite, porphtc. with felspar & large crystals

            (octagonal) of quartz (a very few appearing hornblende), cutting the granite.

Anna Pink's Cove [Chonos Archipelago?]

+2464. Blackish fine-grained trap, dyke traversing mica-slate.

+2465. Felspathic rock, white, with crystals of quartz & felspar; do. dyke. (Pale brown &

+2466. white felspathic base, abounding with octagons of quartz & few scales of mica.

+2467. (Greyish white crystn. felspathic rock with crysts. of do.), supposed to be dyke

            cutting do. do.

Former Lemons. [? Lemus, Chonos Arch.]

+2468. The common grey sandstone; specks of mica; former more common: latter more

+2469. indurated, with black; neither effervs.

 (2468. Fine-grained, friable with fingers, brown sandstone easily fusible.)

 (2469. Do., much harder, mottled, minute broken crystals.)

+2470. Layers of harder, finer-grained, calcareous blacker sandstone, with curious


[page 69]

+2488. [Later note.] (May be simply described as very glossy & black, only slightly staining

            paper, appearing as if rubbed by ampelite: consult Humboldt for latter name.)



Low's Harbour [in N. part of Chonos Arch.o]

+2487. Green talcaceous-chloritic slate (Pale green glossy slate; appears talcaceous, but is

            of a felspathic nature, allied distinctly to 2437) (Henslow says chloritic, probably,

            felspathic base; striated appearance; easily fusible into dark green & black enamel.)

+2488. Thin rather sinuous layers of quartz separated by black micaceous ampelite; very

             glossy. (The layers of quartz swell out into little kernels, which frequently contain

             crystals of felspar.)

+2489. Dyke, traversing above schists; the order expresses their abundance in the dyke.

+2490. (2489. Blackish crystn. base, porphtc. with fur cryst glassy felsp.)

+2491. (2490. Pale grey, freckled with red, base, porphtc. with cryst. felsp.)

+2492. (2491. Do. more compact, less porphtc. specks of red oxide iron.)

+2493. (2492. Pale brown base with most numerous grains of quartz & cryst. of felspar.)

+2498. Chlorite, epidote & felspar, with micaceous layers; bed in the chloritic slate, 2487.

+2511. Pale-greenish homogeneous felspathic rock, deeply decomposing into a uniform

            reddish colour; forming dyke in the mica-slate.

+2512. Distinct crystals of felspar? placed amongst chloritic green mineral in mica-slate.

            These two specimens came from extreme west outlying island.

[page 70]



Chiloe Island, Chile.

+2513. Concretion from Tertiary formation of Chiloe; headland on which P. Teny is.

            (Diameter 3 1/4 inches). (Henslow says very like Magnesian Limestone. Make

            section & examine nature. Blue matter supposed as phosph. iron. Whole fusible,

            highly magnetic black glass, with ease. Non-calc.: central parts friable, minutely

            broken crystals scarcely aggregated, nor compact, so as almost to show a tendency

            to form minute interstitial cavities: centre of yellowish hard particles, as if of

            granular olivine: external portions brown & appearing to have crystn. fine-grained

            structure, which probably is owing to broken crystals embedded in a crystn. oxide

            of iron.               

+2514. Common brown, rather coarse, soft sandstone.

+2515. Soft brecciola, [Intermediate]in its character between the more compact & softer  

            beds. (Small fragments all decomposed, appear more or less felspathic.)

+2516. White compact aluminous stone: does not effervesce. Light: conchdl. fracture; (as

            before decomp. felspar)

+2517. Very white soft friable aluminous (?) substance: does not effervesce: is harder in


+2522. Greenish-slate-coloured compact basis with crystals of yellowish & some glassy


+2533. Even laminated ampelite; Chonos Archipelago, lat. 44"13'. (Marks paper: thin layers

            of quartz & black glossy matter.)

+2534. Another variety of the brecciola: from neat the sort with white patches at Chiloe,

            Huapi-Lacuy. (Of concretionary origin; fragments of dark brown & green earthy soft

            substance, yet whole stone strong; interstices & thin veins of calcareous matter.)

[page 71]



Valdivia, Chile.

+2551. Sandstone with layers of yellow soft balls: roots of Fucus?? (Coarse, soft, brittle,

            muddy sandstone.)

+2552. Black micaceous slate. (Partaking of nature of the ampelite; quartz layers bulging

            into distinct grains.)

+2553. Yellow ferruginous do., with very many embedded crysts. of felspar.

Concepcion, Chile.


+2570. Best layer of coal or rather lignite; black, glossy little specific gravity.

+2571. [ditto]

+2572. [ditto]

+2573. Upper poor bed.

+2574. Lower, mingled with pebbles.

+2575. Lowest hard calcareous sandstone: grains of pure quartz cemented together.

+2576. The common sandstone, or rather agglom. sand. (Ferruginous.)

+2577. Slightly harder ferruginous layer in do. (Appear to result from decomposition of

            granitic rocks.)

+2578. Indurated argillaceous bed, beneath layer of lignite, 2573. (Soapy feel: twigs &

            plants in coal.) All the above come from Lirguen.

  2580. Silicified wood, near Talcuana.


[page 72]



Concepcion, Chile, continued.

Quiriquina Is.

+2581. Dark greenish hard paste, embedding grains of quartz & crystals. (Stone soft,


+2583. Light brown micaceous soft sandstone, with few impressions of shells. (With rounded

            grains of quartz.)

+2584. Black harsh curcilinear laminated clay-slate.

+2585. More glossy (scarcely approaching to what I have called ampelite) even-laminated

            do., not so abundt.

+2586. Pale greenish clay-slate, glossy.

+2587. Pale slate-coloured felspathic dyke. (All these felspc. rocks are homogeneous, crystn.

            & without vestige of other mineral.)

+2588. Brilliant grey dolerite (?) glassy felsp. dyke. (Brilliantly cryst. black trap, in which

            crysts. of felspar can alone be distinguished: fuses into grey enamel.)

+2589. Felspathic rock, blended with red ferrugs. particles; dyke.

+2590. Stony mottled base (decomposing like sedimentary rock) with crystals of earthy

            felspar & octagons of quartz.

+2591. Same as 2593, but partially decomposed.

+2592. Snow-white stony felspathic, with large octagons of quartz, dyke. (Snow-white,

            opaque, earthy fracture, finely crystn. base, with large grains of quartz, decomposed

            into a soft brownish rock.)

+2593. Felspathic greenstone base with large irregular crystals of felspar & large octagons of


[page 73]



Santiago - Mendoza.

+2598. White harsh earthy fract., felspc. rock with obscure tendency to crystn. in part &

            streaks of dark green; coarse rubbly fracture. (Obscure embedded fragments of

            small size.)

+2599. Greenish felspc. base, compact, with few white crysts. of do.

+2600. Pale light green base cementing together very numerous equal-sized crysts. white


+2601. Closely allied to 2598; embedded crysts. more distinct. (Indurated tuff.)

+2602. Brownish porphyry; unequal fract: few large white crysts. of felsp.; obscure breccia-

            structure. (The crysts. are not very large: I cannot succeed in measuring them. It is

            impossible to say with certainty whether breccia-structure is false or true.)

+2603. White foliated felsp. with green hornblende & chlorite. (Albite, [angles] 94° & 86°.

            42'; true [angles] 93°30' & 86°30'.) A few scales of mica; green hornblende, [angle

            56°35' & 124°30'; albite well foliated, large crysts; no quartz.)

+2604. Heavy black base, uneven fract. porphtc. with numerous crysts. of dark felsp.

            [Harker 47160 mets basalt]

+2605. Compact, fine-grained, dark purplish stone (obscurely porphtc.)

            [47161 mets anderite breccia]

+2606. Fine-grained granular mixture of felsp. & hornbl. ; latter in nests, so as to give the

            rock a spotted appearance.) [[47201] mets augite diorite]

+2607. Granite; fine foliated white felsp. black mica, grains of quartz? (Fine white foliated

            felsp., abundt. large plates of black mica, & a very little chlorite, with one single

            minute grain of quartz; in fact an a-quartzose granite.) (Miller says albite by


+ 2608. Compact, fine-grained, heavy purplish rock. (Minute broken crysts.; easily fusible

             into white enamel.)

[page 74]

Harker 47209-10 gypsum

Harker 47214-5 gypsum

Harker 47206-7 anhydrite



Santiago - Mendoza, continued

+2609. Gypsum; saccherine structure, black water-lines, containing little carbt. of lime;

            gave and plenty of vapour.

+2610. Jet-black hard laminated, conch. fracture, calcs. clay-slate; melts (white glass.)

            (This rock common all north of Chile. I know not whether it ought not often to be

             called a limestone.)

+2620. Snow-white gypsum, with patches of dark crysts. of carbt. of lime.

+2621. Very soft impure aluminous gypsum.

+2622. Hard compact crystn. beautifully translucent do.

+2623. Black-grey coarse hard crystn. gypsum?? (Grey brilliantly crystn. anhydrite (no

            vapour), scratches calc-spar, does not effervesce, melts with fluor-spar.)

            (Henslow, yes.)

+2624. Greenish grey mass of small imperf. crysts. of felsp., with little green substance in

            interstices, & iron pyrites. (Hornbl. or chlorite, pale green; felsp. partly foliated.)

+2625. Do., with yellow ochry powder in do. in lines.

+2626. Do. do. do. & much epidote.

+2628. Black calcs., apparently carbonaceous slaty rock (with contemps. thread-like veins of


+2627. Compact blackish, conch. fract. limestone. 

+2629. Conglomt. ; calcs. cement; chiefly small pebbles of felspar & quartz & limestone.

+2630. Siliceous porphc. with black crysts. (Hard pale lilac porphc. with numerous &

            unequal-sized crysts. of felsp. & some large mass of hornbl.)

+2631. Laminated very siliceous micaceous grey fine-grained sandstone.

+2632. Granular quartz-rock with black atoms of some import crystn. mineral & small spots

            of an ochry powder.

[page 75]

Harker 152814



Santiago - Mendoza, continued.

+2633. Large red crysts. of felsp. & quartz, imperfect plates of mica. (Felspar cleared exact

            90°, therefore not albite.)

+2634. Flesh-red compact felspc. rock; grains of quartz & scales of mica.

+2635. Green do.' (like pyrophysolite)

+2636. Micaceous rock, containing quartz. (Irregular layers of quartz coated with micaceous

            mass; scales of mica small.)

+2637. Dull black do, compact, passing into clay-slate, with contorted layers of quartz.

+2638. Black micaceous rock, passing into clay-slate.

+2639. Conchdl. fract.; pale brown felspc. base with crysts of felsp. & grains of quartz.

+2640. Blackish crysts. felsp. rock.

+2641. Chestnut brown ferruginous do. do.

+2642. Pale grey compact, uneven fract., lava, full of minute grains of olivine

+2643. Do., carious in lines, with do. & specks of black mica & acicular crysts. of glassy

            felsp. (Minutely vesicular in sinuous parallel closely approximtg. lines; minute

            grains of oliv. & mica & crysts. felsp.; very pale grey felspathic lavas.)

+2644. Blackish do. with olivine; zeolite. ( Black & brown mottled; crysts. of glassy felsp. &

            few specks of olivine, both certain, & zeolite amygd. : base fuses into pale green


+2645. Fine cellular brown scovier.

+2646. White, light, friable aluminous stone. (Exceedingly like limest., but decomp? trachytic


+2647. Greenish-grey siliceous greywacke; round bits of quartz & slate.

+2648. True fine-grained laminated micaceous blue clay-slate.

+2649. Compact hard conglomt. ; calcs. cement; grains of quartz & felsp.; pebbles of


+2650. Very compact, small conchdl. fract. purplish porphyry, with red crystals of felspar.

[page 76]



Santiago - Mendoza, continued.

+2651. Fine-grained sandstone, ferruginous water lines, particles closely united by some

            cement. (Externally appears like sandstone, but consists probably of finely broken

            crystals, & is fusible to a white enamel; fine-grained, tolerably hard.)

+2652. Pale purple sandstone; grains generally not siliceous. (Appears as if decompd. felsp.)

+2653. White earthy hardish slightly calcs. substance, like decomp? felsp.; strong aluminous

            smell. (Not very easily fusible; not friable with fungus.)

+2654. Do., faint green tinge, harder, more compact & homogenous. (May be considered as

            as compact as felsp. rock, with earthy fracture; fusible.)

+2655. Do., embedding grains of quartz & extraneous fragments, & assuming a granular

            crystn. structure. (Cannot say whether the crystn. struct. is owing to embedded

            decompn. felsp. or to reproduction.)

+2656. Pale grey hard (scratch glass) siliceo-alumino-earthy base with embedded grains of

            various substance; (alums. smell; fusible). (Soft dark green mineral appears to be

            collecting into small patches.)

+2657. Numerous grains, some rounded, of quartz, cemented together by ferrugs. alums.

            base, with little rounded or angular concretionary patches of white alums. substance.

+2658. Grey crystn. felspc. rock; crysts. of felsp. with fine hornbl. (?) in interstices. (Pale

            greenish grey crysts. felsp. rock, with minute atoms like crysts, probably


+2659. Pitchstone; uneq. fract. crysts. of carbt. of lime.

+2660. Black-grey finely crysts. trap.

+2611. Black rather coarse basalt; conchdl. fract. (Black enamel.)

+2662. Probably same nature with 2653, but much harder & more crystn. (Very irregular

            angulo-concretionary drusy cavities; white; quartz-like; scratches glass; but fuses

            pretty easily.)

[page 77]

Harker 47202 augite hornblende monzonite



Santiago - Mendoza, continued.

+2663. White foliated felsp., black mica, little hornblende, no quartz?

+2664. One half specimen - blackish siliceous rock, other half-fine crysts felsp. with very

            numerous round minute grains of quartz. (The part which looks siliceous is in part

            fine-grained felspc., fuses readily. Granite fine-grained, more points of black mica;

            felspar best developed.)

+2665. Imperfect mica, granitic, cryst. ferrugs. felspc. rock.

+2666. The width of black brown hard ferruginous gold-ore.

+2667. Compact, conchl. fract. sharp edges translucent, white siliceous felspc. rock.

            (Porcelain - rock; fusible.)

+2668. Rather less hard & harsh than 2662.

+2669. Gold-ore (said to be phosphate of lime.)

+2670. Do., with copper.

+2671. Gold-ores. 2671. Ferrugs., carious like scovier.

+2672. 2672. Like Yaquil.

+2673. Various curious crystn. rocks.

+2674. (2673. Dark, nearly black base; smooth conchdl. felspc. rock.; crystn., with amygd.

+2675. cavities with lime.)

+2676. (2674. Bluish-grey trappean rock, filled with large distinct crystals of carbt. of lime,

+2677. red.)

+2678. (2675. Brown fine-grained trap.)

+2679. (2676. Greenish base freckled with atoms of green earth & white carbt. of lime.)

           (2677. Dull purplish base, angulo-[concretionary] structure, abounding with little

            nodules of pale green earth & calc-spar.) (Like toadstone.)

           (2678. Fine-grained crystn. black trappean; no large crysts.)

           (2679. Allied to 2677, but purplish; the crysts. of felsp. can just be distinguished,

            mingled with green earth & ball of do.)

[page 78]



Santiago - Mendoza, continued.

+2680. Mass of carbt. of lime (74°30', real [angle] being 74°55'), included in above.

+2681. Indescribable. I am nearly certain belong to same bed. (2681. Fine mixture of minute

+2682. semi-decompd. elongated crysts. of felspar. with ferruginous specks: kernels of 

white or pale green compact felspc. rock mixed with soft ferrugs. matter; other

spherical balls of dark brown ferrugs. matter, friable.)

+2683. Lowest part of bed, by junction indescribable.

+2684. Compact blue-grey rock, perhaps same nature as 2654, with impressions of

+2685. vegetables.

+2686. Blackened rock (& stained throughout with iron), heavy; irregular cavities.

+2687. White rock such as the above blasted & blackened.

+2688. [ditto]

+2689. Much the same as 2657.

+2690. Fine-grained hard, even fract. , aluminous ferrugs. rock, perhaps like 2653, but

           slightly granular, like sandstone.

+2691. Pale dirty green, nearly compact but containing crystn. felsp.; very minute cavities.

+2692. Blackened rock like 2686.

+2693. Whitish felspc. rock with crysts of do., with ferrugs. matter in interstices.

+2694. Like 2655. without extraneous particles, & crysts. more developed.

+2695. Pitchstone, in which rounded bits appear embedded in a hard sedimy. rock (seen by

            wetting). (Whole rock closely of nature of pitchstone, but not so glossy: bits

            embedded in lines, as if by water deposition.)

+2696. Black coarsely crystn. trap-rock (of which many of the crysts. certainly are felsp.)

+2697. Carbt. of lime.

+2698. Compact fine-grained greenish-grey sandstone, minute broken crystals. (Passing into

            a mudstone, where elements are so united as to appear semicrystn.)

[page 79]

Harker 152813

Harker 152812



Santiago - Mendoza, continued.

+2699. Nearly similar to 2690.

+2700. Very compact fine-grained sandstone. (Here mudstone would be most proper name:

            structure really almost crystalline).

+2701. Allied to 2699; amygdaloid. (Well crystd. white felsps. with ferrugs. matter in

            interstices & partially empty amygd. cavities.)

+2703. Silicified wood

+2705. Fragments near centre of one tree.

+2705. [ditto 2705-08]




+2709. Carbt. of lime replacing wood.

+2710. Do., drusy, lined with minute crysts. of quartz.

+2711. Pale brown, irreg. fract., aluminous limestone.

+2712. Copper ore from mine, I believe same formation.

+2713. Blasted rock.

+2714. Black crystn. (augitic?) rock. (Block, brilliant, conchd. fract. basalt; many minute.

           acicular crysts. of glass felsp can be distinguished; could not measure by


+2715. Jet-black laminated very compact non-calcs. clay-slate, with vegetable impressions

            on one surface. (Indurated slate. Mem. coal formation of Pasco.)

+2716. Brick-red hard, crumbling fract. [sedimentary], unequal rounded & broken cryst.

            embedded in fine base.

+2717. Red pseudo-breccd. crysts. rock: do not know nature. (Dull red obscurely brecciated

            stone, abounding with crystn. calcs. matter & amygd. with little green earth: brecc.

            struct. probably concretionary, but nature?)

+2718. Nature between 2653 & 2654; non calcs.

+2719. Numerous crysts. of felsp. & quartz in a sparing red basis. (I cannot say whether

            crystn. or sedimentary.)

[page 80]

Harker 47203 Lava

Harker 152810


2726 Harker 47177


2732 Harker 47178 [illeg]



Santiago - Mendoza, continued.

+2720. Glossy, rather harsh fracture, coarse-grained clay slate.

+2721. Layers & crystals of felspar in purple clay-slate base. (It will be important to know

            origin of this rock on account of parallel felspar layers.)

+2722. White earthy felspathic base with obscure patches of more crystn. pinkish felspar.

            (Earthy, very irregular Fract.)

+2723. Apparently a greyish granular felspathic rock. (Slaty, crystn, altered state?)

+2724. Salmon-coloured compact felspathic rock with reddish small crysts. of felspar.

+2725. [ditto]

+2726. Dark bluish felspc. rock, porphc. with minute acicular crysts. of glassy felspar.

+2727. Greenish-white, earthy, harsh fracture, aluminous substance, with broken extraneous

            particles. (Broken particles of green & red felspc. rock & crysts.: fusible, not very


+2728. Ore of metal??

+2729. Argentiferous lead.

+2730. Gold ore, like that of Hornillos.

+2731. Red, brick-colour, paste, porphc. with crystals of numerous quartz & felsp. & bits of a

            green substance which resembles jade.

+2732. Grey crysts. felspc. rock with concretn. or conglomtc. structure.

2733 Harker 47179[illeg]andesite

+2733. Semi-crysts. felspc. rock, tinged black.

+2734. Rock altered with metallic ferrugs. veins of magnesia? (Untouched parts white,

            extremely hard, siliceous, with brecciated structure.)

+2735. Yellow fine-grained limestone, effervesces slowly. (Nearly all soluble quickly in warm

            muriatic acid. There is minute particles adhering, as if of an amygdaloidal pink rock)

            (May be called magnesian limestone - H.)

+2736. Pale lilac base with numerous crystals of white felspar and black mica.

[page 81]



Santiago, Mendoza, continued.

+2737. Purplish-grey stone, compound of minute specks of crystn. carbt. of lime & earthy

            material & red crysts. & amygdl. with carbt of lime. (Earthy base appears crystn.,

            the red crysts. rather opaque, apparently iron, no doubt cryst hydrous oxide of iron;

            balls truly spherical of carbt. of lime coarsely crystd. : base purplish grey, fine-

            grained crystn. full of above two ingredients & some other matter: fuses easily into

            dark green glass.)

+2738. Coarse hard red conglomerate; cement calcareous, (fragments all appear dull

            purplish, very compact, embedding grains of quartz & sometimes crysts. of felsp.:

            not fusible.)

+2739. White cryst. felspc. base & little soft ferrugs. patches, with numerous crysts. of white

            felsp & scales of black mica. (Mica often hexagonal)

+2740. Dark purplish fine-grained calcs. sandstone: crystn. aspect.

+2741. Basis like 2737, with white calcs. specks & amygdl with red crystn., (Heavy compact

            stone, nearly black base, decidedly crystn. non-calcs. , easily fusible into green

            glass, yet allied to 2737. Red crysts. probably same nature as 2737. Decidedly

            igneous rock. Calcareous matter in specks & some irreg. amygdl. cavities lined with


+2742. Pale purple, very compact, fine-grained slightly calcs. sandstone.

+2743. White gypsum & contorted layers of purplish impure alums. non-calcs. do.

+2744. Gypsum partaking characters of 2609, 2923. (Contains calcs. matter in lines: grey,

            brilliant fracture: gives out vapour, yet portions scratch glass and resemble the


+2745. Do., like 2609.

[page 82]



Santiago-Mendoza, continued.

+2746. Pure soft gypsum.

+2747. Red-purple base with numerous true crysts. of white felsp.

+2748. Red fine conglomerate, grains of quartz; quartzose with white patches of earthy

  felsp, which appear owing to sort of crystn. process: only little white patch is

  traversed by hairs of the red base.

+2749. Dull whitish, very compact, hardish, heavy, non-crystn. calcs. aluminous rock:

            weathered fracture bright red (Knife scratches: limestone containing a good deal

            of aluminous matter.)

+2750. White crystn. limestone; numerous impressions of shells & specks of bitumen?

+2751. [ditto]

+2752. Oyster-shell in do.

+2753. Bluish, compact, irreg. fractr., very alums. limestone.

+2754. Brown, hard, calcs., fine-grained sandst.; ferrugs. veins

+2755. Dull purple, fine-grained, calcs. sandstone. (Compact, almost crystn. structure.)

+2756. Confused mass of white crystn. felsp., containing more perfect foliated crystals

            (of soft green mineral appearing chlorite.)

+2757. Bright green base with numerous elongate plates of white crystn. felsp., & amygd.

            with agate & quarts & green little balls.

+2758. Granitic? base, with metallic veins. S. Pedro de Nolasko?

+2759. Balls produced by dripping of hot spring, Incas [Bridge]

+2760. Silicified wood from Uspallata.

+2761. Small shells from

[page 83]

2849 [47191]



Chile: various localities.

+2762. Greenish felspc. rock with small brecciated structure; quartzose fragments: Island at


+2763. Black-green fine-grained, isla Vade at [Condal]

+2845. Silvery micaceous clay-slate, whose scales are not visible:


+2846. Two species of recent Venus; upper gravels. Port of Copiapo.

+2847. Soft very rare mudstone (or rotten-stone); yellowish colour, thinly bended with

            colours; do.

+2848. Nearly black fine-grained felspc. rock, more or less siliceous? : structure like clay-

+2849.  slate; Copiapo.

+2850. Grey felspc. base full of nodules of quartz, agate & epidote.

+2851. White siliceous carious base with embedded grains of quartz.



+2852. Do., do, with ferrugs. specks & black specks.

+2853. Grey siliceous base with minute scales of white mica. (Crystn., looks like felspc., but

            is infusible.)

+2854. Green compact siliceous felspc, with veins & specks of quartz. (Fusible).

+2855. Dull green, fine-grained felspathic greenstone.

+2856. Quartz & schorl? decomposing.

+2857. Dull green-coloured greenstone: the hornblende collected into specks so as to give

            the rock mottled appearance

+2858. Do., more yellow, more felspathic, do.

[page 84]



Valparaiso to Coquimbo.

+2859. Compact, conchdl. fract. yellowish-grey rock, with broken? crysts. of felspar, small, &

            bits of black crystn. rock embedded, edges blended away.

+2860. Grey felspc. crystn. rock, becoming highly crystalline.

+2861. Pale green compact felspc. base, with glassy & common crysts. of felspar.

+2862. Compact purple-red jaspery base in appearance, containing obscure particles

            blended together, porphtc. with felspar. (Edges fusible).

+2863. Dark purple, very compact, conchdl. fract. jaspery rock; iron pyrites in threads.

+2864. White imperfect foliated felsp. & much green hornblende.

+2865. Micaceous iron-ore.

+2866. Cream-coloured, friable, earthy, slightly indurated argill-calcs. stone.

+2867. Laminated (thinly) greenish-white partially indurated argillc. slightly calcs. stone,

            laminæ even; clay-slate. (Clay-shale: Henslow.) (Adheres to tongue; alums. smell:

            some of the layers have an almost crystn. structr. ; easily fusible to green glass.)

+2868. Do., do., more indurated, passing into character of clay-slate. (Passing into character

            of indurated shale.)

+2869. Very hard compact green laminated porcelain rock, contg. calcs. matter in lines.

            (Parts approach character of hone-stone, as if backed; Henslow.) (Extremely hard;

            steel not touch; yet fusible with ease to white enamel. Thin layers & white substance

            passes into brighter green decidedly crystn. rock which may be compared to a

            compact epidote.

[page 85]

2870 [47192]



Valparaiso to Coquimbo, continued.

+2870. Black, very hard, uneven splintery, fract, siliceous calcs. clay-slate.

+2871. Do., softer, more calcs.; threads of brown calc-spar.

+2872. Do., with even fracture. (Infusible.).

+2873. Do., with obscure small particles of substance like silics. pitchstone.

+2874. Yellowish-green, compact, fine-grained, square fracture, heavy, slightly sandy feel.

            (Would not mudstone be good name? Fusible). (Clay-stone; Henslow. Not adheres

            to tongue.) (Small embedded crysts. ox. iron.)

+2875. Do., rather coarser-grained, slightly laminated, more calcs; specks of mica.

+2876. Compact brown ferrugs. calcs. alums. silics. stone. (Describe the genus as


+2877. Crystn. calcs. particles & others extraneous, embedded in whitish alums. base,

            mottled with ferrugs. matter; not very hard.

+2880. Trap; felsp. yellowish, unequally distributed.

+2881. Greenstone, whiter; white felsp. chief constituent.

+2883. Apparently vein of quartz assoc? with gypsum, copper pyrites, & the greenish alums.

            calcs. stone.

+2884. Carious quartzose stone with much bright red oxide of iron.

+2885. Same as 2867.

+2886. Silicified wood, grey colour: 2889, grey & black mottled.

+2887. [ditto, 2886-89]



[page 86]



Valparaiso to Coquimbo, continued.

+2890. Rock with numerous light green specks of hornblendic mineral. (White opaque

            scarcely crystn. felspar, granular with very pale green chloritic mineral & few most

            minute scales of silvery mica.)

+2891. Same as 2862. without any crystals of felspar. (Compact clay-stone.

+2892. Purple claystone-porphyry; felspar; small, very numers. opaque white crysts.

+2893. Base, quartz & decompd. felspar, with silver ore.

+2894. Ferrugs. quartzose rock, with cinnabar.

+2895. Grey hard crystn. base, with specular iron, with prehnite? & do.

+2896. Blackish-green base with numerous elongated crystals of blackish felspar.

+2897. Granular mixture of carbt of lime & brown silex, parallel threads of cryst form &

            specks of iron. (Prof. Miller says it consists of carbt. of lime & protoxide of iron.)

+2898. White granular crystn. stone, chiefly carbt. of lime with little quartz.

+2899. Grey brilliant aggregate of small crysts. of carbt. of lime with few grains of quartz.

+2900. Bluish siliceous clay-slate.

+2901. Compact hard green felspc. rock.

+2902. Nearly same as 2898; grains much coarser, the hard ones being much larger

            (quartzose ??) and yellow coloured & crystallised. (Miller says carbonate of lime

            & garnet.)

[page 87]

29209 [47193]



Valparaiso to Coquimbo, continued.

+2903. Quite white, almost pure, granular, crysts. carbt. of lime. (Henslow thinks the quartz-

             grains should be examined, but such are present in this specimen: consider it rather

             a singular rock; each grain is a more or less perfect crystal.)

+2904. Grey hard compact felspathic stone with minute [quantity]. of carbt. of lime in

            interstices. (Easily fusible.)

+2905. Partially granular or compact mixture as before (=2903) with angular bits of very

            compact, more siliceo-ferrugs. sorts, which project by weathering in singular

            manner, & can be just perceived on fresh fracture.

+2906. Pale pinkish-white folia. Felsp. & specks of hornblende.

+2907. Very fine granular siliceous rock (very like sandstone) thickly studded with most

            minute specks of mica & hornblende.

+2908. Do., rather coarser, & mica in obscure lines. (So excessively fine-grained, hard to

            make out ingredients, but the facets of felspar & sufficiently manifest.

+2909. Slate-coloured basis with oblong & large polyhedral crysts. of glassy felsp. & others

            of green mineral.

+2910. Brown copper pyrites.

+2911. Black crysts. in quartz: (? schorl)

+2912. White [foliated] & glassy felsp. with much pale green crysts of imperfect hornblende.

[page 88]




+2929. Tosca-rock, white, fusible, more calcs. not so compact [as 2928]

+2933. Coarse mixture of bits of shells, tiny pebbles, & oblong hollow cavities of carbt. of

            lime; perhaps fragments of shells acted on by water. Quarried for freestone, called

            losa. (A most remarkable rock, almost composed of the cases, many of which have

            been filled with white crystn. calcs. matter. The process which I supposed I feel no

            doubt is correct.)

+2931. Large irregular crysts. of hornbl. with little white opakish felspar crysts.

+2932. Hornblende & rather glassy felsp. confusedly.

+2933. Do., rather more granular.

+2934. Flesh-coloured hard basis, porphtc. with few large do. coloured crysts of felsp. &

            numerous ones of hornblende?

+2935. Pale purplish felspc. base with obscure crysts. of felsp.

+2936. Red fine-grained, but not very compact, sedimenty. deposit; some extraneous

            particles & particles of carbt. of lime.

+2937. Small crysts. of white carbt. of lime & red crystn. grains of oxide of iron? embedded

            in bright green moderately hard basis; almost a granular rock in appearance.

            (Henslow thinks all these metamorphic & decidedly more crystn. than sedimy.;

            thinks red pipes ( sedimentary) cut into the mica.)

[page 89]

2940 [47174]



Coquimbo, continued.

+2938. Do., duller green, opaque crysts. of lime.

+2939. Brecciated mixture, cemented by lime, of bits of red sediment & bits green soft

            opaque mineral.

+2940. Mixture of paler green mineral & carbt of lime as (2937): limestone with silver

            & muriate of silver.

+2941. Pale purplish brecciatd sedimy bed (most of pieces of nearly same nature & some

            few greenish & crystn. Particles of carbt. of lime.

+2942. Harsh cream-coloured basis, porphtc. with few flesh-coloured crysts. of felsp:

            extraneous fragments.

+2943. Sulpht. of bartyes, paste stained & concretionary: some silver ore.

+2944. Compact, even-fractd, pale brown alums. limest, with crysts. of carbt. of lime.

+2945. Do. with petrified coral.

+2946. Black compact, conchdl. fractd, calcs, clay-slate.

+2947. Yellowish-brown, very fine-grained, smooth soft-calcs. (resembling) honestone:

            dendritic manganese. (Fuses into dull enamel: is evidently closely allied, but


+2948. Grey, much coarser, more calcs. (More like indurated shale.)

+2949. Ochreous yellow calcs. fine-grained do. (Earthy; conchdl fract.; alums. smell;

            sedims. rock.)

[page 90]



Coquimbo, continued.

+2950. Red sedimenty. bed, moderately fine: specks of carbt. of lime (Approaches character

            of sandstone, excepting that I understand something by this term harsh & with

            clearly visible grains.)

+2951. Purple, harder, fine-grained, even fract. calcs. sedimenty. stone: specks of crystn.

            calcs matter. (Perfect character of basis of many claystone-porphyries.) (Fuses

            readily, white glass.)

+2952. Do., do., with more crystn. particles of carbt. of lime.

+2953. Pale green jaspery rock, containing irreg layers of black siliceous stone like


+2954. Brown carious calcs. stone,… semicryst. structure.

+2955. Siliceous stone, with some calcareous matter & gypsum? (Struct. like silicified wood.)

+2956. Calcs. alums., fine-grained, not hard, rubbly fract., sediment. (Most [extraordinary]

            angular [concretionary] struct. ; colour green: sediment; strong alums smell; easily


+2957. Somewhat similar, with small fragments.

+2958. White base, with specks of green mineral & grains of qtz. (Basis felspathc., almost


+2959. Pale green, compact, alums., hard stone. (With small empty interstices of a

            porcallenous nature. Fusible with difficulty.)

+2960. Soft congloms. non-calcs: igneous rock with pebbles. (Pebbles not cellular; base a

            coarse friable sandstone).

+2961. Finely crystn. green felspc. rock. (Rather a suspicious appearance.)

[page 91]



Coquimbo, continued.

+2962. Compact, conchdl. fract., slate-coloured base, with elongated crysts. of glassy felsp.

+2963. Imperfect foliated almost compact felsp. & specks of green hornblende.

+2964. Fine white hard sandstone (particles of quartz) cemented by white calcs. matrix.

            (Appearing quite quartzose.)

+2965. Light brown, very compact, alums. limestone.

+2966  Red, very compact, hard, imperf. conchd. fract. jaspery, sedimentary rock. (Bright

            red; fusible without difficulty, white enamel; appears like claystones.)

+2967. Greenstone base with minute crysts. of felsp.

+2968. Red, moderately fine-grained, calcs. hard sandstone, with scales of mica & broken


+2969. Paler purple; much harder & compact; particles much more closely united; full of

            crysts. of lime.

+2970. Coarse pale purplish sandstone, calcs. cement, little quartz pebbles & broken crysts.

            of felsp. (A granite origin?)

+2971. Do., nearly white, very hard, blended together crysts. of carbt. of lime have made

            their appearance.

+2972. Round pebbles of quartz in a white arenaceous calcs. base. (Where can these

            pebbles come from?)

+2973. Dull green, hard, but not very fine-grained, calcs. sediment of minute particles

            closely untied together.

+2974. Dull red calcs. sediment (almost crystn); few extraneous particles.

[page 92]



Coquimbo, continued.

+2975. Dull purple compact base with some lime. Porphtc. with elongated & square crystc. of

            red mineral; I think basis crystn. (Felspar reddish; & very few grains of quartz.)


+2976. Pale green felspc. rock, containing imperf. crysts. (Fusible.)

+2977-8. Silicified shells, Rio Claro.

2979. A quartz vein, which has traversed limestone with Orthocerite, given me Cordill of


+2980. Native silver in sulpht. of barytes, containing much mercury: mineral of Acquaros.

+2981. Native copper from Quasco.

+2982. Copper produced by imperfect smelting sulpurets, like [native metals.

+2983. Foliated, (not very perfect) felsp. & green hornblende.

+2984. Greenstone.

+2985. Laminated alums. limestone. (Pale brown, very hard.).

+2986. Do., darker colour, more crystn. structure.

[page 93]




+2987. Black, calcs. compact coarse clay-slate.

+2988. Hard, compact, pale green, fine-grained, non-calc. sediment. (Looks more like

            sandstone; Henslow.)

+2989. Do., coarser, purple, different sorts of particles & visible grains of carbt. of lime.

+2990. Compact, dirty green, conchd. fract., tolerably fine-grained, calcs. sediment,

            altered & blended together.

+2991. Siliceous ferrugs. rock; apparently particles blended together. (Easily fusible;

            mottled; not siliceous.)

+2992. Semi-indurated ferrugs. alums. stone (soft): dendritic manganese.

+2993. Quite white, more indurated, alums. stone.

+2994. Carbt. of lime with ferrugs. matter: iron? (Like vein-stone; small crysts. of quartz in


+2995. Mottled green & purple, compact, hard, fine, sedimentary, non-calcs; angular fractl.


+2996. Dull reddish-brown basis & & porphtc. with some elongated crysts. of opaque  felsp.;

            very amygdl; cavities all lined with green, containing white cryst. carbt. of lime & a

            yellowish mineral. (Amygdl with innumerable round little balls, lined with bright

            verdigris-coloured earth, filled either with white crysts of carbt. of lime or yellow

            mineral, which resembles epidote(?): some cavities entirely filled with this mineral.

+2997. Brown mottled base with few crysts. (Filled with little balls of the dark greenish-

            brown earthy matter.)

[page 94]



Copiapo, continued.

+2998. Reddish-brown, confused, fine-grained, highly crystn. mass. I believe some of glassy

            felsp. (Conchdl. fract. greenish-grey glass; crystd, I believe, marked one of

            elongated glassy felsp; black points which appear like hornbl.; there are also yellow

            grains, few minute, as if of oliv.?

+2999. Pale purple, hard, conchl. fract., base; cryst. structure not visible, but not like

            sediment. (Very few white angular patches of opaque felsp. appear to show a

            tendency to porphtc. structure.

+3000. Do., with scattered crysts. of yellow & green felspar. (Fract. conchdl. ; exceedingly

            sharp edged flat splinters.)

+3001. Various porphyries.

to         [ditto 3001-3011]


+3012. White, hard, alums. stone, with small pebbles, broken crysts of felsp., & scales of

            mica. (Much indurated tuff.)

+3013. Pale purple-brown, conchl. fract., felsp., with irreg. crysts. of felspar.

+3014. Alums. gypsum, impure, carious.

+3015. Do., & stalactitiform carbt. of lime, earthy layers.

+3016. Dull-coloured from mixture of variously coloured minute particles, compact, hard,

            even fract., blended calcareous sedimentary (?) (I repeat sedimentary?; portion

            appears very crystn.)         

+3017. Do., still finer-grained, approach to clay-slate. (With less mottled colours can yet

            be seen; mudstone.)

[page 95]



Copiapo, continued.

+3018. Brown, compact, almost conchdl. fract., calcareous; some parts obscure aggregated

            structure. (As compact as any limestone, yet contains but a small proportion of lime.

+3019. Highly crystn. brown spar, straight fract., hard lime rock. (Calcareous spar with some

            iron & aluminous matter; not magnetic either before or after, yet gives blue with

            prussiate of potash; easily soluble in cold muriatic acid; caustic, but does not whiten

            under blow-pipe. From readiness in effervescing, probably no magnesia.)

+3020. Compact, hard, semi-conchdl. fract.; breccia, not very small and partly moulded, of

            porphyries and crystn. grains of carbt. of lime. (Fragments such as those described

            in detail in pebbles, such I believe all conglomerates.)

[page 96]



Iquique, Chile [Peru, crossed]

+3021. Green, calcs., hard, very compact, semi-conchdl. fract., sonorous porcelain-rock;

            layers of different hardness. (Of extremely easy fusibility.) (Like an altered rock.


+3025. Compact, black, calcs. clay-slate.

+3029. Pale purple, calcs., fine-grained, alums. sandstone or a limestone. (Red, fine-grained,

            very crystalline, calcareous sedimentary rock: the lime, though in small quantity,

            has been sufficient to give whole rock crystn. structure: with threads of crystn.

            white spar.)

+3031. Pale brown, slightly calcs., fine-grained sandstone, compact (Infusible).

+3032. [ditto]

+3033. Laminated white coarser non calcs. sandstone.

+3034. Brown limestone, impure.

+3035. Black, sedimentary, small brecc. structure, marks of shells & one small one. (Brown,

            hard, stony rock; curious mixture of broken crystals in brown earthy paste with

            fragments of & marks of small shells.) (Brown, fine-grained, mottled, easily fusible

            to jet-black enamel: besides small fragments, grains of quartz &c &c: glittering

            grains of black oxide of iron, so that after blow-pipe whole rock magnetic.)

[page 97]



Iquique, continued.

3036. Purplish brown, conchdl. fract.; specks of quartz in impure calcs. base, like a claystone

          base. (Crystalline-looking fracture.)

+3037. Very pale purple, laminated, alums. limestone.

+3041. Pale dull purple, crystn.; felspc. rock, slightly laminated, with very minute crysts. of


+3042. Laminated, alums., harsh stone, hard, greenish, with dendritic manganese.

+3043. Lava, white felsp. & green specks. (Pale brown freckled lava, chiefly crysts. of


+3045. Hard, even fract., non-calc., brown breccia porcelain-rock; veins & patches snow-

+3046. white; surface furrowed, coated by white pulverulent substance.

+3049. Carious breccia; gypsum?: non-calc, alums. stone. (Strong earthy smell; small

            angular bits of rock; crystn. gypseous mass; pale brown colour.)

[page 98]

3071 [47197]

3076 [47198]

3078 [47199]




+3067. Fine granular white part, foliated felsp., specks of silvery mica, hornblende, &


+3068. Soft black stone; small black micaceous plates & little granular quartz? (Black not

            lead; fine granular crystn. mixture of mica & [probably] felspar (& quartz?))

+3069. Dull red calcs. sandstone. (Easily fusible.)

+3070. Black, conchdl. fract., calcs. clay-slate. (Proportion of lime is small.)

+3071. Pale green base, porphtc. with large oblong crysts. of felsp. & black crysts.

+3072. Small white perfect crysts. of opaque felsp. with pale green earthy mineral.

+3073. Brown, hard limestone, with very irregular fracture, almost composed of fragments

            of shells blended together.

+3074. Fine-grained, hard, white (non-calcs) siliceous sandstone.

+3075. White, crystn., opaque quartz-rock; even fracture.

+3076. Black, hard, semi-conchdl. fract., silics-calcs. stone: clay-slate.

+3077. Colour mottled, uneven fract., sedimenty. particles in crystn. calcs. base.

+3078. Compact, even fract., dull coloured base, porphtc. with few small red crysts. (Base

            appears crystn, porphtc. with small crysts of the red hydrons peroxide of iron; but I

            see no others.)

[page 99]



Copiapo, continued.

+3079. Dark claret purple, irreg. conch. fract., compact, semi-cryst. claystone

+3080. White, semi-foliated felsp. with mica & chlorite.

+3081. Green (hornblende) mica, chloritic base, with few crystals of felspar.

+3082. Lilac purple claystone-porphyry (With good crystals of felspar & hornblende.

+3083. Dull purple semi-cryst. base, amygd., with opaque mineral.

+3084. Lilac, rather earthy fract. (harsh claystone). (With few crystals of opaque felsp.

            & scales of mica.

+3085. Dull purple claystone base, amygdl. with opaque soft mineral.

+3086. Brown mostly crystn. felspc. base, full of small yellow … & most numerous red crysts.

            of …

+3087. Red, earthy fract. non-calcs., fine-grained, sedimentary, deposit. (I am loth to call

            them sandstones, for, though there is an appearance which would indicate sedimn.

            nature, yet no distinct aggregation can be perceived.)

+3088. Compact sandstone; particles cemented in yellow non-calcs. paste; minute round

            pebbles. (Can be scratched with knife; alums. smell; patches of mica & broken

            crysts. I do not understand nature of base. It is easily fusible.)

[page 100]



Copiapo, continued.

+3089. Very compact, variously coloured, red, green, &c particles, almost blended together.

            (Easily fusible; irregular, angular fracture; few scales of black mica, & appearance in

            few spots of becoming porphyritic with white translucent mineral which sometimes

            shows a foliated… like felspar.). (The base may be called almost crystn. & the green

            & red spots concretionary. I think very doubtful whether sedimenty. or igneous

            metamorph. action.)

+3090. Pale red-purple stony base, porphtc. with numerous crysts of felsp.

+3095. Red earthy particles & minute grains of quartz, cemented together with cryst. calcs.

            matter: sandst.

+3096. Do., a shade coarser (not so hard or compact.) (Easily fusible, excepting points, I

            presume broken felspathic crystals.)

+3097. Pale green, most compact, smooth part clinkstone, with few obscure crysts of felsp.

            (Yet same as 2021 except from porphtc. crystals.)

+3099. Compact, hard, conch. fract. limestone. (Pale, yellowish brown, nearly pure, brittle.)

+3100. Dull coloured slightly impure limestone with crysts of do.

+3101. Do., crystn structure; limestone, aluminous

+3102. Dull green, hard species of hornstone. (Easily fusible to white glass.)

[page 101]

3116 [47200]


Copiapo, continued.

+3105. [Felspathic rock] slate-coloured with little dissemintd. micaceous mineral: facets of

            the felsp. can sometimes be seen.

+3108. Gypsum & white soluble salt with soft ferruginous base.

+3114. Pale purple tufa, broken crystals. (Full of broken crystals, chiefly glassy felspar.)

+3115. Very light pale lilac tufa, fine-grained, straight fracture, sonorous, extraneous

  particles. (Scales of mica & broken crysts. of felsp.)

+3116. Black heavy base with oblong & square crysts of glassy felsp.

+3117. Reddish purple claystone base, uneven earthy fract. porphtc. with crysts. of glassy

            felsp & some calcars. bits. - Lava?

+3118. Dull purplish brown base, abounding with white opaque crysts. of felsp.

+3119. Dull-coloured; porphtc. with small crysts. of felsp. ; with fragments almost blended

            into each other.

+3120. Do., rather coarser (crysts. of felsp. appearing in basis). (Porphtc. structure only

            a little less clearly produced; fragments porphyries, distinct yet blended together.)

+3121. Fine-grained, dark green trap.

+3122. Fine-grained, semi-crysts., conchdl fract., heavy, slightly calcs. dark claret colour,

            sediment or crystn. rock. (I should rather strongly incline to sedimentary rock).

[page 102]



Copiapo, continued.

+3123. Bright red, lightly crystn. carbt. of lime & iron, with which unites patches of green

            felspathic stone & nodules of agate.

+3124. Sandstone, coarsish debris of granitic rocks, little pebbles firmly cemented, non-


+3125. Pale dull purple base: patches differently coloured; full of small crysts. of opaque

            felsp & black crysts. of (hornblende).

+3126. Compact, rather harsh, pale greenish-grey base, with numerous crysts. of white

            opaque felsp & some of hornblende.

+3128. Loadstone from near Copiapo.

+3131. Silver ore, in green sedimy. basis with red particles, Chanarcillo.


+3134. Petrified wood, ravine near Plagancha, Valparaiso.

[page 103]



Lima (& San Lorenzo).

+3136. Dark grey, fine-grained, siliceous sandstone.

+3137. Yellowish, slightly indurated earthy shale.

+3138. Dark red ferruginous (very fine-grained lamintd. stone).

+3139. Excessively fine alternations of fine sandstone & shale; latter predominate;

            containing some salt.


+3140. Dark green, hard, fine-grained, conchdl. fract indurated clay-slate: porcelain


+3141. Pale green jaspery or porcelain rock. These appear much altered slaty clay or shales.

            (Irregular angular fracture, points fusible.)

+3142. Granular, laminated, siliceous rock.

+3144. Sandstone with thin convoluted layers of a soapstone.

+3145. Fine-grained, red, not hard, conchdl. fract. obscurely laminated mudstone.

+3149. Regular pale purplish sandstone.

+3151. Dirty green, siliceous alums. sedimenty. rock, very hard, with contained crysts.,

            porph or from sublimation.   

+3152. A Hard compact, fine-grained, siliceous sandstone.

+3154. Do. do.

+3158. Shells from 35ft. elevation, San Lorenzo.

+3159. [ditto]

+3185. Black limestone, not pure, near city; manufactured.

+3186. White limestone, do. do.

[page 104]



Capt. Fitzroy's specimens.


+3205. Foliated felspar & micaceous mineral, or syenite. (It is a gneiss with little or no


+3206. Very close grained (syenite); crystals almost blending together. (Porphyritic with

            nature of a hornstone.)


+3207. Do., ferrugins., rather more distinct. (Allied to syenite; imperfectly granular rock of

            felspar & hornblende.)

+3208. Close-grained, blackish-grey base, porphtc. with very few crystals of felsp., both

+3209. glassy & common.

+3212. Harsh, hard, reddish purple, uneven fract. semi-crystn. claystone.



+3215. Jet black calcareous, cherty concretions.

+3216. Brown base with very numerous oblong crysts. of white opaque felsp. & black ones:

            a "plate porphyry".

+3217. Apparently striatified, reddish & pale green, sedimy. matter of broken crysts., united

            & perhaps rendered crystn. by heat. (The origin may be sediment, but structure at

            present certainly is crystn.)

[page 105]

3222. [6205] Palagonite-tiff. Descrd. Min C. Richardson, Bull. 110 Bishop Museum

                    (Honolulu, 1933) p.59 [see Darwin Online, A189]

3223. [6206] Palagonite-tiff, with olivine crystals. See ibid. p. 58

3224  [32617] [ditto 3223]



Galapagos Isles

Chatham Is.

+3220. A brown-yellow soft resinous substance; I presume sedimenty; calcareous particles.

+3221. (Resinous colour & lustre, brittle, angular with irregular granular fracture, scratched

            by knife yet some of edges will touch glass; edge translucent; appears to contain

            black embedded crystals, which are not so: obscure crystn faces certainly appear

            on some specimen (large unnumbered fragmt.); non-calcs., easily fusible to

            blackish-green glass). (Henslow compares it to pitchstone as nearest substance.)

+3222. An apparent dyke of more compact do. traversing the above. (Compact; smooth

            fract.; small embedded fragments.)

+3223. Yellow-brown coarse volcanic sandstone, harsh, brittle (Bright yellowish brown;

            harsh [irregular] fracture; almost friable with fingers; volc. sandstone: under less

            greater proportion small yellow grains with a few black scattered ones, naturally

            partly decomposed volc. crysts.)

+3224. Do. finer-grained, do. do. (I suspect would pass into the resinous rock.)

[page 106]

3225 [32631]. Palagonite-tuff, with olivine crystals. See Richardson, p.60

3226 [32627] [ditto]

3234 [32561]. Porphyritic Glassy Olivine-Basalt. See Richardson, p. 50

3235 [6863] [32567] Olivine-Basalt-Descrd. ibid. p.51.

3236 [32628] Palagonite-tuff, with olivine crystals. See ibid. p. 60.

3237 [4726]  Palagonite-tuff, ---------------

        [32629] -----------------

3238 [32630] -----------------

3239 [4727]. Olivine-Andesite. Descrd. ibid. p. 54 & anal. p. 52.



Galapagos Is., continued.

Chatham Is., continued.

+3225. Pale coarse [volcanic sandstone]; centre of crater from which all came. (White earthy

            substance mixed with resinous grains.)

+3226. Hard volcanic sandstone containing foreign particles & with crystn. specks; Point in

            frost of the Kicker Rock. (The minute scoriaceous particles appear chiefly tend to

            become resinous).

+3234. Irregularly vesicular lava, with olivine, glassy felsp. &c. (Base nearly black, fuses into

            dark green enamel)

+3235. Compact blackish grey lava, with red olivine & minute crysts. of glassy felsp.:

           conchdl fracture (Do., coloured enamel.)

+3236. Finger Hill. Cement a resinous-looking substance; specks of volc. glass & pumice

+3237. &c embedded. (Compact, firm, conchdl. fract. rather light brown stone; base

+3238. slightly resinous, containing numerous broken crysts. of [different] sorts, minute

            pieces of cellular lava, & even a pebble of basalt. Some of the broken glassy-looking

            crysts. appear to have great tendency to become resinous.)

+3239. Black augitic crystn. vesicr. lava. (Large vesicules; generally compact, very crystn.;

            minute crysts of glassy felsp. & olivine can be discovered, & perhaps of augitic.)

[page 107]

3247 [4728] [4729]. [6864]. Porphyritic Basalt, with bytownite phenorcysts, see Richardson,

                                         p. 52.

3248 [32570]. Glassy Basalt with bytownite phenorcysts. See ibid. p. 52.

3249 [32614]. Sideromelane-Tuff with pisolites, see Richardson, pp. 57-58.

3250 [32615]  [ditto]

3265 [32575] Porphyritic Olivine-Basalt. See Richardson, p. 53.

3266. [32576.] [ditto]

3267. [4730]. [6865] [32522]. Olioclase-Andesite. Descrd. Richardson, p. 48

3268. [6204.] [6866] Soda-Trachyte. Descrd. ibid. pp 46-47. & anal.



Galapagos Is., continued.

Albemarle Is. - Bank's Cove:

+3247. [irregular] resicr. blackish brown base, abounding with crysts. of glassy fractured felsp.:


+3248. Do., very surface; slightly more vesicular. (3247-8. Excessively harsh, scoriaceous,

            dark reddish brown base, which melts into a black glass: crysts. 2 or 3 lines long of

            fractured white glassy felsp., so abundt. as almost to compose rock; a few of green

            olivine: base does not look like a trachyte.)      

+3249. Light brown, earthy, harsh feel, light volc. sandst., brittle, almost friable.

+3250. Do., paler, with pisolitic balls. (Balls only differ in being a trifle finer-grained &


James Is.

+3265. Trachyte cellular lava; frequent large crysts. of glassy felsp: commonest kind.

            (Same as 3247.) (Few grains of olivine beyond doubt.)

+3266. Base blackish grey; few felsp. crysts. (Irregularly vesicr. ; with olivine, rare.)

            (This is an important point: Daubeny states, p. 93, that olivine is never found

            in trachyte.)

[see Darwin Online, A764]

+3267. Do. with few glassy felsp. crysts. not much fractured; olivine.

+3268. Compact greenish grey lava, with many small crysts. of glassy felsp.

            (Basis finely crystalline.)

[page 108]

? 3269 [6867] Porphyritic Scoriaceous Olivine-Basalt. [? loc.]

3269 [32583] Porphyritic Vesicular Olivine-Basalt with xenolith. See Richardson, p. 54

3270 [32596] Olivine-Gabbro xenolith in basalt. See ibid. p. 55

3271 [32587] [ditto]

3273. [4731]. Olivine-Gabbro xenolith in basalt. See ibid. p. 55

3275. [32584] Altered Porphyritic Olivine-Basalt

3277. [32612]. Pumiceous Sideromelane-Tuff. Descrd. ibid. p. 57

3278  [32581]. Porphyritic Olivine-Basalt. See ibid. p. 50

3279. [4732]. Olivine-Andesite. See ibid. p. 54

3280. [32524]. Olivine-Basalt.  See ibid. pp. 48-49.

3281. [4733]. Glassy Olivine-Basalt. See ibid. p. 49.

3282 [4734]. Palagonite-tuff. See ibid. p. 60

3283 [32625] [ditto]



Galapagos Is., continued.

James Is., continued.

+3269. Finely & much cellular trachyte, base dark reddish brown, with much crysts.

            of glassy fractured felsp.; outer surface red glossy scovier

+3270. Do., with fragment of altered granite. (Black cryst. in imbedded fragment

            good augite [angle] 93° & [angle] 92°57'.)

+3271. Imbedded fragments of do. (Varieties coarser & finer-grained; quartz

+3272.  generally visible; mica changed into glassy minerals; perhaps some syenite.

+3273. [ditto]

+3274. Do., perhaps part of quartz-vein.

+3275. Red, [irregular] fract., claystone base, very heavy, with red earth & crysts of glassy

            felsp. (Generally more of latter & more cellular.)

+3276. Light, brown-greenish semi-indurated volcanic sandst.; friable under fingers; crystn.

+3277. particles not to be distinguished.

+3278. Brown, smally cellular trachyte. (With blue indisct. oliv.)

+3279. Grey compact do.; few crysts. of glassy felsp. some olivine.

+3280. Blackish-grey lava, abounding

+3281. Do., blacker, more cellular. (Jet-black, crystn. vesicr. lava, abounding with points of

            olivine; fuses dark green.

+3282. Orange brown sandst, semi-veinous; small black glossy patches; [irregular] fracture.

+3283. Do., compact, fine-grained volc. sandstone. (3282-3 Is seen to consist of minute

            fragments of finely cellular rocks, decomposing & blending together, the greater part

            of which are orange-coloured, the others black & glossy.) (3282. This specimen is

            important because origin of orange vein & black patches can be seen to arise from

            alteration of minute portions of scoriaceous rock.)

[page 109]

3286. [32562]. Basalt Scoria. See Richardson, p. 50

3287 [32566] Scoriaceous Basalt, rich in yellow augite. See ibid. p. 50

3289. [4735] [6868] [32574]. Porphyritic Olivine-Basalt with bytownite phenocrysts. See

                                           ibid. p. 53.



Galapagos Is., continued.

Bindloes Is.

+3286. Black glassy scoria, opening out curious ramified forms.

Towers Is.

+3287. Very vesicular brownish scoria, without crystals; trachytic (?) lava.

Abingdon Is.

+3288. Smally much cellular lava, abounding with large numerous crysts of fractured glassy

            felsp. (Base as before; some of the crysts are 16 long; base composed of minute

            spherical cells; glass jet-black). (Henslow compares this to[illeg] lava of Vesuvius;

            says crysts. quite as large. I can by no means get a cleavage.) (Made 8°25', 18°0',

            85°15'; 93°40': 0, therefore albite.)

+ 3289. Do., much heavier & compact; felsp not so much fractd., little cement; angular

            cavities, vesicles. (Well ascertained albite.)

[page 110]

3377. [6207] & [2637]. Essexitic Olivine-basalt.

3379 [53369] olivine-basalt, amydaloidal with geolites.

3380 [53370]

3381 [33381] Mugearite.

3383. [4736]. Porphyritic Olivine-Basalt. (essexitic) with large [phenyels]



Tahiti Island.

From the central mountains:-

+3376. Commonest, extremely pale, olivine lava, vesicular, basaltic.

+3377. Common augite? do. (Abounding with large X & congt. & oliv.)

+3378. Amygdoloid: half the cells horizontally filled with lime, half with silex. (Henslow

            thinks calcs. matter, aragonite, has been melted & has subsided.)

+3379. Amygdoloid with mesotype?

+3380. [ditto]

From near the coast:-

+3381. Black-brown compact laminated lava.

+3382. Lavas: latter full of crysts. of augite & olivine:

+3383. vesicular cavities lined with minute crysts. (3882. Angulo-concretionary compact

            lava; black & greenish kinds mottled together; not crystalline.)

+3384. Do., decomposing, passing into nature of wacke. (3385. Much most decompd.

+3385.  earthy, olivine become soft.)

+3386. I believe wacke; perhaps a sedimentary deposit on the true wackes. (3386.

            Greenish, quite decomposed lava in state of clay.) (3387 I should think volcanic

+3387.  sandstone?).

[page 111]

3397 [46271] quartz. felspar tuff.

3399 [46276] olivine basalt.

3400 [46278] quartz. felspar tuff.



New Zealand.

Bay of Islands [in northern part of N.Zd.]

+3395. Compact slate-coloured felspc rock, very [irregular] fract. traversed by ferrugs. threads.

+3396. Do. do. (No crysts struct., yet does not look like sedimy.) (Easily fusible to white


+3397. Do. do. dark bluish grey, very crystn and assuming black spots as if... (Easily fusible

            angular [irregular] fract.)

+3398. Do., pale coloured, partly decomposed. (Irregr fract., yellowish white, not very hard,

            semi-decomposed, felspc. rock, which has been crystn.; not sedimy rock, though like


+3399. Grey greenstone with crysts. of glassy felsp. & few balls of mesotype (?) (Grey

            crystn. felspc. base with numerous elongated crysts of glassy felsp., amygdl with

            little balls of the brown iron earth & some radiate zeolite.)

+3400. Like 3397.

+3401. Compact crysts pale flesh-coloured limestone.

+3402. [ditto]

+3403. White chert or flinty rock; conchdl. fract.

+3404. Compact, hard, heavy, purplish-brown, highly ferrugs. aluminious rock (strong

            alums. smell). (Clay ironstone).

[page 112]



New Zealand, continued.

+3405. Concretion of grey calcs. clayslate; organic (?) impression in centre.

+3406. Blackish crystn rock with elongated crysts. of glassy felsp.

+3407. Grey do., cavities partly amygd-with ferrugs matter (Abounding with minute crysts).

West coast of island:-

+3408. White, softish, calcs. stone, containing scattered & in places very numerous small

            dark green round atoms of chloritic (?) (soft mineral) (perhaps concretionary origin)

            & few broken crysts. of felspar.

+3409. Do., all constituents much finer-grained & softer.

+3410. Lignite.

+3411. Concretionary lumps of hard dark slate-coloured felspc. rocks in a nearly similar kind.

+3412. Soft yellowish decomposed do., passing into the above kinds.

[page 113]

3424 [slide 12938]. Crystallized Sandstone [doubtless Hawkesbury (Triassic) Sandstone].

                             See "Geol Obs. Volc. Islands, ch. VII.



New South Wales.

+3424. Sandstone: grains of quartz, more or less fine, cemented by ferrugs. matter & a

+3425.  white powder which [probably] is decompd. felsp. Escarpment of Blue Mountains.

            (3424 Appearing a coarse, light brown, tolerably fine freestone: consists of nearly

            perfect small separate crysts. of qtz, united by a ferrugs. or white & friable earthy

            subst. in very small [quantity]: one or two scales of mica: a most extraordinary

            rock) (3425. Much finer-grained, abounding with the powder; crystn not apparent.)

+3426. Grains of qtz & glittering crysts of iron, with pebbles of quartz. (The iron probably

            in state of hydrous oxide; black small glittering crysts.)

+3427. Decomposed greenstone, containing a considerable [quantity] of iron.

+3428. Sandstone, same as the first kinds. (I could distinguish no cryst. structure).

+3429. [ditto]

+3430. Blue-grey compact clay-slate.

+3431. Black, highly carbonaceous clay-slate, or a very stony coal.

+3432. Coal, rather light, glossy fracture.

+3433. Do., rather more stony; laminated.

+3434. Pale blue clay-slate; impressions of dicotyledonous leaves.

[page 114]



New South Wales, continued.

+3435. White, highly crystn. limestone.

+3436. Dark green semicrystn. felspc. base, containing numerous grains of quartz.

+3437. A very pale glossy clayslate.

+3438. Dark green felspc. greenstone, with many large crysts of hornblende.

+3439. Pale red, rather harsh base, porphtc. with crysts of red felsp. & numerous octagonal

            crysts. of qtz.

+3440. Some kind of porphtc. ; base flesh-coloured, slightly carious, the embedded crysts.

            small & infrequent. (Cavities lined with oxide of iron: assumes rather character of a


+3441. Black heavy basalt?? with rather [irregular] fracture.

+3442. Pink felspc. base, porphtc. with crysts of pale green glassy felsp. & many large ones

            of bright green hornblende. (Very pretty rock).

+3443. Fossil wood from Kliwarri, south of Sydney.

+3444. [ditto]

[page 115]



Hobart Town, Tasmania.

+3447. White, excessively fine-grained, almost compact, alumins. [sand, crossed] stone

            (not adhere to tongue). uneven fracture on small scale (fusible).

+3448. Do., passing into a porcelain rock, semi-conchdl fracture. (Fusible with some


+3449. Blue siliceous stone with minute cryst, grains of quartz, semi-conchdl fracture

           (Quite infusible).

+3450. Dull white silics. alums. fine-grained stone ([Intermediate] between two last).

+3451. Ferrugs. crystalline trap.

+3453. Granular greenstone: rather a syenitic appearance. (The felsp. has not, however, the

           foliated struct.)

+3454. Ordinary, rather coarse greenstone.

+3455. A base in patches compact felspathic, containing crysts. of yellowish felspar (?), a

            very few of hornblende & mica: Granitic appearance. (The crysts. which I have called

            yellowish felsp. easily fuse to a dark green glass; are soft &, when decomposed,

            metallic lustre. I obtained an angle between 135'' & 137", which Prof. Miller says

            belongs to augite or [hypsth], which latter I have no doubt it is.)

+3456. Greenstone? fine-grained.

[page 116]

3467 [46258] Nephalene Basanite with adding site phenocysts

3472 [46249] Dolerite



Hobart Town: continued.

+3466. Slightly siliceous, ferrugs. fine-grained sandstone, containing rounded grains of


+3467. Compact, dark greenish basaltic-like rock, with numerous very minute grains of red


+3468. Vesicular cavities, linear of do. Basalt, cells lined with amorphous green matter.

+3469. Partly decomposed scovier of do. (Minutely crenulated, partly decomposed glassy

            scovise, with patches of bright green waxy substance.)

+3472. Greenstone, coarse with many crysts. of hornblende (yellow crystals?)

+3473. Pale blue, rather coarse-grained, speckled, compact clay-slate.

+3474. White compact, uneven fract. alums. stone, strong smell of do. (as 3447, more

            earthy fract. & smell).

+3475. Some kind of rock, blue & yellowish mottled (Embedding broken crysts, some of


+3481. White, pulverulent powder of lime, occurring with [shells] (perfectly soft between

            fingers; nearly pure.)

+3482. Particles of quartz, united & almost blended in a white silics. pale-coloured paste;

            brittle, straight fract.

+3495. Flint in [cavities…]

+3500. Blackish limest, with imperf. casts of shells. I. of Maria.

+3501. Clay-slate, Quamby's Bluff

+3502. Black schorl in quartz-rock, Is. in Bass' Straits

[page 117]



King George's Sound, W. Australia.

3533.  Compact, pale grey, calcs sandstone (Minute transpt. grains of quartz enclosed by

          white, tolerably abundt. calcs. matter, & black atoms.

+3543 Calcareous sandstone with casts of Tree Roots.

Keeling Island.

+3569. Astrea, compact, rendered solid & heavy.

[page 118]

3618. [4737]. Ophite Olivine-Dolerite. [53368]

3619 [33922] Olivine-Basalt.

3620 [46275] Olivine Basalt

3621. [33921] Porphyritic Olivine-Basalt.

3622 [53373] junction of olivine- basalt and overlying limestone

3625 [46323-4] Basalt

3714. [47 [erased?]




+3618. The most abundant varieties of lava (the three first). (3618. Coarse-grained, harsh,

+3619   blackish grey, evidently very felspathic, for melts into pale green nearly transparent

+3620   glass. Large cavities lined with mamillery brown spherical nodules of carbt. of lime).

+3621   (3619. Very dark green fine-grained compact basaltic-like rock: conchdl fract.

             melts into black glass.)(3620. Slightly greyer lava

            (3621. Olivine, [angle] 90°36' [angle therefore] right) & blowpipe. Huge crysts of


+3622  Cellular lava, covered by a patch of a calcs. rock, perhaps originating in a calcs


+3623. Varieties of lava from La Petite Montagne: the latter with some small singular crysts.

+3624. (3623. Red soft claystone lava.) (3624, 3625. Irregular, earthy fracture.)

[page 119]



Cape of Good Hope.

+3639. Lowest part of sandstone on granite. (Coarse, ferruginous; the part in intermediate

+3640. contact, with large crysts. of mica & felsp. & quartz).

+3641. Fine-grained, white, sandstone upon do., Simon's Town. small grains of quartz.

+3642. (Appearing) siliceous sandstone conglomt, high up, do.

+3643. Fine-grained, white, siliceous sandstone, do.

+3644. Highly ferruginous glistening metallic rock, containing balls & vacuities with loose

+3645. white sand: high up. (3644. Iron appears to have separated from sand & formed a

           reticulate net-work). (Becomes magnetic with blowpipe; is bog iron; has small

+3646. conchdl. fract. with glistening blackish brown metallic lustre.)

+3647. (Heavy, fine-grained, tolerably hard) ochre-coloured, ferrugs. rubbly stone;

+3648. impossible to break large piece.

+3649. (Slightly) ferruginous sandstone, containing small pebbles with irregular

+3650. cavities, & owing to removal of patches with white earthy sand; on road between

            Simon's Bay and Cape Town. (Even in these specimens the ferrugs. matter shows

            constant tendency to form shell, generally angular in this case, but also spherical as

            near Chiloe & Blue Mountains; spherical tendency best developed in 3650).

[page 120]



Cape of Good Hope: continued

 3651. A [concretionary] ferrugs. alums. stone, somewhat like last variety, on road to Paarl

            (Almost too fine-grained to be called sandstone.)

+3652. Calcareo-alums. stone, upper parts converted to a stalititic rock (Tosca rock);

  sand-flats between peninsula & mainland

+3653. Greenstone rock, associated with granite of Paarl.

+3654. Granitic rock with schorl; the crystals take a radiating form: this is, however, a

            miserable specimen.

+3655. The commonest varieties of sandstone in the section of the mountains of the

+3656.  French Hoeck Pass: the following specimens are less common, & come from the

+3657.  same locality [viz. 3658-3663].

            (3655. Fine-grained, snow-white, non-calcs. sandstone; cement probably siliceous.

            Some crystn. forces have acted, for some of the weathered faces show crystn. action

            by numerous facets, probably some little vein.)

            (3656. Extremely quartzose ferrugs. sandstone).

            (3657. Tolerably fine-grained siliceous sandstone.)

+3658. (Dark red grains embedded in ferrugs. cement.)

+3659. (Fine-grained sandy appearance, yet showing crysts. struct.)

+3660. (Sandstone, black & glistening from iron.)

+3661. (White, highly quartzose.)

+3662. (Large fragmts. of quartz blending & melting in siliceous paste)

+3663. (Snow-white sandstone; layers separated by very little greenish mica.)

[page 121]










Cape of Good Hope: continued.

+3664. Common Clay-slate, Lion's Rump. (Tinge of dusky green, hard, slightly glassy;

            minute scales of mica.)

+3665. Associated without any order: a crystn. felspc. compact slate; conchdl. fract. (3665.

+3666. Fuses without much difficuy. dark coloured.)        

+3667. Do., decomposed: colour pale brown, changed from a dark black-grey; soft, earthy.

+3668. Imperfect gneiss or Mica-slate at junction of [with, crossed] granite & clay-slate on

+3669. Lion's Back. (Layers very thin; scales of mica small; layers slightly contorted; mica

            black, glittering; felsp. granular, yellowish; qtz in small [quantity]. very thin laminæ,

            but perfectly characterized, mixed with coarse granitic veins, if indeed they are veins

            & not parallel layers).

+3670. Do., blackish, with tinge of purplish, laminated micaceous granular felspc. rock, with

+3671. singular small black dots of patches giving a granular appearance. (Black patches

+3672. appear only owing to more crystn. texture of felspc. matter). Close to junc. of the

            granite on the beach.

+3673. Specimens a few yards further from the contact. (All obviously laminated.

+3674. (3673. Much the same as 3670, but with white patches of quartz?) (Cross fract.      

+3675. shows granular struct. rather smaller).

+3676. (3674-5: same as 3670, less micaceous &more homogens.

(3674. Finer grained, more [quartzose, crossed] glossy mica in still smaller scales.)   

(3675. Quite compact, yet black spots & some ingredient felspthc. been more

 homogenous.) (3676., crossed)

[page 122]









Cape of Good Hope: continued

+3677. A couple of hundred yards further from the junct.

+3677. 3677 Must be the same as 3670, but considerably less micaceous & ingredients less

+3678. separated & crystn. (N.B. I think it may be proved from this that ingredients are

            separated by heat.)

            3678. Do. but not at all micaceous; pale, compact, homogens., slightly crystn. felsp.

            rock with even & almost conchdl. fract).

+3679. To the naked eye a (compact) darker & paler unaltered variety of clay-slate, about

+3680.  1/4 mile distant from junction; with less show a minute crystn. struct., as indeed

            nearly all the clay slate appears to show in this distinct, without less ordinary

            compact clay-slate.

+3681. White granite, a large dyke close to & within junction of granite & clay-slate, with

            silvery mica.

+3682. Singular mountain rock, asbestiform quartz, interior of Africa.

+3683. [ditto]

+3684. [ditto]

+3685. Prehnite, do. Dr. A Smith.

[page 123]

3700 [4738]. Olivine-Basalt

3701 [4739]. Olivine-Basalt (? mugeantic)

3703 [4740] Tinguate-porphyry, or Phonolite. with eginne

3704 [33923] Trachyte.



St. Helena.

+3700. Greyish-black highly felspc. compact base, with few crysts. of glassy felsp. (Base

            tolerably compact; small crenulated cavities lined with crystals; small crysts. of

            glassy felsp; look felspc., no other crysts evident, yet melts into black enamel

+3701. Blackish base abounds in good-sized crysts of glassy felsp.; irregular small cavities

            with white decomposed earth, & others lined with most minute crysts. (Black glass

            [when fused.])

+3702. Black basaltic base, compact, [vesicular struct, crossed] irregular fracture, with

            crysts. of glassy felsp & perhaps some grains of olivine. (yellow olivine & a little

            augite.) These three from external rocks.

+3703. Greenish-grey pale phonolite, acicular crysts. of glassy felspar; fracture sonorous,

            compact, conchoidal. (Few minute vesicr. cavities).

+3704. Dark greenish greenstone-like base, with few crysts. of glassy felsp.

+3705. Purplish base, nearly reduced into wacke & porphtc. with numerous crysts. of white

            soft felsp. & irregular cavities with do. Flagstaff Hill.

            (From the manner in which the purple base enters in in angular (П) spaces of the

            white matter I do not doubt that the latter crystd. as we now see it.)

+3706. Pinkish red, mottled with white, fine-grained soft (between teeth) tufa; yet compact,

            with conchdl. fract. Upper Series. (Decompd. & aggregated ashes probably).

+3707. Highly cellular, grey, semi-decompd. felspc. lava. Diana's Peak. (Grey enamel [when


[page 124]

3708 [33924] Trachyte (illeg)

3710. [6208].

3714. [4741]. Trachyte.



St. Helena: continued.

+3708. Pale brown, compact, hard base, almost composed of minute crysts. of glassy

            felspar. Lava stream, Benesulen Plain.

+3709. Quite compact, cream-coloured felspc. base, with minute pearly scales of imperfect

            crystn. minutely speckled oxide of iron: from do.

+3710. Greyish-white semidecomposed soft lava with most minute black specks

            (hornblende?) Is same as 3707 but not cellular. Diana's Ridge. (Are not these

            domites?) (True trachyte for its homogens. fine-grained earthy base passing into

            nature of domite.)

+3711. White with tinge of cream-colour, compact, not hard, straight fract. semi-

            decomposed lava. I think so from seeing rocks into which it graduated, but am far

            from sure: Upper Series. (Not trace of crystn. struct.; homogens.; little alums.

            smell; tolerably heavy & firm, hard fract.; blackens under blow-pipe, difficult fusible)

            (Fuses into green glass. Contains a great deal of salt, which effervesced on being


+3712. Quite soft, nearly white, friable tufa, with singular ferrugs. veins. (Laminated veins

+3713.  formed by secretion from each side. Like the scovier from the Galapagos!!! Fuses


+3714. Green, rather harsh base, with few crysts. of glassy felsp. & acicular ones of

            hornblende. I believe specimen came from dyke, Lower Series. (Colour rather

            bright green, edges translucent; fuses into white glass; few small vesicr. cavities;

            heavy rock.

[page 125]

3717 [53367] consolidated beach sand composed mainly of rolled gracus of Litholhamniou

                     with much volcanic debritus-basalt & augite



St. Helena: continued.

+3715. Singular black glossy coating to many of the dykes near the Barn. (Differently from

            true pitchstone, fuses into jet-black glass. The rock very fine-grained greenish

            brown, crystn. struct., would be called trap rock.)       

+3716. Soft calcareous volcanic sandstone; scarcely any traces of organic remains in

            particles: from Sandy Bay. (Fusible with ease under fingers: from shape of particles

            it is easy to tell why they have bits of shell.)

+3717. Do., with calcs. matter dissolved, & then run over & through the particles; hard, 

            compact, semi-conchdl. fracture: from Sandy Bay.

+3718. Stalactitic limestone in bed of stream from the quarry: Sandy Bay.

+3719. Calcareous volcanic soft sandstone, from base of Sugar Loaf. (Particles of volc.

            matter & shells.)

+3720. Do., softer, with very minute particles of a land shell, scarcely aggregated together.

+3721.  Pebble coated with Tosca rock. (To more than 1/2 inch thick; must have been

            entirely enveloped.)

+3722. A small fragment of cinders, thickly to coated (with veins, reverse case of septaria.)

+3723. Nucleus calcareous matter, with few volcanic particles, coated with do. (Calcs. matter

            not so compact as the concentric rings.)

+3724. Gypsum, mingled with earth.

[page 126]

3732 [33925]. Olivine-Basalt.

3739 [33926]. Olivine-Basalt (? Mugearitic).

3751 [55372] detrital limestone (consolidated beach sand).



Ascension Is.

+3732.Compact, conchdl. fract., greystone, with some crysts. of glassy felsp.: base of

           Cricket Ground. (Black enamel [when fused].)

+3739. Black basaltic base, smally vesicular & amygdl. with glassy felspar??, a very modern

            stream. S.W. extremity. (Black enamel.)

+3751. Rounded particles, white & few pink (with no trace of organic structure*) of shells &

            corals, cemented into a fine freestone.

            (*Excepting in some most rare particles:- rounded grains, appear even with lens, all

            loose, are only attacked just at the point of contact; colour of pink grains shows

            there is no envelope to each grain.)

+3756. A black very singular calcs.[illeg]incrustation on tidal rocks (3758. Pavid under

to     blow-pipe instantly becomes white; emits very strong smell like burnt horn; is easily

+3767. dissolved by borex & stains glass pale purple; with salt of phosphorus do., paler

            coloured. The greater part dissolved by muriatic acid, leaving what appears

            flocculent, consists of thin plates of white transparent  mineral, which as far as could

            be told by pressing on glass is not hard: easily fuses into opaque white enamel?

            breaks angular toothed edge, as it tendency to crystn. struc. Whole rock harder then

  purely calcs. matter, scratches crysts. of calcs. matter with ease. We may conclude 

  coloured by manganese; contains iron.

[page 127]

3775. [4742] Conglomerate Obsidian. 56338 53669

3784 [4743] Porphyritic Trachyte.

3790 [46277] Quartz- Trachyte

3794 [4744] ?Bostonite or Trachyte.

3795. [33,927] Trachyte.



Ascension: continued.

+3774. A most remarkable conglomt., consisting of masked bits of porphyritic, jaspery, &

+3775. volcanic rocks, partly embedded in a ferrugs. base, but the whole mixed with patches

            & thin layers of pitchstone, passing into the nature of obsidian. I should think has

            certainly flowed as a lava with obsidian. Base of Central Hills. (The glassy rock is

  some igneous rock allied to the obsidian, partially decomposed: the obsidian

  greenish black: a concrety pisolitic structure.)

+3784. Is traversed by plates from 1/10" to 1 inch thick, which appear like trachyte, with

            rather a pearly base & spots of purplish colour. White Hill. (Same as 3790; only

            crysts. of glassy felsp. rather more numerous in this one).

+3789. Largely honey combed ferrugs. stone, appears like sandstone, but on close

            examination appears like [3788] [impregnated] with iron. Ridrigo Schorl.

+3790. Plates of hard sonorous rock, compact, heavy, crystn base, grey or brown with

+3791. numerous black cryst. points, with few crysts. of glassy felsp. (Base sometimes

+3792. shows tendency to become compact; brown streaks, decomp. cryst. structure

+3793. just as before; compactness & hardness only apparent difference :

+3794. fusible though certainly with rather more

+3795. difficulty than specimens such as 3783.

[page 128]

3796. [4745]. Olivine-Basalt




Ascension: continued.

+3796. Purplish black base, porphtc. with numerous fractured semidecompd. crysts of felsp.

+3797. & some ferrugs. crysts: vesicr. cavities lined with irregular hair-like crysts of some

+3798. mineral: fragment embedded in rocks 3787-8.

[page 129]



Bahia, Brazil.

+3830  Rather coarse granular mixture of crysts. of hornbl. & felsp.; embedded fragments in

            granite. (Hornblende angle 54°. Black glittering rock with [quantity] of felspar.)

+3831. Situation do. Constitution do., with few scales of mica. (Angle 55°30', hornblende.)

+3832. Situation do. Decompd. felsp. with crysts of hornbl; mica, & green crysts, rock

            forming irregular dyke-like mass, but the cleavage folding round one extreme mass.

            (Hornbl. [angle] 55°45'; with scales of mica embedded in pale green decomposing

            felsp. base with crysts. of do.)

+3833. Black basaltic base with few crysts of small glassy felsp.; part of true-looking dyke.

            (With very irregular angular fract.; small crysts. which appear glassy felsp. & often

            so minute no character can be seen.)

+3834. Situation do., Base more evidently crystn. (probably black greenstone) with crysts.

            of glassy felspar.

+3835. A coarser crystn. block base; felsp. greenish; part of true dyke.

+3836. Black compact base with minute elongated crysts. of felsp; dyke. (Dyke under

            singular circumstances, appars. granite, soft.)

+3837. Large true dyke, rather coarse granular; close to last & perhaps connected with it:

            felspar & hornblende easily distinguished.

[page 130]



Bahia, Brazil, continued.

+3838. Gneiss; very little mica or quartz. (A very common variety; with hornbl. & a little

            mica & a very few grains of quartz; felspar stained yellow.)

+3839. Fine-grained syenite showing by ferruginous lines a tendency to an orbicular

            structure; corroded into cylindrical orifices.

+3840. Highly micaceous gneiss with [concretionary] heaps of garnets (3/4 of inch in diam.)

            with scales of mica.

+3841. Green long crysts. of felsp. with few of hornbl. & mica. (primitive greenstone)

+3842. polished by a ferruginous coating, in thickest parts about 1/250 inch thick.

+3843. (3844 A broken part likewise re-coated.) (Coating under blowpipe stained brown-

+3844.  yellow whilst hot, afterwards became transparent.

+3845. Decomposing granitic gneiss in situ.         

+3846. Do. do do

+3847. Decomposing granitic mass, ?in situ? (Ferrugs. yellow, friable, of little sp. gr.; rock

            honeycombed, much of the ingredient having been dissolved away.)

+3848. Superficial red covering of whole country. (Red, like raddle; impossible to say from

            specimen whether decomp. in situ or not.)

+3849. Concretionary masses of sandstone with crevices lined with small distinct [shrubs] of

+3850. carb. of lime.

+3853. Red superficial covering upper parts connected with beds such as 3848 (Decomposed

            granite; small number of pebbles of quartz.) (Quite friable; not many broken crysts.) 

[page 131]



Pernambuco, Brazil.

+3368. Compact, hard, even fract. pale brown sandstone, consisting of smaller or large

  3869.  grains of white transparent quartz, cemented by small [quantity]. of white calcs.

            matter: generally fine-grained.

+3870. Do., encrusted with thick layer compound of Serpula & a few bits of broken shell.

+3871. (Junction most intimate.)

+3872. Do. Serpula with pieces of Balani & other shells, minute coralline, cemented together

+3873. & coated with Alga. The latter specimens have become petrified with whitish brown

+3874. calcs. stone, which, although not hard, is very tough & difficult to break from mass.

+3875. Part of specimen 3874 shows in some cases that layers of a dull reddish Corallivia

+3876. have considerably helped to form this deposit.

+3877. A yellow fine-grained limestone; effervesces slowly with acids; tolerably hard &

+3878. compact, contains a considerable but varying [quantity] of sandy aluminous &

+3879. ochreous matter; cavities in some parts somewhat like casts of bits of vegetable


+3880. White or purplish alumins. indurated matter; firm, soft, greasy; contains minute

+3881. scales of mica & atoms of quartz; in mouth soft; strong alums. smell; adhesive to the tongue; Olinda. (Semi-conchdl fract.; polished surface when cut by nail; indurated


[page 132]

3883 [33919] Monchiquite,

3888 [21940] Monchiquite.




Porto Praya, St Jago, Cape Verd Isles.

+3883. Many small crysts. of augite, a decomposing olivine, black mica, in blackish-grey

            base; latter little in proportion; Lowest Series in mainland, from of Quail Island.

+3884. Greasy, pale greenish brown, decomposed felspathic rock; amygdl. with yellow

            earthy balls; Lowest Series, Quail Is.

+3885. Hard, brittle, very [irregular] fract. frequently decomposing ferrugs. nearly white,

            amorphous felspathic rock; with high power traces of crystn.; threaded with hair-

            likes ferrugs. (Easily fusible, dark glass, greenish grey.)

+3886. Not so compact, similar but pseudo-brecciate; the hair-like ferrugs. forming lines of

            division; not so cryst. struct.; irreg. fract. as before; Lowest Series, inland under

            Flat Hill & North Hill.

+3887. Brittle yellowish greenish greasy clayey rock; decompd. felsp. with few large crysts.

            of augite & others of green soft minl. (With latter rocks but only in one place; white

            & felspc. in its look; yet when fused some patches are grey, but greater part black,

            as also does the green mineral. The green mineral only appears the purer & formerly

            crystd. mineral of whole mass.) (After heated, very slightly magnetic.)           

+3888. Black-grey basalt, conchdl. fract.; full of small [irregular] grains of nearly colourless

            olivine: summit of Flat. Hill, above latter three rocks.

[page 133]



Porto Praya, St Jago, continued.

+3889. Conglomerate; irregular small fragments of brown scorise with snow-white aragonite

           (?) base: with last rock.

+3890. Similar to 3888; from upper part of Table-land (Mr Kent.)

+3891. [ditto]

+3892. Greenish brown base, crystn. full of bright red specks, some of which appear like

            jasper, some show obscure traces of crystn: vesicular specks (filled with calc. matter

            sometimes): from summit of Flagstaff Hill. (Full of minute crenulated vacuities; at

            first appears a breccia of minute red earthy fragments; carefully examining some of

            them show  tendency to assume external form of crysts. elongated like felspar. This

            red matter is highly magnetic, both before & after blowpipe; with latter fuses with

            difficulty into quite dull enamel. Is, I suppose, specular iron in decomposed state;

            not bright facets.)

3894.  Snow-white opaque; partly smooth compact, partly earthy fract.; with rounded

            cavities, nearly filled with friable ochrey matter; beneath lava, Quail Island. (No

            trace of sandst. structure)


3895.   Brittle, semi- conchdl fract., nearly white limestone; both crystn & mechanical struct.    evident; with lines of black particles of organic origin: beneath lava, near landing- place.

 (Highly crystn., yet traces of mechanical struc. dissemble – one bit perhaps shell?-;

 the black points look glassy, as if they had been fused?  - Calc-sper angle 105, 

 therefore true = rock easily scratches calc-sper; gives out a good deal more vapour

 than calc-sper; slightly blackens at first by heat. = Vide[illeg]carb. of lime in 

 Phillips.  - Henslow says this latter where basalt has passed over chalk, blue, 

compact. This

[page 134]

3898 [49936] Limburgite



Porto Praya, St Jago, continued.

glitters most brilliantly when turned before light from distant points; the minute

rounded particles some look like olivine; none magnetic even after blow-pipe.) (Surfaces red as so many limestones.)

3896. Conglomerate, of small fragmts of glossy scovier (such as here form superficies of 

streams) united by snow-white aragonite, of which the irregular cavities are lined with

the most beautiful crystals. (Heavy compact rock).

3897.  Basalt & conglomt. incrusted with brown calc. layer; sometimes smooth but generally

3898.  frondescent, minutely, yet like that of Ascension [3756-3767]. Is it purely

          calcareous?  Blowpipe Yes, all soluble. (May be called truncated botryoidal).

3899.  Small breccia of crumbling surface of lava-stream cemented by calc. matter, filling up  crevices between columnus of basalt. Surface also with the calcareous crust formed

           by surf. (Hard. solid rock.)

[page 135]

3908. [4716]. Trachyte (Samidinite),

3913. [4717] [crossed] Trachyte.

3914. [4718] [crossed] Trachyte.



Terceira, Azores.

+3908. Altered trachyte: base soft white, crystals pretty perfect:

+3909. iron in state of red oxide.

+3910. (3908. Characters all nearly perfect; base become opaque, altered, & white.)

           (3909. Base softer, more earthy.)

(3910. Do., with crevices lined with a yellow transparent siliceous matter like gum    (?name.)).

+3911. Snow-white clay or decomposed felspar. (Quite the finest powder.)

+3912. Blackish-grey basalt with crysts of olivine & augite; modern stream, near the coast,

            of the basaltic lavas. black, very vesicular.

+3913. Modern stream near the coast of basaltic lavas; black, very vesicular.

+3914. [ditto]

[page 136, end paper]

[page 137, back cover]

[page 138, spine]

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