RECORD: Keynes, Richard ed. 2000. Charles Darwin's zoology notes & specimen lists from H.M.S. Beagle. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

REVISION HISTORY: Electronic text provided by Richard Keynes, converted to xhtml by John van Wyhe 2004. Pagination added by AEL Data. RN4

NOTE: Reproduced with permission of Richard Keynes, the Syndics of Cambridge University Library, English Heritage (Down House Collection) and William Huxley Darwin. The book is copyright Cambridge University Press, and is reproduced with permission.

Running headers in the MS are not recorded. Includes CUL-DAR30-31, EH63.1-5


[front cover]

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Charles Darwin's Zoology Notes
&
Specimen Lists from H.M.S. Beagle

This transcription of notes made by Charles Darwin during the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle records his observations on the animals and plants that he encountered, and provides a valuable insight into the intellectual development of one of our most influential scientists. Darwin drew on many of these notes for his well known Journal of Researches (1839), but the great majority have remained unpublished. The volume provides numerous examples of his unimpeachable accuracy in describing the wide range of animals seen in the course of his travels, and of his closely analytical approach towards every one of his observations. Only at the very end of the voyage were his first thoughts about the immutability of species consciously expressed, but here are to be found the initial seeds of his theory of evolution, and of the fields of behavioural and ecological study of which he was one of the founding fathers.

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[page i]

CD and another rifleman shooting quanacoes on the banks of the Rio Santa Cruz on 2 May 1834. Watercolour painting by Conrad Martens.

© National Maritime Picture Library.

[page ii]

CHARLES DARWIN'S ZOOLOGY NOTES & SPECIMEN LISTS FROM H.M.S. BEAGLE

EDITED BY

RICHARD KEYNES

Emeritus Professor of Physiology in the University of Cambridge, and Fellow of Churchill College

CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS

[page iii]

PUBLISHED BY THE PRESS SYNDICATE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE

The Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, United Kingdom

CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS

The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 2RU, UK http://www.cup.cam.ac.uk

40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011-4211, USA http://www.cup.org

10 Stamford Road, Oakleigh, Melbourne 3166, Australia

Ruiz de Alacón 13, 28014 Madrid, Spain

© Cambridge University Press 2000

This book is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.

First published 2000

Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge

Typeset by the editor

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

ISBN 0 521 46569 9 hardback

[page iv]

To

CHARLES ROBERT DARWIN

whose dedication and skill as an observer of Nature has set an example for all time

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[page vi]

Contents

Introduction ix

Acknowledgements xxix

Note on editorial policy xxx

Principal sources of references xxxii

 

ZOOLOGY NOTES 1

SPECIMEN LISTS 317

Specimens in Spirits of Wine 321

Specimens not in Spirits 370

 

INDEX OF ANIMALS AND PLANTS 423

INDEX OF PLACES AND PEOPLE 433

[page viii]

[page ix]

Introduction

Charles Darwin, referred to hereafter as CD, arrived in Plymouth on 24 October 1831 in order to accompany Captain Robert FitzRoy on H.M.S. Beagle as a scientist and companion. As he noted in his private journal1, the ship was 'in a state of bustle and confusion'. The carpenters were hard at work fitting up the drawers in the poop cabin, but the corner assigned to him, where for the next five years he was destined to work at his microscope and write his notes, looked too small to accommodate all his possessions2. A month later he was able to carry his books and instruments on board, and soon his fears about lack of space had been dissipated. On 4 December he mastered the technique of getting into his hammock, and slept on board for the first time. There followed an endless succession of southwesterly gales that kept the Beagle at anchor, and forced the abandonment of two attempts to sail, until on 27 December the wind shifted to the east, and the ship at last got under way.

Although CD's most important achievements were ultimately in the realm of biology, it must not be forgotten that FitzRoy's original intention was that his scientist should examine the land while the officers of the Beagle looked after the hydrography3. Shortly after the return of the ship to England in 1836, the Captain duly reported4 that 'Mr Charles Darwin will make known the results of his five years' voluntary seclusion and disinterested exertions in the cause of science. Geology has been his principal pursuit'. The total bulk of CD's Geology Notes5 was nearly four times greater than that of the Zoology Notes transcribed here, and a very rough analysis of the scientific topics covered in his letters to Henslow6 from the Beagle shows that about three times more space was devoted to geology and palaeontology than to natural history. CD's geological findings were duly reported to the Geological Society, of which he had just been elected one of the two secretaries, on 7 March 18387,59. His contribution forming Volume III of the joint account of the voyage edited by FitzRoy that appeared in 18398 was entitled simply Journal and Remarks. 1832-1836., and when it was reprinted on its own later that same year it became Journal of researches into the geology and natural history of the various countries visited by H.M.S. Beagle...9 In the second and final edition published in 184510, the order in the title was changed to 'natural history and geology', and there it remained. Of his three geological books11, Coral reefs was published in 1842, Volcanic islands in 1844, and Geological observations on South America in 1846, their writing having occupied four and a half years' steady work12.

Depending on the opportunities offered to him at different periods, the strength of CD's relative liking for geology and natural history fluctuated, but generally geology came out on top. To his sister Catherine he wrote in April 183413 'there is nothing like geology; the pleasure of the first days partridge shooting or first days hunting cannot be compared to finding a fine group of fossil bones, which tell their story of former times with almost a living tongue'; and to his cousin W.D. Fox he had admitted a year earlier14 'The pleasure of working with the Microscope ranks second to geology'. The reason was perhaps, as he put it in his Autobiography15, that in comparison with natural history, 'the investigation of the geology of all the places visited was far more important, as reasoning here comes into play'. And it was indeed more in geology than in natural history that he was able to indulge his latent passion for theorising16, as became apparent as soon as he landed at St Jago in the Cape Verde Islands on 16 January 18325,17.

[page] x Introdction

Nevertheless, he was quickly acting in many of his Zoology Notes on the strongly felt principle often quoted later on by Emma Darwin18: 'it is a fatal fault to reason whilst observing, though so necessary beforehand and so useful afterwards'; while to Wallace he wrote in 185719 'I am a firm believer that, without speculation there is no good & original observation'. Although at the end of his life he wrote somewhat misleadingly in his Autobiography20 that 'My first note-book was opened in July 1837. I worked on true Baconian principles, and without any theory collected facts on a wholesale scale', the truth was otherwise. While dissecting specimens under his microscope, he was constantly questioning himself about the logical implications of his findings, and his interpretations of their complex internal anatomy were always very closely reasoned. Often he carried out little experiments to test the response of his specimens to mechanical stimulation, or exposure to water of the wrong salinity or to alcohol. Moreover, the entries describing the animals that he watched and sometimes captured in the field were models of critical observation, packed with well thought out comments on the possible reasons for their behaviour, distribution and relation with their environment. He was always ready to question the correctness of the conclusions of his predecessors if they conflicted with what he saw for himself, and his intensely analytical approach was from the beginning one of the characteristics that stands out most clearly in his scientific writing.

The first observation in his Zoology Notes, dated 6 January 1832, was concerned with luminous matter in the sea. His collecting began in earnest on 10 January, when having quickly constructed the plankton net of which he drew a sketch21, 'it brought up a mass of small animals, & tomorrow I look forward to a greater harvest'. The captures described in his notes were some medusae, including a Portuguese man-of-war whose powerful toxin he inadvertently got on to his fingers and into his mouth; some salps; and 'a very simple animal' that was new to him, and remained unclassified until he returned to England. Specimen No. 1 in Spirits of Wine was listed as chiefly pteropods, i.e. shelled opisthobranch molluscs such as Limacina and Creseis. Specimen No. 1 not in Spirits was a cuttlefish extracted from the stomach of a black-backed gull on 6 January, followed by a locust (Acrydium) and other insects taken on board the ship during the next few days.

CD's note-taking was distinguished from the very start by its orderliness, and by the manner in which he adhered faithfully to his chosen layouts throughout the voyage. Both for his private journal and for the Zoology Notes he wrote in ink on gatherings of paper making pages 20 by 25 cm in size, faintly lined and with a red marginal line22. At the head of each page, its number and the month, year and location of the observations were entered. In the Beagle Diary, the margin was used only to record the day of the month, and occasionally the day of the week. In the Zoology Notes CD quickly settled down after the first few pages to writing in the margin an underlined generic or family name for the specimen under consideration, together with its number and sometimes a further brief description. He soon found himself needing often to add extra notes on the backs of the pages, identified by letters in brackets placed opposite the relevant part of the text. Sometimes these were immediate afterthoughts, and sometimes comments arising later from subsequent observations.

As he had begun, so he continued, and in the end well over half of the pages of the Zoology Notes were concerned with marine invertebrates. His concentration on this particular field may be attributed not so much to his admitted pleasure in working with his microscope, but to the fact that during the long periods when the Beagle was at sea few other activities

[page] xi Introduction

were open to him. It should also be appreciated that the dissection of a single bryozoan or crab sometimes generated half a dozen pages of notes, whereas observations on a beetle or a frog or a bird seldom occupied more than a few sentences. Many years afterwards he wrote23 that 'from not being able to draw and from not having sufficient anatomical knowledge a great pile of MS. which I made during the voyage has proved almost useless', a typically self-deprecatory judgement on the merits of his Geology and Zoology Notes that was quoted almost word for word by Thomas Huxley in his obituary of CD for the Royal Society24. There were, nevertheless, many splendid descriptive passages drawn from the Zoology Notes that provided the natural history in the Journal of Researches, and although the results of his anatomical studies on bryozoans, crustaceans and other invertebrates mostly remained unpublished, there were among them, as will be seen, many pioneering observations of considerable interest. CD's modesty about his skill as an artist was borne out, as Huxley confirmed, by the crudity of the sketches that he drew in the Beagle Diary and in his letters, so that it comes as a surprise to see the accuracy of the fine pencil drawings, on separate sheets of unlined paper, of the specimens that he subjected to close examination under his single lens Bancks microscope25, not infrequently showing new and previously unrecognised anatomical features. These formed the 20 Plates preserved in CUL MS DAR 29 and reproduced in this volume, which each comprise up to a dozen Figures. His cross referencing to further mention of an animal on another page of the Notes, or to the Plate and Figure illustrating a particular point in the text, was always impeccable. The efficiency with which he thus organised his written records under very cramped conditions in a ship at sea, often stricken by seasickness, was without doubt an extremely important factor in his success as an observer and a collector both in geology and in natural history.

Another striking feature of the Zoology Notes is their total professionalism, despite the fact that on the face of it CD had had little appropriate training. However, in company first with his brother Erasmus and then more importantly with Robert Grant26, he had in 1827 explored the shores of the Firth of Forth as described in an early diary27, illustrated with forerunners of his sketches in the Zoology Notes; and he had received valuable instruction from Grant on the marine invertebrates that were found there. When he then encountered in the open Atlantic a range of organisms with which he was unfamiliar, he at once began to make extremely effective use of the Beagle's quite extensive library of reference books. They were chiefly the works of the notable French encyclopédistes, of which his favourite was what he called Dic. Class., the 17 volumes of the 'Dictionnaire Classique d'histoire naturelle', but he also consulted Cuvier's 'Le règne animale', Lamarck's 'Histoire naturelle des animaux sans vertèbres', Lamouroux's 'Exposition méthodique des genres de l'ordre des polypiers', Rang's 'Manuel de l'histoire naturelle des mollusques et leurs coquilles', and others28. With their help he was able to give generic or family names to quite a number of the marine in-vertebrates that he collected, though not many of them are still in use today, and he ran into difficulties with organisms belonging to phyla whose existence had yet to be recognised. Thus it was ironic that the 'very simple animal' which he caught in his net on 11 January 1832, and of which his drawing in Figure 1 of Plate 1 (see p. 4 of this volume) is instantly recognisable today as a chaetognath or arrow worm29, still had him 'at a loss where to rank it amongst other animals' when he found large numbers off the coast of Patagonia (see pp. 66-9), and was only identified after his return to England four years later. In 1832 he had

[page] xii Introduction

A typical page from CD's Zoology Notes

[page] xiii Introduction

been unaware of the foundation of the genus Sagitta by Quoy and Gaimard some five years previously, and he made up for it in a short note published in 184430 that he hoped would 'aid more competent judges than myself in ascertaining its true affinities.' But although the 100 species of Chaetognatha are common among marine plankton in tropical seas, even now the precise relationship of the phylum with the other pseudo-coelomates has not been finally settled.

It may also be noted that the barnacles collected by CD on the Beagle — eventually the subjects of his monograph on the Cirripedia31 written at Down House — were always listed among the molluscs as shells, where they were still placed by Cuvier and Lamarck before J. Vaughan Thompson's discovery32 in 1830 of their metamorphoses suggested their transfer to the crustaceans. But when CD was examining a shell that at first he had doubtfully entered as the marine snail Conus (see p. 135), he decided that because of its strikingly crustacean characteristics and possession of an external 'pied machoire' it was better identified as a barnacle common in the Falkland Islands. Hence independently of Thompson he had already observed the crustacean affinities of barnacles, and as he recognized later23, a knowledge of crustaceans and of their larval stage the Zoea, was one of the most valuable outcomes of his dissections of marine invertebrates during the voyage.

The principal problem in classification encountered by CD in the 1830s lay in determining the true nature of some of the colonial plant-like invertebrates then still known colloquially as Zoophytes or Polypes, and nowadays separated into Cnidaria such as hydrozoa, anthozoa (including corals) and scyphozoa, Bryozoa and sponges. The smallest of these were the corallines, but thanks to the classical studies of John Ellis33 it had been accepted in many quarters by the end of the 18th century that like some of the coelenterates closely similar to them in appearance, they belonged to the animal kingdom. Only Linnaeus was not wholly convinced, and coined the name Zoophyta — a group intermediate between plants and animals — for the corallines. In 1820 de Blainville discovered that the polyps of certain zoophytes possessed both mouth and anus, suggesting that they should be placed on a higher level than other coelenterates; and in 1827 Robert Grant34 observed that some of them had ciliated tentacles and a recurved alimentary canal. In 1830, J. Vaughan Thompson, working independently on zoophytes off the southern shores of Ireland, also discovered that there were two anatomical forms of polyps, and added to his memoirs on crustaceans a fifth entitled On Polyzoa, a new animal discovered as an inhabitant of some Zoophites35, in which he created a new animal class, the Polyzoa, to replace the Zoophyta. As has been explained by Ryland36, the phylum concerned is now best known as the Bryozoa, while those animals in which the anus opens inside the circlet of tentacles belong to the phylum Entoprocta.

At the beginning of the voyage, CD referred to all such animals indiscriminately as corallines or coralls, although some of them were in fact hydrozoa or hydrocorals, some bryozoans, and some coralline algae. When in the end he had concluded43 that his 'true corallinas' were indeed algae such as Corallina and Amphiroa, he listed this group as Nulliporae. The bryozoans were generally 'encrusting corallines' or Flustrae, and the reef-building hydrocorals were Madrepores. He had thus improved on the still prevailing confusion in the classification of the Zoophytes or Polypiferous Polypi in the accounts of Cuvier and Griffith37 that he had with him on the Beagle.

The first corallines to be collected during the voyage were identified as Sertularia, a term applicable at that time both to bryozoans and hydrozoans, and a coralline alga Amphiroa.

[page] xiv Introduction

Then in August 1832, off the coast of Patagonia at a depth of 14 fathoms, the first bryozoans were found, a 'corall' listed as 'Cellepora ?' and confirmed in 190138 as being Cellepora eatonensis, and a specimen which CD immediately and correctly recognised as related to Flustra, to whose leaf-like colonies in the Firth of Forth27 he had been introduced by Robert Grant26, and with which his first scientific paper, delivered to the Plinian Society in March 1827, had been concerned. But what, seen under his microscope, rendered the new genus 'singular' (see p. 73) was the occurrence of peculiar organs on the edges of the cells that resembled in shape the open beak of a vulture, and nodded continuously at a frequency of about five seconds. He asked himself what their function could possibly be, rejecting generation 'which is the last resource in all puzzling cases'. Later he found similar organs on other zoophytes, and speculated at some length on their role39. The organ in question was the type of anascan heterozooid now known as a pedunculate avicularium, and although a defensive role with adaptive value has been proposed for it, even today there is a shortage of firm evidence in support of this or any other hypothesis40.

More 'coralls', identified by CD from Lamouroux's pictures41 as Celleporaria and other bryozoans now placed in suborder Ascophora, were collected in Tierra del Fuego four months later, while in March 1833 a number of coralline algae were collected around East Falkland Island. Then at Port Desire in January 1834 considerable quantities of the 'Corallina' Halimeda were thrown up on the beach, and (see note (b) on p. 187) CD concluded from his examination of their articulation and mode of propagation that 'I do not believe Corallina to have any connection with the family of zoophites'. For as he wrote later to Henslow42: 'the 'gemmule' of a Halimeda contained several articulations united, & ready to burst their envelope & become attached to some basis [i.e. base]. I believe in Zoophites, universally the gemmule produces a single Polypus, which afterwards or at the same time grows with its cell or single articulation'. It followed that the zoophytes were definitely not plants, although this evidence was provided by the green alga Halimeda belonging to the Chlorophyta, and not by the coralline algae belonging to the Rhodophyta43.

In March 1834, when the Beagle was once again in Tierra del Fuego, more specimens of Flustra were obtained that were bryozoans of several families of the order Cyclostomata as well as Cheilostomata. Pursuing a 'lately determined' intention, described in July to his sister Catherine44, 'to work chiefly amongst the Zoophites or Coralls', CD engaged on an orgy of comparative anatomy, and anticipated a remarkable amount of bryozoan biology that had yet to be formally elucidated. He observed in Specimen 874 (see p. 195) the functioning of the autozooidal operculum 'like lower jaw of a bull-dog'. He correctly appreciated (see pp. 197 and 207) the phenomenon of degeneration and regeneration of the bryozoan polypide, and clearly saw the associated brown bodies36. He perceived (see p. 197) the relationship between the pedunculate vulture's-head avicularia of the erect species, and the adventitious sessile avicularia of an encrusting form. He observed (see pp. 198 and 206-207) ovicells brooding young, and (on p. 205) described the kenozooidal rootlets (rhizoids) that support and attach many erect forms. Bringing up in his net a specimen of a similar but new animal that he labelled 'polype?' (see pp. 199-201), he at once appreciated the different location of its anus that now distinguishes the phylum Entoprocta.

During the next months, off the coast of Patagonia and further to the south, he collected more bryozoans and accurately described (see pp. 222-53) the anatomy of the ascophoran Eschara gigantea with its calcified frontal wall. A few days later (see pp. 226-9) he found

[page] xv Introduction

another specimen that he misidentified as the cyclostome Crisia, but which was in fact the anascan Caberea minima, belonging to the superfamily Cellularioidea. This species possessed the type of heterozooid now known as a vibraculum, a long tapering bristle-like seta mounted on a basal chamber containing musculature capable of swivelling and rotating the seta. CD's graphic description of the coordinated sweeping movements of the setae on each branch of the coralline was a triumph of accurate observation. Again he speculated on the function of the vibracula, and concluded that their role was not 'to drive away enemies and impurities', though the modern view36 is rather that the species with well developed vibracula depend on their ability to discourage small organisms such as larvae, and particles of sand or silt, from settling on the surface of the colony.

Then at Port Famine in June 1834 he turned his attention (see p. 232) to specimen 983 in spirits of 'a very simple Flustra' — which was subsequently identified by S.F. Harmer38 as belonging to the related species Membranipora membranacea — 'so that I might erect at some future day, my imperfect notions concerning the organization of the whole family of Dr Grant's Paper34'; and gave a good description of the organisation of its polypus. But this turned out to be the last bryozoan to be discussed in the Zoology Notes, and except for quite a number of specimens collected in January 1835 in the Chonos Archipelago and off Chiloe, and two hauls in the Galapagos Islands in September 1835, no more were collected during the second half of the voyage, though further specimens were taken of the coralline algae described by CD as corallinas, and of the true reef-building hydrocorals.

Nevertheless, CD's resolution to think further about the organization of the Flustrae was not wholly abandoned. It has survived, at least in part, as two loose pages of conclusions about the anatomy of corallines, probably written on board the Beagle early in 1836, to which attention was drawn by Sloan45. Here CD has in effect decided that the Flustraceae belong in a phylum of their own, although nowhere did he ever refer to Ellis33 or Thompson35, and is musing constructively on their biology. These two pages are listed as CUL MS DAR 5.98-9, the page numbering being that of the cataloguer, not CD's, and run as follows:

 

[p. 98 commences]

That the number of arms in Polypus of the Flustraceæ varies from 8 to 28 & is no more than a Specific character:

That a proportion is kept up between simplicity of Polypier & number of arms.— that the same essential organ[s] are found in very varying forms of Polypier.—

That the degree of stony nature in Corallines is entirely futile as a character46.—

That the fo orders of Lamouroux of Cellepora.— Cellaria & Flustra should be included in one family (probably also some Escharæ & Milleporæ47).—

That one Sertularia would is also included.—

That the structure of the Flustraceæ is most widely different from the Clytias48. not only in the Polypus, but in the generation in the former case each ovule & Polypus has some intimate connexion. in the latter it is a young Polypus altered.— (Manner of growth—)

General Anatomical discussion.—

[added later in pencil] (Study Hydra & Actinia & my Madrepore & Sigillina in Blainville) (Sigillina & Polypus) [pencil note ends]

That the connexion of the cells although not apparent in the true Flustræ must exist:

[page] xvi Introduction

from similarity in growth & chain of gradation in the Capsule Flustræ: & in the Flustra of P 234 & true Flustræ & Cellariæ having same body.—

That the Polypier is the essential part in the Corallines, it produces the cells & young in young Polypi (& after death of Polypus consequent on generation reproduces them—)—

That the mere possession of arms has grouped very heterogenious animals.—

That Corallina is a plant.—

[in pencil] Does it not emit in Suns rays gaz49.— [pencil note ends] [continued on verso]

In Virgularia50 does the truncate extremity correspond to extremity of branch root in Corallium51 — Examine extremities & the bag to extremity of branch.

The relative position of Polypier, with living mass in the Lamelliform.—

The structure of transparent extremities of Corallina.— Regrowth of Corallines when separated.

In the capsule Flustræ, cells without Polypi have capsules (Moveable)? Yes? I believe strong proof of disconnection.—

[p. 99 commences]

A close connection & co-sensation between the Polypi of many Corallines is established by the co-movements of "Capsules Flustras" of the setæ in Crisia52: the flashes of light in Clytia53: strongly seen in Virgularia, & in Alcyonium an injury in the stem causing all to collapse: whilst one [illeg.] being injured did not affect the mass.— on the other hand, one point in a Synoicum Blainv: affected all round it for some distance54.—

Have not the Escaræ in the growth of the Polypier an analogy with the Celleporariæ: where cells appear formed in a cellular tissue (or group of hoods, or angular tubes as in Favosites) of a stone?—

A cell reproduces its Polypus

The stony striæ, on outside of Lobularia55, connecting link with stony Zoophites.—

The Lobated form [illeg.] position of tentacula in Chiloe Actinia perhaps is an analogy in change between a Caryophyllia & Gorgonia or Corallium?— it shows a passage of this arrangement, without material change in animal.—

It is important to see in Clytia48, substance included in a young cell appearing equally ready to form Polypus or Ovules.— the Coralline must produce this matter; not the Polypus the gemmule.—

I am inclined to think in Corallines, such as Tubularia56 & Flustra, the Polypier is as much a living man being as any Plant, (as a Lichen or Corallina) that it communicates with the circumambient fluid either simply as in Clytia, or in more complicated manner, as in Flustra.

[continued on verso]

How little organization can be seen in Corallina, yet even the basic articulations produce paps with gemmules.— In the Polypier of the Flustraceæ it seems to make little difference, whether a central living axis is clearly visible or whether it (probably) forms a thin fold at the base of cells, in the encrusting Flustræ.—

I imagine in the Lamelliform Coralls, the Polypier is only an ex internal secretions, (a bony axis to give support) the Polypier being then the mass of living Matter: we see it thus in Virgularia50.—

[page] xvii Introduction

There is an analogy between the corall-forming Polypi & turf-forming plants.—Hence here the soft matter ought to form the gemmules, as in the hard matter in the other cases.—

I think there is much analogy between Zoophites & Plants, the Polypi being buds: the gemmules the inflorescence which forms a bud & young plant.—

in Sertularia, the Capsules with gemmules appear to have no relation with any one Polypus; how could it form a totally different sort of capsule to its own, & in a place where it, the Polypus is never found.—

[p. 99 ends]

It has been suggested by Sloan45 that CD's intellectual development as a biologist was strongly influenced by his early contacts with Robert Grant26 in Edinburgh, which steered him to pursue on the Beagle a programme of research on marine invertebrates oriented from the start in the direction of transmutation. However, the validity of this proposition has to be questioned. In the first place, CD paid no special attention to corallines during the first eight months of the voyage, and when he found his first specimen of Flustra what at once excited him was not the issue of whether it was a plant or an animal, but the remarkable properties of its vulture's beak capsules, the possibility that these organs might have any role in generation being scornfully dismissed. Later on, he worked out correctly many of the details of the anatomy of bryozoans that subsequently served to differentiate between their several families, and when he came across one belonging to what is now recognised as the phylum Entoprocta, he immediately spotted the essential diagnostic feature. Hence his studies on bryozoans were primarily an exercise in comparative anatomy, very similar in nature, and in the end less useful to him15, than the observations on the numerous crustaceans that he dissected. Although some mention is made of changes taking place between related animals in his final two pages of notes, and analogies are suggested between hydrocorals and turf-forming plants, it is difficult to read into them views on the transmutation of species that he had not yet begun to develop seriously in any other context.

Very soon after returning to England in 1836, CD was disconcerted to find57 that 'the Zoologists seem to think a number of undescribed creatures rather a nuisance', and was unable to obtain expert assistance with the classification of his marine invertebrates. Although Robert Grant26, who was by then Professor of Zoology at University College London, did express an interest in some of the corallines, it was not followed up. CD wrote of Grant later58 that 'He did nothing more in science — a fact which has always been inexplicable to me'. CD's original intention to give an account of some invertebrates in The Zoology of the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle therefore fell by the wayside, although from the introduction to Journal of Researches 2 it would appear that as late as 1845 it had not been finally abandoned. At this time, CD was still referring to the bryozoans as zoophytes, and there is no record of his ever knowing of the successful naming of the group in 1830 by Thompson35 as Polyzoa. When in March 1837 he was writing on page 130 of the Red Notebook59 that 'if one species does change into another it must be per saltum — or species may perish', Zoophytes and Polypi must already have begun to fade from the picture as far as he was concerned. There are indeed fewer than a dozen brief references to them in the whole series of Transmutation Notebooks60.

There were of course many other terrestrial invertebrates such as insects and spiders to

[page] xviii Introduction

which CD needed no introduction from Robert Grant, and which he collected avidly in a conventional way. He also took a great interest in the habits of some of the marine and terrestrial planarians that he found, which were free-living turbellarian flatworms now placed in orders Tricladida and Polycladida. In his paper published in 184461, a number of new species were described, though in the absence of further specimens from the areas of South America where he was working, they cannot always be assigned with certainty to a modern genus.

CD had less scope at the time of the voyage to theorise widely in discussing the animals that he collected than in his geological studies, but his Zoology Notes were nevertheless very much more than descriptions of the colouration and other details of his specimens that might be necessary for their taxonomic classification. At St Jago on 28 January 1832 he found an octopus among the rocks at low water, and recorded a splendid description of its changes in colour when he tried to grab hold of it, and of its responses on board the ship to the application of electric shocks and of being scratched. Seen under a lens he noted that the passing clouds of colour 'consisted of minute points apparently injected with a coloured fluid' — one of the earliest reports of the properties of their chromatophores. He was always interested in the locomotion of animals, and in the precise way in which they walked or ran or flew or swam, and soon we find him in Bahia (see p. 26) working out how the puffer fish Diodon takes up water by swallowing air in order to distend itself for regulation of its overall density and centre of gravity, and uses its pectoral fins after collapsing the caudals to enable itself, contrary to Cuvier's opinion, to swim while upside down. On the same day he caught a luminous click beetle, and critically examined the mechanism by which it bent its spine as a spring in order to jump suddenly into the air, this time finding grounds for disagreement with the account given in the Dic. Class. Next it was a migration of driver ants that attracted his attention, then the movements of some pulmonates, and a few weeks later (see p. 48) he came across 'the only butterfly I ever saw make use of its legs in running, this one will avoid being caught by shuffling to one side'. Many further examples could be quoted, among which one of the highlights would be his classical description (see p. 104) of the coating of the Beagle's rigging off Monte Video by the gossamer web of spiders of family Linyphiidae that disperse by air. Others would be his accounts of the flights and feeding habits of Rhynchops (p. 159), humming birds (p. 235-6), condors (p. 254) and frigate birds (p. 300).

A field of biology of which CD was one of the founding fathers, together with Linnaeus, Buffon and Humboldt, was ecology, and many instances of his pioneering observations on the relations of animals with their environment are to be found in the Zoology Notes. Thus in May 1832 he wrote in Rio (see pp. 58-9):

'I could not help noticing how exactly the animals & plants in each region are adapted to each other.— Every one must have noticed how Lettuces & Cabbages suffer from the attacks of Caterpillars & Snails.— But when transplanted here in a foreign clime, the leaves remain as entire as if they contained poison.— Nature, when she formed these animals & these plants, knew they must reside together.—'

After the Beagle's first visit to Tierra del Fuego in the southern summer of 1832-3, CD prefaced with an excellent account of the severity of the weather, backed up by some temperature records, some general observations correlating the climate with the growth of

[page] xix Introduction

trees, the formation of peat, and the populations of particular species of mammals, birds and insects. He noted on p. 134 that although the thermometer often rose to about 60° [Fahrenheit]:

'Yet there were no Orthoptera, few diptera, still fewer butterflies & no bees, this together with [the] absence of flower feeding beetles throughily [sic] convinced me how poor a climate that of Tierra del F. is'.

Visiting the Falkland Islands for the second time in April 1834, he wrote in a memorable passage on p. 215 about the marine zoology:

'Its main striking feature is the immense quantity & number of kinds of organic beings which are intimately connected with the Kelp. . . I can only compare these great forests to terrestrial ones in the most teeming part of the Tropics; yet if the latter in any country were to be destroyed I do not believe nearly the same number of animals would perish in them as would happen in the case of Kelp: All the fishing quadrupeds & birds (& man) haunt the beds, attracted by the infinite number of small fish which live amongst the leaves: . . . On shaking the great entangled roots it is curious to see the heap of fish, shells, crabs, sea-eggs, Cuttle fish, star fish, Planariæ, Nereidæ, which fall out. . . One single plant form is an immense & most interesting menagerie.— If this Fucus was to cease living, with it would go many: the Seals, the Cormorants & certainly the small fish & then sooner or later the Fuegian man must follow.— the greater number of the invertebrates would likewise perish, but how many it is hard to conjecture.'

He commented frequently, and often tested his observations experimentally, on the adaptation of marine animals to fresh water and vice versa, as when near Rio having found a fresh water snail in a lake often made salty by the sea, he asked: 'Is not this fact curious, that fresh water shells should survive an inundation of salt water? In the neighbouring Lagoon, Balani were adhering to the rocks.' Sometimes his speculations were perhaps a little wide of the mark, as on finding fresh water beetles in a stream at the Cape Verde islands 'supposed to be part of Atlantis' (see p. 371 of Specimen List); or when (see pp. 109 and 137) he found barnacles in the Rio Plata and at the Falkland Islands that he thought might be especially adapted for brackish and even for fresh water, possibly by keeping their opercula more 'throughily' closed in fresh water. But when he found beetles alive and swimming actively in the sea seventeen miles off Cape Corrientes62 he decided that they had survived being washed down from the Rio Plata, and that this was 'a very instrumental means in peopling Islands with insects'.

In the Zoology Notes themselves there is no direct evidence as to when CD's belief in the stability of species began to be shaken, for he was still thinking about 'centres of creation' when he arrived in the Galapagos in September 183563, and still speaking of a Creator when he was musing about the lion-ant in Australia four months later64,65. His doubts about the immutability of species were first expressed when he was reorganising his notes some time between mid-June and August 1836, and writing about the Galapagos mocking birds Mimus thenca in his Ornithological Notes64,66, said:

[page] xx Introduction

'These birds are closely allied in appearance to the Thenca of Chile or Callandra of La Plata. In their habits I cannot point out a single difference. They are lively, inquisitive, active, run fast, frequent houses to pick the meat of the Tortoise which is hung up, sing tolerably well; are said to build a simple open nest; are very tame, a character in common with the other birds. I imagined however its note or cry was rather different from the Thenca of Chile? Are very abundant over the whole Island; are chiefly tempted up into the high & damp parts by the houses & cleared land. I have specimens from four of the larger Islands: the two above enumerated [males from Charles and Chatham Islands]; a female from Albemarle Isd. and a male from James Island. The specimens from Chatham & Albemarle Isd appear to be the same; but the other two are different. In each Isld each kind is exclusively found: habits of all are indistinguishable. When I recollect the fact that [from] the form of the body, shape of scales & general size, the Spaniards can at once pronounce from which Island any Tortoise may have been brought. When I see these Islands in sight of each other, & possessed of but a scanty stock of animals, tenanted by these birds but slightly differing in structure & filling the same place in Nature, I must suspect they are only varieties. The only fact of a similar kind of which I am aware is the constant asserted difference between the wolf-like Fox of East & West Falkland Islds. If there is the slightest foundation for these remarks the zoology of Archipelagoes will be well worth examining; for such facts would undermine the stability of Species.'

Nevertheless, several of the issues to which he often returned earlier may give some indication as to how, albeit subconsciously, his ideas about evolution were taking shape. Thus he always asked himself whether the rats and mice, and other domestic animals, were indigenous or introduced species, and how much variation they displayed. Finding a rat on Goriti Island near Maldonado, he thought (see p. 171) because of its huge size and habits that it was 'an aboriginal', but the final decision67 was that it was an extra large variety of the European Mus decumanus. A similar problem arose in relation to the black rabbits and other animals found in the Falkland Islands (see p. 209), but the rabbits had been released by early settlers68 and resembled 'the cattle & horses, which are of as varying color as a herd in England'. CD once more thought that the mice were indigenous, but his specimens were eventually identified69 as a variety of the European Mus musculus. It was clear on the other hand that no foxes had been introduced, and like three mainland species Canis magellicanus, C. fulvipes and C. azarae that he collected in Chile and Argentina, the two varieties of the Falkland fox C. antarcticus70 proved to be indigenous. They were, however, all too approachable, and CD concluded: 'very soon these confident animals must all be killed: How little evidence will then remain of what appears to me to be a centre of creation.' In Ynche Island in the Chonos Archipelago (see p. 281) he found 'very many wild goats' whose 'color was pretty uniform' and which were evidently 'retrograding into their original figure & kind'.

Again, he was always assiduous in collecting the parasites of his specimens of all kinds, and having collected the lice from the native guinea-pig known as Aperea in Maldonado, commented (see p. 340):

[page] xxi Introduction

'it would be interesting to compare these parasites with those inhabiting an Europæan individual to observe whether they have been altered by transportation: It would be curious to make analogous observation with respect to various tribes of men.'

Later he collected a louse in Chiloe (see p. 283) that he considered to be identical with those carried by the Patagonians at Gregory Bay, and quoted evidence from a surgeon from an English whaler for the existence of differences with those of Europeans; but this has not been confirmed71. Two of the first specimens that he collected in the Galapagos (see p. 412) were Acari from a marine iguana and from the Pudenda of a tortoise. He did not confine himself to vertebrate parasites, but also (see p. 87) noted their presence in the body cavity of a ctenophore.

He also took a particular interest in coprophagous beetles. Noting in Maldonado (see p. 175) 'the ample repast afforded by the immense herds of horses & cattle almost untouched', he continued:

'This absence of Coprophagous beetles appears to me to be a very beautiful fact; as showing a connection in the creating between animals as widely apart as Mammalia & Insects. Coleoptera, which when one of them is removed out of its original Zone, can scarcely be produced by a length of time & the most favourable circumstances.— The same subject of investigation will recur in Australia: If proofs were wanting to show the Horse & Ox to be aboriginals of great Britain I think the very presence of so many species of insects feeding on their dung, would be a very strong one.'

And commenting much later on specimen 3819 (not in spirits) he said:

'Very common beetle beneath dung on higher parts of St Helena. This is the most extraordinary instance yet met with of transportal or change in habits of stercovorous insects.'

In Australia the native beetles turned out to be largely restricted to wooded rather than pastoral areas, so that as in Maldonado the dung of cattle and horses remained uneaten. However, the several species of Scarabaeidae that CD found in Tasmania under the dung of cows (see p. 234) were probably native to the island, and had no difficulty in adjusting themselves to a new and copious supply of food. Not until the 1960s were programmes set up by CSIRO for the introduction of dung beetles from Africa and Europe to Australia in order to control dung-breeding pests of cattle and man, and at the same time to bury more dung with consequent improvement of the pasture72. The dung beetles in St Helena were presumably of African origin, and able to make do with mouse dung.

A further theme with obvious implications for the species problem was the geographical distribution of different species, and their isolation on islands or by mountain ranges. Arriving at the Falkland Islands for the first time on 1 March 1833, just after the British flag had first been hoisted, he found it 'one of the quietest places we have ever been to', and with all the boats away had little to occupy him except for his thoughts. These he noted down in his pocketbook, and they include the following queries and comments73:

[page] xxii Introduction

'March 2. Falkland—

To what animals did the dung beetles in S. America belong — Is not the closer connection of insects and plants as well as this fact point out closer connection than Migration.

Scarcity of Aphidians?

The peat not forming at present & but little of the Bog Plants of Tierra del F; no moss; perhaps decaying vegetables may slowly increase it. — beds ranging from 10 to one foot thick.

Great scarcity in Tierra del of Corallines, supplanted by Fuci: Clytra prevailing genus.

Tuesday 12th

Examine Balanus in fresh water beneath high water mark.

Horses fond of catching cattle — aberration of instinct.

Examine pits for Peat. Specimen of do — Have there been any bones ever found &c or Timber.

Are there any reptiles? or Limestone?

21st

Saw a cormorant catch a fish & let it go 8 times successively like a cat does a mouse or otter a fish; & extreme wildness of shags.

22nd.

East of basin, peat above 12 feet thick resting on clay, & now eaten by the sea. Lower parts very compact, but not so good to burn as higher up; small bones are found in it like Rats — argument for original inhabitants: from big bones must be forming at present, but very slowly: Fossils in Slate: opposite points of dip: & mistake of stratification: What has become of lime?

It will be interesting to observe differences of species & proportionate Numbers: what also appear characters of different habitations.

Migration of geese in Falkland Islands as connected with Rio Negro?'

There are not many direct references in the Zoology Notes themselves to the geographical distribution of different species of mammals and birds except (see pp. 188-90) in the case of the ostrich that CD called the 'Avestruz Petise'. This was named Rhea Darwinii by Gould, when he mounted the specimen shot by Conrad Martens at Port Desire in January 183474, which was partly eaten before CD had realised that it belonged to a smaller and darker species than the R. Americana, that was common further to the north. The two birds came to provide the best known example of the manner in which closely related species with overlapping ranges replaced one another in proceeding southwards over the continent. There was next an essay written on board the Beagle in 1834 by CD75 entitled 'Reflection on reading my Geological Notes', in which he developed a narrative framework for the history of life on the continent, and listed the mammals that could reasonably have migrated sequentially southwards from their northern original homes. And in two relevant notes on some of the birds of Chile76 he wrote:

'These forms appear to our eyes singular to be the common birds throughout an extensive country. In T. del Fuego the Certhia & Troglodytes were the two most abundant kinds. In central Chile both are found, but extremely few in numbers. In that

[page] xxiii Introduction

country (& in a like manner in a like case in other countries) one is apt to feel surprise that a species should have been created, which appears doomed to play so very insignificant a part in the great scheme of nature. One forgets that these same beings may be the most common in some other region, or might have been so in some anterior period, when circumstances were different. Remove the Southern extremity of America, & who would have supposed that Certhia, Troglodytes, Myothera, Furnarius had been the common birds over a great country.'

and

'It appears to me, that when the lists & collections of birds made in the different parts of S. Southern America are compared, a large number will be found to have surprisingly large geographic ranges. No doubt the similarity in physical constitution of the country; over T. del Fuego & the whole west coast as far north as Concepcion; & again between Patagonia, the lofty valleys of the Cordillera, & northern Chili; & lastly but in a much lesser degree between La Plata & central Chili, is the chief cause of this fact. I should observe, that in the few cases where I have spoken of Lima (Lat 12°) as the Northern Habitat of any species; it is probable that the real boundary lies ten degrees further north (near C. Blanco), where the arid open country of Peru is converted into the magnificent forest land of Guyaquil.'

It is probable, however, that these passages were added to the Ornithological Notes shortly after the return of the Beagle to England. For in a document now filed with his unpublished Beagle Animal (i.e. mammal) Notes77, he drew up long lists of the closely related birds and mammals found on the east and west sides of the Andes, and considered possible reasons for their distribution. The Animal Notes were headed 'Gt Malbro' [St], where starting on 13 March 1837 he lived for 21 months in furnished rooms with his secretary and servant Syms Covington, so that such material belongs strictly to the period after the end of the voyage when he had already begun to develop his ideas on the transmutation of species. Never-theless, the role of geographical distribution was clearly in his thoughts very early on.

The second field of biology to whose establishment CD made major contributions was the study of animal behaviour78,79. Most significantly, he appreciated from the start that behaviour was an important factor to be taken into account in identifying a species, as in the case mentioned on p. 50 of the butterflies which shuffled to one side, '& which from appearance & habits were I am sure the same species'. The following year (see p. 211) he noted that the carrion-feeding hawk caracara had a 'connection in habit as well as in structure with true Hawks'. Other examples could be quoted, and it was possibly the close similarity in habits of the various Geospizinae in the Galapagos except for the cactus finch (see p. 297), that deterred him from appreciating their significance when he saw them, though at the same time it was behavioural differences between the mainland species of mocking bird that had led him to distinguish Mimus orpheus in Monte Video from M. patagonicus on the Rio Santa Cruz.

There are many vivid descriptions of the behaviour of animals at all levels, from the ants in Bahia (see p. 29), through spiders spinning their webs and wasps preying on them (see p. 38), the 'monstrous' coconut crabs in the Cocos Keeling Islands (see p. 311), penguins and

[page] xxiv Introduction

steamer-ducks in the Falklands (see p. 213), to the herds of guanaco on the pampas (see p. 181-2). CD's speculations on the underlying reasons, such as the attribution to an instinct 'to find new countries' that leads flocks of butterflies to fly out to sea (see p. 121), are not always successful. The motivation of the biscatche for collecting large piles of rubbish in front of their holes (see pp. 180-1) is described in more anthropomorphic terms than would be acceptable today, but this does not detract from the liveliness of his accounts, nor from his purposeful correlation of behaviour with details of structure and environment.

In this field, as in all else, CD was a superbly skilful and accurate observer who thanks to his intensely analytical approach invariably made a highly effective use of the opportunities offered to him, whether to conduct studies of the comparative anatomy of marine invertebrates, or to examine the distribution, ecology and behaviour of a wide range of terrestrial animals. He was thus enabled to examine the animals occupying many different environments, and had the very good fortune to be taken by the Beagle to the Galapagos, which turned out eventually to be an ideal place, rivalled only by Hawaii and Madagascar, for studying the evolution of new species in isolated islands. In addition, the Beagle landed him at places where exceptionally informative fossils were lodged in the cliffs, and enabled him to visit the Andes and the coastal plains on either side of the continent where there was much for a geologist to learn about the formation of a mountain range and the accompanying rise and fall of the land. It might not be an exaggeration to say that he was exposed in those five years to more new facts than any previous scientist, and such were his talent for observation and his genius afterwards to arrive by hard thinking at fundamentally new explanations for what he had seen, that On the Origin of Species was the inevitable outcome.

CD himself summed up the whole story rather nicely in a letter to his sister Catherine written from Maldonado on 22 May 183380:

'I am quite delighted to find the hide of the Megatherium has given you all some little interest in my employments. These fragments are not however by any means the most valuable of the Geological relics. I trust & believe that the time spent in this voyage, if thrown away for all other respects, will produce its full worth in Nat: History. And it appears to me the doing what little one can to encrease the general stock of knowledge is as respectable an object of life as one can in any likelihood pursue. It is more the result of such reflections (as I have already said) than much immediate pleasure which now makes me continue the voyage. Together with the glorious prospect of the future, when passing the Straits of Magellan, we have in truth the world before us. Think of the Andes; the luxuriant forest of the Guayquil; the islands of the South Sea & new South Wale[s]. How many magnificent & characteristic views, how many & curious tribes of men we shall see. What fine opportunities for geology & for studying the infinite host of living beings: is not this a prospect to keep up the most flagging spirit? If I was to throw it away, I don't think I should ever rest quiet in my grave: I certainly should be a ghost & haunt the Brit. Museum.'

So now let his Zoology Notes speak for themselves.

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Endnotes to Introduction

1 Beagle Diary p. 4.

2 In June 1833 the Captain gave him all the drawers in the poop cabin formerly belonging to John Lort Stokes, mate and surveyor, so that he had it to himself (see Correspondence 1:313); and to accommodate his specimens, he had in addition a very small cabin under the forecastle. See Vol. 1, pp. 218-24 of The life and letters of Charles Darwin. Edited by Francis Darwin. John Murray, 1887.

3 Narrative 1:385.

4 R. Fitz-Roy (1836) Sketch of the Surveying Voyages of his Majesty's Ships Adventure and Beagle, 1825-1836. J. Royal Geog. Soc. Lond. 6:311-43.

5 Cambridge University Library MSS: DAR 32-3 Diary of observations on the geology of the places visited during the voyage. Parts I and II; DAR 34-8 Notes on the geology of the places visited during the voyage: maps, etc. Parts I-V.

6 Nora Barlow, ed. Darwin and Henslow. The growth of an idea. Letters 1831-1860. John Murray, 1967; and Correspondence 1.

7 Charles Darwin (read 7 March 1838) On the connexion of certain volcanic phenomena in South America; and on the formation of mountain chains and volcanos, as the effect of the same power by which continents are elevated. Transactions of the Geological Society of London, 2nd ser. pt. 3, 5 (1840):601-31. Reprinted in Collected Papers 1:53-86.

8 Narrative 3.

9 Journal of Researches 1.

10 Journal of Researches 2.

11 The structure and distribution of coral reefs etc. Also Geological observations on the volcanic islands visited during the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle etc. And Geological observations on South America etc. London, Smith Elder and Co.

12 Autobiography p. 116.

13 Correspondence 1:379-82.

14 Correspondence 1:315-17.

15 Autobiography pp. 77-8.

16 Sandra Herbert (1991) Charles Darwin as a prospective geological author. British Journal of the History of Science 24:159-92. And see also Sandra Herbert (1977) The place of man in the development of Darwin's Theory of Transmutation. Part II. Journal of the History of Biology 10:155-227.

17 Beagle Diary pp. 22-7.

18 Autobiography p. 159.

19 Correspondence 6:514.

20 Autobiography p. 119.

21 Beagle Diary p. 21, and letter from John Coldstream of 13 September 1831 in Correspondence 1:151-3.

22 In the Zoology Notes the supply of paper with a red marginal line seems to have been exhausted at CD P. 315.

23 Autobiography pp. 77-8.

24 Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 44:i-xxv (1888).

25 This instrument, manufactured by Bancks & Son of 119 New Bond Street, had been recommended to him by Robert Brown. See letters to Susan Darwin of 6 September 1831, and to W.D. Fox of 23 May 1833, in Correspondence 1:143-5 and 315-17.

[page] xxvi Introduction

26 Robert Edmond Grant (1793-1874) was a local physician and lecturer in comparative anatomy at Edinburgh University when CD was a student there in 1825-1827, and was Professor of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy at University College London 1827-1874. CD accompanied him on local expeditions around Edinburgh, and was closely associated with his researches on marine invertebrates.

27 Cambridge University Library MS DAR 118.

28 For a list of the books on board the Beagle see Correspondence 1:553-66.

29 Q. Bone, H. Kapp and A.C. Pierrot-Bults (1991) The Biology of Chaetognaths. Oxford University Press. See also C. Nielsen (1995) Animal Evolution. Inter-relationships of the Living Phyla. Oxford University Press.

30 Charles Darwin (1844) Observations on the Structure and Propagation of the Genus Sagitta. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, including Zoology, Botany, and Geology 13:1-6. Reprinted in Collected Papers 1:177-82.

31 A monograph on the sub-class Cirripedia, with figures of all the species. Vol. I. The Lepadidae, or pedunculated Cirripedes. Vol. II. The Balanidae, or sessile Cirripedes; the Verrucidae, etc., etc., etc. The Ray Society, London, 1851 and 1854.

32 John V. Thompson (1830) Memoir IV. On the Cirripedes or Barnacles; demonstrating their deceptive character; the extraordinary Metamorphosis they undergo, and the Class of Animals to which they indisputably belong. Zoological Researches and Illustrations . . . King and Ridings, Cork.

33 John Ellis (1755) An essay towards a natural history of the corallines, and other marine productions of the like kind, commonly found on the coasts of Great Britain and Ireland. To which is added the description of a large marine polype. London, 1755.

34 R.E. Grant (1827) Observations on the Structure and Nature of Flustræ. Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal 3:107-18; 337-42. The paper was read before the Wernerian Natural History Society on 24 March 1827, three days before CD presented the contribution of his own to the Plinian Society that is reproduced in Collected Papers 2:285-91.

35 John V. Thompson (1830) Memoir V. On Polyzoa, a new animal discovered as an inhabitant of some Zoophites — with a description of the newly instituted Genera of Pedicellaria and Vesicularia, and their Species. Zoological Researches and Illustrations . . . King and Ridings, Cork.

36 John Ryland (1970) Bryozoans. Hutchinson, London.

37 Edward Griffith and others. The animal kingdom arranged in conformity with its organization by the Baron Cuvier . . . with supplementary additions to each order. 16 vols. Edinburgh, 1827-35. See also Cuvier, 2nd edition, vols. 4, 5.

38 S.F. Harmer (1862-1950), later Sir Sidney Harmer FRS, was in 1901 Superintendent of the University Museum of Zoology in Cambridge, when with the aid of CD's Specimen lists lent to him by Francis Darwin he identified a number of the specimens of marine invertebrates presented some years earlier to the Museum.

39 Journal of Researches 1:258-62 and 2:201-3.

40 Judith Winston (1984) Why bryozoans have avicularia — a review of the evidence. Novitates No. 2789. American Museum of Natural History, New York.

41 Lamouroux p. 66.

[page] xxvii Introduction

42 Letter from CD to Henslow of 24 July to 7 November 1834 in Correspondence 1:397-403.

43 Plant Notes pp. 194-5.

44 Letter from CD to Catherine of 20-29 July 1834 in Correspondence 1:391-4.

45 Phillip R. Sloan (1985) Darwin's invertebrate program, 1826-1836: Preconditions for transformism. Chapter 3, pp. 71-120 in The Darwinian Heritage, edited by David Kohn. Princeton University Press.

46 This has turned out not to be entirely true, since calcification of the zooids is characteristic of the Cheilostomata as opposed to the Ctenostomata.

47 The first four of these are indeed bryozoans, but Milleporae are hydrocorals.

48 Clytia, formerly included with bryozoans among the Sertularians, is a hydrozoan of order Leptothecata.

49 In a Memoir sent by CD to W.H. Harvey at the Herbarium of Trinity College Dublin on 7 April 1847 (Correspondence 4:29) he said of observations made at Bahia on either the coralline alga Melobesia or on Halimeda in August 1836 that 'on several occasions having kept vigorous tufts of articulated Nulliporæ in sea-water in sun-light, it appeared as if a good deal of gas was exhaled; it wd be curious to ascertain what this is.' That bubbles of oxygen were released under such conditions had first been observed by Joseph Priestley in 1777, and was described more fully in 1779 by Jan Ingen-Housz in his book on Experiments on Vegetables.

50 Virgularia is a sea pen, a hydrozoan octocoral of order Pennatulacea.

51 Corallium is a brightly coloured octocoral of order Gorgonacea, but no specimen is recorded in the Zoology Notes or Specimen Lists.

52 CD's Crisia was not in fact this genus, but the anascan bryozoan Caberea minima, the coordinated movements of whose vibracula he described very nicely.

53 Bioluminescence is indeed common in cnidarians, and its propagation is controlled by their primitive nervous systems.

54 CD has here concluded perceptively that the coordinated movements of the vibracula in a bryozoan, the flashes of light in the thecate hydroid Clytia and the coral Virgularia, and the spread of injury in another coral and the tunicate Synoicum, indicate that all these 'heterogenious' animals must somehow be capable of internal communication between their individual polyps, and therefore heralds the first appearance of nervous systems in the eumetazoa. (See, for example, Chapter 9 by J.P. Thorpe on Bryozoa in Electrical conduction and behaviour in "simple" invertebrates, edited by G.A.B. Shelton. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1982.) This crucial stage in the evolution of higher animals was reached in the cnidarians some 550 Ma ago (see Bertil Hille (1992) Evolution and diversity. Chapter 20 in Ionic channels of excitable membranes. 2nd edition. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Massachusetts.) It has also been pointed out recently by Richard Keynes & Fredrik Elinder (1999) The screw-helical voltage gating of ion channels. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 266:843-852 that across the whole of the animal kingdom, voltage-gated ion channels of every type have genes in which several critical features have been perfectly conserved since that same era, though CD's addition of bryozoans to the list of animals that possess primitive nervous systems remains to be followed up by a detailed examination of the innervation of avicularia and vibracula, and by the cDNA sequencing of the ion channels in their nerve fibres.

55 Lobularia is a soft coral of order Alcyonacea, dead men's fingers, in which the

[page] xxviii Introduction

coenenchyme is sclerite-filled.

56 Tubularia is not a bryozoan, but a hydroid of suborder Anthoathecata.

57 Letter from CD to Caroline Darwin of 24 October 1836 in Correspondence 1:509-10.

58 Autobiography p. 49.

59 Sandra Herbert (ed.) (1980) The Red Notebook of Charles Darwin. British Museum (Natural History) and Cornell University Press.

60 Paul H. Barrett, Peter J. Gautrey, Sandra Herbert, David Kohn and Sydney Smith (eds.) (1987) Charles Darwin's Notebooks, 1836-1844. British Museum (Natural History) and Cambridge University Press.

61 Charles Darwin (1844) Brief descriptions of several terrestrial Planariae, and of some remarkable marine species, with an account of their habits. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, including Zoology, Botany and Geology 14:241-51. Reprinted in Collected Papers 1:182-93.

62 See entry for Specimen 875 (not in spirits); and Journal of Researches 2:158-9; also Insect Notes pp. 66-7.

63 Beagle Diary p. 356.

64 R.D. Keynes (1997) Steps on the path to the Origin of Species. Journal of Theoretical Biology. 187:461-71.

65 Beagle Diary pp. 402-3.

66 Ornithological Notes p. 262.

67 Zoology 2:31-4.

68 Zoology 2:92.

69 Zoology 2:38.

70 Zoology 2:7-16.

71 Insect Notes pp. 43-4 and 88.

72 Information provided by Lindsay Barton Browne, formerly leader of the CSIRO program on 'Biological control of dung and dung breeding flies'. Dung beetles from southern Africa were introduced in northern Australia with limited success to control the buffalo fly, a blood sucking pest of cattle, and with greater success European beetles were introduced in south-eastern Australia to control another dung-breeding nuisance pest of man and cattle, the bushfly.

73 Beagle Diary pp. 144-9; and CD and the voyage pp. 177-9.

74 Beagle Diary p. 212; Ornithological Notes pp. 268-76; and Zoology 3:123-5.

75 Sandra Herbert (1995) From Charles Darwin's portfolio: an early essay on South American geology and species. Earth Sciences History 14:23-36.

76 Ornithological Notes pp. 259-60.

77 Cambridge University Library MS DAR 29.1.

78 Richard Burkhardt (1985) Darwin on animal behaviour and evolution. Darwinian Heritage Chapter 13, pp. 327-65.

79 Patrick Armstrong Darwin's Desolate Islands: a Naturalist in the Falklands, 1833 and 1834. Picton Publishing (Chippenham) Ltd., 1992. Also: An ethologist aboard HMS Beagle: the young Darwin's observations on animal behaviour. Journal of the History of the Behavioural Sciences 29:339-44, 1993.

80 Letter from CD to Catherine Darwin of 22 May-14 July 1833 in Correspondence 1:311-15.

[page xxix]

Acknowledgements

I am grateful to George Pember Darwin for permission to publish Charles Darwin's Zoology Notes, the lists of Specimens collected by him during the voyage of HMS Beagle, 1831-1836, and the portrait painted by George Richmond in 1840. I also thank the Syndics of the Cambridge University Library for making available MSS DAR 30 and 31 of the Zoology Notes and other papers, English Heritage for making available the Beagle Specimen Lists at Down House, the Cambridge University Zoology Museum for making available notes on CD's specimens by Leonard Jenyns and S.F. Harmer, and the Zoology Library of the Natural History Museum for making available MS 89FD containing Thomas Bell's notes on CD's amphibia and reptiles.

I once again wish to thank the editors of The Correspondence of Charles Darwin for setting such impeccably high standards for the transcription and publication of Darwin's manuscripts, and for their Volume 1 for Appendix II on the listing of Darwin's Beagle records, and Appendix IV on the books on board the Beagle. Frederick Burkhardt, Duncan Porter and Sandra Herbert gave me invaluable help and advice on a variety of editorial questions, and Duncan Porter was kind enough to check the proofs of the final text. Arieh Lew and Nigel Stevens advised me on computer programming problems and on the preparation of a camera ready text for the printers. Godfrey Waller and other members of the staff of the Cambridge University Library were most helpful at all times in providing rapid access to the original manuscripts of the Notes, Specimen Lists and other Darwin papers, and to annotated books from CD's own library. Clare Osbourn did the same for books in the Balfour Library that I needed to consult. The cost of obtaining copyflow prints from microfilms of the Notes and of the Specimen Lists was met by a grant from the Darwin Fund of the Royal Society.

My deepest indebtedness is to the biologists, taxonomists and other specialists in various parts of the world who gave me so much of their time in advising on the probable identity of the many marine and terrestrial invertebrates and some cold-blooded vertebrates that were studied by CD during the voyage, but for whose identification he was unable to recruit any specialists when the Beagle returned to England. They included Federico Achaval, Lindsay Barton Browne, John Bishop, Quentin Bone, Jean Bouillon, Geoffrey Boxshall, David Briggs, Lester Cannon, Paul Clark, Paul Cornelius, Greg Estes, Yves Finet, Adrian Friday, David George, Peter Grant, Eileen Harris, Paul Hilliard, Roger Lincoln, Colin McCarthy, Jenny Mallinson, Gillian Mapstone, John Parnell, Robert Prys-Jones, Brian Rosen, Frank Rowe, Richard Sabin, Roy Sawyer, Michael Schr¤l, Jim Secord, Sharon Shute, Mary Spencer-Jones, Frank Steinheimer, John Topham, Kathie Way and Leigh Winsor. The responsibility is, however, mine alone for any errors in the final choices of species, genera, families and orders to which CD's specimens have been assigned. My last but not least acknowledgement is due to my wife for the forbearance and patience that she has exercised during the years that have been devoted to the transcription and editing of this volume.

[page xxx]

Note on editorial policy

My aim has been to adopt the majority of the practices laid down and explained in full by the editors of The Correspondence of Charles Darwin, introducing a few changes only in the interests of making the text as easily readable as possible. One departure from convention has been to retain CD's underlining and double underlining as it stands in the manuscript, reserving italics to be used in the customary way in the footnotes for the Latin names of genera and species in former or current use. Liberties have been taken where necessary with CD's sometimes erratic punctuation, further complicated by the not infrequent dots, which have been omitted when they can reasonably be regarded as 'pen rests', but have otherwise been retained as commas or full stops according to the sense of the passage. CD's own idiosyncratic spelling of words such as broard and throughily is always preserved, but mistakes that are clearly a slip of the pen have been corrected, and missing letters have been inserted in square brackets. Where there is doubt, and there is no difficulty in deciding what his intention should have been, for example in the case of adding the final s to the plural of a noun, I have given him the benefit of it. Where it is hard to decide whether a word starts with a lower case or a capital letter, I have used a capital in the cases of proper names and places. His abbreviations appear as nearly as possible as they are written, with '&' almost invariably used in place of 'and'. Relatively few words have been crossed out by CD during the writing, and such corrections have been retained in the text rather than listing them separately, as has any later over-writing of a single letter. Round brackets used occasionally by CD are retained. Editorial interpolations are in square brackets. Italic square brackets enclose conjectured readings and descriptions of illegible passages. Material that is irrecoverable because the manuscript has been torn or damaged is indicated by angle brackets < >, and any text within them is the editor's. CD's paragraphing has in general been retained, with a fresh paragraph for each new entry, except that for entries running for more than a page, breaks have sometimes been introduced when the subject changes, in order to avoid overlong paragraphs.

A number of pages of the text have later been lined through vertically, not because CD wished to delete them, but to indicate that the material had been incorporated in a subsequent publication.

Many important footnotes, identified in the margin as (a), (b), (c) etc. placed opposite the passages to which they refer, were added later by CD, generally on the back of the page on which he had been writing. Those that were clearly almost immediate afterthoughts or corrections have been incorporated at the most appropriate point in the text itself. Those that were evidently written at a later, though not always recorded date, have been distinguished by their relegation to separate paragraphs.

The pages were numbered right and left at the top of each page, generally with the year in the margin beneath, and the month beside it, with the place in the centre of the page. The topic was always entered, underlined, in the margin at the head of each page. The year, month and place appear in the headings of each of the printed pages, as far as possible retaining CD's description of the place. CD's not infrequent cross referencing to his own pages is entered in heavy type as 'CD P. 00', as are editorial references to places in the manuscript where the text continues after the insertion of one of his notes, or a group of

[page] xxxi Note on editorial policy

editorial footnotes. The pagination of the manuscript is shown by the numbers in heavy type between vertical lines, thus |000|.

[page xxxii]

Principal sources of references

 

Journal of Researches 1

1st edition: Narrative of the surveying voyages of His Majesty's Ships Adventure and Beagle, between the years 1826 and 1836, describing their examination of the southern shores of South America, and the Beagle's circumnavigation of the globe. Volume III. Journal and remarks. 1832-1836. By Charles Darwin Esq., M.A. Sec. Geol. Soc. Henry Colburn, London, 1839.

Journal of Researches 2

2nd edition: Journal of Researches into the Natural History and Geology of the Countries visited during the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle under the Command of Capt. Fitz Roy, R.N. By Charles Darwin, M.A., F.R.S. John Murray, London, 1845.

Zoology 1

The zoology of the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle under the command of Captain FitzRoy, R.N., during the years 1832 to 1836. Edited and superintended by Charles Darwin, Esq. M.A. F.R.S. Sec. G.S. Naturalist to the expedition. Part I. Fossil mammalia: by Richard Owen, Esq. F.R.S. Smith, Elder and Co., London, 1840.

Zoology 2

The zoology of the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle . . . . Part II. Mammalia by George R. Waterhouse, Esq. Smith, Elder and Co., London, 1839.

Zoology 3

The zoology of the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle . . . . Part III. Birds, by John Gould, Esq. F.L.S. Smith, Elder and Co., London, 1841.

Zoology 4

The zoology of the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle . . . . Part IV. Fish, by The Rev. Leonard Jenyns, M.A., F.L.S. Smith, Elder and Co., London, 1842.

Zoology 5

The zoology of the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle . . . . Part V. Reptiles, by Thomas Bell, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S. Smith, Elder and Co., London, 1843.

Cirripedia

A monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, with figures of all the species. The Balanidæ, (or sessile cirripedes); the Verrucidæ, etc., etc., etc. By Charles Darwin, F.R.S., F.G.S. The Ray Society, London, 1854.

Planaria

Brief descriptions of several terrestrial Planariae, and of some remarkable marine species, with an account of their habits. By Charles Darwin. Annals and Magazine of Natural

[page] xxxiii Principal sources of references

History, including Zoology, Botany, and Geology 14:241-51 (1844). Reprinted in Collected papers 1:182-93.

Origin of Species

On the Origin of Species by means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. By Charles Darwin. John Murray, London, 1859.

Beagle Diary

Charles Darwin's Beagle Diary. Edited by Richard Darwin Keynes. Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Beagle Record

The Beagle Record. Selections from the original pictorial records and written accounts of the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle. Edited by Richard Darwin Keynes. Cambridge University Press, 1979.

Ornithological Notes

Darwin's Ornithological Notes. Edited by Nora Barlow. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Historical Series. Vol. 2(7):201-278. 1963.

Insect Notes

Darwin's Insects. Edited by Kenneth G.V. Smith. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Historical Series. Vol. 14(1):1-123. 1987.

Plant Notes

Darwin's notes on Beagle plants. Edited by Duncan M. Porter. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Historical Series. Vol. 14(2):145-233. 1987.

Oxford Collections

Charles Darwin's Beagle collections in the Oxford University Museum. Edited by Gordon Chancellor, Angelo DiMauro, Ray Ingle and Gillian King. Archives of Natural History Vol. 15:197-231. 1988.

Autobiography

The Autobiography of Charles Darwin 1809-1882. Edited by Nora Barlow. Collins, London, 1958.

CD and the Voyage

Charles Darwin and the Voyage of the Beagle. Edited by Nora Barlow. Collins, London, 1945.

Collected papers 1 and 2

The Collected Papers of Charles Darwin. Edited by Paul H. Barrett. 2 vols. University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London, 1977.

[page] xxxiv Principal sources of references

Narrative

Narrative of the surveying voyages of His Majesty's Ships Adventure and Beagle, between the years 1826 and 1836, describing their examination of the southern shores of South America, and the Beagle's circumnavigation of the Globe. 3 Vols and an Appendix. Henry Colburn, 1839.

Correspondence 1 - 6

The Correspondence of Charles Darwin. Edited by Frederick Burkhardt and Sydney Smith. Vol. 1. 1821-1836. Vol. 6. 1856-1857. Cambridge University Press, 1985-1990.

Cuvier

Le règne animale. By Georges Cuvier. 2d edition. 5 vols. Paris, 1829-30.

Darwinian Heritage

The Darwinian Heritage. Edited by David Kohn. Princeton University Press, 1985.

Dic. Class.

Dictionnaire Classique d'histoire naturelle. Edited by Jean Baptiste Genevieve Marcellin Bory de Saint-Vincent. 17 vols. Paris, 1822-31.

Dic. Sciences Naturelles

Dictionnaire des sciences naturelles. Edited by H.M.D. de Blainville, A-G.Desmarest and plusieurs Professeurs du Jardin du Roi.? vols. Paris, 1816-30.

Lamarck

Histoire naturelle des animaux sans vertèbres. By Jean Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet de Lamarck. 7 vols. Paris, 1815-22.

Lamouroux

Exposition méthodique des genres de l'ordre des polypiers. By Jean Vincent Félix Lamouroux. Paris, 1821.

Rang

Manuel de l'histoire naturelle des mollusques et leurs coquilles. By Sander Rang. Paris, 1829.

[page 1]

Charles Darwin's Beagle

Zoology Notes

1832-1836

[page 2]

[page] 3

[CD P. 1 commences]

Jan. 6th (a)1

Santa Cruz

Luminous

Sea

The sea was luminous in specks & in <the> wake of the vessel of an uniform slight milky colour.— When the wa<ter> was put into a bottle it gave o<ut> sparks for some few minutes after having been drawn up.— When exa<mined> both at night & next morning, it wa<s> found full of numerous small (but ma<ny> bits visible to naked eye) irregular pieces of (a gelatinous?) matter.— The sea next morning was in the sa<me> place equally impure.—

Jan 10th (b)

 

Lat. 21. Sea very luminous, chiefly from a crustace<an> animal, which gave a very green ligh<t>, retaining [it] for some time after having been taken out of water.—2

Jan 11th. (c)

Velella3

V. A (3)

Lat 22°. A & B represent a beautiful little animal, magnified about 4 [crossed out] 5 times its size:— A is the animal expanded: B partially closed.— 1 is flat circul<ar> membrane: 2 a mantle, which the animal i<s> perpetually folding & unfolding: 3 retractile ten<tacula>.

Do. (d)

V. A (4)

Medusa4

Allied to the Medusae (?). 1, a transparent membranous bag, with the lower margin sinuous: 2, [drawing hanging down in centre, coloured illegible] slightly red or purple: 3, four tentacula with adher<ing> cups at the ends.— Magnified about 10 times.

Do. (e)

Physalia5

 

Caught a Portugeese Man of War, Physalia.— get<ting> some of the slime on my finger from the fila<ments> it gave considerable pain, & by accident putting my finger into my mouth, I experienced the |2| sensation that biting the root of the Arum produces.—

D.

Lat. 19 N

[note (D) added later at foot of P. 1] The animal is frequently seen with central depending part up & unfolded, like a [n up] right cork: tentacula & arm twisted bene<ath.> [note ends]

Jan 11th (a)

Limacina6

Limacina moving itself by the rapid motion of its expanded arm.—

Do. (b)

Lat. 21°N

PL: 1, Fig: 1.— A very simple animal7: A. nat: size: B magnified:— E about 7 or 8 bristles on each side of the head with which the animal frequently clasped its head: C, the head with the bristles folden over it: D: a granular substance, ova (?).—

 

[page] 4 TENERIFFE TO C. VERD ISLANDS JANUARY 1832

Plate 1, Figs. 1, 2, 3, 4

[page] 5 TENERIFFE TO C. VERD ISLANDS 1832 JANUARY

[note (b) added later on back of P. 1]

 

For more particulars Vide page (73) August 24th.—

A transverse section of the head gives an <words lost> the flat bunch of bristle are not placed at each end but rather nearer to each other.— In another specimen the granular mass (D) was absent.— But there was a much more transparent & less granular substance running up half way the animal from the tail.—

 

Description.— Animal transparent, membrane gelatinous: length .6 of inch: narrow: Head simple, rather wider than body: shape truncated cone with terminal orifice. on each side a flattened bunch of curved bristles about 8 in number, moveable & clasping mouth: Neck narrow. Body with thin vessel passing through centre.— Tapering towards the end [illeg. word] each side in some specim<ens> a small kidney shaped granular mass.— Extremity pointed, slightly downy.—

 

No. 1598

March 28th. few miles W of Abrolhos Island. 18°S Bottom at 20 fathoms! Caught great numbers of this animal In some, granular matter (D) was absent, in others it filled the whole tail or tapering extremity & from it were sent off 2 gut-shaped bags containing small grains or balls, larger than those at end.— There was an evident peristaltic motion in the internal tube or intestine: the animal could expan<d> this irregularly.— In the gut were curious small bodies, like beads strung to gether.— The animal moved through the water by starts, bending its body at the same time: could contract & shorten its self: has row of very fine hairs at tail sides of granular substance & middle <word lost>. [note ends]

 

[CD P. 2 continues]

Do. (c)

Lat. 22°N

V A (2)

Biphora9

The net came up with a great number of Biphoræ: when placed in water it was quite wonderful with what perfect regularity the animal contracted itself: from five observations with a second watch there were precisely 19 pulsations in every 30 seconds.— PL: 1, Fig: 2. — represent[s] a very rough drawing of the animal: E nat: size: AB. the tunic: the upper end of which has its margin labiate: A represents exactly the appearance of a lip: the lower end B is simple:— Embracing 2/3 of cylinder there are ten flattened striated tubes (c), which are seen to contract during pulsation of the animal.— This uniform motion, together with the partial closing of the end or valve A, must drive the water through the animal: & its reaction accounts for the jumping motion by which it swims in the water:— D. is an appendage with marks on one side as represented: there are I should think tubes for there was an evident rapid circulation going on in them: F. bristles (?) in rapid & continual motion.— the heart, the membrane from transparency not visible, certainly the heart is not much clearer in Creseis. |3|

[page] 6 TENERIFFE TO C. VERD ISLANDS JANUARY 1832

Jan 13th (a)

Lat 19°

(V (10))

Creseis10 (?) Shell straight, conic, length .15, fragile extremity, contracted with oval ball at end. siphon striated lateral. A, magnified figure. B, extremity.— [text of entry crossed through]

Jan 12th (b)

Lat 15°30'

Sea with numerous ova or rather balls of a brown granular substance in a gelatinous matter. [note (A) opposite] great number in a brown jelly invisible to the naked eye. [note ends]

1 CD initially used marginal letters in brackets for cross references to his Catalogues of Specimens (see p. 317), but after the first three pages of his notes, the marking (a) etc. in the margin was always used to indicate that a further note correspondingly labelled had been inserted later on the back of the page, or sometimes opposite.

2 It was on this day that CD used his plankton net for the first time, and drew a picture of it in his diary. See Beagle Diary p. 21.

3 In list of Specimens preserved in spirits, No. 3 was identified as Velella scaphidia? Velella is a pelagic hydroid, the by-the-wind sailor. Unfortunately the drawing to accompany the picture was only partly completed.

4 Another of the hydromedusae. The drawing was again not finished.

5 Physalia is a siphonophore common in the warm North Atlantic.

6 Limacina is a sea butterfly, a shelled pteropod of order Thecosomata.

7 The 'very simple animal' was identified only after the end of the voyage as a chaetognath or arrow-worm, probably Sagitta enflata. Chaetognaths are predacious on other planktonic animals, which are seized by grasping spines located on either side of the head. Specimen 159 in spirits, later renumbered 1480, captured off the Abrolhos at the end of March 1832, was identified at the Zoology Museum in Cambridge in 1901 by S.F. Harmer as 'Sev. Chaetognaths'. CD described the anatomy of chaetognaths observed later off the coast of Patagonia in the entry that appears on p. 70.

8 Numbers thus entered in the margin refer to the list in this case of Animals in Spirits of Wine.

9 Biphora is a name used by Cuvier in 1804, later replaced by Salpa, for thaliacian tunicates that include the chainlike salps. For later discussions of this animal see pp. 59-63.

10 Specimen No. 10 is identified in the list of Specimens not in Spirits as Creseis agrice rotundo, another sea butterfly. The modern name of the species is C. acicula.

 

[CD P. 3 continues]

[page] 7 ST JAGO 1832 JANUARY

Jan 16th (c)

20 miles NW

of St. Jago

(V A(10))

Vide PL: 1 Fig. 3 — a delicate Medusaria1 of a dirty orange colour: gelatinous, delicate, about .4 in diameter. A & B. represent a view from above: (a) is a long irregular narrow membrane, orange colour, terminating at (b) with four hole<s> on the umbrella. (c) an outside transparent membrane: C a view of bottom much magnified. at centre there are vermiform appendages.— beneath which is membrane (a).

Jan 16th (e)

Lat: 15°30'

82

PL: 1 Fig. 4: Physalia2 length .8.— (D). crest on the side. (E) part of it magnified.— F much magnified.— (A) tentacula about mouth. of two sorts. one small & bright blue. the other longer. reddish brown with dark spots.— (B) small process. (C) magnified.—

[the further entries for 16th Jan. concerned with volcanic dust have later been crossed through3]

16th Jany (f)

V. (11)

(B)

At 8 oclock this morning the vane was taken down from the mast head & found on the under side to be covered with a very impalpable soft yellow-brown dust.—3 It is probable it has been deposited lately as the ship has been on a tack for a day or two & this is the only way of accounting for the appearance of the dust on the lower side.— The dust under the blow pipe cakes & melts into black enamel: with soda gives a yellow one:— has a slight aluminous smell: under the microscope it is still quite impalpable.— It is probably of Volcanic origin:

 

(a)

Does not

Horsburg4

refer to

this

We are at present & were most part of yesterday |4| to the East of St Jago.— There was scarcely any wind this morning, but since noon of yesterday it has come from the East.— before which it was for 24 hour[s] E N E.— At noon of the 15th the Barom: stood at 30.16, by four oclock it had fallen .06.— it then rose gradually till this morning it was 30.2.— The weather generally has been light & fine, but very hazy. occasionally visible horizon. distant only one mile. There has been a long swell on the sea.— as if there had been not far off a heavy gale.— The dust might possibly have come from Mayo or Bonavista, but most probably owing to the wind from coast of Africa about Cape Verd.— I at first thought it might have been brought by the upper Equatorial current from some active Volcano.

(B)

April

1833

[note added later on back of P. 2] All the time we were at St Jago, this dust continued to fall so as to be a serious injury to astronomical instruments. Horsburgh4 in E India Directory P 11 mentions the misty state of the atmosphere between the Cape Verd islands & mainland, & gives it as a reason for Ships avoiding this passage.— This shows to how great an extent it happens.— Although the amount deposited in the ocean during a short period may be small, yet when we consider the extreme constancy of the trade winds, in the course of centuries it must be great.— The dust would seem to be formed from the abrasion of Volcanic rocks & in Geology of Quail island I show how hard a conglomerate is forming probably from the union of such decomposed rock with Lime.— May not this dust then be helping to consolidate (if mixed with other sediment) beds of mud at the bottom of the Atlantic. Aerial currents would not at first [be] supposed to be instrumental in geological changes.— (I see I have written this note twice) [notes end]

 

[page] 8 ST JAGO JANUARY 1832

[further notes labelled (a) added later on back of P. 3]

(a)

This fact of such quantities of Volcanic dust (& the wind in the island of St Jago constantly carried it to seaward to the great injury of fine astronomical instruments) must be in a great length of time of importance in a Geological point of view.— especially as it appears from the conglomerate at Quail Island is now forming from the union of Volcanic matter & lime from making so hard a matrix: perhaps at the bottom of the Atlantic it may form a hard rock.— The dust is formed at St Jago from the abrasion of the various Volcanic rocks:—

 

Mr Forbes when two miles from the coast of Africa found his sails covered with a brownish sand The wind had blown all night NE. The nearest land to the wind was the coast of Africa between C. Verd & the river Gambia.— Turners Sacred History P 149.5 (Note): This brown sand doubtless is Volcanic dust: the great distance is very curious, as showing over what an extent this Geological phenomenon is acting.—

 

Lieut. Arlett (Geograph Journ Vol ?)6 when surveying coast of Africa talks of quantity of dust: thinks water discoloured by it — Consult.— Charlottes statement about dust at Madeira.— Measure particles of dust transport of seeds of Cryptogams.— [notes end]

 

1 Hydromedusa, a jellyfish.

2 Portuguese man-of-war.

3 This entry and the accompanying notes have later been crossed through vertically, which was a practice adopted by CD for particular topics on which he eventually wrote papers such as 'An account of the fine dust which often falls on vessels in the Atlantic Ocean', read to the Geological Society on 4 June 1845 (Collected Papers 1:199-203). See also Journal of Researches 1:4, and letter from Robert Bastard James to Charles Lyell (Correspondence 2:77-8) about similar dust collected in 1838 on board H.M. Packet Brig Spey.

4 See James Horsburg. Directions for sailing to and from the East Indies, China, New Holland, Cape of Good Hope and the interjacent ports. 2 parts. London, 1809-11. In Beagle library.

5 See Sharon Turner. The sacred history of the world . . . Vol. 1. London, 1832. In Beagle library.

6 See W. Arlett 'Survey of some of the Canary Islands and of part of the Western coast of Africa' J. Roy. Geog. Soc. Lond. 6:296-310, 1836.

 

[page] 9 ST JAGO JANUARY 1832

[CD P. 4 continues, with next entries not crossed out]

St. Jago

Jan. 19th

(1)

 

I had occasion to climb a sand bank this morning, which if it had been much steeper I should not have succeded in doing.— It was inclined at an angle of 30°.— The sand was very fine & the greatest slightest motion set it rolling.— I have often observed on flat sea-coast the sand furrowed into small regular ridges: as if it was mocking the waves that daily washed it.— The same appearance was presented by this bank of sand, only that in this case the furrows were longitudinal, in stead of being as on the coast transvers to the line of inclination.— [note (1) on back of P. 3] The dirt collected in the bottom of a basin groups itself in same manner in a direction transverse to the motion of the fluid.— [note ends] |5|

Jan 28th

(a)

Octopus

 

Jan 28th

(1)

Found amongst the rocks West of Quail Island at low water an Octopus.— When first discovered he was in a hole & it was difficult to perceive what it was.— As soon as I drove him from his den he shot with great rapidity across the pool of water.— leaving in his train a large quantity of the ink.— even then when [added in margin] in shallow place it was difficult to catch him, for he twisted his body with great ease between the stones & by his suckers stuck very fast to them.— When in the water the animal was of a brownish purple, but immediately when on the beach the colour changed to a yellowish green.— When I had the animal in a basin of salt water on board this fact was explained by its having the Chamælion like power of changing the colour of its body.— The general colour of animal was French grey with numerous spots of bright yellow.— the former of these colours varied in intensity.— the other entirely disappeared & then again returned.— Over the whole body there were continually passing clouds, varying in colour from a "hyacinth red" to a "Chesnut brown"1.— As seen under a lens these clouds consisted of minute points apparently injected with a coloured fluid. The whole animal presented a most extraordinary mottled appearance, & much surprised |6| every body who saw it.— The edges of the sheath were orange.— this likewise he varied its tint.— The animal seemed susceptible to small shocks of galvanism: contracting itself & the parts between the point of contact of wires, became almost black.— this in a lesser degree followed from scratching the animal with a needle.— The cups were in double rows on the arms & coloured reddish.— The eye could be entirely closed by a circular eyelid.— the pupil was of a dark blue.— The animal was slightly phosphorescent at night.— [note (1)] Preserved in spirits No. (50). [note ends]

 

[note (a) added later] Jan 30th. Found another. changed its colour in the same manner when first taken. Caught another: I first discovered him by his spouting water into my face when I certainly was 2 feet above him. When seen in water was of dark colour with rings: being with difficulty removed from a deep hole & placed in a puddle of water swam well & emitted a dark Chesnut brown ink.— he continued likewise to spout water, evidently being able to direct his siphon.— When on land did not walk well having difficulty in carrying its head which it continued filling with air as before with water.— From same cause the animal often made a noise when squirting out water. They are so strong & slippery that one hand is insufficient to hold them.— Whilst swimming generally changed colour & seemed to imitate colour of the rocks.—

[page] 10 ST JAGO JANUARY 1832

 

Feb 3rd. Another upon merely seeing me instantly changed its colour, when in a deep hole being of a dark, but in shallow of a much paler colour.— From this cause & the stealthy way in which it creeps along occasionally darting forward had much difficulty in watching it.—

 

 

Cuvier2 in introductory remarck to the Cephalopodous animals mentions the fact of changing colour. [notes end]

 

1 Colours throughout the Zoology Notes that are quoted in inverted commas are taken from Patrick Syme, Werner's nomenclature of colours with additions, arranged so as to render it highly useful to the arts and sciences. . . 2nd edn. Edinburgh, 1821. There was a copy in the Beagle's library, probably supplied by FitzRoy. The condition of the one now preserved among the books from Down House is spotless, so that the original must later have been replaced by CD. The spelling 'Chesnut' is not one of CD's idiosyncrasies, but is the form in use at the beginning of the 19th century, copied from Syme.

2 See Cuvier Vol. 3, p. 10.

 

[CD P. 6 continues]

(a)

52 & 92

Doris1. body oval. length 3.5 of inch. indigo blue slightly caudate. with surrounding membrane. [note (a)] feelers white: Branchiæ2 short. conical. 8 in numb<er>. [note ends]

(b)

53

Doris length .4 slightly caudate. above light rose red with narrow orange rim: beneath with white marks: feelers & branchiæ white. [note (b)] Jan 30th. Doris. surrounding membrane large.— the pink colour in rays: Branchiæ 12 conical situated in semicircle, with points bent in [sketch in margin]. the branchiæ small at extremities the last one with small projection on it: perhaps may be considered as another:— each one with 2 opposite sets of transverse semilunar fringes.— No 79 [note ends]

(c)

55 & 56 & 54

 

106

Doris. 1 & ½ inch long, oblong, smooth flattened beneath, above convex.— colour Dutch orange, Mottled with chesnut brown.— feelers orange. broard membrane extending round body.— Branchiæ much plumose, a tube leading from right side near anus.— [note (c)] Feb 5th. Branchiæ plumose. 8 united at their bas<e>. each arm much branched.— Feelers with tops obliquely lined on a tuberculated footstalk.— [note ends]

[page] 11 ST JAGO JANUARY 1832

(d)

56 & 85

& 104

Cavolina3 (?) (has not the long feelers figured by Blainville4) Jan. 30th mistake [added above this erasure] Length .6. light flesh coloured, branchiæ dirty brown: feelers 4 white.— Generative organs (?). Much developed on right side: [note (d)] Jan 31st. Cavolina. tail tapering extremely pointed: feelers long taperi<ng>, posterior conical tuberculated: head narrow projecting with foot beneath: Branchiæ in two sets with intermediate dorsal line; placed in curved diagonal lines rows. 9 in each row, interior longer. About 10 rows on each side of back; colour brown with white membranous covering: each branch<iæ> simple. curved tapering.— [note ends] |7|

Jan. 28th

(a)

No. 51

Doris length 1 inch. very narrow cylindrical terminated by a pointed tail — — Membrane round the foot very little extended.— Above white with dark olive brown indentations: 2 narrow lines of orange surrounding back: tail & side blue mottled with white. Beneath & under side of head a fine blue.— Head above dark mottled with white.— Feelers with lower parts blue.— Branchiæ about 14 tufts in number blue tipped with white:— The animal firmly adheres by its tail to the rocks.— When dead & placed in water stains it "China blue". [note (a)] Jan. 30th found some more. Branchiæ straight conic<al> tuberculated.— Mouth whilst dying protruded .1, No. 79. [note ends]

(c)

57 & 79

Bulla5. like nitidula: shell with 2 reddish narrow lines following the whorls & sending out on each side alternate waving lines.— Animal transparent. edges of [illeg. word] membranes with narrow border of yellow, then emerald green.— Membrane itself marked with white opake spots.— [note (c)] 3d Feb.— took another Bulla, with three lines & the intermediate transverse ones waving, therefore the first must have been a variety. [note ends]

 

1 Doridacean nudibranchs, sea slugs, probably Chromodorididae.

2 The branchiæ, or in French 'branchies', are the gills of such animals.

3 An aeolidacean nudibranch, family not readily identifiable.

4 See Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville. Conchyliologie et malachologie in Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturelles. Planches. 2e Partie, Zoologie. Paris, 1816-30. In Beagle Library.

5 Cephalaspidea, a bubble snail.

 

[CD P. 7 continues]

(d)

58 & 79

Worm1.— about 7 inches long, body highly contractile, flattened, tail tapering.— light flesh coloured with about 20 reddish lines, runni[n]g longitudinally [illeg. deletion] but not quite continuously.— [note (d)] Jan. 30th .— head flattened, with semicircular projection beneath mouth. Longitudinal edges folded. No. 79: Feb 5th under stones, about 11 inches long. [note ends]

 

[page] 12 ST JAGO JANUARY 1832

60 (e)

62

63

64

Fistularia2. length, .5-7 inches — Cylindrical: lower part with 4 irregular rows of yellowish papillæ suckers.— back "umber brown". With few papillæ. Tentacula white, surrounding mouth, about 25 or 26 in number.— Tentacula, with round foot stalk. bush shape at top: when expanded .3 in length. top .2 broard.— Body very [word missing]. |8|

Jan. 28th

 

Musculare.— with bony irregular shaped ring round throat.— They are common amongst beneath the rocks & appear to live on Terebratulæbellæ.— the sandy coats being in their stomachs.

61 (a)

Fistularia. body shorter. thicker flattened "deep reddish brown" sides with black tipped conaceous paps: tentaculæ more apart. larger. 20 in number.— only one specimen. [note (a)] Jan. 30th Fistularia. found several more.— when seized they squirted from Anus.— a considerable quantity of milky fluid.— which consisted of numerous fine white threads & most remarkably viscid.— even sticking fingers fast together.— Often has several largish pale coloured rings on the upper surface of the body. [note ends]

 

 

All the animals from page 5 were found amongst rocks to the West of Quail Island.—

69

Jan 30th <W>

of Quail Is.

Fistularia. length .9. cylindrical soft transparent "primrose yellow": above covered with paps, beneath with suckers in 4 irregular rows: about mouth, about 15 "gamboge yellow" bush-like tentacula.

71

Aplysia3 length 1 & ½ inches, body lengthened: back convex: foot narrow: tail pointed: posterior feelers small, approximate, near to dorsal cavity; anterior feelers, dilated; edges simple, larger, covering mouth; may be considered as a folding membrane, with division near mouth: sides dirty flesh colour: beneath darker: membrane from operculum spotted with purple.— Branchiæ protruding, flesh colour: emitted purple liquor when taken: the folds of mantle seem to be used to aid respiration, or to cause water to flow over Branchiæ. |9|

 

1 Identified by S.F. Harmer in 1901 as Gephyrea, a now obsolete term covering nonsegmented coelomate worms in the phyla Sipuncula, Echiura and Priapulida.

2 An echinoderm of order Apodida. See p. 125.

3 The sea hare Aplysia is a gastropod mollusc of order Anaspidea.

 

[CD P. 9 commences]

No. 70

 

Actinia1. Short, height ¾, breadth ¾.— Tentacula numerous. lengthened, pointed. "wood brown" bottom do: sides smooth dark greenish black with on overlapping edges about 10 bright blue spots.

[page] 13 ST JAGO JANUARY 1832

(b)

No 106 in

Spirits

[illeg. word]

80

Peronia2. (Blain3) .5, long oval flat; membrane contracted by anus, covering body, not broard, edges irregular.— upper surface blackish green covered with paps: beneath pale: Feelers short with black tips:— mouth divided longitudinally: over it a projecting bilabiate membrane (not very unlike anterior feelers of Aplysia).— Found in clusters under large stones at low water: when kept in a basin Crawled up sides.— Opening for lungs large, cylindrical cartilaginous.—

 

 

Peronia

[notes labelled (b) added later: 1st note] Nos. 80 & 106. This animal according to Blain3 has only been found in S Hemisphere! [2nd note] Peronia — — Onchidrium, Cuvier4, who says 2 long retract<ile> tentacula? [3rd note] March 29th At the Abrolhos found a nest of the Onchidium4 on a Coronula; which was adhering to a rock at high water mark: It looked different from those I caught at St Jago. Animal oval. Mantle fleshy, feelers very short tipped with black.— The length of specim<ens> varied from .2 to exceeding minute ones.— beneath white; above slightly tuberculated blackish green. a dorsal mark darker: pale rings on back giving a tortoise like appearance to the animal: pale lines from the centre to the circumference; these are best seen when by suction the animal firmly fixes itself to a flat surface.— Crawls very slowly.— V. No 174 Spirits [notes end]

 

[next two entries on CD P. 9 are crossed through vertically]

No. 81

Actinia5. .2 in heighth, globular, bare grey fibrous sides, "smoke grey" streaks longitudinally, overlapping edges darker.— tentacula greenish grey dappled.

No. 83

Alcyonium6. spherical with short footstalk, base flattened. wrinkled.— colour light "Auricular purple". polypi darker.

No. 86

Doris7. oval, length .3, foot narrow: mantle fleshy little projecting.— Branchiæ short, upright, fimbriated, 10 in number.— Back slightly tuberculated of dirty light flesh colour.— with numerous rings of a darker tint —

 

Nor. 87

Doris8. length .8, oblong: broad posteriorly: foot narrow mantle much projecting, with few brown spots. Branchiæ. large membranous, 6 in number, edges much divided: back light "liver brown". Slightly tuberculated, with darker patches. |10|

Actinia

 

94

Actinia9. cylindrical, length 1 & ½ inches, breadth ½: base contracted: sides longitudinally streaked with white point on the line.— these are bigger & more numerous in the upper folding edges & with small intermediate ones.— disk large flat: tentacula not numerous.— Body pale flesh colour, tentacula darker with paler bases .— The animal contract[s] body into a ring in any part of cylinder.—

[page] 14 ST JAGO JANUARY 1832

Alcyonium

96

Alcyonium10. growing in clusters: body spherical on a footstalk .2 high: fine purple, semi transparent.

Doris

 

103

Doris11: Length .4. breadth .25. fine orange: foot narrow: mantle much projecting, broardly oval. Posterior Feelers short, conical, with slanting lines, tipped with white: Branchiæ 6 much divided branched, divided into two groups: tipped with white.— Feelers & Branchiæ darker reddish orange.— Feb 5th.—

Caryophillia

 

99.....102

 

 

Caryophillia

Found growing on the lower surface of rocks at low tide, 2 Caryophillia12 differing chiefly in colour. The stony part in both is of an "Aurora red", but in the one the back & part of animal is of an brilliant "orpiment orange", in the other of a bright "Gamboge yellow": in no part was the difference of colour so striking as in the internal tube or lip: perhaps also the orange coloured one was more sluggish in its motion & its lip was more fleshy .— I found them twice |11| united so close together that the internal stony parts were joined or grafted: Are they different species? — The following observations were made on the yellow sort.— but they equally seem to apply to the orange one .— Height varying from one to two inches: diameter at extremity .3.— When thin covering of fleshy soft part is removed the coral is longitudinally striated & with fainter & more irregular & transverse ones:— At Extremity the points project.— Vide PL. 2. Fig 1. (the extremity here represents poly tentacula retracted).

 

 

 

 

 

 

Caryophillia

 

 

 

(a)

Coral interiorly consists in the broarder branches of longitudinal plates; in the older & lower parts transverse divisions which being placed one below the other give a step like appearance, Fig. 7.— A transverse section gives a star like a with from a few in the younger to 20 in the older branches, Fig. 6.— The coral when dead becomes white & the centre part dies first, the dotted line Fig 7 represent[s] this.— The animal situated in the cup at extremity consists of an exterior row of slightly tuberculated conical tentacula about 30 in number, with aperture at extremity & growing on a fleshy highly retractile ring.— Fig. 2, magnified: Fig 3, extremity: Fig 4, outer circle tentacula retracted.— Within the tentacula is a short projectin[g] oral bilabiate tube, with 20 longitudinal ribs.— in smaller animals there are fewer.— This largely On upper part between each rib are is a minute dot.— This tube or lip can widely expand & fall fold back, & through it is seen large cavity: in Fig 4 it is seen in centre |12| [new page headed Feb 3d] nearly closed: Fig. 5. magnified nearly closed & folding back: The cavity as seen through lip rests on the longitudinal division of coral & is lined with apparently fleshy ribs crossing each other.— When the animal is left perfectly at rest & the lip is expanded there is protruded a delicate membrane, with thick edges, folded up like bud of plant, Fig 8:

[page] 15 ST JAGO JANUARY 1832

[note (a)] This membrane is continually in motion & highly sensative. [note ends] It is this which causes rib like appearance in cavity.— In the older branches one of these membranes is seen projecting from the end of each longitudinal division, when the outer ring of tentacula & lip are dissected away:— in the younger they (as well as transverse division in corals) are less numerous but extend much deeper down.—

 

The eggs are slowly sent out of animals mouth, are oval, orange colour, in diameter .04 of inch, they contain numerous irregular shaped grains, varying from .001 to .0001 in size.

 

1 The sea anemones of order Actiniaria are solitary anthozoans.

2 Peronia is the former name of Onchidium, an intertidal slug of order Systellommatophora, family Onchidiidae.

3 See article by Henri de Blainville on Malacostracés in Dic. Sciences Naturelles 28:138-425.

4 See Cuvier Vol. 3, p. 46.

5 Another sea anemone.

6 A soft coral of order Alcyonacea.

7 Doridacean nudibranch, a sea slug. Several of CD's specimens probably belonged to the family Chromodorididae, but cannot be more closely identified.

8 ditto.

9 Another species of sea anemone.

10 Another soft coral.

11 Another sea slug.

12 Scleractinia, a small solitary stony coral. Identified by S.F. Harmer in 1901 as specimens of Coenopsammia together with some Pyrgoma.

Plate 2, Figs. 1-8

[there follows an extra page inserted later]

[page] 16 ST JAGO JANUARY 1832

to follow p. 12

1835 Octob. Appendix to P. 12

Caryophillia

Ova

(3261)

 

Having placed a living Specimen of this Corall in Basin of water whilst at James Id in the Galapagos.— soon observed several orange coloured ovules [illeg. mark] swimming in the water. When the eye was four feet from the basin a progressive motion might be very distinctly seen.— Ova generally elongated oval, the narrower end slightly truncated.— length about 1/3 of inch.— body contractile as to alter form.— The motion is progressive, steady & quick. the obtuse end being the head.— Frequently there is also a random motion on the longer axis, but likewise on every possible axis.— A vibratory motion, with higher power might be seen on the surface, & a quick motion in the particles in the closely surrounding fluid.— When dead is surrounded by a halo of gelatinous matter, which I believe but am not sure is formed by the vibratory organs.— These probably coat the whole surface. I judge from the revolving motion on such varying axises.— [continued on back of page] Can fix itself temporarily to side of Watch Glass with sufficient force to resist the motion communicated to the Water.— Amongst some Ovules, one differed in form — perhaps being more developed — this was flask shaped [sketch in margin].— Power of attach<ment> lay in broard basis & which end always mount<ed> first — Apex colored more reddish orange. Here there is a most obscure trace of orific<e> & diverging rays.— Is not this a young Polypus, within which the stony plates will be produced? I may remark that on the Corall, near its base, there were several minu<te> living Polypi attached.— The motion of Ovules noticed in the Sertulariæ & Flustraceæ is now known to exist in the Lamelliform Coralls.

 

Plate 2, Figs. 9-11

 

[CD P. 12 continues, the whole entry on Pyrgoma having later been crossed through vertically]

98, 99, &

127 & 128

Pyrgoma1. On both Caryophillia the shell is fixed.— Shell subglobular, conical; aperture small oval subcentral; calcareous smooth plate within,

[page] 17 ST JAGO JANUARY 1832

(b)

Pyrgoma

 

3 pair

(a)

descending half way: externally an external crenulated ring, at which shell divides easily.— [note (b) also crossed through] Valve is fixed half way down the shell & is transversely lined. [note ends] Valve oval, in two pieces folding at one end. PL 2. Fig 11.— It is by curling in this end & joining the sides that the animal protects itself.— Through this valve the animal alternately protrudes & withdraws its ciliæ & has the power [of] expanding them & giving a rotatory motion to them: These ciliæ |13| surround the tube.— They are arranged in two rows obliquely on a wedge shaped projection: The ciliæ are united at bases into pairs of which there are 4 5 on each side. The centre ones are delicate articulate upright stalks with curled heads & hair from each side. the outside ones are merely curved at their extremities.— the other two pair[s] are much shorter & thicker & straight. Within these ciliæ is the trunk (or anus according to Cuvier2). it is as long as the ciliæ, contracted at the base, where it is united itself to the animal, & when seen under a high power appears to be made of rings.— Behind this & between 2 centre pair[s] of ciliæ is a sharp pointed projection.— The ciliæ are protruded at the folded end of valve.— At the other end is situated a conical triangular divided projection, surrounding by 6 small ciliæ, the two outside delicate, hairy, articulated & in continual perpendicular motion. 2 very small ones over division of the mouth (?) & 2 on the sides.— The 2 outermost ciliæ & tips of the other is the only part of animal that I have seen project beyond valve.— The animals body is terminated by an intestine shaped bag containing eggs.— this rests on a membranous cup which rest[s] on the Coral so that there is no calcareous bottom to the shell.—

 

[note (a)] I believe this is not correct. the membranous bag rest[s] on a cup-shaped base, which is as firmly imbedded in the Corals as easily to be mistaken for part of it.— The coral grows up around the base & half hides it.— & the soft back generally envelopes almost the whole shell.— In short the egg evidently fix[es] itself between the outside part & the central strong axis.— This animal differs from Pyrgoma of Blainville3 in the shell not being thick & strength on each side.— & from that of Cuvier2 in not being much depressed. All authors say animal unknown. [note ends]

 

[CD P. 13 continues]

 

Pyrgoma

Eggs are white, numerous, pointed, oval, with a darker substance in the interior: in some externally there |14| are a few small hairy ciliæ or arms which rapidly move.— I should undoubtedly have thought it a microscopic crustaceæ.— if I had not myself extracted it.— Vide Pl. 2, Fig. 9 & 10: 9 on Coral: 10 animal out of its shell & membranous valve, much too thick: Ciliæ too short: very badly drawn.—

(a)

Jania

199

Jania4. dichotomous, very much branched; short reddish: stems jointed, joints transparent, cylindrical, striated, diameter .002. Heads globular, with neck transparent.— Neither Spirits of Wine or fresh water had any perceptible effect.— Feb 3d. — Vide PL. 3, Fig. 1.— [note (a)] No. 199, not spirits. (Jania, Lamouroux) [note ends]

[page] 18 ST JAGO FEBRUARY 1832

(b)

Bacillarièes

Bacillarièes5 (Dic. Class:) growing on Jania. Vide PL 3, Fig 2.— drawn 200 times natural size.— Fig 3.— on a Fucus: Fig 4, in the sea, invisible to naked eye.— [note (b)] No. 200 not spirits. Fucus [note ends]

(c)

Aplysia

 

generally

{

 

Aplysia

Aplysia6. narrow in front, rounder behind, with little tail: Mantle large, divided at each end. Anus surrounded with membrane: Shell transparent, oval, slightly beaked, with one shoulder scalloped out.— length about 5 inches. of a dirty "primrose yellow" traced with veins & rings of a purplish "umber brown" colour; about 10 veins rings in number on each side, 2 on head.— Anterior feelers white.— Operculum purplish with purple descending fold, with a mark on centre. Foot of a darker yellow.— Stomach much contracted in centre, terminating in a sheath of muscles, round which are 7 to 10 pyramidal bits of semitransparent horn or teeth varying in size, one with another.— Within Stomach contains a quantity of a delicate pink Fucus & small pebbles, which I suppose are used like those in birds gizzards; in |15| the intestine, these appear to have been ground into sand.— [note (c)] 14, 18, 29, 30, 31 in spirits.— Shell in operculum & bones out of stomach 100. not in spirits.— [note ends]

 

 

(b)

These animals are very common, abounding amongst the stones at low water mark, especially where there is any mud.— I saw some small ones only one inch long.— When disturbed they emitted from under operculum a great quantity of a "Purplish red" fluid enough to stain the water for over a foot round; [note (b)] Paper when stained with this beautiful colour, after a few days changed into a dirty red.— [note ends] When handled, the slime or purple caused a pricking sensation like the Physalia.— I never saw them use their mantle for swimming.— If this animal is Aplysia depilans Linn: all authors badly describe the colour & zone of habitation: Blainville give<s> the animal too much tail.

 

1 Pyrgoma anglicum belongs to a genus of barnacles in suborder Balanomorpha which are always found imbedded in corals. This specimen was described by CD in A monograph on the sub-class Cirripedia. The Balanidae, or sessile cirripedes; the Verrucidae, etc., published by the Ray Society in 1854. See Cirripedia p. 360.

2 See Cuvier Vol. 3, p. 178.

3 Not found in Dic. Sciences Naturelles.

4 'Jania' is a genus of coralline algae, Rhodophyta. See Plant Notes pp. 156 and 187, and Lamouroux pp. 23-4.

5 'Bacillarièes' are diatoms, Chrysophyta. See Plant Notes pp. 155-6, and Dic. Class. 2:127-9.

6 A species of sea hare of order Anaspidea.

 

[page] 19 ST JAGO FEBRUARY 1832

Plate 3, Figs. 1-4, 6-7

 

[CD P. 15 continues with an account of some terrestrial Planarian worms, crossed through vertically to indicate its subsequent inclusion in a published paper]

Planaria

 

84 & 105

Planaria1 (?) Jan 30th. W of Quail Island. Vide PL:3: Fig. 5.— length one inch, breadth ¾ .1 — oval, creeping. highly contractile & active.— Body very flat. soft membranous.— divided anteriorly & posteriorly.— Pale. above finely reticulated with brownish purple.— At one extremity (A) there on the under side there are two paplike retractable orifices; the anterior one of which is largest.— From this point are sent off diverging rays — which nearly reach to the border: these act as muscles.— & when the animal contracts any part of body the rays to that part are raised.— A nearly continuous tube runs through the length of the animal, connecting the |15bis|

 

[CD continues on an extra page numbered in another hand 15bis, and with 39 in a circle. The crossing through continues.]

anterior orifices with one posterior one.— At middle of animal on each side of central tube is a mass of angular white grains.— & just above it a small orifice (B). This orifices is generally closed, & then invisible.— but the animal having been kept some time opened it, & through came out folds of highly transparent membrane continually contracting & dilating itself.—

[page] 20 ST JAGO FEBRUARY 1832

(a)

 

[illeg. {

note and

brackets

in pencil]{

When first protruded it is folded up like bud of plant, but when expanded seems to be deeply divided into inverted wedge shaped portions, & extends as far as edge of body of animal.— [note (a)] V P.192 for some particulars respecting this organ observed in a terrestrial Planaria.— [note ends] When within, the membrane had a star like appearance.— As soon as animal died this membrane remained protruded & there likewise appeared to come another from between the granular white substance.— This latter substance likewise burst & sent forth numberless round balls, which I conceive to be the ova.— Under microscope the outer membrane consisted of numerous green grains & some larger brown egg shaped masses.— In death the its body became almost instantly soft & as [if] it were dissolved in the water.—

See better

Specimen

Planaria

I could not preserve this specimen, but I afterwards procured another, which has kept well in Spirits of Wine.— Animal lives under stones which are imbedded in the shore at low-water mark.— It is very active & irritable, & has the power |16| of adhering most remarkably close to the stones.— This animal cannot be a true Planaria, although its external characters would show it to be such.— Its habits are more that of a Nereis: but as to its strange organization I am at a loss to what to refer it.—

Plate V from Darwin (1844)

Planaria

 

105

Planaria2. length 1 & ½ inches. breadth .4: oblong: very flat, an elevated line running down the back, sending off lines on each side: Beneath the bands of a yellow substance bordering a central transparent space.— Signs of an aperture at each extremity.— Above light "Chesnut brown", beneath pale.— Habits similar to the first Planaria.— These animals evidently are closely allied, but differ in this latter one being narrower, of a different

[page] 21 ST JAGO FEBRUARY 1832

colour, & not being oval at each extremity.— But yet what a wide disparity between their Organizations!

Planaria

 

105

Planaria. length .7. breadth .2, very flat.— above pale brown.— sending off branched lines, especially on anterior parts.— Beneath pale, with anterior transparent spot (mouth?). Posterior spot likewise: Round anterior one, on each side are two rows of black specks, which contract with the animals skin.— Like former one crawls & sticks to stones: likewise can swim by a vertical motion of its body: often rolls itself into a ball.— Vide PL. 3, Fig. 6.— |17|

Planaria 105 (a)

Beneath with

white opake

mass

Planaria3. flat, linear, length (when fully extended) one inch, breadth .05: white, semi transparent, with a slightly elevated dorsal line: mouth retractile, with on each side short, curved feeler.— On these & mouth there is an irregular row of black specks.— Habits like the last: swims well, crawls with rapidity & occasionally walks on its extremities like a Leach.—

 

Vide PL 3, Fig. 7.— Feb 5th W of Quail Island.—

 

1 Identified by CD as Planaria (?) incisa in a paper entitled 'Brief Descriptions of Several Terrestrial Planariae, and of Some Remarkable Marine Species, with an account of Their Habits' (Annals and Magazine of Natural History, including Zoology, Botany, and Geology 14:241-51, 1844. Reprinted in Collected papers 1:182-93). PL. 3, Fig. 5 has not been preserved, probably because it was redrawn by CD for the published paper. The animal is a turbellarian flatworm in order Polycladida, and was at one time classified as Centrostomum incisum, though recent authorities have left it as incertae sedis. CD has correctly described the extruding folds from B as pharynx, though in fact he may have been looking at eggs ready to be laid from the female pore behind it. The nearest polyclad group would be the Pseudo-cerotidae, though the precise position of the species is uncertain.

2 This planarian and the next one are evidently those related to P. incisa, and both are probably polyclad turbellarians.

3 By elimination this is the species from a new genus named Diplanaria notabilis by CD (see Collected papers 1:191-3). Recent authorities have assigned it provisionally to the genus Leptoplana, but CD's description is inadequate by modern standards to place the species more certainly than among the polyclads.

 

[CD P. 17 continues]

Cleodora

or

Creseis

 

107

 

Cleodora or Creseis1, Rang:2 Feb 14th. 2°30′ N3.—

Shell extremely linear, pointed, length .4, diam .03.— straight.— Animal slight tinge of red: Membranous wing divided into three lobes.— 2 large, reticulated, orbicular, with pointed ears on each side.— The third is small: The animal easily propels itself by the 2 large ones.— keeping always that the lowest side of body the lowest in water.— Between them is a small linear opening with tube leading from it.— Surrounding this are excessively

[page] 22 EQUATOR FEBRUARY 1832

 

(2)

minute ciliæ, which continue in such rapid motion that they are scarcely visible, & would not be perceived were it not for the motion communicated to all small particles near them.— These wings are situated on a footstalk or neck which leads into cavity of body.— [note (2)] Upon this, there are black spots, like eyes, fixed.— [note ends] This cavity consists of a membranous sheath or mantle, which terminates at the pointed extremity of the shell.— It is by the contraction of this that the animal is able to draw in his wings or head.— |18|

Creseis

 

February 14th. Upon upper edge of this mantle, which continually contracts & expands itself & which is rather irregular, are situated ciliæ such as described near mouth: likewise in centre they may be discovered rapidly driving about small grains of matter (& the ova?). The middle part of sheath is surrounded by lines or rings.— At upper extremity, near where the head joins, there are vermiform tubular appendages, which I am nearly sure can be protruded beyond the shell.— May they not be similar to those in Limacina?— .— Beneath this are sent forth two tubes.— one transparent & ending in globular ball (within another membrane?), which is always pulsating.— the heart?— the other is a strength gut which gradually tapers to the shells end.— At its upper end it continually contracts & dilates itself, close to which is [a] small dark organ, the liver?, & a mass of green small balls.— ova?—

Creseis

107

Tapering, extremity not much pointed, curved: animal same as former one.— only that perhaps vermiform appendages were more apparent: & necessarily from shortness of shell, the intestine beneath the liver & green granular substance much shorter.— As it is the mantle or sheath that surrounds this part, which chiefly aids in retracting the animal, it almost necessarily follows that this process would be slower when this part was shorter, & this is the case. |19|

Limacina

Atlanta (a)

Dic. Class.

107 & 155

Atlanta4, Lamacina Cuvier Cuvier.— very small. fine violet. slightly carinate. whorls touching each other.— In one specimen, only small portion of whorl coloured.— 2 others uniformly.— I should think they were full grown & if so a new species.—

[note (a) added later] On 23d of March: in about Lat 18°5′ & Long 36°W, the sea contained great numbers of this Atlanta.— Shells varying (largest specimens) 1/20 of inch in diameter.— Whorls four touching each other, the three internal ones purple, tapering suddenly: mouth of shell posteriorly cut out: not much carinated: [note ends]

 

[CD P. 19 continues]

Porpita

(b)

 

Porpita5. Feb 14th.— 2°30′ N.— prussian blue. width .07. back rounded, slightly tuberculated, convex. slightly striated from centre, where there is a

[page] 23 EQUATOR FEBRUARY 1832

108

Fig. 8, B′′′

Fig. 8, C

brown mark. Surroundi<ng> membrane, narrow, stiff, scalloped.— Beneath depending, surrounded by numerous tentacula; extremities of which are divided into 4 papillæ, & being placed on one side give an hand like appearance.— Some of them are fully extended & are longer than diameter of the animal, the greatest number are much retracted.— Stalk of tentacula transparen<t>, with an interior tube which terminates in a bag at the foot of the papillæ.— These papillæ are thin, delicate, transversely lined, with a globular much tuberculated head.— The occasional protrusion of some of their tentacula has given rise to the idea that there were 2 sorts of them.— Vide Cuvier.— Mouth white, membranous, tubercular, projecting, round which is a row of simple vermiform tentacula, of a China blue. |20|

 

[note (b) added later] PL. 3 Fig. 8A no side ridge such as in A. Peronia of Blainville6: Shell flat when seen from above (or edgewise) sides equal: whorls coiled obliquely & spiral.— so that on one side a slanting umbilicus can be seen on the & only a few of the whorls.— on the other all the whorls & no umbilicus: Only differs from Nor 8 (not spirits) in being of a purplish colour & generally smaller.— from 7 not spirits in whorls touching each other: If this latter, as I suppose, is A. Peronia, Blainville has drawn his figure with oblique ridges on the side which do not exist.— V Nor 385 (not spirits). [note ends]

Plate 3, Figs. 8, 9, 10

 

[CD P. 20 commences]

Mucor (a)

No. 223 not

in Spirits

Mucor7. Linn: growing on a lime from St. Jago, length .1 of inch. brown colour: pedical hollow, simple, transparent, diameter .0006.— At extremity ball containing sporules, diameter .007.— Sporules varying in size, very minute, about .00009 in diam: When the mould was placed in water, the balls burst longitudinally, & sent forth the Sporules.— at same time globules of air passed down the pedicel.— This took place with such

[page] 24 EQUATOR FEBRUARY 1832

violence that the recoil on the ball gave it sufficient motion to be visible to the naked eye.— The same results occurred with greater force when Spirits of Wine was used instead of water.— Was it not a similar observation that first led Dutrochet8 to the discovery of the Laws of Endosme?

 

[note (a) added later] Observed the same species growing on gum dissolved in vinegar.— (March 23d) found a sort very like this on old paste; the colour was yellow, & the stalks rather longer in proportion, were the only differences I could perceive. [note ends]

Dyphyes

No. 109

Dyphyes9.— Plate 3 Fig 9.— Feb 17th. Lat 1°30′ S.—

(A) Square pyramidal, apex obliquely truncate. side slightly hollowed, with a projecting curved dotted rim on one side.

 

(B) Another species, an solid oblong placed on a square base & projecting over on one side.— On In upper parts is a net work bag. (the animal?) from which two appendages were sent off into the lower part.— I could see no signs of two animals joined.

Salpa

No. 109

Salpa10. Fig 10. Mantles rounded with four ridges or angles.— fringed beyond the mouth.— Mouth consists of a membrane stretched across the opening, with circular aperture.— |21|

 

1 A shelled pteropod of order Thecosomata. Its measurements and those of other specimens are given in inches.

2 See Sander Rang. Manuel de l'histoire naturelle des mollusques et leurs coquilles. Paris, 1829. In Beagle Library.

3 The ship was now 150 miles from the Equator, see Beagle Diary p. 35.

4 Atlanta is a pelagic snail of order Mesogastropoda and superfamily Heteropoda, whereas Limacina is another shelled pteropod. Only A. inclinata and A. peronii are found in the area. See Dic. Class. 2:58.

5 Porpita is a "blue button", a pelagic hyroid that floats on or near the surface. The animal identified by Chancellor et al. (1988) as No. 4/12904 in the Oxford University Museum, and classified as Amphipoda: Gammaridea, must have been in the same bottle.

6 See Planche 58 showing Onchidie (Veronicelle), Planche 63 of Péronie de l'Isle de France, and Planche 68 of Atlanta de Péron in the section on Conchyliologie et malacologie by Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville in Dic. Sciences Naturelles Planches 2e partie, Zoologie.

7 CD's specimen of the mold Mucor (Mucoraceae) was not well preserved, and Henslow wrote to CD in January 1833 'For goodness sake what is No. 223 it looks like the remains of an electric explosion, a mere mass of soot—something very curious I dare say—' (see Correspondence 1:294 and Plant Notes p. 153).

8 Henri Dutrochet (1776-1847) was a French scientist who in the 1820s had published on the phenomenon of endosmosis, osmotic movement into cells.

9 Diphyes is a pelagic hydroid of order Siphonophora.

10 A thaliacean tunicate specialized for a free-swimming planktonic existence.

 

[page] 25 EQUATOR FEBRUARY 1832

[CD P. 21 commences with an entry about a marine Planarian worm, crossed through vertically as before]

Planaria (a)

[pencil notes

written vertically]

80 miles from

Fernando, 150 from America

Fig 1 Vide A

B

(Planoceros)

p> 

Planaria1. Plate 4, Fig 1.2 — Febr 23d. Lat 5° S, 33° W.— [note (a)] was unable to preserve it in spirits [note ends] length .2: Colour pale: membrane with edges jagged; anteriorly formed like a neck & head with 2 ear like processes.— Beneath near to the neck is an internal quadrangular membrane within which is a black spot, by the side of this is an opening which the animal can dilate & contract at its pleasure.— Joining to this part is an oval bag with an internal dark spot & delicate tube.— This bag terminates behind a central dark Mass formed by the union of eleven veins [3 illeg. words] or rather a congeries of grains.— In centre of the Mass there is a longitudinal opening through which the animal can protrude a dark coloured very delicate membrane.— This membrane is close when first seen, clewed up into eight divisions. The animal evidently bears a close relation to the Planaria (?) described in Page 15.— The two bags in this instance answering to the two pap-form orifices.— & the organization central mass is much the same in both cases: in this one however there is no mass of eggs.— One is tempted to consider the membrane as lungs, & the veins which branch off from the centre as a circulatory system.— Is it not extraordinary finding an animal adapted for creeping in such a situation; so many miles from shore.— |22|

 

1 Identified by CD in his 1844 paper as Planaria (?) oceanica. The modern name of this polyclad turbellarian flatworm is Planocera pellucida Mertens.

2 Plate 4 Fig. 1 is now missing, but it was redrawn in Plate V(1) of the 1844 paper without the label A (see p. 20).

 

[CD P. 22 commences with an entry about Diodon, much corrected with a different pen, probably because a shorter version was later included in Journal of Researches pp. 13-14]

Diodon

No 132

 

 

(a)

March 10th a Diodon1 was caught swimming in its unexpanded form near to the shore.— Length about an inch: above blackish brown, beneath spotted with yellow.— Above On head four soft projections; the upper ones longer like the feelers of a snail.— Eye with pupil dark blue; iris yellow mottled with black.— The dorsal caudal & anal fins are so close together that they act as one. [note (a)] These fins as well as the Pectorals which are placed just before branchial apertures, are in a continued state of tremulous motion even when the animal is at remains still.— [note ends] the animal propels its body by using these posterior fins in same manner as a boat is sculled, that is by moving them rapidly from side to side with an oblique surface exposed to the water.— The pectoral fins have great play, which is necessary to enable the animal to swim with his its back downwards.—

[page] 26 BAHIA MARCH 1832

 

 

 

Diodon

 

(a)

Back of

Page

When handled a considerable quantity of a fine "Carmine red" fibrous secretion was emitted from the abdomen & stained paper, ivory &c of a high colour.— The fish has several means of defence it can bite hard & can squirt water to some distance from its Mouth, making at the same time a curious noise with its jaws.— After being taken out of water for a short time & then placed in again, it absorbed by the mouth (perhaps likewise by the branchial apertures) a considerable quantity of water & air, sufficient to distend its body into a perfect globe.— This process is effected by two methods; chiefly by gulping <&> |23| swallowing the air & water & then forcing it into the inside cavity of the body, its return being prevented by a muscular contraction which is externally visible: but also when the mouth was distended & motionless I observed a stream of water flowing in. this must have been caused [and] by the dilatation of the animal producing suction.— [note (a)] The water however I observed entered in a stream through the mouth, which was distended wide open & motionless; hence this latter action must have been caused by some kind of suction [note ends] When the body was is thus distended, the papillæ with which it was is covered with papillæ which by this action become stiff, the above mentioned ones tentacula on the head must being excepted.— The animal thus being so much buoyed up, the branchial openings was are out of water, but a stream regularly flowed out of it them which was as constantly replenished by the mouth.—

 

 

 

 

Diodon

After having remained in this state for a short time, the body was emptied of the air & water would be expelled with considerable force from the branchial apertures & the mouth.— The animal at its pleasure could emit a certain portion of the water & I think it is clear that this water is taken in to partly for the sake of regulating the specific gravity of its body.— The skin about the abdomen is much looser than that on the back & in consequence is by far the is most distended; from same reason hence the animal swims with its back downwards.— Cuvier doubts their being able to swim when in this position; but they clearly |24| can not only swim forward, but also move round.— this they do effect, not like other fish by the action of their tails, but by collapsing the caudal fins, they move only by their pectorals.— When placed in fresh water seemed singularly little inconvenienced.—

Vespertilio

No 134

 

 

 

Copied

Caught March 10th by flying into a room: it is an old female: This species would I think according to Dic. Class: be a new Species genus: but from Cuvier['s] sparing description is a 'Phyllosome sans queue'2. My specimen however by Dic Class does not agree with its teeth with this sub-division.— Head broard flattened.— 4 incisors in each jaw; of the superior two center ones longest & bifid: Lower ones equal & slightly bifid.— Canine very sharp. superior ones nearly twice as long as the inferior.— 8 other teeth in the upper & 10 in lower jaw.— Nose with a flat semicircular membrane, retracted posteriorly & projecting upwards (or rt angles to the flat part) .3

[page] 27 BAHIA MARCH 1832

of inch. lunar shaped with a fold or crease on each side.— No tail: membrane between thighs retracted. Ears oval with an interior denticulate pointed fold at base.—

 

Vespertilio

 

Copied

[Start of next paragraph marked by a deep square bracket] Body above darkish "clove brown". beneath much paler; wings (especially lower parts) dull "velvet black" with an irregular transparent colourless space at extremities. |25| Breadth from tip to tip 18 inches. Length from head to extremity of abdomen nearly 4.— Cuvier divides bats into those with three bony phalanges in middle finger & in 2 in all other & into those with one in index & 2 on all others.— I think this Species belongs to first division but I cannot perceive the 2 osseous joints in the index.—

Elater

No 352 (not

in spirits)

 

 

 

Elater

Caught March 10th Elater3 (noctilucus) & took the opportunity of examining their its springing apparatus. It appears to me that this has not been well described in Dic. Class:.— When the insect prepares to jump it bends backwards the head & thorax.— by this process the spine is drawn out & the point rests on the edge of its tube.— a very little motion is sufficient for this, as in the usual position of animal the spine is only inserted a little way in the tube.— the muscles now having a fulcrum to act on the insect exerts its whole force & spine like a spring is bent.— The animal at this moment rests on its head & top of E[l]ytra & upon suddenly relaxing its efforts the head & thorax fly up & the spine suddenly is inserted in the tube.— by this this action the base of Elytra strikes |26| the supporting surface & by the reaction the insect is thrown up in the air: It is precisely the same as when a spring curved at its extremities is forcibly held flat bowed in the contrary direction & this being loosed will spring upwards.—

 

 

 

(a)

The spine is notched at the end.— The points at base of thorax appear to serve as guys to steady it when the animal drawn backwards; as likewise this does the sheath of the spine during the spring seems to act in a similar manner.— In the account given in Dic: Class: stress is not sufficiently laid on the bowing of the spine; & it is this which explains the extraordinary manner in which the Elaters jump.— [note (a)] Dic Class The Author seems to think that the insect strikes the supporting surface with its head, thorax & tip of E[l]ytra, & that previous to the spring it bends its thorax inwards instead of in the contrary direction.— [note ends]

 

 

The light from the spots on thorax was brilliant & green.— it varied in intensity, being most brightest when the insect was annoyed.— There appeared to be a sort of internal pulsation within the bright spot.—

 

1 Identified by Leonard Jenyns in Zoology 4:151 as either a young example of Diodon antenattus Cuv.? or a new species. The Beagle had arrived at Bahia, Salvador on a modern map, on 28 February, when CD went into ecstasies at his first sight of a tropical forest (see

[page] 28 BAHIA MARCH 1832

Beagle Diary pp. 41-2).

2 Identified by George Waterhouse in Zoology 2:4-5 as Phyllostoma perspicillatum.

3 A click beetle of family Elateridae. Identified by CD in Journal of Researches p. 35 as Pyrophorus luminosus Illiger, and said by him to be 'the most common luminous insect'. See Dic. Class. 16:70-6 and Insect Notes p. 48.

 

[CD P. 26 continues]

General

Obser: Bahia

The sand on the beach is of a brilliant white colour & composed of minute grains of quartz: when walked over the friction of the particles caused a curious high note or chirp: The temperature of this sand a few inches beneath the surface was 108 in the open rays of the sun.— A person |27|

 

[CD P. 27 is headed Bahia Feb 29th . . . March 19th, and commences]

General

Obser: Bahia

in a hot country might with closed eyes tell what colour the ground was on which he was walking.— The effects of reflection from a white surface preponderating those of radiation from a dark.—

Zoology

 

(b)

I was surprised at the scarceness of birds: the extreme thickness of the vegetation seems only to suit a few tribes.— Within the Tropic the insects take a more prominent part in the animal kingdom: the woods resound with their noise especially of the Orthop Hemipterous1 tribes as Cicada & the eye is attracted by the gay and beautiful colours of the butterflies: these bespeak the Zone they inhabit far more plainly than the Coleoptera. The latter by their smallness, dark colours & European form much surprised me.— The genera that were most abunda<nt> were Haltica2 & Galeruca3 (or closely allied to it) & Curculio4.— It was singular to find in the fresh water Berosus5 & Hydroporus6.

1832 (b)

March

[note (b) added later] Do Are not the Hydradephaga7 remarkably constant in their forms in different stations & habitations. England: Patagonia: Tierra del Fuego: Cape Verds & Brazil:— [note ends]

[CD P. 27 continues]

 

Carabidous8 insects were rare. I only found three species, one Scarites and two Truncatipennis (Sebia & Odacantha?).— The wonderful number of Ants perhaps supply the place of these butchers of the colder climes.—

Formica

(a)

General

Obser: Bahia

No. 359...364

On first entering a Tropical forest one of the most striking things is the incessant Labour of the Ants.— [Note (a) No. 357 & 358 (not in spirits) [note ends] The paths in every |28| direction are traversed by hosts of them carrying parts of leaves larger than themselves & reminding one of the moving forest of Birnam in Macbeth: Most of the trees contain large nests, which are 3 or 4 feet in length & 2 or 3 in breadth.—

[page] 29 BAHIA MARCH 1832

(not spirits)

[note (b), later struck out] August 20th. It is evident I have confounded the nest of the Termite with the real ants performing their marvellous labours.— [note ends]

[CD P. 28 continues]

 

357, 3589

(not spirits)

Some of the smaller species migrate in large bodies.— One day my attention was drawn by many spiders, Blattaæ10 & other insects rushing in the greatest agitation across a bare bit of ground.— Behind this every stalk & leaf was blackened by a small ant: They crossed the open space till they arrived at a piece of old wall on the side of the road.— Here the swarm divided & descended on each side, by this many insects were fairly enclosed: & the efforts which the poor little creatures made to extricate themselves from such a death were wonderful surprising.— When the ants came to the road they changed their course & in narrow files reascended the wall & proceeding along one side in the course of a few hours (all when I returned) they all had disappeared.—

 

When a small stone was placed in the track of one of their files, the whole of them first attacked it & then immediately backed retired: it would not on the open space have been one inch out of their way to have gone round the obstacle, & doubtless [continued at (a) on back of page] if it had previously been there, they would have done so.— In a few seconds another larger body returned to the attack, but they not succeeding in moving the stone, this line of direction was entirely given up.— [entry ends] |29|

 

1 True bugs of order Hemiptera.

2 Chrysomelidae, leaf beetles.

3 Genera of Galerucinae and Chrysomelinae, leaf beetles.

4 Curculionidae, weevils.

5 Hydrophilidae, water beetles.

6 More water beetles.

7 Hydradephaga is an old term covering all water beetles.

8 Carabidae, ground beetles.

9 As reported in Insect Notes p. 48, these specimens have not survived, but from CD's description they were 'driver ants' of the subfamily Dorylinae, probably of the genus Eciton.

10 Blatta is nowadays a cockroach, but was the name formerly applied to all insects of order Blattodea.

 

[CD P. 29 commences]

March 23d

Mucor

 

Mucor1 growing on green ginger: colour yellow, length from 1/20 to 1/15 of

[page] 30 BAHIA MARCH 1832

Mucor

an inch.— Diameter of stalk .001, of ball at extremity .006.— Stalk transparent, cylindrical for about 1/10 of length, near to ball, it is flattened. angular & rather broarder: Terminal spherule full of grains, .0001 in diameter & sticking together in planes: When placed in water the ball partially burst & sent forth with granules large bubbles of air.— A rush of fluid was visible in the stalk or cylinder.— If merely breathed on, the spherule was expanded itself & three conical semitransparent projections were formed on surface.— (Much in the same manner as is seen in Pollen) These cones in a short time visibly were contracted & drawn within the spherule.—

Mantis

(a)

Caught at Bahia on the 17th a Mantis2 & as I thought killed it by holding for several minutes under water that was boiling, the head & thorax (to the insertion of the wings) & anterior legs.— These parts shortly were completely dead & became dry & brittle: but eight day[s] afterwards on the 25th the abdomen & hinder legs continued to possess a slight degree of irritability.— This appears a well marked instance of the tenaciously tenacity of life amongst insects.— |30|

Janthina

(a)

 

The sea in Lat 18°6′ S & Long 36°6′ W. on the 26th contained numbers of specimens of Janthina3.— Most of them were very small: the animal of rather a larger shell protruded itself & was of the same violet colour as the shell.— When touched emitted a fine purple colour. M. Rangs4 states it to be de "couleur Laquesce" [note (a)] No. 158.— Cuvier mentions the fact about the colour. [note ends]

Fish

(b)

In the above Lat & Long caught 2 specimens of a fish5; belly silvery white, mottled with brownish black. side blueish with dusky greenish markings. Iris yellow with dark blue pupil. Caudal fin with a pink tinge: these fish were 120 [miles] from the nearest land above water, namely Abbrolhos:— but the shoals are considerably nearer. [note (b)] Nos. 156 & 157. [note ends]

 

1 See Plant Notes pp. 153-4.

2 No specimen of Mantodea was found in CD's collection (see Insect Notes p. 48).

3 Mesogastropoda, Ptenoglossa, the pelagic violet snails.

4 See Rang pp. 196-7.

5 Identified by Leonard Jenyns in Zoology 4:73-4 as similar to Psenes leucurus Cuv.

 

[CD P. 30 continues with observations on microscopic marine algae termed confervae found floating on the surface of the sea. The following 3 pages have later been crossed through, for the material was copied to appear in Journal of Researches pp. 14-20]

Colour of

Sea

I had been struck by the beautiful colour of the sea when seen through the chinks of a straw hat.— To day 26th. Lat 18°6′ S: Long 36°6′ W. it was

[page] 31 ABROLHOS SHOALS 1832

 

(c)

according to Werner nomenclature "Indigo with a little Azure blue". The sky at the time was "Berlin with little Ultra marine [blue" & there were some cirro.cumili1 scattered about.— No bottom could be found 230 fathoms.— After running about 6 knots, soundings gave 30 fathoms & coral bottom, yet there was no change in the colour of the sea.—

Oily matter

on surface

Oily matter

on sea (d)

To day at noon I observed the sea covered with an oily matter.— The thin globules │31│ displayed iridescent colours & were often time two inches in diameter.— A drop of water under a microscope showed on its surface minute globules of a transparent floating liquid, & which from its feel was of an oily nature.— it contained likewise irregularly shaped transparent minute fragments of matter: Three quarters of an hour after I first observed this appearance it was no longer visible. the ship in that [time] having sailed 2 & ½ knots.— I am at a loss to conjecture what could have been the origin of such a quantity of oily matter; it is stated that whales often produce this effect.— At night this water showed luminous particles.—

 

[note (d) added later] Octob 23d. South of Corrientes: I observe some of the Pelagic Amphipods contain in the intestinal vessels a considerable quantity of coloured oil:— Entomostraca The number of these Crustacea is often quite infinite [note ends]

Oily matter (c)

27th at 10 AM the sea for yards was coated with the oil, having an iridescent appearance: It was in patches or streams & extended for a considerable distance.— [note (c)] In one hour & ½ afterwards having run 2 & ½ knots the water had its greasy covering. [note ends]

 

Tempera:

of Sea

[note (c) from back of P. 30] On approaching this bank at 4 P.M. no change of temperature was visible perceptible, the thermometer keeping at 82°. At 10 P M no bottom with 140 fathoms, & the thermometer instead of rising is at 81°.

 

The following is a table of thermometrical changes during crossing and recrossing the bank.

[Hour]

[Depth]

[Temp]

26th

10 A M

230 Fathoms

82° Therm:

Lat. 18°6' S

4 P M

30

82°

Long. 36°6' W

10 P M

250

81°

27th

8½ A M

180

81⅔

Lat. 12°43' S2

9 A M

150

81⅔

Long. 36°6' W

10 A M

200

81¼

11½ A M

250

81½

1¼ P M

250

81⅔

2¼ P M

30

81⅓

[page] 32 ABROLHOS SHOALS MARCH 1832

3 P M

20

81⅔

4 P M

22

81⅓

5 P M

21

81½

6 P M

21

81½

7 P M

27

81

8 P M

25

81½

10 P M

27

81¼

11 P M

27

81½

28th

8 A M

28

79⅔

10 A M

10...30

79¼

4 P M

do

78½

9 P M

Anchored 20

76½

 

During this day (28th) the colour of sea varied, being sometimes black "Indigo blue", in evening very green.—

 

This table shows in some cases how little the Thermometer is affected. during the 26th & 27th, when not close to the Island, the mean of temp no bottom (at the lowest) at 150 fathom is within a very small fraction of degree of that when sounding<s> were at most 30.— On 28th the mean was 3 degrees lower than that of the 2 days previous: & we were then rapidly nearing the Islands. [note ends]

 

[CD P. 31 continues]

Oscillaria3

(a)

390:391

not spirits

 

 

(e)

At noon Lat 17°43′ S & Long 37°23′ W my attention was called by Mr Chaffers4 observing that the sea was in places discoloured.— [notes (a)] No soundings with 250 fathoms. Nor not spirits 390, 391. An appearance similar to this one was seen between Canary & Cape de Verd at about ½ a mile distance from the ship. [notes end] Even from the Poop the cause was visible. it was owing to the presence of numberless minute whitish particles: These when examined under a lens whose focal distance was under above 1/10 of inch appeared like bits of chopped rag, the ligneous fibres of which projected beyond the end.— [note (e)] Mr Brown5 seems to have observed these Oscillariæ on the South shore of Australia. "particles 1/20 length, composed of cohering jointed fibres, of unequal length, so that the compound particle appeared as if torn" Flinders Voyage Vol 1 P 926:— [note ends] |32|

Oscillaria

x

 

These particles seen under a higher power consisted of about 20 fibrils adhering side by side & forming either a flat or a nearly cylindrical bit of mat.— These cylin fibrils or stalks were in length from .02 to .03 of inch; in diameter 1/2000: extremities round, rather broarder, transparent; internally a tube containing concentric layer of greenish brown granules. Hence appearing jointed: these layers are close to numerous. The external tube

[page] 33 ABROLHOS SHOALS MARCH 1832

(a)

was marked by fine circular rings. (??) [note] (a) It required a 1/30" focal lens in order to see the internal tube. [note ends]

 

 

No

soundings

at this

spot.—

But 6

knots

before

36 h.

[note x] At noon on 31st of March, Lat 19°52′ S, Long 38°7′ W, the ship passed through a band of these Oscillariæ a mile in width. I reexamined them.— The bundle[s] were often cylindrical, containing from 20...to 60 fibrils.— a large one taking the extreme points was in length was .03 & in breadth .009.— Fibrils were perfectly straight: varied much in length; were I presume enveloped in a fluid.— as in ma<ny> of the bundles the fibrils did not touch each other.— Being kept till the following morning the particles became of a much brighter green & were partially decomposed: a considerab<le> quantity of brownish flocculent matter lying at the bottom of the cup.— The fresh Oscillaria placed in Alcohol uncoiled, moved the<se> & finally burst.— These appearances are called by the Sailors Spawn.— At 4 PM we passed through another irregular band running E & W.— about 10 yards wide & about 2 & ½ miles long.— The sea was the colour of thick reddish mud.— I believe each bundle of Oscillaria touched another.— I judge of this likewise by the thickness of the covering on some water brought up in a bucket.— (At this rate in this narrow band & at a [illeg.] moderate computation, in each square inch of surface there must have been 499950 fibrils or separate Oscillaria.— In the whole band: 323 967 600 00[0] 000: or 323 millions of millions &c.—?) Perhaps in square inch about 100 000. [note ends]

 

[CD P. 32 continues]

 

 

(b)

P 31

I once thought that I perceived a motion in these fibrils: from the description in Dic. Class.7 I suppose it is an Oscillaria.— After being kept for an hour in water, most of them fell to the bottom of the Basin, & it appeared to me that in this state all the granules had been expelled: Figures are quite inadequate to give any idea of the numbers of these groups of Oscillaria which the sea contained.— A bucket which had been lowered for some water, had its interior sides (being left for short time at rest) literally coated with these minute particles.— I should think they extended for some distance; The sea 3 hours afterwards contained a few.—

Conferva

(b) 392

not spirits

On 28th; 10 miles West of Abrolhos; there came up with the lead (17 fathoms) a piece of Fucus.— on which were growing numerous minute tufts of a Conferva8.— Stems simple cylindrical white transparent jointed; end truncate; length 1/10 of inch, diameter 2/3000.— On this minute |33| plant & on a small coralline were crowded together a forest of numerous species of Bacillareès & Anthrodieès.—

 

1 CD's spelling of the type of clouds on this day might not have met with FitzRoy's approval. See Narrative, Appendix to Vol. II, pp. 275-6.

[page] 34 ABROLHOS SHOALS MARCH 1832

2 According to CD, the Beagle had sailed over 5° northwards during the night! The table of compass variations during the voyage that appears in Narrative, Appendix to Vol. II, pp. 86-8, gives the Latitude on 27th March as 17°54′.

3 Identified by Porter (1987) in Plant Notes pp. 212-14 as a blue-green alga Oscillatoria erythraea (Ehrenberg) Kützing.

4 Edward Main Chaffers was Master of the Beagle.

5 Robert Brown (1773-1858) was a botanist and microscopist who discovered Brownian motion.

6 See Matthew Flinders. A voyage to Terra Australis. 2 vols., atlas. London, 1814. In Beagle Library.

7 See Dic. Class. 12:457-85.

8 Although Specimens 390 and 391 are O. erythraea, Specimen 392 sent to J.D. Hooker in August 1844 with the comment 'Please throw away these specimens if of no use' (see Correspondence 3:49-50 and Plant Notes p. 214) cannot now be identified.

 

[CD P. 33 continues]

Phasianella

(a) 169

Spirits

Animal with foot marked with black1.— body blueish-lead colour; between feelers claret coloured.— feelers ringed with black.— these were nearly the only shell on coast of the Abrolhos.— they were however in the greatest profusion covering the rocks, & what appeared to me very singular, crawling up a bush which grew within high water mark.— The shells adhered to their leaves & bark far above the reach of the waves: From the habits when kept it is evidently an animal which passes much of its time out of the water.— Abrolhos.— March 29th.—

Tubiporèes

175 Spirits

 

(Gorgonia?)

(Lamouroux ??) Abrolhos. 20 fathoms. March 30th.— Corallina2, branched, stem rather flattened, horns, hollow.— Polypi when not expanded like buds scattered irregularly on sides & extremities of branches.— Stem slightly encrusted with red stony covering.— Polypi white, length .15, tentacula 8 in number, fimbriated. when partly collapsed having a leaf like appearance.— Tentacula situated on a fleshy tube proceeding from a slightly coriaceous one or cell.— Polypi highly irritable: but when fully expanded the Corallina had a beautiful flower-like appearance.— |34|

Abrolhos

Islands

Gen: Observ:

(b)

The Abrolhos Islands seen from a short distance are of a bright green colour.— The vegetation consists of succulent plants & Gramina, interspersed with a few bushes & Cactuses.— [note (b)] Small as my collection of plants is from the Abrolhos I think it contains nearly every species then flowering3.— [note ends] Birds of the family of Totipalmes are exceedingly abundant, such as Sulas Gannets, Tropic birds & Frigates.— The number of Saurians is perhaps the most surprising thing, almost every stone has its accompanying lizard: Spiders are in great numbers: likewise rats:— The bottom of the adjoining sea is thickly covered by enormous

[page] 35 ABROLHOS SHOALS MARCH 1832

 

(c)

brain stones4; many of them could not be less than a yard in diameter: Without being in the immediate presence of limestones how extraordinary it is that these Polypi should be able to obtain such an enormous stock of Carb of Lime5.— [note (c)] This is an instance (perhaps not a strongly marked one) where there is a great formation of Coralls: & therefore the lime obtained without the neighbourhead of Volcanic action.— The currents in the ocean would however I think be sufficient for a ridge like this:— [note ends]

 

1 Gastropoda, possibly superfamily Trochacea, a top snail.

2 The Tubiporées listed by Lamouroux on pp. 65-7 among order XVII of the polypiers entièrement pierreux et non flexibles, are distinguished from the flexible Gorgonias in order IX on pp. 31-7. The organ-pipe coral Tubipora is a polyp of order Stolonifera. A specimen of Idmonea milneana Busk was identified by S.F. Harmer in No. 175 (in spirits).

3 Although this claim was repeated in CD's letter to Henslow of 15 August 1832 (see Correspondence 1:251), the only plant from the Abrolhos recorded in either of the Specimen Lists was a conferva (see Plant Notes p. 159).

4 The brain corals are solitary stony corals of order Scleractinia, similar in appearance to a brain.

5 Although the origin of limestone from the remains of marine organisms deposited in ancient seas was well established, CD was possibly unaware of the high concentration of calcium in sea water. The view that the growth of corals required a supply of lime brought up to the sea bed by volcanic action in the vicinity might have been derived from Lyell (see Charles Lyell. Principles of Geology, being an attempt to explain the former changes of the earth's surface, by reference to causes now in operation, Vol. 2, pp. 297-301. Murray, London, 1832), if note (c) was added after CD's copy reached him at Monte Video in November 1832.

 

[CD P. 34 continues]

Parmacella

198

 

 

 

Parmacella

 

(a)

 

Parmacella (Cuvier)1 body lengthened; broardest across the mantle.— Mouth labiate with upper lip bilabiate, inferior with a fold.— when closed it is folded into 5 irregular rays: Body beneath pale, above light dirty yellow; with few blueish lead coloured markings; colours more intense under the shell; 2 interrupted blueish lead coloured longitudinal bands on the back.— Shell transparent very brittle, oval, concave posteriorly beaked & slightly spiral; increases by concentric layers.— Lightly attached to the mantle, edges being overlapped by a membrane.— |35| Tentacula, superior lead coloured, inferior very short.— Length of large specimen 1.4 inch. breadth .4.— Habits, lives on aquatic plants & is partly amphibious.— When placed in water, turns its back downwards, draws in its tentacula & swims slowly till it finds some object to adhere to.— It moves in the same manner in the water as on a solid substance, viz by a wave-like motion in the foot; each wave is semicircular & travels upwards from the very extremity to the head.— It is not clear how the movement propels the animal.— Is it by a slight contraction after the formation of

[page] 36 RIO DE JANEIRO APRIL 1832

(b)

each wave? [note (a)] The curved lines [sketch in margin] may represent the ridges or waves in the muscle of the foot; each one travelling onwards after the one before it; a new one of course continually commencing at the tail.— I fancied I perceived a slight contraction after the formation of each wave.— [note (b)] How naturally does the animal by its habits & organization connect through Succinea the terrestrial Pulmones without a shell, with those with one.— [notes end]

Physa

199

Physa2.— shell sinestral.— Animal: foot thin. much separated from body. rounded in front, tail extremely pointed, lead coloured.— Tentacula long, tapering of same colour, with an attached membrane at the base.— Eyes within the base of feelers.— Over the mouth a large inverted wedge shaped bilabiate membrane.— Lives in grassy ditches, swims with its shell downward very rapidly by the aid of front projecting part of foot.— Steers itself by the head, perhaps membranes at base of feelers assist in this.— Body in nearly the same direction as opening of shell; when dead, not perfectly retractile: a fringed membrane projecting from around opening of shell. |36|

Limnœa

435 (not

spirits)

 

Copied

Found great numbers of a species of Limnœa3 adhering to aquatic plants in a lake situated between Mandetiba & Lagoa Araruama: The water was then fresh.— but the inhabitants affirmed that periodically once an year it became salt & sometimes oftener.— The period most probably in which the SW winds prevail; Is not this fact curious, that fresh water shells should survive an inundation of salt water? In the neighbouring Lagoon, Balani were adhering to the rocks.—

Ceratophis

185

My specimen4 inhabited the dark & moist forest round Socêgo.— Its habits were those of an English toad, than a Frog. All its motions slow & feeble: proceeded by slow short jumps.— Colours in the Spirits have become rather fainter.— Iris bright copper colour.—

 

1 Stylommatophora, a slug.

2 A fresh water pulmonate of order Basommatophora.

3 ditto.

4 Not listed in Zoology 5.

 

[CD P. 36 continues]

Aplysia1

207

May 6th.— Animal with lateral crests unequal; right side nearly orbicular. very large.— measured internally to the back 2 & 3/4 inches wide.— left, posteriorly obliquely cut or slanted off & only 1 & 3/4 wide; the anterior basal parts of right one very thick & fleshy.— crests extend nearly length of whole body.— as the animal was dying when I found it, I am not sure of its shape — foot broard, length when contracted 4 & ½ inches, I have

[page] 37 RIO DE JANEIRO MAY 1832

 

Aplysia

no doubt when crawling would be 6 inches — Width Depth with crest extended 4 & ½ (placed sideways on a plate).— |37| colour, purplish dark brown with whitish marking, & in them minute snow white dots about 1/48th of inch in diameter.— on the edge of crests their markings are larger & more distinct.— Feelers same colour.— anterior fleshy, placed longitudinantly [sic], posterior small, near to anterior part of crests.— Mantle purplish, posteriorly forming simple tube; Branchiæ situated on a straight membrane on each side about seven eight corresponding tufts, primarily bifid.— A tube or line (?) running from between crests towards the head.— Connected with Generation? When first taken emitted a little purple.— If the Aplysia uses its lateral crests to swim.— Can this? Cuvier says Tectibranches have these Branchiæ not symmetrical.— Are not these?—

Hyla2

208

On the back, a band of "yellowish brown" width of head, sides copper yellow; abdomen silvery yellowish white slightly tuberculated: beneath the mouth, smooth dark yellow.— under sides of legs leaden flesh colour.— Can adhere to perpendicular surface of glass.— The fields resound with the noise which this little animal, as it sits on a blade of grass about an inch from the water, emits.— The note is very musical. I at first thought it must be a bird.— When several are together they chirp in harmony; each, beginning a lower note than the other, & then continuing upon two (I think these notes are thirds to each other).— |38|

Helix3

452 (a)

Copied

Body 1 & ½ inches long. Colour "Kings Yellow"; neck long, cylindrical, marked with longitudinal furrows which become reticulated on the sides; tentacula orange colour, bearing eyes at extremities, finely & regularly reticulated; anterior pair about 1/5 in length of posterior; beneath there are are angular projections forming sides of the mouth.— Mouth when protruded & closed, three folded (Y).— Foot & tail paler, the latter broard, rather pointed.— Inhabits thick woods on the hills.— [note (a)] 452 (not spirits, merely the shell) [note ends]

Spider4

212 (b)

in the

Spider

Bottle

213

taken in

thick

forest

 

Evidently by its four front strong equal legs being much longer than posterior; by its habits on a leaf of a tree, is a Laterigrade: It differs however most singularly from that tribe & is I think a new genus.— Eyes 10 in number, (!?) anterior ones red,

situated on two curved longitudinal

lines, thus the central triangular ones

on an eminence: Machoires rounded inclined:

languettes bluntly arrow shaped: Cheliceres powerful with large aperture for poison.— Abdomen encrusted & with 5 conical peaks: Thorax with one small one: Crotchets to Tarsi, very strong (& with 2 small corresponding ones beneath?) Colour snow white, except tarsi & half of leg bright yellow.— also tops of abdominal points & line of eyes black.— It must

[page] 38 RIO DE JANEIRO MAY 1832

used

White

I think be new.— (Lithetron paradoxicus Darwin !!! [note (b)] 212 (in the Spider Bottle (213)) Taken in the fores<t> [note ends]

Helix5

481 (c)

 

Copied

Animal narrow, reticulated with lines all over body; colour brownish "Lavander purple" with snow white dorsal streak.— Superior feeler stout conical, terminated by a ball carrying the eye.— Eggs, white; .24 inch. diam: Shell effervesces with acids. Body when extended 3 inches long. [notes (c)] 481 (not spirits). Inhabits rocky wooded hills. [notes end] |39|

Leucauge6

(b) (a)

used

White

Spider, orbilates [orbitéles]; closely allied to Epeira (Leucauge. [illeg.]) Web, very regular nearly horizontal, animal rests in the centre on inferior surface: [note (a)] Vide Nos 235 & 214. [Notes (b)] Beneath the regular web with concentric circles, there is an irregular & then tissue of net work.— This irregular tissue work is sometimes above the concentric web.— [notes end] Machoires parallel, lengthened, thickening towards the end, square truncate: languette semicircular with central impression: Cheliceres cylindrical: eyes equal, thus placed [see sketch in margin]: thorax truncate, oval, depressed: 1st pair of legs [illeg.] longest. then 2d, 4th & lastly 3d: filieres little conical, projecting, distinct: Abdomen oblong, brilliant; the red like a ruby with a bright light behind.—

Bulimus7 (?)

(c)

Copied

 

Animal with coarse reticulations, colour brownish yellow, becoming darker & forming a band on each side.— back white with central band.— tail broard flat pale.— Feelers yellowish, superiors long.— Mouth of the shell with anterior end flattened, animal protrudes itself in the same line as this.— Was found in the Botanic garden closely adhering to the species of firs which were originally brought from New S Wales.— [note (c)] V. n 240 [note ends]

Hymenop:8

(d)

(Rapaces)

Pompilus

 

Hymenop:

(d)

(Rapaces)

Pompilus

I have frequently observed these insects [note (d): V No 535 Not spirits] carrying dead spiders, even the powerful genus Mygalus, & have found the clay (e) cells made for their larvæ [note (e): Vide (449) not spirits] filled with dying & dead small spiders: to day (June 2d) I watched a contest between one of them & a large Lycosa.— The insect dashed against the spider & then flew away; it had evidently mortially [sic] wounded its enemy with its sting; for the spider crawled a little way & then rolled down the hill & scrambled into a tuft of grass.— The Hymenoptera most assuredly again found out the spider by the power of smell; regularly making small circuits |40| (like a dog) & rapidly vibrating its wings & antennæ: It was a most curious spectacle: the Spider had yet some life, & the Hymenop was most cautious to keep clear of the jaws; at last being stung twice more on under side of the thorax it became motionless.— The hymenop. apparently ascertained this by repeatedly putting its head close to the spider, & then dragged away the heavy Lycosa with its mandibles.— I then took them

[page] 39 RIO DE JANEIRO MAY 1832

both. (Hymenop. No 535)

1 An opisthobranch of order Anaspidea, the sea hare.

2 Not listed in Zoology 5.

3 Land snail.

4 A crab spider, family Thomisidae, listed by Adam White in Annals and Magazine of Natural History 7:471-7 (1841) as Eripus heterogaster, but now known as Epicadus heterogaster (Guerin, 1831).

5 Land snail.

6 An orb-weaving orchard spider, family Tetragnathidae, named by Adam White (loc. cit.), using Darwin's name, as Linyphia (Leucauge) argyrobapta, this being the type species of the new genus Leucauge. Other species described by White from CD's collections in Brazil were Linyphia (?) leucosternon n.s., Epeira (Singa) leucogramma n.s., Pholcus geniculatus n.s.

7 Rissoacea, a small snail with a conical shell.

8 No specimen found, but could possibly be a Trypoxylon (Sphecidae). See Insect Notes p. 56.

 

[CD P. 40 continues]

Metereolog:

Colour of

sky &c

 

(a)

 

In the course of to day (June 2d) I have observed several trifling meterolog phenomena.— The day At noon it was very hot & calm: the sky dark blue & I remarked, what I have frequently before, that small Cumuli with defined edges float at less about 2000 feet elevation; they passed beneath the summit of the Caucovado.— These clouds to the eye had an appearance of great elevation.— For some hours the air, seen through for a short distance, had a prodigious transparency: but all colours at a greater were blended into a most beautiful tint.— giving to the landscape an serene appearance.— I have never observed this in England.— the colour was "French grey" with a very little prussian blue.— the sky in the Zenith was "Ultra marine" & "flax flower blue".— The Barometer had fallen .08 since the morning.— But from the same period, the dryness of atmosphere had much increased: the dew point was 64.5 & diff 57°: diff 17°.— whilst in the morning the latter was only 7°.5.— |41|

 

 

 

[note (a) added later] Again the next day morning (June 3d) a breeze set in from the NE. bearing with it a heavy bank of Cumuli.— This floated about 200 feet above the sea, & was not 600 thick, as the Sugar loaf peeped through its white covering, & looked like the peak of Teneriffe.— The rest of the sky was clear, with a few scattered Cirri.— As the white mass rolled inland, it rose in the atmosphere & was partially dissolved.— I never observed this phenomenon in any part of England. (The Barom was not but little affected)

 

 

June 8th.— From this fact of Cumili. with edge clearly defined against the blue sky, floating on a calm hot day. under 2000 feet of elevation. a

[page] 40 RIO DE JANEIRO JUNE 1832

landscape introducing it faithfully had to my eye, an unnatural appearance, although well aware of the truth of the fact.—

 

 

 

 

On May 5th & 17th there was a good instance of an appearance, which I had frequently witnessed with surprise on the Rio Macaè.— In both all cases for some hours the country had been drenched with rain; as soon [as] it ceased a most extraordinary evaporation commenced.— At 100 feet elevation the wooded hills were almost hidden in the clouds of vapour, which rising like column of smoke formed beds of not to be distinguished from the surrounding Cumili.— The most thickly wooded parts produced the greatest quantity.— I suppose this fact is owing to the great extent surface of heated foliage.— The atmosphere itself was not very damp DP 71. Temp 78. Diff: 7 [note ends]

 

[CD P. 41 commences]

Meterolog:

The thermometer (at same time) exposed on white cotton to the sun was at 2 PM 115°. The night was cloudless & a copious dew was falling. therm on the open turf fell to 61°.— So that the vegetation even in the winter season undergoes a range of 54 degrees.—

 

 

Mr Daniell1 remarks that a cloud on a mountain sometimes is seen stationary, whilst a wind is blowing; the same phenomenon seen nearer on the Caucovado presented rather a different appearance.— Here the cloud cloud continued to curl over & pass by the summit & side of the peak & yet was not diminished. or increased in size.— The sun was setting & a gentle Southerly breeze came in.— this striking against the South side of the rock, which had not been exposed to the full rays of the sun & was open to the radiation of an open a clear sky, was cooled & the vapour condensed. but as it passed over the ridge it met the warmer air of the North sloping Bank & immediately the vapour was dissolved & cloud disappeared.—

 

1 See John Frederic Daniell. Meteorological essays and observations. London, 1823. In Beagle Library.

 

[CD P. 41 continues]

Lampyrus1

(a)

(d)

(b)

In the early part of the night of April & beginning of May. the marshy fields were illuminated by this beautiful insect; the light was green & more intense than the Elater noctelucis: it was visible at more than 200 yards.— [note (a)] 440, 441 not spirits [note (b)] It is remarkable how commonly that the light from animals is green.— Four Lampyruis, Elater Noctelucis; Marine crustaceæ & other marine animals all partake of this tint.— [note (d)] Great numbers of this insect fall a prey to Epeirus [notes end]

[page] 41 RIO DE JANEIRO JUNE 1832

 

Lampyrus

the insect in its habits is very active & when most irritated emitted the most brilliant │42│ flashes: in the intervals, the two abdominal rings were completely obscure; the flash is almost instantaneous, but first appears in the upper ring.— The shining matter is fluid & very adhesive, & lies immediately under the skin: Carb of Soda added to it produced no immediate effect.— Places, where the skin was torn, in the interval remained bright & a scintillation was perceptible.— When the head of the insect was cut off, the rings continued interruptedly bright, but not so brilliant; pressing & pricking always increased the vividness; & it then appeared first of a bluer tint & in spots.— The abdomen remained luminous many hours more than 24 after the death of animal.— From all these facts it would appear that the vital action is more concerned in obscuring the light at intervals than in immediately producing it.—

Larva

(a)

(b)

 

(c)

 

Larva

of Lampyrus

Larva of the above Lampyrus (I suppose) luminous not quite so strong as our glow worm.— [note (a)] Nos. not spirits 442, 443, 506, 507 [note (b)] I have no descriptions to recognise for certain the female from the larva of Lampyrus. I never however saw the winged ones near to where the apterous ones were crawling [notes end] Inhabits wet muddy places: when touched pretends death, & ceases to be luminous & irritation will not reproduce it.— Can swim well by a lateral serpentine motion of body; tibice rather [illeg. word] spinose.— Walks quickly by the aid of its tail.— This latter organ is curious: the last dorsal or tail plate is cut out [see sketch in margin] & the two inferior & posterior rings of abdomen with spines; beneath the penultimate is a cup, from which can be protruded an oval membranous tube, containing numerous approximate fillets, arranged |43| in a circle; each of these is bifid & has the power of strongly adhering to any surface.— [note (c)] The cup rather rises at the junction of the last & penultimate joint.— the above mentioned spines in the penultimates are situated on the inferior surface, in the last joint at the very extremity.— The larger the specimen the more luminous it is. [note ends]

 

[CD P. 43 continues]

 

 

 

 

The spines & tube being pointed posteriorly & the latter pulling in the same direction the animal can firmly attach itself by this means.— Mouth retractile.— Are strongly carnivorous, readily feeding on raw flesh.— Whilst so doing the tail is frequently applied to the mouth, which is partly drawn in; & a large drop of fluid is exuded from the terminal cup; this appears to act in both softening the mouth & the flesh.— The fluid neither affected Litmus or Turmeric: but like the gastric juice, the action of which Chemistry can so little explain2, it doubtless aids digestion.— The tail was always guided to the mouth by first touching the neck.— These larvæ are in considerable number.— does not the fact of their being luminous render

[page] 42 RIO DE JANEIRO JUNE 1832

 

(a)

what has so often stated improbable, [illeg.] that the sexes shine in order to bring them together3.— Amongst the specimens there is one of another species; the mouth protrudes further out & the dorsal plates are rounded.— I have likewise taken these species of the full grown Lampyrus. [note (a)] No. 508 (not spirits) [note ends]

Hymen=

-phallus

(b)

Copied

Growing in a very thick damp forest (June 4th) did not smell stronger than the Caninus: yet sufficient to be remarked by the inhabitants: the veil was inserted about ½ an inch beneath the cone at top.— top perforated: liquid on it yellowish brown: bag of jelly resembling impudicus. — the specimen is only in fragment<s>4. [note opposite] (b) No. 245.— A Leiodes5 (550 not spirits) flew on it as I was carrying it.— |44|

 

1 The glow worms and fireflies observed by CD were later identified by George Waterhouse as mostly Lampyris occidentalis, but none of the specimens have survived. See Insect Notes pp. 51 and 57.

2 The first studies of the properties of organic catalysts were begun at about this time, but the name enzyme to describe them was introduced by Kühne only in 1878.

3 In Vol. 1, p. 345 of The descent of man, and selection in relation to sex (John Murray, London, 1871), CD repeated his doubt whether the role of luminosity in the Lampyridae was truly the generation of mating signals, because this would not account for the particularly strong luminosity of the larvae.

4 Caninus is the dog stinkhorn, and impudicus is Phallus impudicus L., but CD's specimen did not survive. See Plant Notes p. 219.

5 The specimen has not been identified with certainty, but from other evidence cited in Insect Notes p. 56 is a Nitulid similar to British species but larger.

 

[CD P. 44 commences]

Bulimus ?

257

Animal1 crawling on the dry ground; shell destitute of an umbelicus.— (is it young Bulimus ??) — body 4 inches long .5 wide: superior feelers .9 long: inferior .2: foot very broard, thin at edges: back rugosely reticulated, colour dirty lead coloured; scales & tail more yellow.—

Vaginulus2

 

specimen 256

 

(c)

 

Veronicella Blainv: animal here described as in crawling.— Mantle Above rather pale "honey yellow". Mantle regularly rounded; smooth to the touch, but finely tuberculated; edges angular far projecting over foot, forming at anterior end a truncate hood; mouth & front part of foot retracted during inaction.— Mantle covering whole body length 5.5 inch, breadth .5, posterior end bluntly pointed.— foot of uniform breadth: thin, separated from mantle by an interval of sides: pointed at end & divided from extremity of mantle for .3 of an inches.— [note (c)] The side is I suppose only the under edge of mantle; palish yellow [note ends] Between them fecal orifice; partly formed by groove in under surface of mantle.— it moves by wave-like motion of muscles as in Parmacella.— (an obscure

[page] 43 RIO DE JANEIRO JUNE 1832

 

 

Vaginulus

hole on middle of rt side by edge of foot. generative?) Superior feelers, approximate, length .6. lead coloured terminated by ball, bearing an eye on superior surface: inferior with extremely blunt, length .2.— To the under surface for 2/3 of length is joined another organ, giving to the feeler a forked appearance.— it is pointed at extremity, & whilst the animal moves this part is perpetually retracting & protruding: it appears to have an aperture & to exude small quantities of fluid: is it to moisten path before the body? |45| The slime (on body) is exuded through parallel pore on the foot.— Animal slow, torpid, generally with mouth retracted, lives & feeds on leaves of a tree in a dense forest on a hill; remote from any water.—

Vaginulus

256

 

(d)

Specimen 291

A small specimen only .5 length differs from the former in the following respects.— Anterior & posterior ends of mantle black.— with 4 faint dorsal lines of same colour.— rather more tuberculated & with white dots: edges space between edges of foot & mantle white.— Lived in same forest: caught it in the sweeping entomological net.— Is it a different species or merely the young?— Are young snails generally darker coloured?—

 

[note (d)] June (23d) Found an injured specimen of this animal; colour uniform yellowish green, tuberculated with white dots; sides & foot concolorés.— Number (291) [note ends]

 

[CD P. 45 continues]

Comatula3

283

 

 

 

(c)

 

Comatula

Botofogo Bay. 15th.— Ventral surface "deep reddish browne" arms & with their pinnæ banded with white.— dorsal plate & cirrhi pale.— Suckers on the pinnæ minute, numerous; on inferior surface of arms a fine canal, bending alternately to each pinnæ, meets on the ventral disk with the other canal from the brother arm: (proving that the number 5 is normal, although here apparently there are 10).— The junctions of these canals irregular; meeting in the irregular central mouth.— [note (c)] Lamarck seems to deny this mouth. Cuvier states there to be one.— it certainly is by no means so apparent as in Asterias. [note ends] Anus submarginal, tubular, ejecting fæces.— The pinnæ on the lower half of arms are at their base, fleshy & not banded with white. The animal was found adhering on the over |46| hanging project ledge of rocks.— its dorsal cirrhi were firmly fixed in an encrusting sponge.— & the arms widely extended, so as much to resemble an enormous Polypus.— irritable. Motion passing down the body as in a sensitive plant.— arms have considerable power of motion, can curl themselves into a perfect spire.— When placed in fresh water emitted a strong odour & stained the water with a brownish yellow tint.— The animal had a most graceful appearance.—

Nudibranch4

(allied to

Scyllæa?

 

Branchiæ dorsal (resembling Doris). each arm conical with simple short cirrhi; 6 in number, 4 anterior longest; between posterior ones there is circular anal orifice.— foot narrow, doubled into a groove incapable of

[page] 44 RIO DE JANEIRO JUNE 1832

264

 

(b)

 

 

Nudibranch

adhering to flat surface, anterior end flat, enlarged into a natatory organ.— Mantle projecting over with longitudinal slit for mouth.— Feelers 6; 4 anterior simple, tapering thin.— of which the two first are more approximate. behind & within there are 2 oval strong ones, on a footstalk & with circular ridges.— [note (b)] These are semi-retractile.— [note ends] (in this specimen the rt one is only left, but I think I can perceive where the other was) The lines joining on each side the anterior feelers are raised into a sort of rudimentary membrane, which traverses the back, enclosing branchiæ, & meet at the tail.— this membrane is fringed with projections paps on its edges.— |47| Tail cyl round, pointed.— On right side between branchiæ & mouth, a closed orifice was visible.— Generative?— A strong pulsation was perceptible on the back before the Branchiæ.— Length of body .3 (probably young specimen) colours most beautiful; side blue & white with projecting white paps & with irregular transverse rows of bright orange spots.— Back with less blue.— Branchiæ & posterior pair of feelers coloured as the sides.— Animal was found crawling on the stalks of fine Corallines.— could swim well.— & had power of turning its head vertically back as far as Branchiæ.— It would seem to have some relation with Scyllæa & some with Polycera.—

Coralline5

(a)

(b)

Lardiman?

Cells oval, attached by one end in irregular scattered groups on irregular cylindrical jointed hollow transparent much branched stems. Polypus tubular, conical, lengthened with 8 long tapering arms.— Growing in large tufts at low-water mark.— [note (a)] 265. Polypi hanging out.— [note (b)] Stems irregularly divided, interwoven, membrano-gelatinous.— [notes end]

 

1 Rissoacea, a snail with a conical shell.

2 Stylommatophora, a pulmonate land slug. See Planche 58 showing Veronicelle lisse as portrayed by Blainville in Dic. Sciences Naturelles Planches 2e partie, Zoologie.

3 A feather star, a stalkless unattached crinoid of order Comatulida. See Lamarck Animaux sans vertèbres, Vol. 2, pp. 530-35, and Cuvier Le règne animal, 2nd edition, Paris 1829-30, Vol. 3, p. 228.

4 Doridacean nudibranch, probably Polycera cf. odhneri, Marcus 1958.

5 Specimen 265 in Spirits of Wine was further described as Sertularia Lamarck, a term formerly covering both bryozoans and hydrozoans, but it was listed among those thrown away by S.F. Harmer in 1901 as so much macerated that they could not be identified.

 

[CD P. 47 continues]

Spider1

?

266

Abdomen triangular, filières pointed inferiorly at rt angles to the body.— Machoires enlarged into & rounded at extremity, languette rounded.— 1st pair of legs much longest.— 2d pair next.— Eyes like Epeira, but anterior & lateral on eminence.— Claw of cheliceres, small but little oblique, internal edge finely serrated.— This curious little spider inhabits with

[page] 45 RIO DE JANEIRO JUNE 1832

Spider

impunity the strong |48| web of the genus Epeira: & far most generally of a large one (specimens in No 252). division of Dic: Class: (I: ++:).— Indeed few of the webs can be found without these intruders.— There appears to be one more than one species: the more lengthened brown coloured one is the male of silvered abdomen sort.— as I think I observed them in copulation head to head.— When touched they either pretend death by shaking forward all front pair of legs.— or fall down, being attached by line to the Epeira web.— I know not where to place this genus.—

Epeira2

Nor 238

(b)

(c)

 

Epeira

Div: in Dic: Class: (II.++.1), very common especially on coast amongst the Aloes.— the web is strengthened in a curious manner.— the rays from centre have of course the concentric circles, also on opposite sides of centre two adjoining spokes are connected by a Zig Zag band of web.— the case is sometimes double so as to be at right angles to each other, thus. When the spider is touched it falls down instead of as is common in Epeira run to the corner.— Stands head lowermost in centre of web.— [note (b)] Some all<ied> species even have a regular piece of mat-work in the centre of their web.— [note ends] When an insect is caught (for instance I saw small wasp & grasshopper) the spider rushes on it & by rapidly revolving it with in a few seconds involves it in a thick mesh.— as this proceeds from the filieres, it looks like a silver ribbon.— The spider then examines its prey & (in case of wasp) bit it several times with cheliceres on the back or thorax.— & immediately retreats |49| to its usual place the centre of web.— The insects in about ½ a minute being taken out of the mesh were quite dead & relaxed.— How much more powerful is this than any poison man knows of.— Prussic acid being rubbed into a Blaps seemed only to cause a slight paralysis, which in short time went off.—

 

 

 

 

 

 

[note (c)] June 25th. I again watched one of these spiders; it is chiefly when the web is over an aloe or thick bush that the insect suddenly falls to the ground.— If the space beneath is clear, the spider disturbed only moves with great quickness through a hole near the centre from one side to the other.— It also practises another most curious meeneuvre [sic] when still further disturbed; by rapidly contracting & expanding its legs & the meshes being attached to elastic twigs, it soon gives to the whole web such a vibratory motion, that even the outline of Spider is rendered indistinct.— I may mention that when animal perfectly stationary the web filières can lengthen the thread, which was attached to a point, previous to falling.— The spider being still further molested, instead of leaving a single line as a train, emitted the same mass of web as described in enveloping its prey.—

[page] 46 RIO DE JANEIRO JUNE 1832

[CD P. 49 continues]

Theridion3

(a)

(d)

 

In bottle (252) there are specimens of a small red spider. head, extremities of abdomen & half the legs black.— I believe it to be a Theridion.— They are exceedingly numerous: fresh turned up ground & short turf being in most places coated by its the small irregular web.— in the morning bespangled by Dew.— [note (a)] Specimens in bottle 252. [note (d)] Latreille referring to this appearance in Europe, refers it to young Lycosæ: in same manner as he does the Gossamer to grand [?] Arachnidæ.— (Vide P 117)4 [note ends]

Myrmecia5

(b)

This singular looking spider is not uncommon in the wooded hills, amongst the foliage;— it is the "rufrum", but the colours vary, especially the black marking.— the abdomen & posterior segments of thorax obscure; the general colour of legs & body is not "fauve" but a mixture of "Orpiment orange & Vermilion red". [note (b)] Inhabits a leaf curled up; is very active in running & looks singularly like an ant. Specimens in bottle (252) [note ends]

Tetragnatha6

(c)

Common over water & may be seen in the evening forming its web.— When frightened, either remains stationary or runs to one corner, & stretches forward in a bundle its long legs.— Web horizontal, meshes large, points of attachment far apart.— it is generally attached to flags or rushes & is beautifully adapted to withstand being shaken by the wind.— I observed one, stretched across a very rapid brook, & joining to a central stone: how does the animal contrive to effect this?.— [note (c)] Specimens in bottle (252) [note ends] │50│

 

1 A comb-footed spider of family Theridiidae, Argyrodes sp. or spp. This genus includes kleptoparasitic spiders that live in the webs of larger spiders, but it is not clear whether CD is referring to one or two species (male or female). It was of this period that CD wrote to Henslow 'I am at present red-hot with Spiders, they are very interesting, & if I am not mistaken, I have already taken some new genera'. See Correspondence 1:238.

2 Orb-weaving spider of family Araneidae, Argiope sp. Epeira is no longer a valid genus. See Cuvier Vol. 4, p. 247.

3 Tangle-web weaver, family Theridiidae, Theridion sp. See Cuvier Vol. 4, p. 243.

4 For CD's account of the invasion of the Beagle by gossamer spiders when sailing from Buenos Aires to Monte Video, see pp. 106-8.

5 Ant-mimicking spider of family Corinnidae, Myrmecium rufum Latreille. According to Cuvier Vol. 4, p. 261 'La Myrmécie fauve . . . se trouve aux environs de Rio-Janeiro'. See also Dic. Class. 11:587.

6 Orb-weaving spider of family Tetragnathidae, Tetragnatha sp. See Cuvier Vol. 4, p. 247.

[page] 47 RIO DE JANEIRO JUNE 1832

[CD P. 50 commences with an entry on Planaria that as before has been crossed through, indicating that it has been used for publication]

Planaria1

 

No. 278

June 17th.— This very extraordinary animal was found, under the bark of a decaying tree, in the forest at a considerable elevation.— The place was quite dry & no water at all near.— Body soft, parenchymatous, covered with slime (like snails & leaving a track), not much flattened; when fully extended, 2 & ¼ inches long: in broardest parts only .13 wide.— Back arched, top rather flat; beneath, a level crawling surface (precisely resembles a gasteropode, only not separated from the body), with a slightly projecting membranous edge.— Anterior end extremely extensible, pointed lengthened; posterior half of body broardest, tail bluntly pointed.

 

Colours: back with glossy black stripe; on each side of this a primrose white one edged externally with black; these stripes reach to extremities, & become uniformly narrower.— sides & foot dirty "orpiment orange".— from the elegance of shape & great beauty of colours, the animal had a very striking appearance.—

 

 

The anterior extremity of foot rather grooved or arched.— on its edge is a regular row of round black dots (as in marine Planariæ) which are continued round the foot, but not regularly; foot thickly covered with very minute angular white marks or specks.— On the foot in centre, about 1/3 of length from the tail, is a[n] irregular circular white space, free from the specks.— Extending through the whole width of this, is a transverse slit, sides straight parallel, extremities rounded, 1/60th of inch long.— tolerably apparent.— (i.e. with my very weak lens) |51|

Planaria

 

(b)

At the distance of .3 & nearer to the anterior extremity is another slit, resembling in every respect the former, but smaller & much more obscure (I did not perceive it till the animal was hurt by Salt Water).— Posteriorly trace of central dark vessel & I suspect anal orifice; I judge at this from the appearance on glass of something like fæces & diminution of dark coloured vessel.— [note (b)] This doubtless is an error, V. the Planaria P 53 [note ends]

 

 

(a)

 

The following2 is the most remarkable phenomenon: I cannot doubt its accuracy as I observed it in several lights & with low powers chiefly 1/5 & 1/4 focal distances.— As the animal adheres to a plate of glass; in different parts of the foot, a slight contraction of the body includes & propels a coating or thin globule of air.— Instantly as the air comes in contact with surface of foot, a violent corpuscular motion is perceptible; in paroxysm & rather from centres; I cannot explain it, but by a simile which is most precise; it is a number of small eels in thick mud being disturbed by a stick.— [note (a)] I actually at first moment thought there were minute animalcules struggling in the slime.— it is like the motion of a linear

[page] 48 RIO DE JANEIRO JUNE 1832

 

 

Planaria

(b)

animal (such as eel, tadpole, animalcule) struggling to release themselves.— [note ends] the motion was well seen by lens 1/5 focal distance, very rapid & serpentine.— I never observed it except on foot except where air was between it & the glass.— it was most singular to observe this motion as a globule of air was driven in, proceeding together with it.— A similar appearance was visible on rather smaller scale on the |52| dorsal surface; I observed it once & most clearly on the very anterior extremity. I suppose this action is the absorbing or forcing air into minute cutaneous vessels.

 

 

[note (b)] I must have fallen into some error; to day 23d I saw same appearance on back of a Bulla, in places where the light was shining on the surface.— (the animal being out of water).— It remains however quite inexplicable to me what the cause of phenomenon is.— [note ends]

 

[CD P. 52 continues]

 

 

 

 

 

(c)

 

 

 

(a)

The animal crawled like a Gasteropod, by wave like motion of foot; but differed in the anterior extremity being raised & stretched forward, & rather curved backward.— it appeared to use this part as a feeler.— could creep amongst moss.— appeared quite unused to water; salt water was highly destructive to it.— Motions slow; body irritable & irregularly contractile; quickly recovered from a cut, which I gave it in first taking it.— I should think from habits Phytovorous: kept it in tin box nearly 4 day[s]; could perceive no difference.— Was I think perceptive sensible to light.— From the above characters it is evident it is a Planaria of Cuvier3.— It differs from those (marine) I have seen; in the narrowness of body & not being much flattened; in the well marked crawling surface or foot & in the beauty of colours & in manner of crawling.— [note (c)] Has not the rapid vivacious motion of the marine species.— [note ends] How much more wide is the difference in its habits.— who would ever suppose the soft pulpy body of a Planaria could withstand the action of the air.— When I first found it & before I had examined it.— I had no doubt it was a Vaginulus (Cuv). I feel sure from its general appearance, slime, &c most observers would at first fall into the same mistake.— [note (a)] Most certainly the real relation between a Planaria & Gasteropod (Pulmones) is very small; but it appears that relation of analogy is here well seen, as it often is in animals widely apart in the chain of Nature.— [note ends] |53|

Aplysia4

279

Length of extended animal 1.in; posterior feelers simple, conical, close at bottom for 1/3 of length.— Colour pale green, with meshwork of brownish purple veins; circular spaces being left clear.— Head darkest coloured with the purple; from it a band leading to branchial covering.— The latter on edges with black dots.— Sides with few white dots.—

Bufo5

289

(Bombinator). Back: "deep orange & chesnut brown". beneath pale, with dark mark between front legs.— behind tympanum & under eye pale with

[page] 49 RIO DE JANEIRO JUNE 1832

Copied

black marks.— legs banded slightly with black.— Iris yellow.— tongue large, fleshy .— Was found under piece of bark in forest, far from water.— Motions slow, jumps.— from the rich colours, the animal presented a curious appearance.

Planaria6

290

 

 

 

 

 

 

Planaria

 

 

Colour {

This like the last (Page 50) was caught in the forest, crawling on soft decayed wood.— It is quite a different species.— Back, snow white, edged on each side by very fine parallel lines of reddish brown.— also within are two other approximate ones of same colour.— sides & foot white, nearer to the exterior red lines, thickly clouded by "pale blackish purple". animal beautifully coloured.— foot beneath with white specks.— but few black dots on edge & none on head.— length of body one inch, not so narrow in proportion as other species; & |54| anterior extremity not nearly so much lengthened.— the body in consequence of more uniform breadth.— like the former it rests on end of tail & bends out its head to find object to crawl on.— In the colouring of the body three rings are left nearly of a pure white.— In the foot, & in the line of the two posterior rings; the two transverse slits or openings were clearly visible.— I examined very carefully by strongly concentrating the light, the posterior extremity & am convinced there is no anal openin orifice.— it appeared to consist of a uniform parenchymatous matter.— indeed every part of the body thus viewed had this appearance.— In all other respects this animal exactly resembles the Planaria of Page (50).— As the tree on which I found it was near to rapid brook, I again placed this specimen in water; far from being accustomed to it.— I think in short time it would have been drowned.— Having found this crawling slowly on the damp & rotten wood, & the other under the bark of a somewhat similar tree, in all probability they live on decayed vegetable matter.— Having found two species is fortunate as it more firmly establishes this new subdivision of the genus Planaria.— |55|

 

1 Listed as Planaria vaginuloides by CD in his article on 'Brief Descriptions of Several Terrestrial Planariae, and of Some Remarkable Marine Species, with an Account of Their Habits' in Annals and Magazine of Natural History, including Zoology, Botany, and Geology 14:241-51 (1844). Turbellarian flatworm in order Tricladida, now known as Geoplana vaginuloides Darwin.

2 CD's 'remarkable phenomenon' was probably the action, made visible by the bubble of air, of the microscopic cilia beating. The same explanation would apply to his observations on Bulla.

3 See Cuvier Vol. 3, p. 266.

4 A sea hare, an opisthobranch gastropod of order Anaspidea.

5 Not identified by Thomas Bell in Zoology 5.

6 Listed by CD in his article (loc. cit.) as Planaria elegans. In a letter to Henslow begun on 23 July 1832 (see Correspondence 1:251), CD says 'Amongst the lower animals, nothing has so much interested me as finding 2 species of elegantly coloured true Planariæ, inhabiting the

[page] 50 RIO DE JANEIRO JUNE 1832

dry forest! The false relation they bear to snails is the most extraordinary thing of the kind I have ever seen.— In the same genus (or more truly family) some of the marine species possess an organization so marvellous.—that I can scarcely credit my eyesight.—' Henslow was unconvinced, and on p. 5 of the edition of CD's letters to him printed for private distribution by the Cambridge Philosophical Society in 1835, the word 'true' was omitted, and (?) was added after 'Planariæ'. Nevertheless, CD's observations on the anatomy and behaviour of these flatworms were in the main accurate, and this species does indeed lack an anal aperture; but CD was wrong in thinking that they feed on decayed vegetable matter, for in fact they are carnivorous. This turbellarian is known today as Geoplana (Barreirana) elegans Darwin.

[CD P. 55 commences]

Papilio1

Linnæus

615

not spirits

 

(d)

This insect is not uncommon & generally frequents the Orange groves; it is remarkable in several respects.— It flies high & continually settles on the trunks of trees; invariably with its head downwards & with its wings expanded to further than or opened to beyond the horizontal plane.— It is the only butterfly I ever saw make use of its legs in running, this one will avoid being caught by shuffling to one side.— Some time ago I saw several pair[s], I presume males & females, of these butterflies chasing each other, & which from appearance & habits were I am sure the same species as this.— Strange as it may sound, they when fluttering about emitted a noise somewhat similar to cocking a small pistol; a sort of a click.— I observed it repeatedly.—

 

[note (d) added later] June 28th.— In same place I observed one of these butterflies resting as described on a trunk of tree; another happening to flying past, immediately they chased each other, emitting (& there < >could be no mistake the space being open) the peculiar noise: this is continued for some time & is more like a small toothed wheel passing over under a spring pawl.— The noise would be heard between about 20 yards distant. This fact (from Kirby)2 would appear to be new. [note ends]

Cavolina?3

299

Anterior feelers very long, united at base projecting over the mouth; posterior one feelers conical with transves transverse ridges (like in many Doris): eyes situated posteriorly at the base of latter:— feelers orange coloured.— Branchiæ in longitudinal rows on each side (or rather in 2 sets of obliquely transverse ones).— Branchiæ simple, tapering, internally dark brown.— Tail pointed, enlarged near extremity, prehensile.— Found amongs[t] corallines at Botofogo Bay.— (Examination very short!!) |56|'

Amphiroa4

282 & (595 not

spirits) (3)

Branches very much flattened, formed of arched layers (a).— these are very brittle & stony, formed of parallel longitudinal fibres & appear in older branches solid.— Extreme layer white, semitransparent & so soft the least touch would injure it.— no trace of terminal aperture.— Joints (B) [see

[page] 51 RIO DE JANEIRO JUNE 1832

sketch in margin] transparent horny & more generally at the bifurcation of branches.— they it would appear that these are formed rather by an alteration than continuation of central substance.— Without these joints the coralline would be rigid.— Branches irregular, generally dichotomous.— From The joints are formed by a crack in outer Calcareous coat & oval opening on each side: From the [illeg. word] & the terminal layer being soft, as they become dry they contract into hollows. V specimen (595).— I could by no means (fresh Water, Alcohol &c) perceive any signs of irritability.— On one side of this coralline there may be generally observed either irregularly or in double regular rows.— rounded projecting paps.— these have a distinct minute orifice: I am at a loss what to consider them, by no means could I make any animal protrude itself.— These cells are not fixed deeply into the branch.— Is it impossible to be a minute Pyrgoma; the recurrence in double rows [illegible corrections in pencil] on one side wars against this: yet it forcibly struck me to be the case.— The Coralline is in great quantity in Botofogo Bay.— |58|

 

[note (a) at the top of CD P. 58] I find I have pages 15 by mistake twice over5, so that although late I have changed this page into 58 instead of 57.— [note ends]

 

 

3686

 

 

[note (3) added later] Corallina6 growing abundantly on an mass of Ascidia throw<n> up on beach. June 1836. C. of Good Hope.— By accident nearly all the specimens were lost, the fragments preserve<d> showed on many of the cylindrical joints the small pap, formed bladders with little circular orifices. Being broken open beneath the microscope, there were seen 8-12 (about) small rather bright pink bodies, arranged in a sort of ring in a little flocculent matter; by a slight [illeg.] were easily detached & floated separately,— in form pear shaped, one side rather protuberant, apex one extremity pointed, the other rounded; the envelope was distinct, the central matter appeared granular & pink coloured. In size they could easily pass through the orifice of cell.— With 1/20" focal lens could perceive no particular organization in these ova.— I examined & opened several of the paps.— [note ends]

 

[CD P. 58 commences]

[page] 52 RIO DE JANEIRO JUNE 1832

Ctenus7

In tube (300)

 

All the specimens I have seen, have been on wooded hills; there appears to be 2 divisions in the genus.— The ones with body flattened, hairy & colours speckled, legs very long, line of four central eyes curved.— These live in decayed trees & may often be seen standing motionless with their legs stretched out near to some hole.— It is evident they can see to some distance; for the instant you draw back they out of sight, they dash into their holes.— The other division in their appearance & habits approaches closely to Lycosa: there are specimens of both in (300).

Oxyopes8

(c)

This genus was exceedingly numerous in May (during the wet season) & was universally found amongst the herbage, but more especially in damp places.— In its habits it is a Saltigrade; springing with all the activity of one of that tribe from leaf to leaf.— [note (c)] Numerous specimens in bottle (213). [note ends]

 

1 A butterfly identified by CD in Journal of Researches 1:38 as Papilio feronia. In a footnote he mentions that G.R. Waterhouse has examined the specimen, and cannot discover the source of the sound; but in the 1845 edition he refers to a paper about it by Doubleday in Proc. ent. Soc. Lond. p. 123 (1845). See Insect Notes p. 58.

2 See William Kirby and William Spence. An introduction to entomology. 4 vols. London, 1815-26. Copy in Beagle Library.

3 An aeolidacean nudibranch.

4 The syntype specimens of the coralline alga Amphiroa exilis Harvey that were collected by CD at Botofogo are now in the Herbarium of Trinity College Dublin as described in Plant Notes pp. 186-90. Specimen 595 also included the bryozoan Nichtina tuberculata preserved in the Busk Collection at the Natural History Museum

5 The second CD P. 15 was later renumbered 15 bis.

6 Named Amphiroa exilis var. crassiuscula by Harvey. See Plant Notes pp. 199-200.

7 A hunting spider of family Ctenidae, in CD's 2nd division. His 1st division would be flat hunting spiders, family Platoridae.

8 A genus of lynx spiders, family Oxyopidae.

 

[CD P. 58 continues]

General

Observations

 

General

observations

 

[illeg. note

in pencil]

The following remarks are grouped without order: The traveller in a country where every feature wears so totally a different aspect is liable to fall into errors from expecting contrasts & reversed order of things where they do not exist: from this cause a greater degree of caution is necessary in comparing the appearance of Nature in the two zones than would have at first have been expected. |59| After seeing a collection of Brazilian birds in a Museum; it would not easily be believed what little show they make in their native country.— Concealed in the universal mass of vegetation, the attention is not drawn to them by their notes.— The large swifts with pointed tail feathers, unlike to their congeners in England pursue in silence their airy circles.— Perhaps a bird allied to the Parrots (Krotophagus) possesses the most harmonious voice.— Nature in these Zones chooses her vocalists out of other tribes; in the evening some species of frogs make a concert no ways unpleasant. this as the night advances is accompanied by the endless cry of the Cicadas.— As far as regards insects, M. Lacordaire1 states the months during which I have collected are by no means the most productive in insects.— This may account for the few numbers of large & brilliant beetles which I have seen.— Of the smaller species I certainly have succeeded in taking great numbers.—

[page] 53 RIO DE JANEIRO APRIL: MAY: JUNE 1832

Coleoptera2

(a)

Coleoptera.— Amongst the Carabidous beetles3, the only ones I saw in plenty were Cicindela nivea4, two Harpali5 & a Lopha6.— the other few chiefly belonged to Truncatipennis & Scarce Bipartis. [note (a)] Truncatipennis inhabiting the foliage in forest, the Bipartis sandy plains. [note ends] (I always allude more to number of individuals than of species) This family evidently more belongs to a higher latitude.— Amongst the Hydrocanthares7 were several minute species of Hydroporus7, Hygrotus7 & Hyphidrus7 & Noterus8. |60|

General

Observations

(a)

They are not however, so numerous as in England.— Gyrinis9 frequent & might be seen dancing on the surface of a clear ditch; forcibly bringing to the recollection of an Entomologist his walks at home.—

 

 

(b)

[marginal

note in

pencil]

Lycodes23

alighting

upon

Phallus.

Stay at

Barmouth24.

Brachelytus10 uncommon. chiefly on decaying vegetable matter.—

Elateridæ11 most of species very small

Necrophagous insects very rare.— [note (b)] Animal matter putrifying too quickly for them.— [note ends]

Nitidulidæ12 feeding on decayed fruits.—

Hydrophilidæ13 very numerous, & many of species very minute.—

Scarabeidæ14 not abundant (owing I suppose to season)

Heteromeræ15 not abundant.

Tetramera16 are by far the most numerous.

Rhyncophores17 exceedingly numerous, both in number & species: as might have been expected from the abundance of Forest Land

Longicornis18. scarce (owing to Season?)

Criocerides19, Cassidanus19, Clavipalpes & especially Galerucites19 extraordinary & abundant & appear preeminently to characterise Tropical entomology.— The true Chrysomalines20 scarce (excepting few Creptocephalis)

Trimera3, Cricinella21 & Pselaphus22 not very common.—

Orthoptera

This order in every family is very numerous, both in species & individuals.— the latter mat is much increased in appearance by those in the Pupa state being active.— The order makes a prominent feature in the Entomology.

Hemiptera

Not so numerous as the last.— Cicadella25 is preeminently numerous.— Many beautifully coloured.— |61|

 

1 See Jean Théodore Lacordaire. Mémoire sur les habitudes des coléoptères de l'Amérique méridionale. Annales des Sciences Naturelles 20 (1830): 185-291; 21 (1830): 149-94. In Beagle Library.

2 See Insect Notes pp. 49-59 for a full account of the insects collected by CD in Rio during April, May and June of 1832.

3 Ground beetles of the family Carabidae.

[page] 54 RIO DE JANEIRO APRIL: MAY: JUNE 1832

4 Tiger beetles.

5 Ground beetles of the subfamily Harpalinae.

6 Probably a beetle of the subfamily Bembidiini.

7 Predaceous diving beetles, genera of Dytiscidae.

8 Burrowing water beetle, genus of Noteridae.

9 Whirligig beetles, genus of Gyrinidae.

10 Possibly a term used to describe species of Staphylinidae.

11 Click beetles.

12 Sap beetles.

13 Water beetles.

14 Dung beetles.

15 Darkling beetles, an old division of coleoptera now known as Tenebrionidae.

16 Division of phytophagous beetles with 4-4-4 tarsal formula.

17 Palm weevils of family Dryopthoridae.

18 Wood boring beetles with long antennae of family Cerambycidae.

19 Leaf beetles from subfamilies of Chrysomelidae.

20 Species of the subfamily Chrysomelinae.

21 Tiger beetle.

22 Short winged mould beetle.

23 Round fungus beetle, genus of Leodidae. See Plant Notes p. 56.

24 CD had collected insects at Barmouth in the summers of 1828 and 1829. See Correspondence 1.

25 A species of bug.

 

[note (a) on CD P. 60 follows]

(a)

I will give a specimen of one days collecting1.— June 23d, after a continuance of dry weather (which is injurious) I went to the Forest. Where I did not pay particular attention to Coleoptera (for instance I took amongst other things 37 species of Arachnidæ) nor was particularly lucky.—

   

Brought over

27

Truncatipennis

1 |

Scarabeides

2

Bembididous2

1 |

Curculionidæ10

15

Brachelyties

4 |

Lyctus11

1

Buprestis3

2 |

Corticaria12

1

Elater4

1 |

Criocerides13

1

Malacoderms5

4 |

Crysomela

1

Ptiniores6

1 |

Galeruca

3

Scaphidites7

2 |

Altica14

9

Nitidularus8

7 |

Phalacrus15 Agathidicus

6

Byrrhidæ9

4 |

Cocanella16 Poclaphs

2

       
 

27

 

68

[page] 55 RIO DE JANEIRO APRIL: MAY: JUNE 1832

 

These were chiefly taken by sweeping on the borders of the forest.

 

 

Amongst the Carabidous The Trenactipennis, like many of their congeners in England are found amongst upon the foliage.— [note ends]

 

1 See Insect Notes p. 58.

2 Bembidiini tribe of small ground beetles.

3 Buprestidae, jewel beetles.

4 Elateridae, click beetles.

5 Old term for Lampyridae, fireflies and glow worms.

6? Ptinidae, spider beetles.

7 Scaphidiidae, shining fungus beetles.

8 Nitidulidae, sap beetles.

9 Pill beetles.

10 Weevils.

11 Genus of Lyctidae, powder post beetles.

12 Genus of Lathridiidae, plaster beetles.

13 Criocerinae, plaster beetles.

14 Genus of Alticinae (Chrysomelidae), leaf beetles.

15 Genus of Phalacridae, shining flower beetles.

16 Genus of Coccinellidae, lady birds.

 

[CD P. 61 commences]

Neuroptera

General

Observations

Libellula1 very numerous: Many Agrions2 in the forest.— I only saw one Hemiroti3 & 2 Frigania4.— Termites not so numerous as at Bahia & still less than at Fernando Noronha.

Hymenoptera

The division Rapaces5 (Lamarck) in great number & characteristic of Entomol: especially Guepiariès6.— Melliferes7 are not at all abundant, & this strongly contrasts against England. Some of the Rapaces (solitary ones) prey on Spiders, & thus balance the very much increased number of latter.—

Lepidoptera

The Diurnes8, perhaps by the brilliancy of colours, largeness of size, more than any tribe of animals show the region they inhabit.— they are very numerous.— Crepuscularis9 scarce.— Phalance Nocturus10, (considering how well adapted the country appears for them) are wonderfully uncommon.—

Diptera

These became tolerably abundant during the time there was any rain.— but with the exception of Culicidæ11 & some few Muscæ12 at other times they are not abundant.—

 

These observations were made during the months of May June; part of

[page] 56 RIO DE JANEIRO APRIL: MAY: JUNE 1832

which was wet & part dry.— I must again mention, that in these notes I very much refer to the abundance of individuals: that is the general & first appearance which the Entomology presents in the Brazils.— |62|

General

Observations

Arachnidæ

(a)

In this division of Articulated animals the number of species & individuals which they contain is very great: it appears to me no no other order, as compared to England is so very much increased.— Mygalus13 is not uncommon in holes (chiefly rotten trees) on the wooded hills.— A small red Theridion coats the turf with its web.— [note (a)] (49, Page in this journal) [note ends] & Pholcus14 under rocks & in the corner of every room may be seen violently agitating with its long legs the web.—

Epeira

 

 

(b)

Amongst the next division Orbiteles.— Epeira15 is most singularly numerous & interesting: it is a large & numerous family not a genus.— The paths in the forest are barricaded with the strong yellow web of (the division Dic Class I++). [note (b)] CD P. 48 [note ends] Also others of same division & of (II++1) are exceedingly abundant.— Number construct their webs over the water: especially one with a red coniceous covering to abdomen.— Many belonging to this latter section are singular by strange form & colour.— The species of Epeira with the tibiæ of 2nd pair of legs enlarged & spinose.— There is no end to the singularity & numbers of this genus.—

(c)

Tetragnatha. Several species are common amongst the rushes over water. [note (c)] CD P. 49 [note ends]

Vagabondes16

(d)

Amongst the spiders, the Vagabondes are here in exceeding plenty.— Every walk is crossed by Ctenus & Lycosa.— & upon the blades of grass Oxyopes (in its habits belonging to the next division) actively springs about.— [note] (d)] CD P. 58 [note ends] |63|

General

Observat:

Arachnidæ

Vagabondes

In the Saltigrades the typical genus Salticus17 is almost infinite in species.— In sweeping amongst herbage nearly as many spiders as Coleoptera are taken, especially of this last family.— And lastly under rotting wood Phalangium18 is abundant: & still more the sub-genus Gonoleptes.— I found one strange species, at superior base of hinder legs was a claw, & also corresponding ones on the hips, which together formed a pair of posterior pincers with which the insect seized any object.— Living in same site as these latter were Cloporta19, Tuli20 & Polydermi21.— together with few Scolopendiæ22.—

 

1 Libellulidae, dragonflies.

2 Coenagriidae, damsel flies.

3 Not identified.

4 Not identified.

5 Wasps of families Pompilidae or Sphecidae.

[page] 57 RIO DE JANEIRO APRIL: MAY: JUNE 1832

6 Another wasp.

7 Honey bees.

8 Day flying moths.

9 Not a modern name, but presumably twilight flying moths.

10 Nocturnal moths.

11 For diptera taken by CD in Rio see Insect Notes pp. 50-7.

12 Muscidae, houseflies.

13 Mygalomorphae, tarantula-like spiders such as the genus Grammostola.

14 Daddy-long legs spider, White's Pholcus geniculatus (see p. 73).

15 A golden orb-weaver, family Tetragnathidae, Nephila clavipes.

16 Vagabondes are hunting spiders that do not spin webs. Ctenus, Lycosa and Oxyopes are still valid genera.

17 Salticus is unlikely to be the correct genus, but the Salticidae are jumping spiders with a cosmopolitan distribution.

18 Phalangium is unlikely to be the correct genus, but both it and Gonoleptes are harvestmen in order Opiliones, related to spiders.

19 Not identified.

20 Possibly Julus, a cylindrical millipede.

21 Possibly Polydesmus, a flat-backed millipede.

22 Scolopendra, a large pantropical genus of big centipedes.

 

[CD P. 63 continues]

 

(a)

 

 

General

Observ:

(c)

Proceeding to the Coast: the rocks as at Bahia & other Tropical places are frequented by large bodies of Ligia1.— Beneath the water are many species of Pilumnus2.— On the Fuci are some Amphipodes & many Læmodipodes. Either from the exposed site or zone, there were no Stony Coralls: certainly the flexible such as Cellaria3, Sertularia3, Amphiroa4 were more abundant than in lower Latitudes.— [note (a)] I observed, cast up on the beach, those waxy looking balls, formed of flattened cells, which contain the eggs of the Bucinum5.— [note ends] In the fresh water, besides Coleoptera already mentioned are Leaches & Crustacean Entomostraca6.— [note (b)] Monoclass Ostracordes, Blainville. [note ends] & numerous Molloscous animals such as Planorbis7, Ampullaria8 in most wonderful numbers & Physa7, Cyclas & Chondras.— If Tertiary strata are formed in Tropical countries the numbers of fresh-water |64| shells is easily understood.— It would appear that these shells (& certainly Ampullaria), when the puddles of water dry up, bury themselves in the mud & thus like the Crocodiles mentioned by Humboldt undergo a sort [of] Hybernation or more properly Aestivation.— When the rain first fell I was astonished & could not explain the numbers which appeared of full size in every ditch & little pool[s] which had previously been dry.—

 

[note (c) added later] June 1833.— Maldonado.— I accidentally kept an Ampullaria in a room for more than a month, at the end of which time there

[page] 58 RIO DE JANEIRO APRIL: MAY: JUNE 1832

was much water within the shell & the animal was quite alive.— A lake having suddenly been drained by the breaking of an embankment, I noticed the manner in which the Ampullariæ buried themselves in the sand.— With the mouth of shell on the surface they revolved (I imagine by the slight motion of Operculum) excessively slowly in a direction towards outer edge of mouth of shell.— i.e. this edge would meet the sand.— By turning a shell in this direction, it acts something like a centre-bit, & by its own weight will bury itself.— [note ends]

 

1 Oniscoidea, a shore-dwelling isopod.

2 Xanthidae, a mud crab.

3 Anascan bryozoans.

4 Coralline alga.

5 Buccinidae, a whelk.

6 A term that formerly included all the crustaceans except Malacostraca.

7 Basommatophora, freshwater snails.

8 Mesogastropoda, Cyclophoridae, modern name Pila.

 

[CD P. 64 continues]

 

(a)

 

No. 619 (not

spirits)

In my geological notes I have mentioned the lagoons on the coast which contain either salt or fresh water.— The Lagoa near the Botanic Garden is one of this class.— the water is not so salt as the sea, for only once in the year a passage is cut for sake of the fishes.— The beach is composed of large grains of quartz & very clean. if cemented into a breccia or sandstone it would precisely resemble the one a rock at Bahia containing marine shells.— [note (a)] Page of Geology1, 35 (2nd bed) [note ends] A small Turbo2 appeared the only proper inhabitant, & thus differed from the lagoons on the Northern coast in the absence of those large bodies of Bivalves.— I was surprised on the borders to see a few Hydrophili inhabiting this salt water, & some Dolimedes running on the surface.

 

General

Observations

Whilst I ascended the Caucovado.— I measured some of the trees; the circumference |65| of the greater number of trees, as in the interior, is not more than from 3 to 4 feet.— I only saw one 7ft & another the largest 9ft & 7 inches.— One of those remarkable trees which have plates running from the roots up the trunk had an apparent diameter of 7ft 3inch.— One of the plates projected at a mean distance of 3 feet & was not above 2 or 3 inches thick.— This fact has been noticed by all travellers.—

 

I could not help noticing how exactly the animals & plants in each region are adapted to each other.— Every one must have noticed how Lettuces & Cabbages suffer from the attacks of Caterpillars & Snails.— But when transplanted here in a foreign clime, the leaves remain as entire as if they contained poison.— Nature, when she formed these animals & these plants,

[page] 59 RIO DE JANEIRO APRIL: MAY: JUNE 1832

knew they must reside together.—

Metereology

Botofogo

Temperature

 

Metereology

My observations in Metereology have been very scanty.— The Thermomometer taken at 9 AM & 9 PM from May 14th . . . to June 8th (with some exceptions altogether 43 observations) give as a mean result Temperature 71°.84.— The highest at which I saw it (at those times) was 75° & lowest 65°.— May 26th 1 PM. Therm: on white cotton exposed to rays of sun stood at 122°.— Running water at the elevation of some 2 or 3 hundred feet at Tijeuka & on Caucovado was 66°.— |66| Thermometer plunged into a spring on Caucovado (May 30th) stood at 73°.—

Barometer

The mean height from same number of observa: as Therm: & times of day & period is 30.333.— Attached Therm: 71.7.— therefore & corrected height 30.295.— The highest I ever observed it (uncorrected) was 30.545, & lowest 30.072.— Although the whole range of variation is small; yet the height of mercury even for few hours never remained constant.—

Hygrometer

 

(a)

From May 14th to June 12th with some exceptions, 23 observa: taken at 8 AM.— give mean results.—

Dew Point 63°.26 | Force 0inch.587

Temp: 69°.99 | Weight of Cub. foot 6.335 grain

Diff: 6°.73 |

[note (a)] The Tem: is taken from Thermometrical observations as being more accurate.— [note ends] On May 17th the Diff: was 9°, which was the greatest: it is remarkable on this day the upper regions of atmosphere were surcharged with clouds & in one hour Therm fell 4° & Barom rose 0.021 & heavy rain commenced. Vide infr`.—

(b)

 

On May 30th ascended Caucovado (elevation 2300 feet) & was in a thin cloud. [note (b)] Captain King from 5 observations with Barom: makes the height 2330 (I; 2225) [note ends] the diff between Dew P & Temp was scarcely perceptible, both being 60.5.— Observation made below 4 & ½ hours previously gave dew P. 61.7.— & Temp 68°.— So that in ascending the latter fell 7°.5, whilst Dew point only 1°.2.—

 

 

Winds were generally light & sky very frequently overcast. (V page 40 respecting the latter).—

Rain

From May 10th . . . to June 8th inches 3.75 fell.— On May 17 it rained very heavily, between 9 AM & 3 PM 1.60.— out of which 1.06 fell in three hours.— During 6 minutes 0.38.— |67|

 

1 See CD's Diary of observations on the geology of the places visited during the voyage.

Part I. CUL DAR32.1.

[page] 60 RIO DE JANEIRO APRIL: MAY: JUNE 1832

2 Trochacea, a turban snail.

[CD P. 67 commences with an entry written in Rio and dated May 4th]

Trichodes1

Having placed a Murex2 in fresh water, the fluid in the course of two days became rather putrid: & contained an infinite number of Trichodes invisible to naked eye. I think there were at least three species.

Plagiotricha

Animalcule3 flattened eggshaped, sides (not those flattened) not quite corresponding; white very transparent, containing in interior from about 5 to 15 minute balls.— largest specimens in length .002, the greater number half that.— Moved rapidly, with the broard flattened side uppermost, either end first, chiefly rotatory; & by starts.— Body slightly contractile. As their power became exhausted, on the upper side & near to one end might be seen a linear apparatus rapidly vibrating.— As the surrounding water dries up, death irrecoverable comes on suddenly.— Mixture of Spirits of Wine did not act so decisively as I expected.— I have this animal from Bory St Vincents article in Dic Class: the shapes does not agree with species figured in Plate B Genus 44.— Fig: 16 & 17

Plagiotricha

Animalcule. Much flattened, elliptic, length .0005.

swims not so universally on broard side.—

Oxitricha4

 

Animalcule shaped like a partially opened muscle [sic] shell, division reaching to the base, has the power of extending itself almost into a straight line.— length .002.— Moves rapidly with one divided end first, generally with a rotatory motion on the long axis of body.— there were but few of these.— Differs from the one figured in Dic: Class: Plate C Genus 46, in the division reaching much further down than those drawn.— |68|

 

1 Ciliated protozoa in class Polyhymenophora. See Dic. Class. 16:556.

2 Muricidae, a carnivorous prosobranch that drills into the shells of other molluscs.

3 Hypotrichida, dorsoventrally flattened ciliates. See Dic. Class. 14:8.

4 Hypotrichida, another species. The spelling of 'mussel' as 'muscle' was one of CD's habitual idiosyncrasies.

 

[CD P. 68 commences with the Beagle now at sea]

Moon

Coloured

rings

At 11 oclock PM of the 14th of July (off St Catherines1) the moon was surrounded by beautifully coloured rings.— Around the disk there was a highly luminous circle edged with red.— The diameter of this (including the moon) was 1°.45′.— Then came one of greenish blue also edged with red, this as broard as to make the diameter of whole halo to be 2°.90′. The appearance only lasted a short time & disappeared gradually.— The sky was of a pale blue; & was traversed with some scattered Cumili driven

[page] 61 RIO DE JANEIRO TO M. VIDEO JULY 1832

swiftly along by a Northerly breeze.—

Plate 4, Figs. 2, 3, (3), (4), 5

 

[CD P. 68 continues]

Dianœa2

Lamarck

(K)

(c)

(a)

(peduncle

Lamarck )

(b)

Dianœa

(Pelagia. Cuvier?) July 19th3.— Lat 30° 31′.— Plate 4: Fig: 5 represents animal natural size, diameter .2.— Fig: 2 is the dorsal surface (as afterwards will be shown this probably is not the commonest form of animal). [note (c)] Nor 310 (in tube with Biphoræ) [note ends] back convex, octagonal.— at each angle a projecting fibril, which is highly flexible & contractile, & capable of seizing any object (?) — These are of two sorts (Fig 3)4, one shorter thicker & striated transversely; the other long transparent within about seven little balls.— [note (a)] Are these minute balls Ova? & the shorter fibrils ovaria without the eggs.— these shorter are exactly equal either in order (Vide Figure) or in size.— [note ends] These fibrils are seated on a tube running round the edge.— which also is contractile.— In centre is cylindrical hollow projecting tube, terminated by an organ capable of assuming various shapes.— Fig: 44 (a) is end of simple tube: (D) is part rather narrower, with transverse folds & capable of much contraction & expansion: (E) is the rather quadrilateral, margin uneven.— within this are 2 lateral, fine, pointed transparent tubes, either capable of being protruded, & highly irritable.— [note (b)] Occasionally the part (D) being much drawn in, the extremity E forms a cap over tube (c) [note ends] The terminal organ (E) is capable of being |69| expanded into a funnel shaped cup.— in this case the pair of vermiform tubes are more easily seen.—

In Fig: (2) on the convex surface there may be seen a faint cross of fibres:

[page] 62 RIO DE JANEIRO TO M. VIDEO JULY 1832

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(a)

it would appear to be the muscular organ of contraction.— From the octagonal margin (& not drawn in plate) there depends a delicate membrane which is slightly contractile at its inferior margin, forming a sort of bag.— In this shape I found the animal, but being kept it altered shape of body very remarkably & I think this latter the most natural.— The dorsal surface became much inflated, but was protruded through the octagonal margin on the other & inferior surface.— & the depending veil was turned upwards.— so that the central tube was now in the inside of body (In short the animal turned itself outside inward, every part except the tube.—[)] If now taken, it would be described as a transparent bag with central octagonal girth round the centre & an depending internal tube.— the basal aperture of tube being open (which formerly was interiorly) & now exterior.— The animal assumed another modification of this form. by much contracting the octagonal rim & the inferior margin of the veil, its shape was that of 2 spheres united, in the superior one of which is the internal tube.— How strange that the same body should have such shapes as the first & this latter.— This Animal as others, [continued at (a) opposite] Medusæ moving by sudden contractions.— Body highly transpa<rent> colourless.—

 

The sea contained Lat 33°.15′ S Long 50° 8′ W [word 'contain' repeated] vast numbers of these Radiata │70

 

[note (K) added later opposite CD P. 68]

 

August 23d. Lat 37°8 S & Long 56.46 W, found considerable numbers of this animal; having a better opportunity of more accurately examined it.— The peduncle was internal (as in the second & evidently most common case) & the depending veil within the marginal tentacula: (if the animal had been in state as Plate the depending veil would of course have been outside the tentacula):— The concave (convex in Plate) "ombrelle" (Fig 2) is of considerable thickness, but so very transparent, that I did not formerly perceive it.— Again I find the tail of peduncle opens within this thick part & not externally; also that the finer cross of striæ is not contractile or muscular but internal.— The mouth of peduncle is quadrangular & capable of much motion: the true vermiform arm (H) approximates at base & between them is a conical pap.— The margin of "ombrelle" was not so regular as drawn: the two sorts of tentacula (Fig 3) regularly alternate.— the shorter (b) is composed of concentric rings & is highly extensible; these 4 are situated at extremities of the cross. Behind each of them was another small one, internally connected with it.— The other tentacula (a) are curved & have a narrow footstalk, the little balls lie on one side & are from 7 to 9 in number.— During the time I kept them altered their appearance XX [continued at XX opposite P. 69] & one seemed to burst & sent forth its eggs. In all probability these correspond to the four ovaries in G Cyanœa.—

[page] 63 RIO DE JANEIRO TO M. VIDEO JULY 1832

 

The animal moves by taking in water in the bag formed by concave surface of "ombrelle" & depending veil, & expelling it with violence.— I thought the Medusa used its powers of motion to avoid bei<ng> taken?—

 

The end of peduncle can fold its margin back over itself.— Some of these animals being kept in water till they were dead.— were luminous. |70|

 

1 Isla Santa Catarina, off Florianopolis in the south of Brazil.

2 Trachylina, Geryoniidae, the jellyfish Liriope tetraphylla (Chamisso & Eysenhardt, 1821), a primitive but abundant pelagic coelenterate which had been described by Quoy & Gaimard as Dianœa exigua in 1827.

3 It was a calm day! See Beagle Diary p. 82.

4 There was some confusion in the labelling of the drawings in Plate 4. The relevant Figs. for Dianœa are 2, 3, (3), 4 and 5.

Plate 5, Figs. 1-4

 

[CD P. 70 commences]

Biphora1

allied to

Plate 5: — Body transparent, spherical, incurved at the poles.— Length about .4.— Fig 1: represents it as seen under microscope, from extreme

[page] 64 RIO DE JANEIRO TO M. VIDEO JULY 1832

(e) Nor 310

(X)

(b)

(m)

transparency everything lies in one plane.— Through centre is a most thin tube, open at each extremity, enlarged in middle & one half much broarder.— [note (b)] The external aperture was not very distinct.— nor was the current of the water.— [note ends] This in Fig 2. is seen containing a membranous sack, much broarder & capacious posteriorly, & divided by longitudinal slit through its whole length. On the upper side the edge has power of expanding & contracting (NB this organ may lie above the central tube & not in it; the extreme transparency not allowing the ascertainment of this) This upper edge is thickened in its upper half & coloured pink.— [note (m) added later] Is it not possible that this thickened edge is a vessel as in animal described in P 82, Aug 30th?.— [note ends]

[CD P. 70 continues]

(a)

 

(k)

 

(d)

At the point (a)2 in Fig: 2 there was visible a pulsation, similar to what I have before seen in this animals tribe.— In Fig 1: on each side is a highly delicate bag, not attached to outer coat of animal.— [note (a)] Both large & small specimens possessed this organ.— [note (k)] These bags were delicately attached (as drawn) to the central tube. [notes end] Within this (Fig: 3) is an opake membrane to which is attached a mass of vermiform tubes, precisely resembling intestines.— These had the power of moving themselves.— The spherical outer covering of animal has eight longitudinal bands (one magnified Fig 4), which send out transverse fibres & appear to act as muscles.— [note (d)] This animal was in considerable numbers:— We were in shoaling water (not coloured fine blue) about 100 miles off the mouth of the Plata.— [note ends] I cannot understand the organization of this animal.— I could not see Branchiæ:— The thickened pink edge can hardly be considered as the Liver.— Perhaps the pear-shaped bags may be the ovaries.— |71|

 

 

 

N.B.

[note (X) added later] From a careful examination of an animal very closely allied to this (V Page (91) Septr 5th) I am able to pronounce upon several parts of this ones organization.— In all probability, the central vessel opens at both upper extremityies & widely posteriorly: that the intestine shaped tubes (full of pulpy matter) can be protruded at orifices (a a): that the membrane described in central tube vessel is really a sack, lying on vessel, & widely open posteriorly; & the coloured rims, 2 folded up vessels in sack.— it is not impossible that I may have overlooked a circulation connecting central vessel with 8 external bands.— I forgot to say; that the intestine tubes are partly received in a receptacle here described as "an opake membrane".—

For more information about this animal V. note (b) Page 96. [note ends]

1 Phylum Ctenophora, order Cydippida, probably Pleurobrachia. See p. 109.

2 Missing from the drawing.

[page] 65 MONTE VIDEO AUGUST 1832

[CD P. 71 commences with an entry2 headed August 15th Monte Video]

Vaginulus1

330 & 471

 

 

(c)

Not uncommon under stones on the Mount3. Length varying in my specimens from three inches to ½; breadth (of largest) .8.— Measures taken when crawling; when at rest & its head retracted under mantle it was only 1.8 in length & .9 in breadth.— Mantle much flattened, oblong, of a uniform breadth; bluntly rounded at each extremity; rugosely punctured; projecting much laterally over foot:— foot narrow, caudal extremity appearing under mantle when animal crawls.— Mouth retractile under mantle; feelers short, superior rounded at end, bearing eyes, length .2; inferior appearing forked; the lower fork with extremities pointed; feelers coloured yellowish.— Foot & under side of mantle white.— Mantle pale dirty yellow, thickly mottled with purplish dark brown, so arranged that 2 pale irregular streaks are left tracing the form of foot.— The brown is sometimes so thick as [to] become of a uniform colour.— The youngest specimen was the darkest coloured.— Anal & Branchial orifice? Mouth.— large (Novr 20th) [correction added later] These animals were found on summit of Mount (450 feet above the sea), where there is only herbage & no trees.—

 

[marginal note with different pen] Also Buenos Ayres found under stones.— This species differs from the Rio Janeiro species in its shorter & more depressed form [note ends]

 

[further note (c) added later] November 20th.— The summer is now far advanced & yet I find this animal under stones.— is it Nocturnal? I found it also at Buenos Ayres in same sit<es>. This species differs most strikingly from that of Rio de Janeiro in its shorter depressed body.— I may mention in this place, having found on an Agave a true Limax4, but unfortunately lost it.— it would appear to have been hitherto not found in S America.—

 

[written with another pen] June. Maldonado.— I have found this latter animal & immense numbers of the Vaginulus. [note ends]

 

1 Stylommatophora, land slug.

2 The entries for the next few pages are all headed 15 August, but this was the date when they were written, for the Beagle had actually reached Monte Video on 26 July, in scenes of some confusion (see Beagle Diary p. 85).

3 As described by CD in Beagle Diary pp. 85-6, the Mount was a hill 450 feet high overlooking the whole area which gave Monte Video its name.

4 Stylommatophora, land slug.

 

[CD P. 71 continues with two entries about Planaria also dated 15 August that as before have been crossed through vertically]

[page] 66 MONTE VIDEO AUGUST 1832

Planaria1 (b)

[3 illeg.

words]

 

Planaria

(b)

Inhabits same site as the last animal under dry stones on the Mount.— [note (b)] 331.— The situation being comparatively lofty & the stones large, the habitat must be very dry.— [note ends] The description of Planaria (Page 50) agrees with this in so many particulars, manner of walking &c &c that it may be considered as generic & the following as only specific. Body slightly flattened, length (when crawling) 1.9: breadth .1 |72| Anterior extremity grooved beneath, much pointed, body gradually widening from this to the tail which is bluntly pointed.— [note (b)] The family Tremato[des] to which Planaria belongs is characterized by having beneath its body, "des organes en forme de ventouses".— perhaps the grooved surface at anterior extremity corresponds with this: although I never saw it used for any purpose, but as a sort of a feeler to direct its way.— [note ends]

 

[marginal note with different pen at bottom of CD P. 71] Eyes scattered at regular intervals on anterior part of body [note ends]

[CD P. 72 continues]

 

 

Back coloured rich "umber brown" with a central dorsal narrow streak of "broccoli brown" reaching its whole length.— Beneath, of this latter colour.— On the under surface were two white spots, where (from the exact resemblance to the Planaria of Rio) I have no doubt there are apertures.— I believe I could perceive one.— I could perceive as formerly (page 51) the vibratory motion in the slimy surface of whole animal.— it occurs was seen wherever there was a gleam of light & it made no difference whether this was direct or reflected.— The animal seems to find presence of air to be necessary on the under surface.— Salt water (brine) killed & almost dissolved the body.— Animal not uncommon.—

Planaria2

332

Habitat &c same as last.— Body throughout of a more uniform narrowness.— (not tapering so much from head to tail) more cylindrical: length 1.3; breadth about .07.— Colour above pale dirty yellow with 2 dorsal stripes of "umber brown", which become narrower & unity at each extremity.— These Planariæ when first taken were rather inactive & were found on the earth beneath stones.— |73|

 

 

[notes scribbled roughly on back of CD P. 72 concern Planaria No. 643 (in spirits) taken at Maldonado the following year]

rather less than 2/3 of length from anterior orifice, posterior 25/100 from anterior orifice.

Seen in [illeg.] Ocelli very numerous, minute & at regular intervals at anterior extremity, in groups of two or three at sides <of> body [notes end]

[page] 67 MONTE VIDEO AUGUST 1832

1 Listed by Darwin in his 1844 paper (see Planaria p. 186) as Planaria pulla, currently known as Pseudogeoplana pulla Darwin because of insufficient information about its internal features. CD notes correctly its use of chemosensory pits of the anterior tip. In a letter to Henslow dated 15 August 1832, CD says 'I have to day to my astonishment found 2 Planariæ living under dry stones. Ask L. Jenyns if he has ever heard of this fact.' See Correspondence 1:252. Most terrestrial flatworms like a moist but not too wet microhabitat, but there are some species adapted for particularly arid situations, and others that occupy fully submerged habitats.

2 Listed by CD (loc. cit.) as Planaria bilinearis, currently classified as Pseudogeoplana bilinearis Darwin. Specimen 643 was listed as Planaria nigro-fusca, and is now Pseudo-geoplana nigro-fusca.

 

[CD P. 73 commences]

Cavia

capybara1

(c)

Copied

Shot August 15th one of these animals, when I first saw it was on the rocks under the Mount. They do not appear to congregate in herds as described in other places.— perhaps the want of shelter may influence them.— The specimen2 was a female & weighed 98 pounds.— Girth 3ft..2: Length from tip of snout to the tail 3ft..8½: Height from toes to top of shoulder 1ft..9.—

 

[note (c) added later] The dung in shape is rounded oval; when drie<d> & burnt smells like, but pleasanter, to Cedar wo<od>. This animal is very abundant in Rio St. Lucia: the hides are valuable being very tough: but the me<at> is very indifferent eating.— Cap. Paget of the Samarang3 killed 45 of these animals.— For more particulars V 192.— [note ends]

[CD P. 73 continues]

Luminous

Sea

(a)

(b)

August 22nd. between Points St Antonio & Corrientes: the sea was very luminous: light, pale, sparkling, but not as in Tropics either milky or in flashes.— The Luminous particles passed through fine gauze.— In the water were some minute Crustaceæ of the genus Cyclops4. I should not be surprised if these added to the effect.— During the day the sea has abounded with Dianœa5.— & I find these when kept in water till they are dead render it luminous.— can this be the cause of the appearance in the ocean.—

 

[notes added later] (a) Sept: 6th.— Lat 40° S.— I observe that during this night, Crustaceæ of the Schiropodes & some other Macrouris, appear to abound on the surface, whilst during the day few can be taken. This applies to animal (Page 73):— as certainly many crustaceæ are luminous may this not explain help to explain the phenomenon of the luminous sea.— (b) Octob: 23d — Lat: [not entered] Sea wonderfully luminous; milky when seen in the mass; sparkling in numerous bright spots when seen in a tumbler; but I could not succeed in making by agitation, water in a watch

[page] 68 MONTE VIDEO AUGUST 1832

glass show luminous particles, although certainly abundant in it.— The breakers & bows & wake of ship, i.e. when air acts on water, is luminous: this was after a heavy sea — Can this by destroying numbers of small animals be the cause:— [notes end]

 

1 Listed by George Waterhouse in Zoology 2:91 as Hydrochœrus Capybara Auct.

2 No capybara was added to the collection, but Specimen No. 672 was an Acarus from Cavia capybara (see Insect Notes p. 60).

3 H.M.S. Samarang was at Bahia, Rio de Janeiro and Monte Video at the same time as the Beagle, and CD dined with Captain Paget in Monte Video on 29 October 1832 (see Beagle Diary p. 112).

4 Cyclopoida, copepod.

5 The modern name of this jellyfish is Liriope tetraphylla.

 

 

[CD P. 73 continues with a long entry crossed through vertically up to the end of P. 76, indicating its subsequent publication in a paper1]

Polype ?

undescribed

At page (2) this animal1 is described, but having opportunity throughly to examine one, I found some curious facts.—

 

 

 

 

 

 

Polype ?

(a)

August 24th. Lati: 37°.26′ S Long: 56°.58′ W: Sounding 10 Fath: This specimen agreed with those found at the Abrolhos.— PL 1. Fig 1.2 I have drawn the posterior half of animal.— The tail, or that part which the central intestinal tube does not penetrate is filled with a fine granular pulpy matter. With .3 focal distance lens, a longitudinal division & one on each side of this might be seen, so as to divide the |74| pulpy mass into three four columns. Within these I clearly saw a circulation somewhat like that in the Chara3: it was double the matter flowing upwards on the 2 outsides & then returning by the central divisions.— The circulation was strongest on the outside in the outer & inside of inner columns.— it was also much more rapid at the base of tail than at its extremity.— I frequ could see the grains turn round & pursue an opposite course at each extremity of tail. With 1/20 focal distance lens the matter (as nearly as I could judge) passed over 2 divisions of 1/500 micrometer in 5".— but about the tail in double the time.— at the 5" rate the progress is one inch in 20′..8". And the tail being .15 of inch long, any grain would pass perform whole [see sketch in margin] circuit in 6′..2".— this I daresay is accurate as the greater & lesser rates at base & end of tail would counterbalance each other.— I cannot even guess what what this is analogous to in other animals: as mentioned at Page (2) the granular matter is sometimes confined to small kidney shaped masses.— I could not clearly see that there was any communication with the intestinal tube; perhaps there was with the two gut-shaped bags at their inner edges crosses.—

 

[marginal note added later] July 1834: Found some 4 feet beneath surface:

[page] 69 COAST OF PATAGONIA AUGUST 1832

off Valparaiso.— [note ends]

Septemb 4th

 

 

 

 

 

XXX

[note (a) on back of CD P. 74 added later] Lat: 40°S.— The sea contained an incredible number of these animals.— I am enabled to add some new & verify former facts.— Within the body, in same plane as the mouth, there is flattened tube or cavity, which I have called the stomach. now this itself contains a delicate vessel (best seen posteriorly), & which pretty clearly terminates in an anus of on one side [of] the body, just at commencement of the tail.— Examining many specimens (V Pt 1 Fig 1.) I find both some of gut-shaped bags (FF)4 & included globules vary; also that size & quantity of globules in (D) varies.— The globules in F are always much larger than in D: when there are but few in D the circulation is languid, & the 2 points of greatest intensity were at the bases of gut-shaped bags or the point of returning.— When (D) is in this case, F is small.— but when globules in F were highly perfected, D was full of regularly circulating granules.— I have no doubt at the internal base of (FF) there is a communication with D, although the included matter is distinct.— When globules were large in FF, I perceived on the external base a conical pap (V Fig. n n), which even projected slightly beyond line of body.— It is probable that the ova are excluded through this when ready.— In this specimen globules were very easily detached.—

 

[note continues at XXX on back of CD P. 75] I have formerly mentioned that in some specimens FF is almost evanescent.— From these facts showing connection in the two parts, I imagine that the ova (are first formed in D & then pass on into ?) F where they are perfected & then excluded or burst forth by the pap (n). If (D) had no connection with ova, why should the quantity & size of small globules or grains vary.— Again if it was a vascular [illeg.] the communication with rest of body would be more evident.—

 

I watched one of the ova after being removed from ovary.— (never taking my eyes from it).— the process as described when went on till the ova appeared made up of two equal balls.— they then separated; a capsule remaining; the other composed of globular mass of pulpy-granular matter, in which was the a small transparent ball.— This is the real ovum & is the same which is seen in balls (L,O).— I had imagined that the whole of excluded mass consisted of granular matter.— The process of separation took about 10 minutes.— Before they parted a line of division appeared which gradually widened on each side.— [note in margin] For particulars about Ova resembling these, V 104. [notes end]

 

[CD P. 74 continues]

At extremity of tail a fan of ciliæ is visible almost with naked eye: but they

[page] 70 COAST OF PATAGONIA AUGUST 1832

 

 

Polype?

(a)

are so fine as not to be individually visible with 1/10 focal distance, with 1/20 they appeared delicate transparent hairs, arranged very close in one plane.— they would seem to be locomotive organs |75| or rather to act on the water when the animal propels itself by starts.— [note (a)] Sept 4th These ciliæ adhere laterally, so as almost to form membrane.— in same manner as happens in a birds feather.— The animal uses its tail in another manner; when placed in a basin, it adheres firmly to the smooth sides, so as to prevent the water washing its body away.— [note ends]

Plate 1 from CD's 1844 paper on Sagitta

 

[CD P. 75 continues]

 

 

 

 

eggs

On each side of the intestinal tube is a gut shaped bag (F)4 filled with large grains, & if connected at all with the tail it is at the base by the side of intestinal tube.— The grains or globules are transparent, vary in length from 1/100 to 1/50 of inch, in shape are pointed oval & attached by the sharpest end in rows to the receptacle:— (L) represents a large one when first liberated, with high power a small internal ball may be seen not quite so transparent: (I saw following phenomenon take place in two good instances) in a few minute<s> (L) altered its shape & became like (O) with a small globule at its apex: in short time afterwards a greater change took place, the little globule (as in P) increased in size & the internal matter in both became opake & granular.— This went on till all the granular matter was expelled out of the larger into the smaller: the former being left an empty capsule, the latter separating as a small ball of granules.— After the change of transparent fluid into the granular mass, the expulsion (as represented at P) wore the appearance of an internal case or membrane contracting & thus expelling it into the globule.— I must suppose the gut-shaped bag to be ovaries.— & the granules eggs collected in capsules (L: O).—

[page] 71 COAST OF PATAGONIA AUGUST 1832

 

 

Polype?

 

(e)

 

(a)

 

 

(F)

 

 

(b)

The construction of the head is beautiful & simple, but not easily described.— When not in action |76| the shape is a truncate cone (as before p. 2 described) & a transverse section of base would be an oval.— But when in action (mkk) is a transverse section of base; the dots are places of bristles, seated on moveable arm or jaw kk.— [note (e)] Fig E badly represents the head or mouth in action, the arm (kk) partly expanded.— [note ends] These when closed in, form the oval.— The semicircular part (m) is continued upwards rather higher than the bristles when erect; near its summit are 2 rows of very minute bristle which project out transversely; that is, cross the summit of the larger upright bristles.— [note (a)] The smaller bristles only cross the others when the latter are clasped together. I did not perceive these, till I had a high power in microscope. [note ends] The animal having seized any prey with the larger one, these smaller ones like a comb would effectually prevent its escape between their extremities.— The mouth is within (m).— [note (F)] Sept 4th. The orifice of mouth is longitudinal, & situated on oblique surface formed by the back part of head.— [note ends] The bristles are 16 in number; 8 on each side, curved, slightly hooked at extremities & strong; besides the power of clamping together on the head, each bristle can separate itself from the next, so as to take in greater span.— [note (b)] the central bristles are longest: teeth would be a more appropriate term. [note ends] When we consider this together with the power of motion in base (k), it makes a formidable instrument to seize any object, & when once within, the comb of small transverse bristles would effectually prevent its egress.— The substance of body is very sticky & gelatinous.— The range of Latitude is great of this animal: The more I understand of its organization, the more I am at a loss where to rank it amongst other animals.— |77|

 

1 The animal was eventually identified as belonging to the genus Sagitta, a carnivorous chaetognath or arrow worm, and was described by CD in a paper entitled 'Observations on the Structure and Propagation of the Genus Sagitta' in Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 13:1-6 (1844). (see Collected Papers 1:177-82.)

2 CD's Plate 1 Fig. 1 (see p. 4), showing one of the first specimens caught in his plankton net in Lat. 21° on 11 January 1832, was redrawn to illustrate his paper on Sagitta, and is reproduced here.

3 Chara is an aquatic alga with giant cells inside which rapid streaming of the cytoplasm may be observed.

4 The labels F F were later altered to o o in Plate 1 Fig. 1, and the gut-shaped bags were the ovaries labelled oo in the published illustration.

 

[CD P. 77 commences]

Fish1

347

Above pale, regularly or symmetrically marked with "brownish red" (by the tip of each scale being so coloured).— Beneath silvery white: side with faint coppery tinge: Ventral fins yellowish.— Pupil of eye intense black.—

[page] 72 COAST OF PATAGONIA AUGUST 1832

When cooked was good eating.—

Fish2

348

Many specimens exceeded a foot in length.— Above aureous-coppery; with wavelike lines of dark brown, then often collect into 4 or 5 transverse bands.— fins leaden colour.— beneath obscure: pupil dark blue.— When caught vomited up small fish & a Pilumnus.— Mr Earl3 states these fish are plentiful at Tristan d Acunha, where it is called the Devil fish, from the bands being supposed the marks of the Devils fingers.— Was tough for eating, but good.— This sort was taken in very great numbers.—

Fish4

354

Above pale "Chesnut brown" so arranged as to form transverse bands on sides: Sides, head, fins, with a black tinge: beneath irregularly white: under lip pink: Eyes, with pupil black, with yellow sclerotica iris.—

Cellepora5 ?

Nr 356

Cellepora

 

 

August 26th — Lat 38°..20′ Sounding 14 fathoms.— Coral, stony; brittle; branched; orange coloured, white at tips of branches white; stems composed of numerous irregular circular small tubes, the former cells of polype.— Surface rough with little transparent cones, obliquely truncate, open.— I never saw polype protrude from these.— but from regular minute circular apertures with no external rim.— Polype very numerous.— Tentacula 12 round the mouth seated on a tube; |78| This is contained in a case: tubular with rather wider at mouth protrudable.— Vide Pl 4: Fig: 3.— (a) Tentacula on tube, (b) the case: drawn as fully protruded from coral (c).—

 

1 Listed by Leonard Jenyns in Zoology 4:23-4 as Percophis Brasilianus Cuv.

2 Listed in Zoology 4:11-12 as Plectropoma Patachonica Jen.

3 Augustus Earle was the first official artist on board the Beagle.

4 Listed in Zoology 4:20-1 as Pinguipes fasciatus Jen.

5 Identified by S.F. Harmer as Cellepora eatonensis Busk.

 

[CD P. 78 continues]

Flustra1

355

(a)

Habitat same as last: Coralline is closely allied to Flustra, but is a distinct & new genus.— Stem much & irregularly branched, flexible, about 2 inches high, coloured reddish.— Cells in 2, 3 or 4 rows according to breadth of branch, opening on one side.— Cells applied rather obliquely so as not to form distinct lines. On the face surface, when the cells open they overlap each other.— The other & back side, smooth, channelled by as many lines as rows of cells: thus seen (Pt 4, Fig 4) the cells appear of the shape drawn at (k), each anteriorly ending in point: widest in middle. Seen on upper surface quadrangular & oblong: the anterior opening with a spine at each corner.— Polype with 16 approximate, long (length 1/40 of inch), curved tentacula, seated within a lip on the extensible tube or mouth.— When in inaction, this is withdrawn to nearly the base of cell.—

[page] 73 COAST OF PATAGONIA AUGUST 1832

 

I clearly saw at a spot where the tube & red intestine joined a sort of pulsation or rather a rapid revolution of small grains particles.— at the very base of cell, I saw in many a small mass of collected granules, which I suppose to be Ovules.—

 

[note (a) added later] For some particulars of Coralline somewhat resembling this (V P 219) [note ends]

 

 

 

 

 

Plate 4, Figs. 4-6

 

 

 

 

Flustra

 

But what renders this coralline singular is the occurrence on the |79| edge of the cells of a peculiar organ2.— In shape it curiously resembles the beak & head of a Vulture: is transparent, colourless, 1/75 of inch in length: is attached to the superior external edge of cell at its middle, by a short peduncle.— This peduncle appeared to communicate by a delicate tube to base of cell.— The head or capsule is connected to the peduncle at its superior base (above situation of neck in Vultures head).— The peduncle has great power of motion in a vertical direction (vertical being applied as to birds head).— Head empty oblong: upper mandible curved & much hooked at extremity; grooved within:— lower mandible closely fitting to superior with sharp projecting tooth at extremity, which fits into superior mandible; has the power of being opened so far as to make straight line with the other: at the joint is semicircular opening, which appears to lead by delicate tube to the peduncle.— The capsule (or head) lies close to the cell laterally & rather obliquely in direction: [note (a)] I mean by laterally that the cheek of the head is applied to the side of cell: but that at either it is & that the mouth or lower mandible opens in opposi<te> direction in the

[page] 74 COAST OF PATAGONIA AUGUST 1832

 

 

 

Flustra

case mentioned below.— [note ends] its point is base is towards base of cell: with respect to the surface in which cells aperture of cells are, the beak opens in different ways.— generally towards the under or back surface; but I saw a branch in which on one side the upper mandible was upwards, on the other, downwards.— Each cell has a capsule, but with this remarkable difference that when there are more than two rows, the central |80| ones have a capsule not more than 1/4th the size of the external ones.— Moreover the terminal cells in which the Polype are colourless have not them?— Pla: 4. Fig 5: represents one seen obliquely from above. (a) upper mandible: (b) lower with dot representing tooth: (c) head: (dd) sides edge of cell: e the delicate tube within:— Fig 6 represents the mouth wide open so that the peduncle is not seen.— F is the semicircular opening or gullet at base of upper mandible.—

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(a)

 

Flustra

 

(a)

When the Coralline is in water, whether the Polype is within or out of cell, the capsule generally is wide open (as in Fig: 6), & the whole head on peduncle turns backwards & forwards, vertically going through at least 90°. — They perform the whole motion in about 5" seconds.— Most of the Capsules perform it isochronously.— Occassionally they close for an instant the lower mandible.— In a small branch so many capsules moving caused in it a trembling.— A point of needle being inserted within the jaws was always seized so fast, as to be able to drag small branch.— The motion in these became fainter, as the Polype lost strength.— Polype, although so irritable of motion, took no notice of the motion of Capsule.— What office does this organ perform? It would appear superfluous for same animal to possess tentacula & another organ for seizing its prey.— [note (a)] And the absence of communication with intestinal tube.— [note ends] |81| Although its movements with the needle would indicate this.— In all probability by its motion a stream of water might be forced into base of cell. Can it have any relation with respiration & the revolution of particles (above mentioned) with circulation. [note (a)] the regularity of movement, & independence of the position of polype favors this idea.— [note ends] It is difficult to believe in so complicated [an] organization.— As far as regards generation (which is the last resource in all puzzling cases) what utility can so complicated an organ [have]? How different from the simple vesicles in other Zoophites.— Assuredly at base of cell there was an appearance of ball of ova.— I am quite at a loss from the want of all analogy.— But in any of these cases, how can it be explained that the old central cells have such small & comparatively speaking inefficient ones.—

Squalus2

Linn.

359

August 28th. Lat 38°.25′ S. Soundings 14 fathoms. Caught by a hook a specimen of genus Squalus: Body "blueish grey"; above, with rather blacker tinge; beneath much white:— Its eye was the most beautiful thing I ever saw.— pupil pale "Verdegris green", but with lustre of a jewel, appearing like a Sapphire or Beryl.— Iris pearly edge dark.— Sclerotica

[page] 75 COAST OF PATAGONIA AUGUST 1832

pearly:— In stomach was remains of large fish.— In the uterus the young ones for a long time after the viscera were opened continued to move: good specimen for dissecting:— |82|

1 Cheilostomata, an anascan bryozoan. CD had a particular interest in suborder Anasca, of which he had previously collected Scottish specimens in the Firth of Forth, and having observed that its ova were motile had read a paper to the Plinian Society in Edinburgh on 27 March 1827. See MS notes in CUL DAR 118, and Collected Papers 2:285-91. Plate 4, Fig. 4 suggests that specimen 355 was a Bugula, or a close relative, as was confirmed when S.F. Harmer examined the specimen in 1901.

2 This was the first occasion on which CD observed the type of anascan heterozooid now termed a pedunculate avicularium, constantly moving and resembling a vulture's beak with jaws wide open. He discussed these organs at some length in Journal of Researches 1:258-62.

3 Squaloidei, an angel-fish. But not listed in Zoology 4.

Plate 4, Figs. 7-10

 

[CD P. 82 commences]

Moll:Tunicata

allied to

August 30th. In Lat 38°.39′ S: sea contained great numbers of an animal of this division. On calm days floating near the surface, but in other

[page] 76 COAST OF PATAGONIA AUGUST 1832

Biphora1

(d)

Nr 360 (b)

 

 

(a)

weather they were brought up in a dredge.— Varied in length from one & ½ inch to a few 1/10ths:— [note (b)] Sept: 3d. Having procured a small & very perfect specimen (Lat. 39°9′) I am fortunately enabled to correct some errors & to certify the rest.— [note ends] perfectly transparent: colourless: shape a little flattened oval egg-shape; at base apex reflected inwards at the pole for 1/4th of the total length: Plate 4. Fig: 7: on the external surface are 8 bands, possessing vibratory organs, are clearly visible, they rise near to the base, pass over the apex & approximate in central depression: at apex they give cause ridges in the outline [note (a)] by depressing the soft substance of body [note ends]: round the mouth, in central depression, the bands are united in pairs; 2 pairs being approximating on one side & 2 on the other: so as to enable in describing to divide the animal in two halves: the plane of division being at right angles to the broarder or flattened one.—

 

[CD P. 82 continues]

 

 

(c)

Pl: 4: (a b Fig: 7): (Fig: 9 is a view of central depression & mouth from above:) The bands consist in a tube on which are numerous semicircular rims of membrane; & from these, curved pointed fillets depend: these are in very rapid motion, directed towards apex.— between these are seated much smaller ones (V Fig: 10 a & b): on each side of the membrane are fibres which appear to act as muscles: also oblique ones.— (V Fig 10 b).—

 

[note (c) added later] Sept 29th This is not accurate, the part described as membrane is a transverse ridge or developement of longitudinal vessel; its shape is thus [see sketch in margin] it is not external, but within the gelatinous external surface; the vibrating ciliæ, or rather fillets solely project; the fibres described as muscular arise on each side between the greater ridges.— The motion in the fillets is either instantaneous in whole line or runs down it rapidly but regularly: high nervous communication2.— This animal abounds in Baia Blanca, being 2 inches long.— [note ends]

 

[note (d) added later] Decemb: 7th. Lat 43°S.— on calm day float in great numbers, from near the surface to some feet deep: when then in water their shape is conical, & power of motion seems to be confined to expanding their bodies.— They seem to supply the place of Medusæ in this Zone:— These vibratory ciliæ are really transparent fillets [see sketch in margin], ragged at extremities: about 5 on each disc: motion lies in base of each one separately: when alive showed most beautiful prismatic colours: I should think only locomotive.— Those fillets, which are placed in the simple festoons.— have a vessel running near their bases but I could not see any actual connection, any more than than in those of the discs with the longitudinal vessels: The animal floats generally some way beneath surface & is continually revolving: one specimen in basin, being torn, had only fillets on one side at extremity, but these were sufficient to make it steadily

[page] 77 COAST OF PATAGONIA AUGUST 1832

revolve:— [note in margin] April 17th St Josephs bay3 abundant: There were also many Medusæ Lat. 42°, 30′ [notes end]

 

[CD P. 82 concludes]

Biphora

allied to

 

 

(a)

 

The motion in the ciliæ or |83| fillets sometimes commences at apex & thus runs down the vessel, but more generally is irregularly continued through its whole length.— When not in motion they lie close down (as 10 a). I should conceive when all in motion they would propel the animal with its base first.— Only the vessels are continued reflected within central depression.— At the base, the bands of each division are united, but in different manners: the 2 central ones of the four are united at the base by a simple curved ridge or membrane on which is seated a single row of vibrating ciliæ: but the lateral ones have a ridge running up ½ length of body forming acute angle, on the external half of which is seated row of ciliæ.— these vibrate in a direction at rt angles to the main ones on the longitudinal band, & towards these: they would have a tendency to move body round its axis.— [note (a)] Between each long cilia there is a minute one, in same manner as between each semicircular ridge is a small one.— [note ends] At Fig 7. the bases of the bands of the two divisions are seen disunited: but the lateral ones in each [are] joined by the acute angled ridge.— Within the vessels is a rapid circulation, the globules moved to & fro at the base of the vibrating fillets: so that I suppose they are connected with respiration.—

 

Allied to

Biphora

(a)

 

 

(a)

 

(a)

 

Within the body, beneath the mouth, the corresponding & opposite pairs from each division unite & form 2 central vessels in body.— For sake of simplicity, I will describe the organization of the one set (I now in describing divide the body directly oppositely to what I did before).— |84| (Plate 6 Fig: 1). At the point within body, beneath where the two pair of vessels unite, there is a semilunar shaped organ which performs the functions of heart: the two vessels after uniting form one central one: At the heart the circulation is exceedingly vigorous, but not very regular; as far as I was able to judge (from great motion in the ship) the fluid passes down central tube & is returned by the branches.— but at the same time it is certain that this was by no means universal, the same globules travelling some short way distance in one direction & then return.— Near the heart there were numbers of globules, slightly coloured, answering to blood; these appeared to be propelled in every direction, so that they entered different vessels, but by some power were driven back till they found their right course.— the heart lies within the main vessel, & it is difficult to understand to understand how it acts.—

 

 

[note (a)] Sept: 2d. I could not exactly in this specimen see the heart; but most clearly the centres of the double circulation lie at the upper extremity or junction of central vessels with the external ones.— Neither could I

[page] 78 COAST OF PATAGONIA AUGUST 1832

perceive the order of circulation; in junction of external vessels I saw a globules rapidly move backwards & forwards, till at last having entered the external vessel were carried onwards with great celerity.— In the same external vessel I saw circulation proceeding in opposite directions.— [note ends]

 

[CD P. 84 continues]

(b)

Allied to

Biphora

(b)

(b)

(b)

 

(a)

I cannot help imagining that the heart in some of these animals acts more in the manner of a fan, than of a pumping receptacle.— There was nothing like a systole & diastole: the particles globules only revolving with rapidity round a centre.— Just beneath the heart a narrow vessel arises which is continued in an arch close under the external surface to the base of the body. [note (b)] Or more accurately just beneath junction of two external vessels.— [note ends] (In Pl 6 Fig: 1, This is drawn on one side, its real course; it is in same line but above the central vessel): At the extremity |85| the tube is widened into an oblong cavity. the posterior half projects beyond body. (Pl 4. Fig 8) Within this receptacle is a bundle of darker coloured parallel threads or filaments, viscous & extensible & capable of slight motion.— I at first thought these organs (of course there is a corresponding one on opposite side of body) connected with generation: but finding them as perfect in specimen only 3/10th long it does not appear probable: if they were connected with respiration, there would be a circulation in the connecting tubes: from their opening just above neck of stomach (vide infr`) & from darker colour I conjecture they perform function of liver; the gall tube is certainly very long & it is most strange its being exposed to the open water:— If another system of vessels, precisely the same as above described, be placed directly beneath (as far as I was able to perceive) it will be a correct representation of internal organization.

 

[note (a)] Pl 4. Fig 11.— Here the drawing represents a plane at right angles to the one mentioned, so that both central tubes & both livers are seen.— the greater part of this drawing is incorrect: it only serves to show the relative position of the organs. [note ends]

Sept. 2d

[note (b)] The intestine-shaped threads seen under 1/10th lens is composed of numbers of globules, united in irregular lines in a pulpy mass.— The globules resembled those in the circulating medium & were about 1/6000 in diameter.— A circulatio<n> is visible in the vessel which connects this organ to the central vessels: as mentioned, they do not open into stomach: my supposing the organ bears an analogy to liver is I think absurd. Is it generative? [notes end]

 

[CD P. 85 continues]

Pl 6. Fig 1:— What I am now going to describe is common to both

[page] 79 COAST OF PATAGONIA AUGUST 1832

(c)

 

(c)

Allied to

Biphora

systems.— Within centre of body there is a tube or bag formed of soft pulpy membrane.— at its superior extremity it receives, just beneath the heart, both central vessels & opening from the mouth.— at its base it widens & is united to the external covering of body.— The central vessels This I imagine to be the stomach.— From the superior half of central vessels, there are delicate |86| tubes sent off, which become gradually finer; these I suppose to be absorbents.— The central vessels having being continued to the extreme base of the body turn off at right angles, & gradually become obscure; I could however pretty clearly trace the fluid into the lower branches of the external bands on vessels: (Pl 6. Fig 2. this turning off is represented; in Fig 1 it is not seen because the branch is in same plane as central vessel):— Thus it would seem generally to exist; but I saw two instances where instead of a single rectangular branch, there were two: this appearance is shown Pl 4 Fig 12: In the specimen from which this was drawn.— the central vessel appeared likewise to open at base of body by a projecting tube, as shown in Figrs 12 & 11.— This must remain in uncertainty.—

[page] 80 COAST OF PATAGONIA AUGUST 1832

Plate 6, Figs. 1 and 2

Septr: 2nd

[note (c) for CD P. 85] The stomach is capable of much motion, expand<ing> itself & contracting itself, irregularly.— much flattened; The central vessels do not pass within it, but lie close on the outside (I am not surpri<sed> at my mistake):— In this case I did not see absorbing tubes: The central vessels, having reach<ed> base of body, turn off (as described) vertically at rt angles; after which I see it obscurely branches into two which communicate with the external vessels, one on each side the Liver. This explains case in Pl 4 Fig: 12; where I did not perceive the first rectangular turn, or perhaps from transparency, the depending part (K) might be this.— [note ends]

 

 

Plate 4, Figs. 11 and 12

 

[CD P. 86 continues]

 

 

 

Allied to

Biphora

 

(a)

I was unable from the motion in ship to trace the course of any globule; the whole system of vessels is thus united, the four external ones (with ciliæ) are on each side united at their bases; but opposite pairs of each join at the heart with the central vessels: I suppose the circulating medium being put into motion by the heart flows down the central tubes, where it is joined by lymph which is separated from the stomach by the absorbents; passes on into the external vessels, & is then acted on, by the agency of the ciliæ, by the water, is then returned to |87| the heart & again undergoes the same course.— of course I cannot say whether any globule in the blood always goes through one heart or otherwise; I have shown that there is a complete communication between all parts:— The internal bag, or stomach, is joined by the gullet between the two hearts.— & as far as I was able to judge from excessive transparency also by the bile ducts. [note (a)] I can hardly

[page] 81 COAST OF PATAGONIA AUGUST 1832

say that I could actually trace the gullet into the stomach; but just over it. [note ends]

[CD P. 87 continues]

(b)

Pl: 6

Fig: 1

The mouth is situated in centre of square funnel shaped projection, which becoming narrower forms the gullet.— [note (b)] Sept: 2d The situation of mouth is strongly marked by a black dot: it always appears closed.— [note ends] The situation of the mouth, as before mentioned, is in rather a deep depression;— the edges of this contract very suddenly if touched; & I suppose by this manner any minute object is caught, which may afford support to the animal.—

(c)

I was totally unable to find any anus4 & I cannot easily believe that the mouth in so highly organized an animal performs this office:— [note (c)] Sept: 2d I am not much surprised at overlooking the anus basal orifice: the body is so very soft & tender & transparent, that without a small specimen can be placed under microscope it would be difficult to find it.— The stomach at base opens by a long slit (in direction of flattened side, i.e. at rt angles to the plane in which central vessels & (Livers!) are).— This orifice can be very accurately closed & widely expanded; so as rather to form a passage (as in Biphora) than an anus. The orifice was very sensitive & would instantly close.— When open I could fairly see into the stomach or internal tube: [note ends]

[CD P. 87 continues]

 

 

 

Allied to

Biphora

(a)

When I saw specimen figured PL 4: Fig 11 & 12, I thought the projecting paps (kk) were connected with this organ.— Round the gullet, beneath the funnel shaped mouth, is a collar of most delicate filaments; from each side a bundle is sent off & floats in the body between external coat & stomach: their direction is between central vessels & therefore at right angles to the bile ducts.— The bundle [of] filaments reaches to the base of body, in its course |88| sending off some threads, it becomes both fewer in numbers & finer:— This clearly is the nervous system:— The animal is highly sensitive & irritable & in a manner quite different from the Medusæ, to which in outward appearance it bears a great resemblance: [note (a)] The nervous system is represented in Pl: 6 Fig 1 by the arcs of dotted lines.— Sept: 2d The nervous system was very plain in this specimen, following the course of lateral edge of stomach (as described). [note ends]

 

[CD P. 88 continues]

 

(c)

I could find no Generative organs: Animal is slimy: body very luminous, chiefly in the bands of ciliæ, to such an extent that the form of animal might be traced by the green light.— [note (c)] I do not think I ever saw

[page] 82 COAST OF PATAGONIA AUGUST 1832

 

(b)

any animal more beautifully so:— Sept: 6th.— [note ends] I suspect from what I saw that the Petrels feed on them.— This animal from its organization belongs evidently to the "Clerphales sans coquilles" of Cuvier; & although so widely different comes nearest to Biphora.— if my observation is accurate, the not having the two open perforations, or the mouth & anus is the most wide difference.— [note (b)] Sept: 2d If the organ which I have described as the stomach is considered as the inner tunic as in Biphora; the most wide anomaly in this animal is the absence of stomach, intestine, anus & Liver.— I never perceived any signs of water flowing through the body.— [note ends] The organ which I have described as Liver (??) bears some analogy to an organ in animal (Page 70).—

 

1 The animal was a planktonic ctenophore of order Cydippida, probably Pleurobrachia, a comb jelly or sea gooseberry. The ctenophores were first placed in a separate phylum by Eschscholtz in 1839. CD's 8 bands of vibrating fillets are the rows of combs or ctenes controlled by an apical statocyst that serve for locomotion.

2 Although ctenophores are regarded as among the most primitive living metazoa, they have more specialized nervous systems than cnidarians, as CD has not failed to note.

3 St Joseph's Bay is situated on the north side of the Valdes Peninsula, and opens into the Gulf of St Mathias.

4 The anal aperture is obscured by having the structure drawn in Plate 4 Fig. 9 at its centre, which CD must be forgiven for not recognising as the statocyst.

 

[CD P. 88 continues]

Erichthus1

361

 

 

 

Erichthus

 

Septem 2d. Lat39°.9′. Sounding 15 F, 4 miles from shore: This species comes near to '`rmé' of Desmarets2. length .2. (Organs of locomotion named from analogy from Squilla): 1st pair of "pieds machoire" long, cylindrical, terminated by ciliæ: 2nd strong with "griffe", penultimate joint broad, receiving griffe in a grove protected on each side by recurved spines: 3rd & 4th pairs, with claw, & penultimate joint enlarged, globular; vesicles at base: 5th rudimentary without claw.— True feet 6 in number, mere stumps: 5 pair of circular |89| ciliated caudal swimmers, when at rest they are applied indifferently either towards head or tail.— Terminal plate excised, finely dentated, with spine on each side, also others at base.— On the under surface there is a longitudinal slit, which is the anus.— this intestine opens into an enlargement of intestine. Lateral antennæ shorter than plate.— Frontal spine very long: also so is likewise the posterior Lateral.— Within these latter, there is a vessel in which I could perceive a circulation.— Dorsal spine long recurved.— on each segment of tail there is a small spine bent in same manner as the last.— Respiratory organs in form of plates, situated under edge of shell at base of "pieds machoires".— Body transparent, colourless, excepting the eyes which are dark green; all that was to be seen, when animal was in the water, were two

[page] 83 COAST OF PATAGONIA SEPTEMBER 1832

black spots, the eyes.— In its motions not active; swims in oblique direction; & frequently rolls from side to side:— Has the power of withdrawing large part of body from beneath shell.—

Mysis3

361

 

(a)

(b)

 

Mysis

Habitat &c same as last:— Species allied to "integer".—

[note (a)] Sept: 4th.— Lat 40° S.— The sea contained vast numbers of this species.— [note ends] Body coloured slightly red: especially 2nd pair of "pieds machoires", inner part of: Females had attached near to base of last pair of legs, a curved circular ciliated membrane, when folded in, forming prominent pouches; in each of these were two young animals, length about 1/15 of inch; differed from old |90| Specimens by the greater proportional largeness of eyes; also by the less distinct separation of thorax & tail.— [note (b)] In the membrane were dark coloured vessels, much branched.— & I suppose by these pouches convey nutrition to the young animal.— [note ends] They possessed but very little irritability.— The females with young were larger & darker coloured than the others.—

Amph: Hetero

=podes

new genus4

361

Habitat &c same as last:— lateral antennæ & their peduncles very long: internal short: Thorax divided into many segments: 4 anterior legs, with very strong claw; the next 6 with claw less so: next 2 simply natatory, very long: last 2 simple natatory shorter:— Extremity of tail, with 2 jointed sitaceous appendages; beneath it 4 double stylets; on dorsal surface there is a short cylindrical fleshy projection: Body flattened, narrow, long; colour orange:

Loligo5

363

(a)

 

Calmar (Cuv). Lat 40° S. Sept: 4th: caught in open sea, together with great numbers of Mysis.— Arms 8 unequal; 2d pair rather longer than first; & 3d pair finer, but equal to 1st.— the 5th very delicate, half the length of others.— The 2 feelers (or long arm, making 10 in number) are .4 long, & about twice length of other arms: suckers at [illeg.] terminal half.— Suckers small, in double rows, alternate, circular, pedunculated.— Anal tube short, in line between eyes: body bluntly pointed, with 2 irregular rhomboidal membranes at apex. Body .6 long: pure white with angular obliterated scattered red markings. Eyes large, pupil black, iris pearly; base inferior base of sclerotica coppery red:— [note (a)] Emitted small quantity of ink [note ends] |91|

1 Erichthus was the term formerly applied to a larval mantis shrimp of order Stomatopoda.

2 See A.-G. Desmarest. In Dictionnaire des sciences naturelles. Paris, 1816-30.

3 Mysidacea, opossum shrimp.

4 Amphipod of suborder Hyperiidea.

5 It was concluded by S.F. Harmer on examination of Specimens 304, 363 and 368, labelled by CD as Loligo Lamarck, that 304 was Sepiola, but that CD's written description did not fit well with 363 or 368.

 

[page] 84 COAST OF PATAGONIA SEPTEMBER 1832

 

[CD P. 91 commences]

Pelagia1

364

(a)

(b)

 

 

Body transparent, shape half an oval spheroid; internal cavity flatly arched; membranous sides not so transparent: surrounding its edge on the inside there are about 40 tubular tentacula; extremities dark coloured, tuberculated, adhæsive.— These open into the space between internal cavity & exterior surface. In this, 4 delicate vessels, rising at base unite at summit of interior cavity forming a cross at their junction.— On each side of these vessels for their whole length, there are short transverse fibres which act as muscles & are capable of contracting so much as to give body a four lobed appearance.— [note (b)] Outside of the tentacula there is a short depending membrane.— [note ends] Depending within cavity is a short peduncle; terminal part coloured dark red.— Surrounding this there are four, small irregular shaped oval, membranous, flat semi-transparent sacks, placed cross wise (in centre in base of peduncle). The four delicate vessels run along (at the apex) the edges of these sacks, if they do not empty themselves into them.— Diameter of body .2: Habitat &c same as last animal (Loligo).— [note (a)] Dianœa (Lamarck).— All the species mentioned by him are North of Equator. I have found two species south of the Tropic Capricorn.— [note ends]

Plate 6, Figs. 3-6

 

[CD P. 91 continues]

Molluscous

Tunicata2

365 (c)

Septemb: 5th.— Lat 40°.— Soundings 10 fathoms: Body, nearly spherical; transparent; diameter .3. [note (c)] I have seen much larger specimens.— [note ends] On the surface there are 8 opaker lines; arranged in two sets:

[page] 85 COAST OF PATAGONIA SEPTEMBER 1832

Mollusc:

Tunicata

(b)

they reach from near the apex longitudinally for 2/3 of whole length:— Each line is a shallow sack filled with granules, at centre of under surface arises a tube, which uniting with one from the next, forms a pair.— |92| Two of these pair lead (thus connecting four of the external lines) on each side to a main transverse vessel.— Pl: 6. Fig 23 (a a a a) represent two pairs belonging to the opposite sides: (H H).

 

[note (b)] September 6th.— in a small specimen I observed the important fact of vibrating ciliæ, placed in numerous transverse rows on these lines or sack.— In direction, manner & appearance of motion, they precisely resembled those in animal (described page 82). And to which animal I show there is a relation in other respects: in this case the sacks were very empty.— I forgot to mention that the ciliæ or fillets are easily separated, & that they then possess much irritability.— It is to me inexplicable the occurrence or absence of such important organs in the same animal:— [note ends]

 

[CD P. 92 continues with a description referring to Plate 6 Fig. 2 on p. 79, and Figs. 3-6 on p. 84]

 

 

 

 

 

 

(a)

Main transverse vessel: at K. on right side, the brother pair would join if drawn:— Through the centre or pole of sphere a tube runs (c c). A little below the middle it unites with the main transverse one.— Beneath this it increases in diameter breadth, but is very flat.— it terminates (F) on outside membrane, but I could not see aperture.— At the upper extremity or mouth (D) there is an appearance of an internal tube: mouth square, with central black spot which perhaps is the orifice closed:— in [Plate 6] Fig 4.— the mouth is seen from directly above, (a a) is the central vessel:— In this system of vessels there is a very powerful circulation.— The fluid is composed of variously sized globules, very faintly coloured.— The circulation varies much [in] intensity.— I only saw it once in full play.— Fig 3 will then show its course, generally it returns on inner side of the smaller branches & flows out on the outer: In central vessel the circulation reaches to both extremities; in the transverse ones to the point where the smaller vessels unite with external (near the surface) superficial sacks.— it even enters within these, but does not extend far, by degrees however the whole of the included grains or globules I have no doubt pass into circulation.— [note (a)] Do these outer longitudinal sacks perform any office similar to respiration?— [note ends]

Molluscous

Tunicate

As I have said, the |93| circulation suddenly becomes languid; in this case the order (Fig 3) ceases: when most so languid the globules may be seen moving in the last bifurcation, & especially at the point where the membranous stomach (below T) unites with central vessel.— Also in this case each part of vessel becomes a centre of a circulation; a globule may be seen for some time performing a small circuit & then pass on.— The blood

[page] 86 COAST OF PATAGONIA SEPTEMBER 1832

likewise takes of different courses; for instance I saw stream (b) (Fig 3) instead of passing to right hand, flow round (D); thus proving that separate vessels do not conduct the complicated circulation in Fig: 3:— I frequently observed one pair of vessels with their blood in rapid circulation, whilst the others were nearly quiescent.— From these facts I do not believe there is a heart4; but that the parts of the different vessels by some unknown power act on the contained fluid.—

 

 

 

Molluscous

Tunicata

 

 

On the posterior & broard part of central vessels there lies a delicate very flat membranous gradually widening sack.— it is highly expansible & contractile.— till I saw [it] project beyond the line of central vessel, I thought it was contained within it.— The sack can be largely opened at its base, but is generally kept closed.— at its apex I do not know whether it communicates with central vessel or whether it has a separate tube leading to the mouth; at the mouth, there is an appearance (as already mentioned) of this:.— The sack has on each side two serpentine approximate vessels, which send off minute branches: Fig 5.(b) |94| These unite & from each go to surround basal opening.— These tubes are situated on the internal surface of sack.— When the latter (as is generally the case) is contracted, these tubes present a very different appearance; they are so much doubled up as to look like lobes in some organ a membrane.— this I have represented [in] Fig 5 (a).— In one instance there were two small oval organs attached to them; what were they?.— I was much surprised by seeing a rounded opake mass, slowly revolving at base of sack.— at last it was protruded through basal opening; it appeared to be the fæces, it was pulpy & adhæsive.— I presume the object of the revolving was to form into a properly shaped pellet.—

 

(a)

 

From extreme transparency I am not certain of what follows.— the lateral serpentine vessels at the summit unite & send off a delicate tube into the lateral circulating system.— [note (a)] I fancied that just above (T) there was a collar of nerves.— [note ends] I have represented these uncertain vessels by dotted lines in Fig 2.— I presume the sack is the stomach & the serpentine vessels the absorbents; the food is taken in by mouth, but I am ignorant of its course to the stomach.—

 

 

Molluscous

Tunicata

(a)

I have mentioned that when the two primary branches on one side in the circulatory system unite & form a pair, Fig 2. behind (k), another similar joins & so forms main vessel.— Within the segment of body contained by the latter & greater bifurcation, there is a curious organ.— It consists in cavity of form of bag with neck |95| which rise has its orifice not far from the mouth & reach[es] half way down the body.— Of course there is a corresponding one on opposite side of body; they lie in same plane as broard side of stomach: At the base of this bag, on the interior side, there is a flat opake irregular receptacle, this from this protrudes & is partly contained a mass of intestine shaped cylindrical tubes, full of granular

[page] 87 COAST OF PATAGONIA SEPTEMBER 1832

matter.— [note (a)] Sept 6th: Found small specimen where the interior receptacle or capsule was empty, having apparently ejected all the intestine-shaped granular cylinders.— this only occurred on one side of body:— [note ends] This is capable of motion; & so extensible as when unwound to project beyond external orifice.— Behind the receptacle, this organ communicates with the main transverse vessel at its great bifurcation.—

 

I may mention that I saw a small body moving with great rapidity in this cavity: was it an Infusoria? In Pl 6. Fig 2. the sack is drawn only on the left hand; it is beneath the two external lines: on the other side it would lie at (k):— Between the external lines or cavities there are narrow bands about 5 in number; they are so fine as scarcely to be visible, & act I suppose as muscles. in Fig: 2 I have shown a few (m):— In the cavity of the body there was a very minute Intestinal worm (Fig: 6).— body capable of much contractility.— tail with minute terminal sucker.— internally there appears to be an irregular cavity & intestine.— This is a low animal to be infested with parasites5.— |96|

Molluscous

Tunicata

(a)

(b)

This animal is closely connected with that described (Page 70, Pl 5).— it differs chiefly in the form of vessel where the central & transverse [structures] meet; in the external bands & their muscular arrangement; it is not impossible I might have overlooked the circulation, if so it must have been very obscure.— [note (a)] The cavity (Fig 3 Pl 5) will almost do for either animal.— [note ends]

 

With animal (Pe 82) it is related by its complicated circulation; by its internal sack or stomach widely open posteriorly; & especially by its lateral organ (described as Liver! I am yet unable to guess what its real nature is), in both cases they are united to central circulation & are open to the water, although by different means; are composed of extensible moveable tubes threads or strings in a receptacle: (the most marked difference is the absence of the vibratory ciliæ. Vide Supr`)

Decemb 2d

Lat: S.40°

Coast of

Patagon:

 

493

 

 

[note (b) added later] Caught several specimens of animal; still more closely proving the identity of that described at P 70 & this one:— Length of body from from .3 to .4: Vide Plate 56: the bags (Fig 3) opened externally: also the bag or stomach (H) does: In these respects, I have no doubt the animal of P 70 agrees.— & that I did not before observe it: at E the vessel is not so suddenly rounded, as shown by dotted lines: but the most important fact is that at k a pair of vessels were given off, which were themselves divided precisely in same manner as in the animal of text.— on the other hand, on the superficies there were no sacks corresponding to the 8 vessels: nor were there bands, such as in Pl 5 Fig 4; but merely lines as at P: there was a strong circulation at (a) which extended a little way within main transverse vessel.— The stomach (H) is closely attached to the longitudinal vessel: Upon the whole, considering animal of Page 70 & of text; the real essential

[page] 88 COAST OF PATAGONIA SEPTEMBER 1832

difference consists in the superficial sacks or bands.— these organs we have now seen in four states; as simple sacks with included granules; as sacks with transverse plates, with vibratory fillets; as bands with numerous transverse lines; & as simple lines or scratches on the surface.— What can their office be ?? (I may mention in this case, some of the external lines were half & finely spiral in places?) In this case the 4 convoluted vessels at stomach were coloured red.— [note ends]

 

1 Again Liriope tetraphylla.

2 The use of Plate 6 to describe both the tunicate allied to Biphora of P. 82 and this one shows that CD has decided that they are closely related. He later comes clean about this, and adds the animal of P. 70 to his list. They were not in fact tunicates, but were comb jellies, ctenophores of order Cydippida.

3 See p. 79.

4 According to J.A. Colin Nicol in The Biology of Marine Animals (Pitman, London, 1960), changes of the direction of beat of locomotory cilia are characteristic of ctenophores.

5 The example given by CD does indeed appear to be true parasitism, and it is now recognised that there are worms of several classes that are endoparasites of molluscs and other marine invertebrates.

6 See p. 63.

 

[CD P. 96 continues]

Crustaceæ

Schizopod1

366

 

 

Crust:

Schizopod

 

(a)

Sept: 6th.— Lat 39: Long 61 W: new genus allied to Mysis: 8 pair of locomotive organs; the exterior branch of all these simply natatory; of the internals the 1st is short, rudimentary, 2 longer, with terminal joint flattened circular; both these help to close the mouth, & are capable of curling themselves up: the 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th are long, & have on internal side a double row of fine straight ciliæ, inclined to each other at an obtuse angle: the last & 8th pair natatory: When the animal swims, the 10 5 pair of ciliated internal branches directed anteriorly almost form a complete circle round the mouth: any small object caught by these might easily be |97| carried into the mouth, by the involving movement of the two upper pairs of internal branch:— Before the mouth there were two fine arms terminated by a curved claw.— I once imagined there was a small internal branch from this; if so there are 9 pair of legs.— now I observed in Macrourus (Page 98) that between ventral swimmers & legs there were jointed setæ or rudimentary legs; is it possible that the last pair in this animal, both branches of which are natatory, may correspond with this:— Tail formed of 5 pieces; central one excised, finely dentated; ventral swimming plates, narrow: peduncles of eyes rather long.— Superior antennæ with two long divisions: inferior with protecting plate.— Body nearly transparent; except stomach & intestines, which are like quicksilver; This animal differs from Mysis principally in only having 2 divisions in antennæ & in form of legs.— They could swim well & jump a little: were

[page] 89 COAST OF PATAGONIA SEPTEMBER 1832

taken at night in vast numbers.—

Decemb. 2d

Lat, 40°S.

[note (a) added later] The swimmers on the tail or abdomen are very small with a little jointed branch with internal ciliæ.— Mandible corners formed of a curved plate, square & smooth, with one of its corner[s] raised & toothed. this portion resembles the mandibles of Apus figured by Desmarets2; there were two sets: there also was an organ connected with the mouth in this shape [see sketch in margin] a tuft on a peduncle: the organs with claw are seated before the mouth & doubtless are palpi: This specimen was found dead & is female, from the capsular membrane at base of posterior legs: the central piece of the tail is not excised: strongly toothed: is this a different species, or is it sexual diffe: or is my former description inaccurate. I do not think the latter probable: (I presume by 2 sets of mandibles, maxillæ a<re> meant). [note ends]

 

[CD P. 97 continues]

Crustac:

Macrourus3

(b) 366

369

 

(c)

Crustace:

Macrourus

(a)

(b)

Habitat &c same as last.— Characters will not apply to any of Cuvier families, but most approximates to Salicoques.— [note (b)] The specimen (366) is with other crustaceæ at the top of tube; it is a perfect specimen: those in (369) are imperfect wanting lateral antennæ [note ends] Body one inch long; colourless or of a faint red: peduncle of eyes long.— External antennæ situated beneath the central ones & protected by large ciliated plate: these are of the extraordinary length of 2 & ½ inches, coloured red.— [note (c)] The external division of pieds machoires resembled Palpi?— [note ends] Superior antennæ with peduncle very long, basal joint thick, hollow, |98| carrying 2 very unequal branches, the longer one very fine; total length .3:— None of the legs are terminated "en pince" [note (a)] Have vesicles at base [note ends] 1st pair are shortest, & when in rest form a circle; the 4 other, long, slender, with double row of setæ, forming obtuse angle.— These precisely resemble interior branch in the last Schizopod animal: Ventral swimmers 5 pair; the 4 posterior approximate; each one divided into two ciliated plate[s]; the 1st pair are distant from the other, & single, & more formed for walking.— Between these & the true legs; there are 4 articulated setæ or arms, in line of legs; of these the anterior pair are much the longest:— The external division of caudal swimmer largest, central stylet pointed: Thorax with anterior sides, bi-dented.— This animal would in some respects connect the Salicoques & Schizopodes.—

Decemb: 4th

491

[note (b) added later] At Bay of San Blas took some specimens of a crab.— same genus as this, but ½ the length & I should think differing in other respects: anyhow it is sufficient to show that the description in text is most inaccurate.— the 3rd, 4, 5th pair of legs are terminated by an almost invisible (yet certain) "pince": the first pair of swimmers, which are single, have a small branch at base, which expands into a foliaceous organ & again contracts into articulate limb.— this fold covers eggs.— these are opake

[page] 90 COAST OF PATAGONIA SEPTEMBER 1832

in transparent envelope, much oval: the mandible & palpi are distinct large, the former has anterior tooth, & very much longer than any of others: I could not understand the pied machoires.— they are evidently of a very simple structure.— the 1st pair of legs I almost suspect are the external pied-machoire.—

 

 

Palpi very

transparent

The organs which I saw

are these 1st with

simple palpi, oblong

concave plate.— 2d more

rounded: 3d & 4th

united but at rt angles

to each other: I thought at first (3) was ½ the labium.— there was also an obscure rounded organ plate behind all these: the pharynx was remarkable.—

 

[CD P. 98 continues]

Isopod

Cymothoudes4

 

370

 

Isopod

Cymothoudes

 

 

(a)

Habitat same as last &c.— taken in the sea.— is I think a new genus, comes nearest to Livoneca (Leach): Differs in having the eyes large, circular, black colour, faces very distinct: Mouth protected by shield, beneath which are 4 equal antennæ.— superior ones of same thickness even to terminal joint.— inferior ones pointed finer: Claws on feet strong, equal. received in penultimate ultimate joint by double row of short teeth:— Tail composed of 5 pieces; central one oval; lateral foleaceous ones equal; external plate pointed, oval — internal obliquely truncate:— |99|

Colour pale, with minute

stars of reddish brown

colour; these are thickly

scattered on the back, so

as to give it a dingy tint;

there are a few on the lower

surface:— [note (a)] The stars were only visible with a lens.— [note ends] Animal could swim very swiftly, & when at rest always turned its stomach upwards: could adhere even to a needle with great force:—

 

1 Mysidacea, opossum shrimp.

2 See Plate 52 of Apus cancriphorme by A.-G. Desmarest in Dic. Sciences Naturelles Planches de Zoologie 2e partie, Crustacés (Entomostracés).

3 Macrourus was the term formerly used as a suborder for the long-tailed decapod crustaceans, including the shrimp-like and lobster-like forms. It is now replaced by the suborder Dendrobranchiata and part of the Pleocyemata. For further discussion of specimen 491 see Oxford Collections p. 206, and Journal of Researches 1:189. See Cuvier Vol. 4, p. 91.

4 Flabellifera, Cymothoidae, an ectoparasite of fish.

 

 

[CD P. 99 continues]

[page] 91 BAHIA BLANCA SEPTEMBER 1832

Bufo1

377

 

Mr Bynoe has another specimen (For more particulars V P 191.)

Copied

Appears to approach nearest to Breviceps (Cuv.).— No tympanum or Parotid:— Mouth pointed: but the colours are the most extraordinary I have ever seen.— Body "ink black". under surface of feet, & base of abdomen & scattered patches of an intense "vermilion red" (the animal looked as if it had crawled over a newly painted surface).— back with scattered spots of "buff orange".— Inhabits the dry sandy pampas; there was no trace of water.— Sept: 11th.— Baia Blanca

Coluber2

383

(433 (b))

Copied

Heterodon (Cuv:). Above cream-coloured with symmetrical marks of dark brown; beneath with black & irregularly bright red.— The first of the maxillary teeth much developed & distinct.— Mouth dilatable & tongue very extensible, by these characters & shortness of tails, approximates to the Venimous serpents.— Was caught whilst eating a Lizard: Sandy plains: Sept 15th. Baia Blanca.

[note (b) added later] Mr Bynoe has another & distinct species: (Trigonocephalus) Octob 4th. Monte Hermoso. B. Blanca.— Found this latter species on sandy hillocks near the sea.— Above marked with a chain of "umber brown", the intervals being "wood brown".— Aspect most hideous.— I think finding these two species will establish the sub-genus "Heterodon".—

 

 

 

 

 

Octob 8th: The triangular nose quite deceived me: this snake has no connection with the one Heterodon described. I caught a much larger one, coloured as above.— It is a Trigonocephalus, but does not exactly agree with any of Cuviers subdivisions.— Habits slow, strong, courageous. as long as it had life it would open its mouth very wide & protruding its fangs struck any object with great violence: Iris Pup<il> a vertical slit; iris mottled coppery: Tail with a pointed hard button at extremity.— When irritated the animal vibrated the last inch of tail with great rapidity, & this as it struck the blades of grass, & still more any sticks, made a distinctly audible noise.— As often as the snake was touched, its tail vibrated.— How beautifully does this snake both in structure & habits connect Crotalus & Vipera. As far as habits go Cuvier is right in ranking Trigonocephalus with Crotalus, contrary to Dic Class.— Inhabits the sandy hillocks & cannot be uncommon:—

Octob: 12

Found two more; the noise from tail audible at about 6 feet distance: live in holes: lizard in stomach: The orifice of the fang is very elliptic & placed on the anterior surface near extremity.— at the base the canal enters the fang at interior or concave surface.— [note ends]

[CD P. 99 continues]

[page] 92 BAHIA BLANCA SEPTEMBER 1832

Perdrix-

Scolopax3

Vaginalis?

710 (not spirits)

388 more

particulars

V. 192

This very singular bird was shot near the Fort.— In its first appearance partly resembles a lark & partly a Snipe.— In its flight & cry the former; inhabits dry sandy plains occasionally overflowed by sea. In small flocks.— Covering for the nostrils, soft: Baia Blanca Sept. 14th — Feeds on vegetable matter: Mr Bynoes has a good specimen. |100|

 

 

Fish4

390

Caught on a sand bank in the net:— body silvery: dorsal scales iridescent with green & copper; head greenish: tail yellow.

Fish5

391 (a)

Body pale, darker above; broard silvery band on sides; common:— [note (a)] This is probably the old fish of the small ones (367) taken at sea. [note ends]

Fish6

392

Body mottled with silver & green; dorsal & caudal fins lead colour: common

Fish7

393

Back coloured like Labrador feldspar; iris coppery: plentiful

 

Fish8

394

Above dirty reddish brown; beneath faint blue; iris yellow: plentiful

Fish9

395

Above pale purplish brown, with rounded darker markings:—

Agama?10

397

Copied

This is the most beautiful lizard I have ever seen: back with three rows of regular oblong marks of a rich brown: the other scales symetrically coloured either ash or light brown.— many also irregularly bright emerald green.— beneath pearly with semilunar marks of brilliant orange on throat.—

Buccinum11

412

Copied

(b)

Buccinum

 

 

Crawling in rushes on the sand banks & living on dead fish.— foot oblong, rounded anteriorly, the yellow operculum is placed obliquely on the upper part of extremity.— siphon lead colour, not closed; tentacula same colour pointed; mouth projecting over foot & between tentacula, when closed with small longitudinal division; from this there can be protruded a very long red coloured proboscis. terminal orifice with cartilaginous rim.— Very commonly on the whorls there are several ovules.— these are about 1/12" in diameter, rounded, conical, with broarder base, semitransparent, on the summit is a circular lid, which falls

|101| off when the little shell is ready to obtain independent life.— [note (b)] The situation of the Ovules or eggs on the shell must be almost necessary, as the animal inhabits extensive sand banks, where there is no hard substance to fix them on.— [note ends] At first the capsules only contain a pulpy yellow matter.— but when further advanced the minute animal: the outline of the shell is rounded

[page] 93 BAHIA BLANCA SEPTEMBER 1832

oval, whorls not produced, the siphon not developed; but at the superior right corner, where the row of spines in old specimen commences, the edge of shell projects & is tranchant: animal after few minutes could crawl well; foot very large, thin; folding over the shell, fleshy siphon small; mouth & tentacula forming a triangle.—

1 Identified by Thomas Bell from CD's specimens (see Zoology 5:49-50) as Phryniscus nigricans Weigm. In Journal of Researches 1 p. 115, CD wrote 'If it is an unnamed species, surely it ought to be called diabolicus, for it is a fit toad to preach in the ear of Eve.'

2 Most of the European snakes with which CD would have been familiar were non-venomous and oviparous species belonging to the family Colubridae. However, Trigonocephalus was probably a highly venomous pit viper, the Patagonian lancehead Bothrops ammodytoides, belonging to the Viperidae. CD considered this snake to be quite exceptionally ugly (see Journal of Researches 1 p. 114). Crotalus is another viper.

3 Listed in Zoology 3:117-18 as Tinochorus rumicivorus Eschsch.

4 Listed in Zoology 4:135-6 as Alosa pectinata Jen.

5 Not listed in Zoology 4, nor in MS list of Fishes in Spirits of Wine in CUL DAR 29(i).

6 Listed in Zoology 4:44 as Umbrina arenata Cuv. et Val.

7 Listed in Zoology 4:80-1 as Mugil liza Cuv. et Val.?

8 Listed in Zoology 4:137-8 as Platessa orbignyana.

9 Listed in Zoology 4:139 as RHOMBUS————?

10 Identified by Thomas Bell in Zoology 5:18-19 as Proctotretus pectinatus.

11 Neogastropod, Buccinacea, probably a mud snail of family Nassariidae.

[CD P. 101 continues]

Actinia1

413

 

 

 

 

 

Actinia

Exteriorly dirty clouded yellow.— On the exterior rim are several rows, placed without order, of bluntly pointed tentacula; they have a minute orifice at extremity.— The inner ones are the largest.— They are coloured pale lead-colour:— Central orifice projecting.— Polype most widely expansible, fixed on stones.— Within the mouth is a collar with longitudinal ridges or plaits.— The whole sack or stomach is lined by delicate membranes or rather bags (which being double form thin bags) these project upwards & much folded in same manner as bud of plant.— the superior margin is thicker: The sides of polype are composed, first (exteriorly) of a thin covering of soft matter, this does not seem to extend to the adhæring surface: 2d a strong white tough case, which must act as muscular; this on the interior surface is blueish & forms numerous longitudinal narrow plates.— between these bunches of the delicate |102| membrane is attached.— It is probable by these plates the tentacula communicate with the body.— I may mention these hasty observations as they show how singularly close the Actiniæ are in their organization to the Caryophillia as described at Page (10).

Crepidula2

Adhering to the anchor, soundings 10 fathoms: shell with concave curved

[page] 94 BAHIA BLANCA SEPTEMBER 1832

(a)

429

 

Copied

grooved spines: animal with foot rounded, posterior half lying on the diaphragms of shell.— [note (a)] The young shells adhere to the old one. in these places the spines are absent.— [note ends] Tentacula pointed with minute black eyes situated near the base & on them: mouth between them the mouth opens on each side there being a rounded lobe, having a forked like appearance. Within mouth is very short proboscis.— Neck long.— On each side there is a membrane which when animal contracts itself closes the respiratory orifice: Branchiæ long, delicate, most regular, parallel, forming together apparently a rounded membrane — this adheres to the superior mantle by a longitudinal line.— The opening extends whole width of the shell.— From the appearance of fæces the anus must be on the right side:—

(429)

 

There is another smaller & smooth species.— in this the foot anteriorly is crescent shaped with a horn at each corner:— also in some there on the right side near behind tentaculum was a long vermiform, tapering, generative organ.— |103|

[CD P. 103 commences]

Dipus:3

(Gme:)

(777 not

spirits) (a)

Copied

This little animal does not appear to agree exactly with any of the subgenera of Cuvier.— It was caught Octob. 3d at Monte Hermoso in B. Blanca.— In bringing at night a bush for fire wood, it ran out with its tail singed.— So that probably it inhabits bushes:— [note (a)] In sandy hillocks near the sea.— [note ends] it could not run very fast: it is a male: after skinning the head it has a much more elongated appearance than it had in Nature.—

Clytia4

437: 438

(b)

 

(c)

 

 

Clytia

Coralline, with branches long, fine, colourless: bipinnate; polype either terminal or at the bifurcations, scattered; Polype in cups, which are of regular funnel-shaped enlargements of the tube or branch.— [note (b)] If, as I afterwards give reasons, the peduncles & branches may be considered as the same, then the Coralline will be both bi & tripinnate.— [note ends] each cup has a peduncle formed of elongated globular joints.— Those which arise at the bifurcations have 5 of these, of which the three basal ones are the largest: as the Coralline grows, the peduncle becomes a branch, being lengthened between 3 & 4th joint so that the terminal cups have but two articulations, but at the base of the branch there are three. [note (c)] This is by far the most general, but not universal case.— [note ends] These are rather from the thickening of branch are compressed, & may be considered as resulting from the form impressed on the branch when a peduncle.— Hence the Coralline appears is jointed, & at every bifurcation there are the three compressed globular articulations.— From this it would appear that the peduncle of the Clytia is really only the first form of the branch.— The peduncle is rather longer than the |104| cup.— The central organized matter much developed included in a thin tube within the branches.— The polype unite at their bases with this.—

[page] 95 BAHIA BLANCA SEPTEMBER 1832

polype when retracted have a narrow base, like footstalk; tentacula arms short, 16 (?) in number situated round a central protruding mouth.—

 

 

 

 

Plate 7, Fig 1 is a drawing of a polype retracted in its cup, with the peduncle rising at a joint in a branch.— This coralline ought to form a distinct subgenus from Clytia of (Lamouroux), the latter having the peduncle twisted, & branches not jointed, & generally short creeping.— This would appear from structure of Coralline to be more closely allied (as Cuvier ranks it) to the Tubularia than to the Sertulariæ.— I never saw anything more beautifully luminous than this Coralline was; when rubbed in the dark every fibre might be traced by the blue light.— What was remarkable <was> that the light came in flashes, which appeared regularly to proceed up the branches: The coralline emitted a strong disagreeable odour.—

Was brought from the bottom in abundance in 10 fathom water.— October 1st.—

Plate 7, Fig. 1

1 Actiniaria, a sea anemone.

2 Mesogastropoda, Calyptraeacea, Crepidula aculeata, a slipper limpet.

3 This mouse was identified by George Waterhouse as Mus elegans (see Zoology 2:41-3.)

4 Leptothecata, a thecate hydroid. See Lamouroux p. 13 and Plates 4e,f,E,F and 67,

fig. 1 and 2.

[CD P. 104 continues, the entries up to and including P. 111 being crossed through with vertical lines and extensively corrected]

Ova1

 

 

 

(a)

Sept 29th.— The sea contained great numbers of these: as the included animal bore a great resemblance to that described at Page (2 & 73), I keep these notes: it only differed from the ova in that animal by the much greater size & having a pulsating |105| organ at the anterior extremity: Ova spherical about 1/14in in diameter: they were in different states according to their ages. When least developed (& in this state they all were two days previously) they consist in a smaller sphere containing granular matter included in a larger: this matter gradually collects in a linear direction, & the next appearance presented is a projecting rim extending round 3/4 of the inner sphere, in which is a delicate vessel & one extremity, the anterior,

[page] 96 BAHIA BLANCA SEPTEMBER 1832

 

(b)

much largest:— [note (a)] The part of sphere which contained the most developed granular matter projected beyond the outline of the rest:— [note ends] When the age is much more advanced, the inner sphere is pushed on one side & a small animal lies in curved position within the outer one.— it possessed the same jumping motion as animal (of Page 2). At the anterior extremity. near the head, a heart might be seen pulsating.— a central vessel was very distinct, & round on side of the tail was a fine membrane which I imagine to be the ciliæ.— [note (b)] The tail is first liberated from the contact of the inner sphere:— [note ends] All the ova contained an air globule & in consequence floated on the surface of the water:— The largest ova which I extracted or saw in the body of animal (Page 75) were only 1/50in in diameter; if I had any reason to suppose the<y> would increase so much in size, I should not have the slightest doubt of this being the animal; indeed I have not much now: It is very remarkable that in the extricated ova I mention a small transparent included globule.— Is not this the air globule of the larger ones?.— |106|

Virgularia2

401

 

 

 

Octob 17th.— Bahia Blanca; N. Patagonia

This animal is Found in the greatest numbers buried vertically in a flat of muddy sand which is left uncovered at low water.— Their superior extrem-ities projected upwards from one to 6 inches above the sand; The whole ground is surface was scattered over with them. [several illegible words] In length they vary (& in diameter in proportion) from about 8 inches to 2 feet. Colour yellow-orange.— When touched & especially if pulled they suddenly retract their bodies so entirely or nearly to disappear in the sand. This they do with so much force that the stony axis will break, before they can by force be dragged far out of the sand.— The superior extremity is truncate, with the axis uncovered, the other extremity terminates by a soft fleshy vermiform process of a greater thickness than rest of the body stem. This lowest part lies in a curved position buried in the sand.—

 

(a)

 

 

 

Virgularia

 

A section of the axis stem is rounded, oblong, surrounding it are double two rows of oblique fleshy folds bearing the polypi.— These rise at one of the narrow sides of axis, & are then opposite & apart. From this point each fold winds obliquely downwards half round the stem, where, at the opposite edge to its origin it alternately crosses with the one from the other side.— [note (a)] Not by any means universally so: sometimes the folds are for their whole length placed alternately with respect to each other.— [note ends] Hence at one edge there is a clear channel running down the stem.— These fillets or folds are exceedingly numerous. as they descend they become narrower & finer in proportion, at last they run into a point. here of course the opposite folds instead of meeting & interweaving on one side & nearly touching on the |107| other they are widely apart.— The place of termination is some way above the vermiform process & is generally marked by the stem being rather enlarged.—

[page] 97 BAHIA BLANCA OCTOBER 1832

 

(a)

 

B

[in pencil]

 

(c)

 

(b)

 

 

Virgularia

These folds are composed by the junction of numerous polypi, side by side.— When animals alive & in the water, the folds are fringed by the widely expanded & plumar arms of the polype, & stand up at large angle with the stem. On being touched they fold [several illeg. words] & the arms are folded together into a cone. [note (a)] The arms when collapsed form a cone, they are never withdrawn (like in Sertularia), but the papillæ on the surface are.— when fully expanded the arms are nearly horizontal like spokes of a wheel.— [note ends] The Each fold as it laps obliquely downwards becomes narrower.— Polype with elongated oval body united laterally, from the base of each a vessel runs through the supporting fillet.— These & not body of polype vary in length as the fold winds round the stem.— Arms 8 in number, not tapering at extremities, with central vessel, covered irregularly & mostly at ends with delicate short retractile tentacula or papillæ; these arms surround a mouth with lips.— The polype vary in number; sometimes being as many perhaps as 40 on one fold.— The folds are supported by hard pointed transparent spines which passing through the base are free at their upper half:— They look like which may be compared to the Calyx to a flower: [note (c)] It is only in the dried specimens that these project outwards.— [note ends] they are not attached to stony axis: they are often 7 in number; but this is not constant, sometimes there being 10.— [note (b)] In this case the Polype are fewer in number. Can there be two species? Those in the bottle (401) were taken first, & were generally much longer than those floating loose in the great bottle jar ( ). [note ends] They can be applied close to the stem; but will can not diverge form at a greater angle with from it than the |108| Polype do when fully expanded [inserted in pencil] C:—

 

 

 

 

 

Virgularia

The stem is terminates [illeg. words] bluntly pointed in vermiform process.— [It] is of larger diameter than the rest of the stem.— Within this process there are two large triangular cavities, separated by a division or septum.— These cavities or channels run up the whole stem, but in the upper parts are obscure & small.— Just above the vermiform process [illeg. words] they are larger & filled with a pulpy yellow matter.— Within one of the 2 cavities, as will presently be mentioned, the stony axis floats:— At the point the where the polypiferous folds commence, the cavities channels become smaller & the stony axis soon becomes attached to the septum & hence is central.— the line joining the 2 channels or cavities is at right angles to that of the opposite folds: [see sketch in margin] In the cylindrical soft part of stem beneath the polypi, section gives first a covering of tough substance; within this & filling up the whole excepting the cavities, the substance is striated from the centre, & is composed of longitudinal of the stem shows a number of plates radiating from the centre: [sketch in margin] in the parts of stem where the folds polypi are fully developed this structure nearly disappears, & it is through this they first

[page] 98 BAHIA BLANCA OCTOBER 1832

appear.— The calcareous stony axis is highly elastic & will break sooner than retain a new form; central parts brown, striated from centre. [note (a)] The rays have quite a crystalline fracture. [note ends] The [illeg. words] consists of a white softer substance.— (like to the marrow in bones!). The external part [illeg. words] white semi-opake; superior extremity abruptly truncate, figure rounded oblong; at the narrower end there is a slight |109| [inserted in pencil] D depression or channell, & it is along these that the cavities within the stem run.—

 

 

The axis gradually tapers from its upper end to the finest point at the lower end.— at this & At the lower end, the extremity is suddenly curved backwards. Here the axis consists of a dark line centre part enveloped in a transparent covering, afterward doubtless forming which no doubt is connected with the exterior white stony part layer.— This recurved part of axis is included within a capacious membranous transparent elastic (irritable?) bag, which some way above the bend contracts round the axis & is probably continued all up the stem together with it in close apposition to the stony axis.— The lower part of the stony axis lies loose in one of the cavities, but in the higher parts where the polypi are stand, it is imbedded in or chiefly forms the septum between the two channels.— it is attached at the corners of the polypiferous folds to the enveloping fleshy parts, & I think it probable that the vessels from the polypi lead into the membranous case of axis (?):

[CD P. 109 continues]

 

 

(a)

In the elastic terminal bag, which encloses the terminal & recurved parts of the stony axis, there was a most distinct but irregular circulation of a fluid containing particles; this was even visible when the axis was entirely removed out of the body.— [note (a)] The circulation was strongest at the very bend; it was irregular [note ends] [marginal note in ink in very small handwriting, later crossed out in pencil, is here inserted] The circulation of the particles was strongest & most [3 words illeg.] at the point where the axis was most bent [insertion ends]

 

 

 

Virgularia

The axis evidently performs a very essential part in the economy of the animal; it is by this that the whole stem is kept in a vertical position & that the upper part stands upright in the water, & so allowing many of the polype to have free access to the surrounding medium fluid.— When a bit of the stem is cut off, the axis projects at each both extremities; & this shows the high contractility of the softer parts of |110| the stem.— Hence By this power the animal whole stem its body is easily withdrawn into the sand; but at first sight its manner of rising again is not so clear: upon considering the erratic nature of the axis, its inferior extremity floating loose in a cavity, & the lower part of this cavity lying in a curved position,

[page] 99 BAHIA BLANCA OCTOBER 1832

it is clear that when the animal retracts itself, the axis must, from being forced into the terminal vermiform process, exert from its bent shape a considerable force; So that as soon as the animal ceases to contract itself, the stem would gradually rise:— But (As it appears improbable that the polypi in so large a part of the lower end of the stem should be buried in the sand.— perhaps hence when in deep water the tide rises I suppose that nearly the whole body stem is protruded. A very small force would be sufficient to enable the animal to work its way back again withdraw into the soft sand, for the spines under the folds would act as pauls3.— but in this case I do not exactly see how the animal works upwards stem could protrude to so great a distance, as the elasticity of the axis would not in this case come into play ?).—

 

 

 

 

 

Virgularia

 

(a)

In the vermiform process, at the very extremity I found several ova, in shape regular oval; they contained granular matter; was of an orange colour; & a length 1/1000 of inch.— I think they had only just been formed; this being the early part of Spring renders this the more probable; when I having examined some specimens a few weeks before I anyhow did not then observe them any.— Above the vermiform process, the 2 internal channels or cavities were for some length filled [illeg.] with yellow pulpy matter.— This examined under a simple microscope |111| presented an extraordinary appearance.— The Mass consisted of various shape sizes of irregular globular semi-transparent particles; the larger ones being merely an aggregation of the smaller ones. All these grains possessed a most distinct very rapid vibratory motion, generally round varying axis'es, but sometimes progressive.— The motion continued for a long time, as long as I watched it. I first saw it with a simple lens of 1/3 of inch focal distance, but it would have been quite clear with a less power; I accurately examined the particles with a strong light & 1/20 focal distance.— [two notes (a)] Does not the great size entirely separate this fact from the "Molecular movement" of Browne? The motion continued for some time in distinct parti<cles> (as long as I watched them) when kept in water.— [notes end] It seems probable that these particles go towards forming the ova & that when ready for expulsion when formed they pass through are pulled along the 2 longitudinal cavities channels to the upper part leading into the open sea.—

 

In this respect the animal (if my memory is correct) differs from the Virgularia mirabilis which I saw examined in Edinburgh4 [word above illeg.]; for in this species the ova were scattered in the fleshy part between the polypeferous folds.— (Were they then passing through an internal vessel??).— The above movement in the particles was more rapid & I think quite distinct from that of the particles in the elastic bag [illeg.] to lateral part of the [illeg.].— the latter would seem to bear some obscure analogy to a true circulation.—

[page] 100 BAHIA BLANCA OCTOBER 1832

 

I have called this animal Virgularia; but it [illeg.] seems to form a new genus: it is most allied to Virg: juncea, but widely different in form of axis & in spines.— According [to] Cuvier, the occurrence of spines being the leading character, it would be a Pennatula, from which genus it differs still more widely in habits & general appearance.— |112|

1 The ova were those of the chaetognath arrow-worm Sagitta, discussed on pp. 68-71.

2 In Journal of Researches 1 pp. 117-18, CD has decided that this alcyonarian coral is the sea-pen Virgularia Patagonica of D'Orbigny. His first attempt at describing its anatomy and the mechanics of its growth has later been extensively revised with insertions in ink in smaller handwriting. Some further insertions have been made in pencil, and the letters B, C and D have been added, though with no indication as to their purpose, and finally the whole passage has been crossed through in pencil to indicate its publication. But the final account that appears in the Journal of Researches is substantially shortened and clarified.

3 The correct spelling of this word is 'pawl', but although CD was by now familiar with the naval use of such a device to prevent the slipping back of a capstan, he had possibly never seen the word in print.

4 As has been explained by Phillip Sloan in Darwinian Heritage, pp. 71-120, CD had joined the student Plinian Society at Edinburgh University in 1826, and had begun a close collaboration in research on marine invertebrates with its Secretary, Dr Robert Edmund Grant. He had gone with Grant on expeditions, and had accompanied trawlers in the Firth of Forth to collect live specimens of deep-water invertebrates. As described in his Edinburgh Notes (DAR 118:9) he returned with specimens of sea-pens for Grant on 15 April 1827. Preserved among CD's drawings (CUL MS DAR 29) is a note made at an unknown date that runs 'Phil Trans 1778 p. 178. An account of sea-pens at Sumatra — a wonderful account.— flesh over knitting needle'.

[CD P. 112 commences]

Struthio

rhea1

(a)

(b)

814

(not spirits)

 

Cop

 

This bird is very common in the sandy plains: in its stomach I have found roots of vegetables: at low water they come down 3 or 4 together to the sand bank, the Gauchos say for small fish; in their habits shy & wary, generally solitary; emit a very deep note: During September & Octob. we found an extraordinary number of eggs, in colour varying from pale yellow to white: the male eggs weight the most (am told so).— The eggs are either found scattered about, when they are called Watchos2, or collected in circular shallow excavations or nest.— Out of the four which I saw, 3 contained 22 eggs each; & the other 27:— In one days hunting 64 were found; 44 of these were in two nests — the other 20 scattered about.— It seems strange that so many of the latter should be produced for no end, as Cuvier mentions the Gauchos state that many females lay in the same depository & that one male sits on them.— I can scarcely credit this; anyhow it is clear from the number of eggs that each female lays many eggs, & in the oviduct (it was told me by those who cut one up for the

[page] 101 BAHIA BLANCA OCTOBER 1832

ships company) that there was nearly 50, of a regular gradation in size.—

(a)

1833 Summer

[note (a) added later] Mr King3 tells me, that when in the Schooners on the coast of Patagonia, he & the others several times saw Ostriches swimming from one island to another.— This occurred at the Bay of San Blas, & at Port Valdes.— They took to the water when driven, & likewise of their own accord without being frightened.— The distance in both places about 200 yards.— When swimming very little of their bodies appears above water & their neck is stretched forewards, as a Goose or Duck in flying.— Their progress is slow.— Before hearing this account, everyone was surprised to hear of the plenty of ostriches & Guanacoes in the various small islands of San Blas.— The latter animals were often seen swimming.—

December

[note (a) continues with a different pen] The male ostriches are easily distinguished by the Gauchos from the female, by the greater size of head & body & colour.— It is a most undoubted fact that the males sit on the eggs: the females never.— As the number of eggs in the belly & the nest seem to correspond, 20 to 40 or 50.— it would seem hard to be ascertained, but I was assured 4 or 5 females have been watched to lay their eggs one after the other in same nest, in middle of the day.— The reason seems obvious — if a female were to deposit 40 eggs successively one after the other, & then sit on them. The first would be so many days older than the last laid egg.— The same cause explains the male sitting, because it must more very often happen that the female has not ceased laying.— The male will not rise from the nest, without you pass very close.— They sometimes are dangerous; attacking, kicking, & trying to jump upon the horse.— My informer had seen an old man much terrified by one chacing him.— The eggs which I have called Watchos are supposed (Turn over) [note continues opposite CD P. 113] by the Gauchos to be laid first.— Perhaps before association [illeg. words] to the Male.

Ostrich (b)

[note (b) continues] The ostrich, with a<ll> its swiftness, is easily balled, for they are simple animals & are easily turned & puzzled.— They generally run against the wind.— In fine weather, they will try to conceal themselves amongst the long rushes, & will thus lie till closely approached.— The noise of the ostrich (male I believe) is like a deep drawn breath.— it is neither easy to say where it comes from, or how far distant is the animal which makes it.— The first time I heard it, I thoug<ht> it was a Lion or other wild beast.

 

Wallis4 saw Ostriches in Bachelor river in the Stts of Magellan, Lat between 53° and 54°.—

When at the R. Negro, I heard much concerning the "Avestruz petises", a

[page] 102 BAHIA BLANCA OCTOBER 1832

species of ostrich ½ the size of the common one.— The following I believe to be a tolerably accurate description, colour mottled, shape of head, neck, body same as in ostrich.— legs rather shorter, feathered to the claws; feathers same structure as in ostrich; hairs about the head.— cannot fly, is taken more easily than other ostrich with the balls.— This bird is however more universally known by its eggs, which are little inferior in size to the Rhea, but of a blue green colour. It [is] generally frequent near the sea, frequently to the South of R. Negro, San Josè, & I believe near the Colorado, but not further Northward.— [pen changes] V 212 more particulars.— The Northern Gauchos know nothing about the Avestruz Petise, even at Bahia Blanca. [pen changes again] Albino varieties of the common Ostrich have been seen; it must be a most beautiful bird.— snow white, Gaucho at R. Negro told me. [notes end]

1 Listed by John Gould in Zoology 3:120-3 as Rhea americana Lath. The description of the habits of the species that follows is a slightly extended version of CD's notes here. See also Ornithology Notes pp. 268-71.

2 In the published account, the correct Spanish spelling 'huachos' is used.

3 Philip Gidley King was a midshipman on board the Beagle.

4 See Samuel Wallis. An account of a voyage round the world in the years 1766, 1767, and 1768. Included in John Hawkesworth, An account of the voyages . . . performed by Commodore Byron, Captain Wallis, Captain Carteret and Captain Cook . . . 3 vols. London, 1826.

[CD P. 112 continues]

Cavia

patagonica1

Copy

817

(not spirits)

Cavia

patagonica

(z)

Cop

Frequent in the sandy plains, feeding by day; Azara2 states that they only frequent the holes of the Viscaches3, & that only when pressed by hunting (Griff: animal k:4). [note in margin] Found near Mendoza Traversia to the South [note ends] They certainly wander < >far from any holes; but they abound like rabbits in a warren, where there is a collection of holes.— I have watched them sitting on their haunches by the mouth of a burrow, which they will enter immediately they are frightened.— The dung is |113| of a remarkable shape, being an elongated regular oval.— now if the Viscaches were in sufficient numbers to dig the holes for the Agouti, some considerable quantity of dung would be lying about.— I did see some like (but smaller) an English rabbits, but I think it belong[s] to the Toco Toco, a small Rodentia which I know inhabits burrows in the same plain.— The manner in which the Agouti runs more resembles that of a Rabbit than a Hare. It consists in so many distinct springs.— The body weighs from 20 to 25 pounds.—

[notes added later for CD P. 113]

 

NB. For the future, the marginal letters will refer to notes on the back of

[page] 103 BAHIA BLANCA OCTOBER 1832

page.—

(z)

[note (z)] This animal is the most common characteristic animal of the dry plains of [illeg.] Patagonia: It does not occur to the North of the Sierra Tapalguen 37°.30′.— our officers have never seen it to the South of Port Desire 47°.— The Gauchos are of different opinions respecting its digging holes.— I have no doubt it uses them Biscatche holes where they occur, but I think certainly it must be its own workman in those parts where the Biscatche is not common, as S. part of Patagonia where I do not believe Biscatche is found [continued as marginal note] as the little owls do, which in B. Oriental are obliged to make for themselves: [marginal note ends] Two tolerably fast dogs often run them down.— Their flesh is very white & pretty good.— They bring forth two young ones in their holes.— Southern limits between Port Desire & St Julian (48°:30′). The Gauchos at B. Blanca say certainly that it digs its own holes.— [notes end]

[CD P. 113 continues]

Lizard5

454

455

Monte Hermoso.— In its depressed form & general appearance partakes of some of the characters of the Geckos.— Colours above singularly mottled, the small scales are coloured brown, white, yellowish red, & blue, all dirty, & the brown forming symetrical clouds.— Beneath white, with regular spots of brown on the belly.— Habits singular, lives on the beach, on the dry sand some way from the vegetation.— Colour of body much resembles that of the sand.— When frightened, it depresses its body & stretching out its legs & closing its eye tries to avoid being seen; if pursued will bury itself with great quickness in the sand.— legs rather short: it cannot run very fast.—

1 Listed by George Waterhouse in Zoology 2:89-91 as Cavia patachonica. See also Journal of Researches 1 pp. 81-2.

2 See Felix Azara. Essais sur l'Histoire Naturelle des Quadrupedes de la Province du Paraguay. French translation Vol. 2, p. 41.

3 This burrowing rodent related to the cinchilla is common in the pampas in the neighbourhood of Buenos Aires. It is listed as Lagostomus trichodactylus in Zoology 2:88, and spelled as 'Bizcacha'.

4 See Edward Griffith and others. The animal kingdom arranged in conformity with its organization . . . with additional descriptions of all the species hitherto named, and of many not before noticed. 16 vols. Edinburgh, 1827-35. Translated from Georges Cuvier, Le règne animale.

5 Listed by Thomas Bell as Proctotretus multimaculatus in Zoology 5:17-18.

[CD P. 113 continues]

Hybernation

of Animals

Sept: 7th. Upon our first arriving here, Nature seemed not to have granted any living animals to this sandy country.— [note (a)] I must except

[page] 104 BAHIA BLANCA OCTOBER 1832

Sept: 7th

(a)

Hybernation

(a)

Trox1.— This I observed also at M: Video. [note ends] By digging in the ground I found several Carabidous2 & Heteromerous3 insects, Mygalus4 & some species of Lizards, all in |114| a half torpid state. On the 15th different animals began to appear & by the 18th everything announced the commencement of Spring.— The plains were ornamented with flowers; birds were laying their eggs; [note (a)] Such as Parrots, Swallows, Hawks, Partridges: Ostriches were laying when we first arrived:— [note ends] numbers of Heteromerous & Scarabidous1 insects were crawling about. The Saurian tribe, the usual inhabitant of a sandy district, were darting in every direction. For the first eleven day[s], from the 7th to 17th (both inclusive) the mean temperature from bihoral observations at 2 hours interval was 51°.3.— & I see that generally in the middle of day thermometer was from 52° to 55°.— In the 11 subsequent days, in which Nature became so animated, the mean was 58°.1.— Thus giving a difference of nearly 7°.— the general range of Temp: in middle was even in [illeg.] greater than this, varying from 60° to 70°.—

 

At M: Video, every animal was hybernating (Vide P 120) when the mean Temp: was 58°.4 & in the day Therm: often rising to 70°.— The difference of Latitude between the latter & this place is four degrees or 240 miles; Thus showing how much the general annual Temp: affects the degree at which animals reassume their living process.—

Entomology

 

Entomology

 

Vide

Collection

(a)

By far the most abundant order is Coleopterous: In this Heterom & Lamellicorn5 were in numbers of individuals by far the most prevalent. in species the first contained about 10, the latter 9.— |115| Amongst the Carabidous (or more properly Harpalidous) there were 7 distinct species: but all very rare.— in my collection I have every individual I have seen6.— The other Coleopterous insects make no figure. I found one Staphylinus, Colymbetes, 2 Crysomela, Elater, 2 Coccinella7.— Amongst the Diptera Musca was abundant & a Bombylius.— The orders Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Neuroptera, produced scarcely anything.— In Hymenoptera, a large Pompilus8 was common, as was its prey Mygalus4:— also a large humble bee feeding on the wild pea.— I saw three species of Lepidop: diurniæ: the Nocturnæ were more abundant.— [note (a)] Ants are very common: on Sept 22d Swarms were on the wing.— [note ends]

[CD P. 115 continues]

Entomostraces9

(Lophyropes)

(b)

This animal does not come in any of Latreilles families.— In general appearance most closely resembles Ostracodes; but in structure very different.— [note (b)] It did not occur to me at first that by counting the rudimentary legs there will be 24, & that in its other characters (2 pediculated eyes, flat calcated legs &c), it must belong to the division Phyllopes.— Eggs in this one were irregular, numerous in the dorsal

[page] 105 BAHIA BLANCA OCTOBER 1832

457

[in spirits]

(c)

Entomostraces

(Lophyropes)

posterior part of shell.— [note ends] Shell bivalve, gaping at each end from the approximation of the central parts of lower edges.— Back round curved, posterior extremity rather pointed, the other rounded: The animal could not completely close the anterior & posterior longitudinal orifices: Eyes 2 pedunculated, formed of a transparent substance enveloping dark central mass; their eyes were in constant motion. Between & beneath there were two antennæ, & in their structure most singular. Peduncle thick strong, nearly the length of the shell [3 illeg. words erased].— terminated by a large circular transparent sucker; on the internal edge, there was a small branch with setæ, & on the posterior a bunch of Setæ.— the |116| whole organ instantly reminded me of the front leg of male Dyticus, only that in the latter the Tarsi (answering to the joint with setæ) incline outwards.—

(a)

The cups or plates adhæred firmly to glass or any other object: it was most curious to then see the animal walk; this it managed very deliberately with with long strides, the swimming legs helping to keep the lower edge of shell vertical.— Thus it walked up the side of a watch glass; but from the inclination, the shell often fell over & by so crossing the leg-like antennæ interfered with its motions.— The mouth is obscure, & is seated at base of Antenna, within the central parts of anterior half of shell.— The body seems to be attached [at] anterior half of shell, & the stomach &c lies above & behind the head, the posterior half of body is free: so as to be more or less drawn up, it is terminated by short simple jointed tails, with double bunch of few setæ.— [note (a)] There is no separation between head & thorax or body. [note ends] It & legs are protruded by the posterior opening.— 6 pair of similar equal natatory legs; base jointed, with flat row of setæ; (acting like caudal swimming in the "Macrourus") each one formed of row of strong setæ, on jointed base; At origin of leg is a small projecting point, or rudimentary leg, with few bristles:— there were no branchial plates.— Animal could swim laterally very rapidly, generally in circular direction; antennæ retracted: Shell hard elastic.— Animal coloured blue; in open ocean South of Corrientes.— |117|

[note (c) on CD P. 115 added later]

 

Octob: Examined another specimen.— Each of the 12 legs is bisected at its summit, from whence proceeds a bunch of setæ.— this is more true than saying a small external leg: Eyes are formed of number (not many) some small transparent globules, seated on a dark coloured pedunculated mass. The body attached to the dorsal part of shell by many parallel tubes or vessels: these perhaps act as Branchiæ.— Mouth obscure, with two curved pointed jaws (mandibulæ or maxillæ) united at base & forming a horse shoe.— ((?) At base of Antennæ there are 2 rudimentary palpi (?):) Shell has not a true dorsal hinge, but merely a line: shell very tough elastic, with

[page] 106 BAHIA BLANCA OCTOBER 1832

numerous fine parallel vessels running in it.— The jaws resembled the mandibuliform horns of Branchippus10 figured in Desmarets:

Decem 2d

Lat 40°.20′ S.

Coast of Pat.

The posterior part of body was to certain extent divided by lines into 6 segments, which corresponded with the 6 prs of legs: does this now show that this number is normal & that the bisection of legs at summit ought not to make the number 24.— Animal not uncommon in open ocean: I find my description very accurate; perhaps the antennæ are obscurely jointed: tail very small:— [note ends]

1 Scarabaeidae, dung beetle.

2 Carabidae, ground beetles.

3 Tenebrionidae, darkling beetles.

4 Mygalomorphae, a tarantula-like spider.

5 Scarabaeidae, another dung beetle.

6 For an identification of the insects collected by CD at Bahia Blanca see Insect Notes pp. 61-7.

7 Coccinellidae, lady birds.

8 Pompilidae or Sphecidae. See Insect Notes p. 56.

9 See account by P.A. Latreille of branchiopod crustacea in Cuvier Vol. 4, pp. 149-71. The specimen sounds like a shrimp of order Conchostraca, but they are never marine.

10 See Planche 56 of Branchippe des Marais by A.-G. Desmarest in Dic. Sciences Naturelles Plates for Crustacea, Zoea, etc.

[CD P. 117 commences]

Gossamer

Spider1

(a)

462

[in spirits]

 

 

 

Sailing between M Video & B Ayres on Octob. 31st the rigging was coated with the Gossamer web: it had been a fine clear day with a fresh breeze.— The next morning the ropes were equally fringed with these long streamers.— On examining these webs I found great numbers of a small spider.— [note (a)] October, answering to our Spring.— when they are abundant in England [note ends] On the second day (which was calmer) there must have been some thousands in the ship.— When first coming in contact with the ropes, they were seated on the fine lines & not on the cottony mass.— This latter appears to be only the separate lines collected by the wind.— From the direction of the wind [they] must have travelled at least 60 miles from the Northern shore.— They were some full grown & of both sexes & young ones; these latter, besides being of a smaller size, were more duskily coloured.— Spider eyes 8 equal in size, seated on anterior end of thorax, viz. [see sketch in margin] the lateral eyes, or those on sides of the quadrilateral figure, are very close & seated on a common small eminence.— Cheliceres cylindrical, tapering at extremity; claw folding transversely & received between spine (with this it cleans its legs): Maxillæ, when mouth is closed incline on the Labium: when open are shaped each thus [see sketch in margin] inner side straight, summit

[page] 107 MONTE VIDEO NOVEMBER 1832

rounded truncate, outer inclined: Labium small, triangular, pointed: Legs four anterior ones longest, & 3d pair shortest; thin long:— Thorax Palpi, with organs in male much developed & coloured black:— Thorax heart shaped, truncate anteriorly, this part black, the rest red:— |118|

[further notes for CD P. 117 added later]

November

25th

During the last week, every object both on the ship & on shore (Monte Video) has been occasionally covered with Gossamer: Invariably I have observed great numbers of the same small spider.— I frequently observed them sail away from any small eminence: I imagined that before protruding upward their abdomen & sending forth the web, they connected by delicate lines their feet together ?? I cannot actually say that the Spiders ever rose, but they laterally sailed from their position with unaccountable rapidity.— But even if they did ascend, I should almost imagine the ascending current on a calm & hot day would be sufficient to account for it.—

Decemb 4th

Lat 40°.20′ S. There were great numbers & spiders on the rigging, we being about 20 miles from the shore:

December

1833

I saw at St Fe Bajada a brown coloured spider, I should think 3/10 of inch long (appeared very large) & from its general form a Laterigrade Citigrade.— standing on summit of Post it darted 4 or 5 lines from its anus, which glittering in the sun looking [like] rays.— they were a yard or two long & by a gentle current hardly perceptible were carried upwards & laterally.— The threads curling & diverging.— the Spider suddenly loosed its hold & sailed out of site.— The air is seldom so calm that a delicate vane like [a] spiders web is not affected.— on a hot day, would not the currents of air flow upwards; no ordinary vane would from its specific gravity would show a slight tendency to this motion.— [different pen] Yes, [illeg. word] mirage & tremulous shadows always occurs on any warm day.— [notes end]

[CD P. 118 commences]

Gossamer

Spider (b)

 

(a)

Abdomen pointed, oval, coloured dusky red: Filières projecting in a bunch at posterior extremity; each one cylindrical, short.— [note (b)] Body & legs covered with fine down [note ends] Length of body .1: When not moving, the legs are elevated: its motions rectigrade: I know not whether this spider belongs to the Tubitetes or inæquiletes: it does not agree with any of Lat: genera2:— [note (a)] From not clearly understanding the characters drawn from the Filières:— [note ends] These little spiders, after alighting on the ropes, were in their habits very active; They frequently let themselves fall from a small height & then reascend the attached line.— Occasionally when thus suspended, the slightest breath of air would carry them out of

[page] 108 MONTE VIDEO NOVEMBER 1832

sight on a rectangular course to the line of suspension.— I never saw them rise at all: They formed an irregular net work amongst the ropes: Could run easily on water: Lifted up their front legs in attitude of attention.— Seemed to have an inexhaustible stock of line web: With their Maxillæ protruded, drank eagerly water; this curiously agrees with an observation of Dr Strack3:—

 

(827)

[further note for CD P. 118 added later] In the Spring of 1833 when about 60 miles off the mou<th> of the Plata, several came on board in their web. appear exactly same species: one is an old male [note ends]

[CD P. 118 continues]

 

 

 

 

Gossamer

spider

 

 

The above mentioned facts in the occurrence of numerous (sufficient I think to account for the Gossamer) spiders of same species but different sexes & ages, on their webs, & at a great distance from the land & therefore liable to no mistakes demonstratively proved that the habit of sailing in the air as much belongs to a division in Spiders as diving in the water does to Argyroneta4: We may |119| then reject Latreilles5 supposition that the Gossamer in the air owes its origin to the web of young web of Epeira & Thomisa.— Still more so that of Hermans (fils) that it belongs to an Acarus (Trombidium).— As far as the characters of the eyes goes, this Spider agrees with the sort described by Strack3 as coating the ground.— I mention (Page 49) a spider under the name of Theridion (which shows the same position of eyes), as every where coating newly turned up ground.— I never however saw the aerial Gossamer here there: Kirby6 thinks that Stracks spider & those Dr Lister7 saw mount in the air are the same. Perhaps it may hereafter be shown, that if not identical the two sorts are closely united (viz aerial and terrestrial gossamer).— The celerity with which this spider voluntary can fall, shows, that light as its body seems, it must have considerable specific gravity: it is difficult therefore to understand in what manner the rapid rectangular motion was effected:—

1 Probably a 'money' spider of family Linyphiidae, small black or brown spiders which disperse by air, attached to lines of silk (gossamer). CD's observations on the aeronautic or ballooning spiders encountered on board a ship at sea were of considerable importance.

2 The tubitelae (correctly spelled 'tubitèles' in French) were spider families that build tube-like webs, while the inequitelae (inequitèles) build irregular webs. These terms are no longer in use.

3 See Strack, C.F.L. 1810. Einige selbstgemachte Beobactungen über den Sommerflug und die Spinne, die ihm hervorbringt. N. Schr. naturf. Ges. Halle, Heft 5, Drei Abhandl, II, pp. 39-56.

4 Argyroneta aquatica is the unique water spider of the Northern Hemisphere.

5 See Pierre André Latreille in Cuvier Vol. 4 pp. 206-64.

6 See account by William Kirby and William Spence in An introduction to entomology

[page] 109 MONTE VIDEO NOVEMBER 1832

(London, 1815-26), Vol. 2, pp. 334-46.

7 See Martin Lister. Historiæ animalium Angliæ tractatus de Araneis. London, 1678.

[CD P. 119 continues]

Chara1

476

[in spirits]

 

 

Common in running water: In the microscope could clearly perceive a slow circulation of round particles.— Branches finely striated, with distant spines, parallel to these the globules moved: In same manner as the Striæ, a colourless line encircled spirally the stem; but on one side of this the current ascended & on the other descended. So that in the equal spaces marked by the spine on the stem; the current alternately was |120| seen flowing upwards & downwards.— The axillæ of the branches are verticillate with pointed cylinders, in these the circulation was evident, but very obscure: Novemb: 20th M: Video.

Hybernation

of animals

 

July 26th.-

Aug. 19th.

 

From finding Cassida, Crysomela, Curculionidous, Heteromerous, Lamellicorns, Carabidous beetles, & Epeira amongst spiders, under stones: from Vaginulus2 & land shells with a membrane over the mouth being in same site; from finding Bufo3 & Lacerta4 half torpid; it is clear animals are now hybernating.— Considering the high temperature, this is curious.— From 276 observ: made at 2 hours intervals during 23 days from July 27 to August 19th (both inclusive), mean temp is 58°.4.—

Mean hottest day 65°.5

do. Coldest day 45°.8

The lowest point the Thermometer fell to was 41°.5; it occasionally in middle of the day rose to 69° or 70°.—

At (P 113) there are observations on the subject at Bahia Blanca & compared to those made at Monte Video.—

Gen: Observ:

Monte Video

July 26 to

Aug. 19th.

Gen: Observ

M. Video

July 26th

to Aug 19th

Birds are abundant in the plains & are brilliantly coloured.— Starlings, Thrushes, Shrikes, Larks & Partridges are the commonest.— Snipes here frequently rise & fly high up in great circles; in their flight, as they descend, they make that peculiar buzzing noise, which the few which breed in England are known to do.— On the sand-banks on the coast are large flocks of Rhynchops5; these birds are generally supposed to be the inhabitants of the Tropics |121| Every evening they fly out in flocks to the sea & return to the beach in the morning.— I have seen them at night, especially at Bahia Blanca, flying round a boat in a wild rapid irregular manner, something in same manner as Caprimulgus does.— I cannot imagine what animals they catch with their singular bills.—

 

 

The water of the Rio Plata at Monte Video is generally brackish, it is even sometimes fresh enough to drink.— It is not inhabited by many animals; a small Turbo6 & a Mytilus7 are nearly the only shells.— The occurrence of one of the Balanidæ Creusia8 in quite fresh water is curious, for details

[page] 110 MONTE VIDEO NOVEMBER 1832

see notes attached to (323 in Cat: for Spirits). On the shore, the genera Plagusia9 & Grapsus9 are exceedingly abundant.— indeed they are nearly the only Brachyures which I have seen between M. Video & Bahia Blanca.— On the beach are also great numbers of minute Crust. Amphipod:— which here assume the place which Ligia10 takes in the Tropics.—

 

 

(a)

Amongst Arachnida by far the greatest proportion belong to Lycosa11.— I found Mygalus & Dysdera under stones & Segestria abundant in crevices of rock.— Scorpio12 & Gonoleptes are very abundant under stones.— In November an Epeira13 with bright colour is abundant in every situation.— The Entomology is chiefly characterised by, as compared to Brazil, by the great increase of Carabidous beetles: also by the comparative absence of the Orthopterous insects, which perform so essential [a] part in the latter.— |122| [note (a)] Amongst the Mammalia, the case is reversed; the carnivorous animals are as much more abundant in the intertropical regions than in the temperate, as the Carabidous amongst insects are in the latter compared to the former climate.— [note ends]

1 Characeae, a green freshwater alga. See Plant Notes p. 221.

2 Stylommatophora, slug.

3 Procoela, toad.

4 Sauria, lizard.

5 As described in Journal of Researches 1:161-2, and Zoology 3:143-4, CD later saw that the Scissor-beak Rhynchops nigra scoops up small fishes from the surface of the water with its remarkable bill.

6 Archaeogastropoda, turban snail.

7 Anysomyaria, mussel.

8 A barnacle allied to Pyrgoma, but probably misidentified here because as noted on p. 137, CD did not find the genus in the South Atlantic.

9 Reptantia, crabs.

10 Isopoda, woodlice.

11 A still valid genus of hunting spider.

12 Scorpiones, scorpion.

13 The no longer valid name Epeira denotes an orb-weaving spider, probably family Araneidae.

[CD P. 122 commences]

Crust:

Branchiopod

Cyclops1

478

 

 

Decemb 1st.— South of Cape Corrientes, Patagonia.

Body composed of 7 pieces.— The anterior one case is rather narrower, convex, rounded anteriorly & projecting over base of antennæ. in front it terminates in a doubly pointed or forked rostrum, this projects downwards & gives the appearance of a sucking beak to the animal.— the posterior lateral part ends on each side in a point, projecting beyond line of body.

[page] 111 COAST OF PATAGONIA DECEMBER 1832

In shape this resembles some of the Cyclops: 2nd & 3rd segments are wider & longer & cover the body; 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th form the abdomen: the 7th is excised & ends abruptly.— Body cylindrical.— case horny elastic.— Beyond the last segment, there is (as in Cyclops) a narrow rounded tail, 4 jointed; extremity bifid; on each division are about 5 pair of setæ.— Within the tail, there was a pulsating org vessel.— Eyes, 2, seated on each side of the curved beak, rounded very distinct; Inferior to & between these, are approximate antennæ; which will be described presently. Mouth in its situation is pectoral & not produced; it is obscure.— the mandibles are flat plates with 6 teeth, the 2 inner ones largest:— They precisely partly resemble those figured by Desmarets of Apus2:— Tongue oblong, rounded at extremity; Maxillæ & Palpi doubtful:

 

Crust:

Branchio:

Cyclops

 

(a)

(b)

Independent of the Antennæ, there are 10 pair of articulated organs: (1st) stem simple, bifid at extremity, with bunches of setæ on each; also a small external branch with setæ.— these are situated before the mouth; & perhaps compose correspond to |123| a second pair of Antennæ: (2nd) stem short, bifid at extremity with setæ; at base a globular enlargement to which is attached the mandible already described: Are these Palpi? — (3rd) stem short, bifid with setæ: also about half way way up there is an external & internal tuft of bristles.— the internal are seated on a plate, which I should imagine acted as Maxillæ.— These 2d and 3d are seated close together.— The organs, hitherto described have simple setæ & when collapsed point towards the tail; the two next pair differ in both respects; the setæ are feathered [sketch in margin] & the organs act towards the mouth so as to cross the others: (4th) stem very short, broard; with numerous long feathered setæ: (5th) Agreeing with the last, but much smaller: I should think these are the Branchiæ.—

 

[notes on back with accompanying sketch in pencil] (a) The setæ arise at rt Ls to the stem: (b) I should think not from the one pair similar to 4th, but setæ not feathered in Cyclops (P 134): there would not be so much change in so essential an organ: [notes end]

[page] 112 COAST OF PATAGONIA DECEMBER

[CD P. 123 continues]

 

 

 

 

Crust:

Branchio:

Cyclops

 

All the organs, as yet, are seated on the three anterior grand divisions of body; the next 5 pr are on the abdomen: (6th)(7th)(8th)(9th) are similar; they are natatory like in the Macrourus: Each one is jointed bifid.— the exterior branch longest, much flattened, toothed externally & ciliated internally; the other branch very much ciliated: The (10th) is most anomalous & extraordinary; I examined numbers of specimens: They are seated on the very extremity of body, beneath where the tail unites.— the two organs do not correspond in size or in function, although united at base:— |124| The left (I speak as with respect to man) organ is the most simple; it has 4 joints; (1st) basal one, short cylindrical, encased, with an external tooth: (2d) & 3d, thick cylindrical, rather curved; 4th, finer, terminated by a very strong curved claw, lower than which is another straighter one:— The other & right organ, is of equal length & strength as the other, also the two first joints are the same; but the (3rd) differs remarkably; it is attached nearly transversely, & not by its extremity to the second.— the free end has a strong claw & smaller tooth.— to the other end the (4th) is articulated, it is curved, as is the last, & consists in a long tooth or spine; when drawn in, it reach[es> to the heel of the (3rd) so as to form an oval & hence prehensile: The animal frequently moves these organs & they retained irritability longer than any other part.— Generally the claw is retracted on the penultimate joint: (figured):— Length of these organs equals the tail or about 1/3 of the body.—

 

 

 

Crust. Branch

Cyclops

The antennæ of this animal are also extraordinary & agree in the curious circumstance of the two not corresponding: here also the left is simple; in length it equals the body; jointed, tapering, with fine setæ, colourless; the right one is thicker, crooked, coloured, strange looking; 5 jointed; (1st) basal one ¼ of whole length of antennæ, cylindrical: (2d) short, much enlarged, flattened, with a long spine & tooth: 3d very short, with group of |125| short teeth & few long setæ: (4th) rather curved, with a group of short teeth & few long setæ: (5th) terminated by two strong claws & setæ: (6th), a fine joint, with setæ, behind the claws: This Antenna is projected [?] when the other is applied beneath the body.— Length of body .15, colour dark bluish green, occasionally with brown spots on the dorsal segments:—

 

(a)

 

 

These animals are truly pelagic: amongst them were some which agreed remarkably in almost all respects, even form of Mandibles & legs:— but differed in having 2 simple antennæ: in wanting the curious terminal organs: & in the tail, not having joints, terminated by two divisions with setæ.— What are we to infer from this?— are these most anomalous organs sexual? [note (a)] Cyclops is said in the males to have a singular antenna for clasping the females, & the generative organs lie where the curious claws

[page] 113 COAST OF PATAGONIA DECEMBER 1832

in this animal are described:— [note ends] As far as regards this animals classification, in some respects it is allied to Nebalia3 & Cyclops & in parts of mouth to Apus2, but it is evidently distinct from every described genus:— In many respects it would come within the division of Lophyropes in which Nebalia stands; but then the flattened natatory plates seems entirely to be contrary to the general structure of those animals.

1 Calanoida, Pontellidae, a copepod possibly of genus Labidocera, in which the male 5th legs are asymmetrical as shown in the drawing.

2 See Planche 52 of Apus cancriforme by A.-G. Desmarest in Dic. Sciences Naturelles. Plates for Crustacés, Entomostracés.

3 Nebaliacea, a malacostracan.

[CD P. 125 continues]

Crust: Deca:

Notopod?1

This crab would be a notopod; if it did not differ in the essential character of only having 5 joints, instead of seven:—

483

Crust. Dec:

Notopod

Body, length 1/12 of inch; shape posteriorly heart shaped but anteriorly continued up in a straight line; much excised above the eyes; & between them produced forward & squarely truncate; the |126| anterior central part of thorax much elevated: case, thin transparent colourless:—

[date at head of page now changed to December 4th. CD P. 126 continues]

 

(a)

 

 

Tail 2/3 length of body & 1/3 of its breadth; looks in proportion narrow.— Can be applied to the breast, but does not lie close.— [note (a)] Having examined many specimens I have altered my opinion: the tail is applied close to the breast.— I did not see the animal alive.— I invariably found 5 pieces to the tail: I could not perceive sexual differences:— [note ends] It is composed of 5 joints; these are broarder than long & are terminated postero-laterally by a point: The extreme one is small, & has at extremity a rounded oblong simple plate.— Each joint carries a swimmer; these gradually decrease in size from the basal to the terminal ones.— The swimmer is formed of two pieces joints, the extreme one is a pointed oval plate, ciliated (with about 16 setæ) at extremity & internal edge.— at the joint articulation there is point, evidently the rudiment of a bifurcation.— The swimmers on the last piece of tail are small & but little developed:

Crust. Deca:

Notopod

Legs: 1st pair "en pince" ½ length of 3 following pair; 2nd, 3rd, 4th pairs equal, terminated by a strong claw, & in the Tarsus there is a single spine; 5th pair situated dorsally, when in inaction rests on the [illeg. word] of the other legs; slender, 2/3 of length of the others; penultimate joint (Tarsus Desmarets) ends in a point, from which arises 2 curved unequal fine bristles & near to these there is a third, which is rather shorter.— The longest

[page] 114 COAST OF PATAGONIA DECEMBER 1832

 

Crust. Deca:

Notopod

equals the two foregoing joints in length.— These fine spines setæ are delicately (only visible with 1/10in focal d) serrated, the teeth pointing towards the base.— the curling extremity is flattened & on this part there are 5 most minute cups, which I should think acted like those in Octopus: |127| From this & the fine teeth on the three curved bristles, the leg must be able to adhere firmly to any object:—

 

Eyes, large, pedunculated, reaching width of body, pupil central part black:—

 

 

Antennæ. external ones seated behind peduncle of the eyes; straight, jointed, tapering to extremity, nearly half the length of the body: the peduncle formed of few large joints: extremity with small some irregular setæ.— Internal antennæ seated at base of a globular enlargement which separates them from the external: They are formed of 3 joints, extreme one large spherical, on this is a minute branch & several bunches of setæ.— the latter antennæ very short, approximate, curved:

 

Mouth, there was nothing particular; the external branch of the pied-machoires were very simple & they were all rather short:—

 

 

These Crabs were taken in considerable numbers (December 4th) at night, off the mouth of the bay of San Blas & several miles from any land: The structure of this animal is very curious; its pelagic habits require the high development of the caudal swimmers, & length of tail & the other points in which it agrees with the Brachyures Macrouri: but the formation of Dorsal legs is most remarkable: they are evidently fitted for performing their usual office of supporting the animal; but here instead of a Sponge, perhaps a Medusa; hence the change of structure:— This inclines me to think this is a new division amongst the Notopodes:— |128|

(Crust:

Branchiopod?

Latreille)

The description of this Zoea can be divided into two parts: the animal & its singularly shaped case or "carapace".—

 

Zoea2

486

 

 

Case oval, anteriorly ending in a very long pointed spear, which is serrated in a direction from the body: on the lower & posterior parts it is widely open, & from each side spears project.— The two are close together, & are in same straight line as the anterior one: they are shorter & are serrated from the case; so that the teeth on both anterior & posterior spears point from each other: The length of large specimen from extremity to extremity is .6;— of which the case is 1; & the posterior spears nearly .2; the anterior one being much the longest, rather more than .3.— Case, transparent, elastic, colourless: The head part of animal is intimately united with this case, but the tail & thorax (thorax known by supporting legs) is free;

[page] 115 COAST OF PATAGONIA DECEMBER 1832

the tail can scarcely be retracted in case:—

 

 

(a)

 

 

(b)

Zoea

Body: Eyes pedunculated.— 2 pair of antennæ seated beneath them & on same line; these are large but imperfectly formed, for size animal: the internal ones are divided, with setæ on the larger: external ones rather longer, simple, divided, with fine branch coming off low, cylindrical, pointed: these antennæ project straight forward: [note (a)] Reexamined the antennæ: the internal ones are anterior to the external, & the former are divided at the summit.— the outer branch thickest, ciliated on inside.— the inner is merely a point.— The external antennæ are bifid, the division being low down.— the outer branch shorter & much finer.— both quite simple, pointed.— [note ends] The mandible is attached close to the base & within the external antenna; it is of some thickness; toothed & one large one in the corner.— [note (b)] Also the mandibles.— they are very large for body.— the plate is curved & truncate obliquely.— the large tooth is at the upper end.— the base or [illeg.] gradually narrows in a point, with lateral smaller one:— [note ends] to the side of the mandible |129| the palpi adhære.— these are very fine short, but with two long setæ at extremity:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Zoea

 

The Labium is horse-shoe shaped, with each end rounded & ciliated, lamellar & coloured pink: On each side & close before it.— are 2 pair of organs, answering to its "Machoires": the first one is smaller & more simple, it is composed of three divisions, 2 square lamellar with bundle of setæ & one cylindrical; (this second would be more accurately said, if divided into two primarily, & one of them bifid): the second is also divided into two branches.— the larger one is divided at summit into 5 square, unequal spaces, each with bunch of setæ.— These organ[s] would close the mouth.— When the animal is at rest these are kept in a most rapid vibratory motion.— To these succeed 2 pair of large branched organs: answering 1st & 2nd pied machoires (or 3rd & 4th of Desmarets).— All four are similar; & nearly equal in length to the body.— on the basal cylindrical, so as to be bifid, joint are two equal branches, with setæ; external division has two joints (by joints I mean limbs or pieces & not its articulations), the internal 5 smaller ones:— At the base of these each there is pair of a very small organ, answering to external pied-machoire. they are bifid; the division being low down: the interior one is very fine, jointed, with setæ; the external simply pointed: Close to these come 5 pair of organs, very small & of a most rudimentary structure, |130| they are seated in a bunch together: the first pair terminates "en pince", of an imperfect structure: the 2, 3, 4, 5, are equal, are cylindrical, curved, jointed & terminating in point.— These organs can be of no use in locomotion — There was no greater distance between pied-machoire & a leg, than between the bases of two of the latter.— Each of the next 4 joints of the abdomen.— has a pair of cylindrical points.— rudiments of swimmers: these caudal joints are

[page] 116 COAST OF PATAGONIA DECEMBER 1832

square (angles of course removed).— the next terminal joint has true spine & a large swimming plate at extremity at extremity; in shape it is wedge-shaped, base highly convex.— [see sketch in margin] on the convex edge there are 13 long feathers bristles, but the central & 2 extreme ones are short.— The abdomen (as far as I could see) is composed of 7 pieces.— the one joining body & the 2nd support the pieds machoires & legs: the 3d, 4, 5, 6th the swimmers & the 7th the tail.— On the inner surface of this is the anal orifice:—

 

 

 

These Crust: were found in great numbers at night at San Blas: There were specimens rather larger, & many much smaller.— in the latter the spears were flexible & case more globular & legs even more rudimentary: These animals could swim easily & looked most singular: For opinion about Zoea, V next animal: I have copied order of description from M: Edwards3 — Dic. Class:— |131|

1 Not identified.

2 As CD was beginning to recognise, zoea is in fact a distinctive larval stage of large crustaceans such as crabs and shrimps; but this one is not identifiable from his description.

3 See article on Zoé by H.-M. Edwards in Dic. Class. 16:719-22.

[CD P. 131 commences]

Zoea1

&

Erichthus

485

 

 

Found with the Zoea, just described; another differing in some respect; but in the important organs essentially the same.— Size nearly equal, but more globular.— & the spears not so long & not serrated: only one posterior one & not in same line as the anterior.— 2 short lateral ones.— Antennæ, mandible, machoires, nearly the same as last Zoea.— but 1st pair of pied machoire has only one joint in the external branch, in length equal.— 2d pied machoire has internal jointed branch shorter than external.— the 3d pied machoire & 5 legs closely agree with those of last Zoea.— There are 5 pair of short cylinders, or rudimentary swimmers.— Tail is spinose & its outline is concave instead of convex.— By reading over the description of the former Zoea & that given in Dic Class.— it will be seen how closely this one agrees with the one described by M. Edwards: The Swimmers here are rudiments instead of oval plates; & M. Edwards does not mention the division branch in the 3d or external pied machoire.— Analogy would point out lead to the expectation of this, as the 1st & 2nd have the division so strongly marked.— and yet [it] is unlikely M. Edwards should have overlooked it.— I think it probab certain, whatever Zoea may be.— my two & the one in Dic Class must belong to the same order family of Crustaceæ: |132|

Zoea &

Amongst these Zoeas there was a single specimen of an Erichthus, which

[page] 117 COAST OF PATAGONIA DECEMBER 1832

Erichthus2

485

appeared young & was imperfect in some respects.— The plate of the external antennæ was the only part developed, & the branch consisted solely of a projecting point: also the third pied machoire & 1st leg (the 3 & 4th pied-machoire of Desmarets) terminated without a claw, but the last joint was rather enlarged.— In Erichthus (P 88) these limbs have a claw.— At the base of anterior pied-machoire were respiratory plates:— Before finding this specimen, I had thought these Zoeas perhaps belonged to the Stomapodes.— The close approximation of pieds-machoires & legs & these being placed on different segment of body from the head.— leads to this opinion.— Also, by considering Erichthus, the curious case of Zoea will require less change to resemble it, than any other crustaceous animal.— Upon seeing however the gradual change in case between the minute globular Zoeas & this Erichthus, I have no doubt but what this Zoea belongs to an Erichthus.— In confirmation of this it may be remembered that the two pair of most developed organs in Zoea become in Erichthus the 2 principal pied-machoire.— also that the two next, viz 3d pied-machoire & 1st leg, which have claws in Erichthus, are also more organized in Zoea; the 4 other pair in both animals are equally rudimentary.— [note (a)] If Zoea should be proved to be the Larva of a Stomapod, it would be curious to see the relation between this order & the Decapods, more clearly marked by the structure of the legs in the young than in the perfected animal [note ends] |133| Again, shape of head, tail & especially terminal plate & spines are not very dissimilar & the resemblance of the 'carapace' has been shown.—

 

 

(b)

 

 

 

 

(a)

 

M. Edwards states Zoea has a double thoracic cavity something like the Decapod Brachyures: [insertion with different pen in margin] Branchiæ not existing in the two last thoracic segments [insertion ends] but from the greater similarity to the Macroures, he overlooks this.— In Erichthus the respiratory plates are seated at base of pieds-machoire, hence in anterior portion of thorax.— Is it not possible that these in Zoea were included in cavities?— From these considerations I imagine such Zoea, as mentioned in Dic Class & here, are young of that division of Stomapod in which Erichthus & Alima are: [note (b)] Of course I do not mean to say but what other animals which would come under the wide characters of Zoea, may be as Mr Thompson3 states the young of Pagurus.— NB. it is odd, if so, that they should be pelagic:— [note ends] There is no reason to be surprised at the number of Zoea, as at P. 88 the Erichthus was found in great numbers.— Not finding some of them more advanced is the most solid objection.— [note (a)] This particularly applies to the former Zoea of P (128) [note ends] perhaps like other Crustaceæ they retire during any changes of their cases. It has been remarked that Squilla4 has never been found with eggs.— now if the young are pelagic Zoea, this would be accounted for.— M. Risso5 supposes they go to deep water & sandy bottom.— These Zoeas were found in 7 fathom water & in sandy bottom — off the Bay of St. Blas.— |134|

[page] 118 COAST OF PATAGONIA DECEMBER 1832

1,2 These are different stages in the larval development of stomatopods that are sometimes not readily distinguishable.

3 According to J.V. Thompson Zoological researches and illustrations, Vol. 1, pp. 1-11, Cork, 1828, Zoea taurus is the young of Cancer pagurus.

4 Stomatopoda, mantis shrimp.

5 See M. Risso, possibly in Histoire naturelle des Crustacés des environs de Nice, published 1816.

[CD P. 134 commences with an entry dated 7th December]

Cyclops1

488

 

 

(a)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Body pointed, oval, colourless or faint red, integuments soft, length 1/20th of inch: composed of 6 segments, anterior one bearing organs analagous to pied-machoire.— the four next the Natatory plates & 6 the tail.— Tail, very narrow cylindrical, 3 joints.— with a pair on the 3rd.— terminated by setæ: Anterior antennæ seated under extremity of body, much longer than the extremity of tail; tapering with numerous joints, extremity with scattered very long spines growing at rt angles to antennæ.— 2d (articulated organ).— seated before mouth, bifid, inner branch with fewer joints & setæ: 3d.— in line of mouth, close to base of mandibles, bifid with setæ.— short: 4th bifid, extremities with rounded ciliated plates.— & between them there arise[s] a trifid branch with setæ:— 5th base broard but short, with bunches of longer & more setæ than cross those of the foregoing organs: 6th: cylindrical, 3 joints, twice as long as the former natatory organs.— [note (a)] All these organs are in 2 straight lines on the thorax: [note ends] After these, on distinct abdominal segments, are 4 pair of swimmers; each one is bifid, flattened; outer plate broarder & longer:— These are the true legs; as for the other organs.— I suppose 2d pair are antennæ, otherwise there would be 5 pair corresponding to pied machoires.— The 2d, 3d, 4th, 5th pair generally correspond in structure & relative position to those described in an Entomostr. P 122: the 6th differs.—

 

 

Cyclops

Mandible not much curved, short; with large tooth at upper corner: the teeth gradually decrease in size from this to the other corner & base or fang. broarder.— on the inner side of both |135| the mandible, there was a most minute cylindrical organ, ½ the length of mandible, truncate at extremity, flexible.— I must certainly consider these contrary to Desmarets as Palpi:— Eye, very minute, dark red, within small transparent ball & seated between anterior antennæ:—

 

These minute Crustaceæ move by a jumping motion.— they were found Lat 40°S at a distance from land.— Depth 45 fathoms: truly pelagic:— Cyclops seems generally to be a fresh-water animal:—

[page] 119 COAST OF PATAGONIA DECEMBER 1832

[CD P. 135 continues]

Clytia2

or (a)

Campanularia

2nd species

489

(b)

Coralline growing in short much branched tufts; branches irregular in shape, crooked, short; the articulations (or globular impressions V. Clytia P 103) very obscure.— [note (a)] Tufts scarcely an inch long: whereas in Clytia P 103 the masses of coralline were many inches [note ends] Terminal cup bell shaped on a short peduncle, with the articulations obscure.— The whole Coralline is shorter in proportion, & characters not so much marked as in Clytia P 103:— Polype with body cylindrical on narrow base (as at P 103), mouth tubular, highly expansible, projecting.— Tentacula 28 in number, seated on outer rim of polype: every alternate one hangs down.— so that they appear in double row of 14 each.— [note (b)] They are occasionally in a single row round the mouth:— The numbers of tentacula & alternate manner of arrangement best separates this species from that of P 103.— in the latter I put 16?: it is quite impossible that there could be a mistake between 16 & 28.— [note ends] Tentacula soft, formed of concentric layers of pulpy matter, hence semi-opake.— The central living mass is included in delicate case distinct from the outer horny one: itself consists in a central mass, distinguishable by its colour from the outer, & which communicates with each Polype.— I only saw unperfected ovarium, which resembled that of next species: for locality &c &c V next article:— |136|

 

Plate 7, Figs. 2-4

[CD P. 136 commences]

Clytia3

the 3rd

species

489

 

Stems creeping on a Fucus: 2 or 3 generally in parallel lines, for several inches.— central living matter the same as in last species.— From the stem, branches are sent off perpendicularly; length about .3: each of these is terminated by polype: Beneath the cup, there are obscure articulations as in former species: cup bell shaped, truncate obliquely, one side rather enlarged.— body of polype globular, not uniting with the living matter in centre; so that the greater part of body lies in the enlarged half of cup; from this cause also mouth & arms of polype are protruded in a slightly lateral direction.— Tentacula & mouth same as in last.— On the creeping stems there are also branches;— shorter & in shape a much elongated cone

[page] 120 COAST OF PATAGONIA DECEMBER 1832

 

 

Clytia

& a peduncle.— These are of two sorts, viz Ovariums & Buds or young polype.— In the former case, they are sometimes truncate: Vide Pl 7. Fig 3: in the first state they are full of white pulp matter: this by degrees shrinks & is divided by reddish lines into rudimentary balls; the summit of ovarium being closed by an opake mass, which communicates by lateral vessels with the lower: in this state Fig 3 is drawn:— as maturity advances the upper mass is absorbed; the ovarium is seen to consist of a double case (as might be expected from nature of the integument of stem) open at summit: & at bottom there lies |137| 5 globular eggs, enveloped in a viscous fluid; in colour white, diameter about 1/100.— Those which I found already expelled were smaller in size & of a darker colour.—

 

 

 

The buds or young At the base of the ovarium were the globular impressions or articulations:— The buds or young polype were in the structures of their external cases, very similar to the Ovaria.— they are originally filled with pulpy matter, & I should think it was at this period fixed whether the young branch should turn out bear eggs or a polype.— The two sorts were generally together in distinct places & in groups.— The bud when half matured presented the appearance figured at Fig 2: Above the middle of the cone there were marks of the globular impression: at this place the included matter was contracted into a narrow stem & surmounted by a head: beneath this also the central matter was much shrunk.— I imagine this process continued till the regular branch is produced.— When first seen on the stem, these organs are irregular balls on a peduncle, Fig. 4:—

 

 

 

(a)

These 2 species were taken on Fucus picked up at sea, Lat 45° S. many miles from the land.— These 2 species & one of P 103 evidently belong to same genus: which certainly might be included in Cuviers Campanularia4 if such characters did not deserve a distinct genus.— When examining these corallines, they appeared to be the simplest of the Polype or Polypier, & most [continued on back at (a)] allied to the naked ones.— the central living mass is so much developed compared to the thin horny, transparent, & simply constructed envelope [entry ends] |138|

1 Calanoida, pelagic copepod.

2 Leptothecata, hydroid in family Campanulariidae.

3 Another hydroid.

4 See Cuvier Vol. 3, p. 300.

[CD P. 138 commences]

Butterflies

in grt flock

 

 

December 4th.— About 10 miles off the Bay of San Blas, in the evening, the infinite numbers of Lepidoptera formed a most curious spectacle: They

[page] 121 COAST OF PATAGONIA DECEMBER 1832

870...872

(not spirits)

were of various species, but chiefly a yellow sort.— with them were some moths & Hymenoptera.— & even a Calosoma1 [?] flew with on board.— The men all cried out "it is snowing butterflies"; at a distance it had this appearance.— the butterflies were in bands or flocks of countless myriads, & as far as the telescope reached, they might be seen fluttering over the water.— This took place in the evening.— the morning had been calm & the day before very light variable winds.— it is clear these insects had voluntarily come out to sea.— it was the last day for most of them, for a strong breeze sprung up from the North, which must have destroyed the greater number.— How are we to account for these flights, which others have also observed? Is it an instinct implanted in the animal to find new countries, its own one being overstocked by a particularly favourable year.—

Crust:

amphipod

Uropteres2

492

Crust. Amph.

Uropteres

Abdomen composed of four cylindrical pieces, the last bears tail.— the other three the swimmers.— Tail formed of 6 pieces or 3 pair.— central in shape are flat, spear-shaped, pointed, sending off a small pointed external plate.— they have two articulations.— the central pair are seated more a posteriori than the others, but are of equal length in themselves.— the external pair are narrower than the others.— These organs when expanded form |139| a fan & are most essential to the animal in swimming.— 3 pair of swimming plates, these are bifid.— divisions equal with many joints.— Body with 7 segments, & lateral plates by the base of legs, coloured with stars of purple: Eyes exceedingly large; forming the whole anterior part of head.— transparent, containing an oblong opake part.— of fine purple colour.—

 

Antennæ, superior ones rather more approximate than the inferior, these latter are very fine, taper to a point & equal body in length.— the superior are much shorter, but the peduncle longer.—

 

 

Legs.— 1st pair (intermediate or 4th pied machoire) small simple with claw; 2nd at the base of the penultimate joint before the claw, there is a branch sent off with internal spines, hence closely resembles a true "pince".— (but evidently really is the palpus of pied machoire): 3rd & 4th equal & longer than than the last.— they have the penultimate joint very broard & flattened in order to receive en griffe the ultimate joint & claw: 5th pair strong, nearly twice as long as any other limb; the elongation takes place in the ultimate & penultimate joint, terminal claw small: 6th & 7th equal, strong, ending in claw:

 

 

Mouth: 3d or external pied-machoire is composed of an open, hard, pointed fork.— with small internal plate: 2d pair has a small & similar fork with setæ & larger concave plate: 3d consists in two circular fringed plates: Mandible, with large distinct palpi; they are of singular shape, upper part a narrow plate with teeth (as usual), this plate is folded back, though not

[page] 122 COAST PATAGONIA DECEMBER 1832

Crust. Amph.

Uropteres

parallel, |140| & forms as it were another interior & inferior mandible.— the edge is square & only ciliated: the palpi arise at the bend.— Labium bilobed.— pointed oval divisions.—

 

 

With these specimens which did were others which differed in the following respects.— Superior antennæ very short, curved, rudimentary: inferior also short straight pointed.— the external plates in tail were broarder: the legs varied in proportion.— parts of mouth the same.— in general appearance &c &c evidently identical.— These I have no doubt are the young ones.— If this Crust. belongs to the Uropteres, it is a new genus.— In its habits it is truly pelagic, occurring in deep, at great distance from land.— for several degrees.— North of Sts. of Magellan.— Swims fast by starts, rapid, in circles & back first.— uses its tail much.—

[CD P. 140 continues with an entry on Planaria that has been crossed through vertically to indicate its publication elsewhere]

Planaria3

 

Omit (?)

 

Planaria

 

Lat:53°S

Body when crawling nearly ½ inch long; shape oval; very flat, edge thin: Beneath from the anterior extremity to beyond the half of length, within the body there is a white wedge-shaped mark.— Within this, one near the head & the other middle of body, are two minute circular apertures; which the animal occasionally opens & contracts.— Their situation can easily be seen from a white halo which extends round them.— Beyond the white space there is a third aperture.— this is very large (visible to the naked eye) & has folding lips: is highly dilatable.— from this within body |141| there runs two white lines.— Back coloured elegantly.— in centre is longitudinal band of "vermilion red".— this anteriorly sends off 2 pair of branches & terminates in three.— it is edged with white.— the rest of back is covered by dots of a purplish red.— At the point where the central band is trifurcate are two longitudinal groups of black spots.— also on anterior margin there are two groups of numerous eyes or black dots.— Animal in its habits, inactive.— found on Corallines, 30 Fathom water.— South of Sts of Magellan, Dec 15th.

1 See Insect Notes p. 66.

2 An amphipod of suborder Hyperiidea.

3 Listed by CD as Planaria (?) formosa in Collected papers 1:189, but later placed in sub-order Acotylea as Leptoplana formosa. If, however, CD's third aperture was in fact a sucker, it might better be placed among the cotyleans.

[CD P. 141 continues]

Fistularia1

495

 

Habitat same as last animal.— Body: cylindrical, with thin cuticle of beautiful "Vermilion red": tapering towards both extremities but mostly

[page] 123 TIERRA DEL FUEGO DECEMBER 1832

 

(b)

 

(a)

towards the Anus: length when crawling about .3 inches: body very soft: with obscure papillæ or little eminences chiefly on the tail: this latter part is also most strongly marked with transverse wrinkles: animal often irregularly dilates its body with water, but chiefly in posterior half.— On under side there is a linear space, more smooth than the rest, on this the animal generally rests.— Anus at very extremity circular.— Anterior extremity truncate, mouth in centre.— outer rim surrounded by 12 tentacula.— These & the mouth can be withdraw[n] in body:— Tentacula consists of cylindrical peduncle, bearing a disc or hand, from which about 14 fingers or papillæ diverge; central one longest.— at the base of these papillæ there is a connecting membrane: [note (a)] These little papillæ varied in number from 13 to 15.— [note ends] |142|

 

 

1834

June

 

[note (b) added later] The animal may be called absolutely smooth, from examining a Holuthuria (January). I see what is meant by Papillæ.— The entire absence of true papillæ, would according to Cuvier rank this animal amongst "Echinodermes sans pieds".—

Port Famine.— Saw with strong power that on the surface, chiefly in posterior half of body, there were many little cups adhæring.— similar to those described at P 261.— With this difference, that each one was separate & not as these collected on a little eminence.— [note ends]

[CD P. 142 commences with entry dated Decr 15th]

Fistularia

 

The convex side of disc is turned inwards, hence the concave & connecting membranes of papillæ form a powerful sucking instrument, by which the animal can adhære firmly to glass.— In moving, a wave-like motion from the tail extends up the body & then the adhæsion of the tentacula allows the body to contract & then the process is repeated.— These tentacula perform another essential office, the alternate ones are widely extended & then drawn backwards so as to cover the mouth.— this goes on so steadily that it is difficult clearly to see the mouth: The animal voided great quantities of sand in their excrement & doubtless this is obtained by the action of the tentacula: they were found at the roots of Corallines, where the sand would probably contain nutritious matter.— At the base & within the Tentacula there is a fine bony collar: it is formed of 12 pieces, each of which is cylindrical, with a salient external angle.— hence the collar has a slight Zig Zag appearance: This species would appear to be closely allied to Fistu: digitata (Lamarck):—

Corall2

Celleporaria?

889

(not spirits)

Corall.— much branched, stony, fragile, colour "honey yellow".— 2 or 3 inches high; branches cylindrical, rather globular at extremities: surface covered with punctures & waved lines.— Transverse section composed of irregular tubes or cells, rather hollow in centre.— Cells not projecting placed irregularly over within branches.— aperture circular, lower lip rather prominent & at the |143| summit of branches ending even in a point: so

[page] 124 TIERRA DEL FUEGO DECEMBER 1832

Celleporaria?

that these parts are rough with points: Polype with 16 delicate tentacula situated on a long tubular body, which is enclosed in transparent case.— This latter is protrudable & rather bell shaped, but contracted at orifice (as described in Corall P 77).— Found growing in 30 fathom water. Lat 53° S. Dec 15th: It is allied to that described P 77.— I am ignorant whether it exactly agrees with any described genus.— perhaps Celleporaria, Lamouroux.

Corall3

Celleporaria?

888

(not spirits)

Habitat & many characters agreeing with the last: Corall. with branches rather longer; centre more compact: colour pale "scarlet red", surface of branches granular.— & covered on every side by small projecting hoods; or they may be described as projecting slightly curved tubes, divided anteriorly, contracted at summit.— Scattered irregularly at the base of these are circular apertures for the Polype.— These hoods correspond to the truncate cones of the Corall P 77.— The branches of are essentially composed of these hoods.— so that looking down vertically on summit of young branch, a circle of these hoods are applied with their back towards the centre: [sketch in margin]: & there is no orifice for cell at the summit.— The cells seem to be in the central space when the branches have increased sufficiently in diameter.— These hoods are so numerous near tops of branches as to be imbricate:— |144|

Favosites4

(a)

890

(not spirits)

Habitat same as last: Corall, stony, hard, strong, white coloured: growing in very short vertical curved thick plates: short, height about ½ an inch, breadth of plates varying from 1/10" to 1/20".— sides smooth, most finely punctured.— Extremities truncated, slightly convex.— entirely composed of the orifices of cells.— these are of different sizes; properly hexagons, becoming however circular.— a little way within each cell orifice is a plate with small aperture, which leads into cell of polype. This Corall appears to be a Favosites of Lamouroux:

2010

not spirits

[note (a) added later] May 19th 1834. Procured specimen, 48 fathom: the plate within orifice of cell is a mistake (probably the Polypus itself: [)] cells not being truly hexagons, there are spaces between tubes, sides of interwall tubes perforated with puncture, but more especially the external ones. Branches entirely composed of these hexagonal tubes: the plate-like masses of tubes spring & branch from a short stem.— [note ends]

[CD P. 144 continues]

Corall5

? ?

892

(not spirits)

Habitat same as last: Corall, much branched, about 2 inches high, white: branches flattened, on one side they are rugose, with ribbed lines running lengthways.— on the other are the orifices of cells — these are placed irregularly & consist in short tubes truncate obliquely: these project also laterally from branches: the termination of branches [is] rather wider & consists of an aggregation of angular tubes, generally hexagons & in but not

[page] 125 TIERRA DEL FUEGO DECEMBER 1832

orifices of polypeferous cells: Corall elegant, very strong. For remarks about its classification see next Corall, which is of same nature:

Corall6

? ? 892

(not spirits)

 

Habitat same as last.— Corall. Much branched about 2 inches high, white, brittle: Branches with one side punctured & with longitudinal lines.— the other long curved punctured tubes, which are the orifices of cells.— These are placed most symetrically on the branches, in parallel oblique rows & tubes equidistant: [sketch in margin]: These tubes project |145| laterally so as to give a toothed appearance to the sides of branches.— Extremities rather wider & composed of numerous angular orifices of tubes, generally hexagons.— & out of these the regular projecting tubes are formed: the oblique line might be perceived amongst them: reminding one of the formation of vessels in the cellular system of Animals!— I do not think this corall agrees in its characters with any genus.— Catenepora is described as composed of parallel tubes, arising through plates anastomizing in net work: This would appear to bear an analogy to the formation of the present Corall:—

 

All these 5 specimens of Coralls were taken by swabbing the bottom; hence rather injured & Polype would not show themselves:—

Cryptogamic

Plant7

503

&

980 (not

spirits)

In general habit resembling a moss.— colour pale green.— peduncle of capsule transparent, colourless.— capsule oval, dark brown, tough.— containing an infinite number of globular, light brown sporule[s].— diameter 1/2000 of inch: with these were bits of fibres, resembling necklace (each bead being about ¼ of the sporule). I should think these acted as placenta to the sporules.— Capsule opens into four longitudinal pieces, which curl backwards.— When placed in Alcohol no action, but the specimen was not fresh.— The immature capsules, when first bursting from sheath, appear involved in gelatinous matter: Grow in tufts in wet places. Near a cascade, in mountainous woods. Hermit Isle Decr 25th.— |146|

1 With its fifteen digitate tentacles and no regular podia, this animal might be a holothuroid of order Molpadiida, or belong to order Apodida, family Chiridotidae, possibly Taeniogyrus contortus Ludwig. Lamarck's Fistularia is the European apodid Labidoplax digitata in family Synaptidae.

2 Celleporaria is a bryozoan of suborder Ascophora.

3 Specimen 888 (not in spirits) was identified by George Busk as the ascophorans Adeonella atlantica and A. fuegensis now preserved in the Busk Collection at the Natural History Museum.

4 See Lamouroux p. 66. Specimen 2010 (dry) is listed as Fasciculipora ramosa 1875.5.29.58 in the George Busk Collection.

5 More bryozoans.

6 do.

7 This is an unidentified liverwort, held in the Cambridge University Herbarium. See Plant

[page] 126 TIERRA DEL FUEGO DECEMBER 1832

Notes pp. 166-7.

[CD P. 146 commences]

Fish1

515 (a)

Myxinus

(Cyclostomes ?) Caught by hook amongst the Kelp, Goree Sound & other parts of Tierra del F.— Above coloured like an earth worm but more leaden; beneath yellowish & head purplish: very vivacious & retained its life for a long period: had great powers of twisting itself & could swim tail first: when irritated struck at any object with its teeth, & by opening protruding them, in its manner much resembled an adder striking with its fangs.— Head most curiously ornamented with tentacula: Vomited up a Sipunculus when caught:— [note (a)] This fish is abundant amongst the rocky islets, having found one on the beach nearly dead.— I observed a milky fluid transuding through the row of lateral pores or orifices:— It would appear to be Myxinus with no lateral branchial orifices.— [note ends]

Coralline2

512

Clytia

 

Coralline, transparent, colourless, delicate & most elegant.— Stem short erect with simple alternate branches; stem jointed, each joint bearing a branch.— Branches with simple small terminal cups, also as likewise on the upper surface at regular distances. in these latter the cup is applied to the branch or rather the branch passes through it.— so as to resemble the cell of Sertularia: Internal semi opake vital matter not filling up the transparent case.— Polype with long body, not retractile within cell cup; mouth broard with no fine tentacula around it.— This very beautiful little coralline from its general habits & structure is allied to the Clytias P 145 &c &c.— Growing on Fucus, 6 fathom water, Goree Sound:— |147|

1 Identified by Leonard Jenyns in Zoology 4:159 as Myxine australis Jen.

2 Leptothecata, a hydroid in the family Campanulariidae.

[CD P. 147 commences]

Edible Fungi

Excrescences

esculent

528

(a)

In the Beech forests, the trees are much diseased: on the rough excrescences vast numbers of yellow balls grow.— These are of the colour of yolk of an egg.— & vary in size from a bullet to a small apple.— in shape globular, but a little produced towards the footstalk or point of attachment. They grow both on the branches & stems in groups.— When young.— they contain much fluid & are tasteless, but in their older & altered state they form a very essential article of food for the Fuegians.— The boys collect them, & they are eaten raw uncooked with the fish.— When we were in Good Success Bay in December, they were then young.— in this state, externally they are quite smooth, turgid & of a bright color, & with no internal cavity.— Upon keeping are The external surface was marked with white spaces, as of a membrane covering a cell (in this state, but rather more advanced, the specimens 528 are).— Upon keeping one in a drawer

[page] 127 TIERRA DEL FUEGO JANUARY 1833

 

 

Esculent

excrescences

my attention was called after some interval by finding it become nearly dry.— the whole surface honeycombed by regular cells & possessed of the decided smell of a Fungus.— & with a slightly sweet mucous taste:— In this state I have found them during Jan: & Feb over the whole country (with the exception of specimens 528, which were found in Feb, high amongst the mountains).— Upon cutting one into two |148| halves.— the centre part is found partly hollow, & filled with brown cellular fibrous matter.— this evidently merely acts as a support for the elastic semitransparent ligamentous substance which forms the base & sides of the external cells.— The development of these cells would appear to be [the] main end to which the growth tends: It is however especially to be noted I cut open great numbers & scarcely ever found the central cellular part without one or more larvæ of the same sort.— In the young state I unfortunately neglected to examine them.— Now I am in doubt whether it is an excrescence formed for the nourishment of some insect or a true cryptogamic plant1.— The very general occurrence of the Larvæ may be explained by observing how universally Larvæ occur in the Boleti in England: Some of these balls remain on the trees nearly the whole year. Capt. FitzRoy has seen them in June.— but great numbers fall on the ground.—

1834

 

[note (a) and another added later] Feb. Port Famine. Color "ochre yellow & dutch orange" of the Wernarian nomenclature. when young, or central part soft & [illeg.], strong fungus smell, & sweet taste.— no larvæ.— From the root a hollow vessel passes to the centre, from which white ligamentous rays pass through the semi-gelatinous mass to the bottoms of the cells.— I can have no doubt it is a Crypt: plant.—

1834

June

984

 

Found some more very turgid ones, highly elastic; a section of the central parts white: the whole under a high power looks like a Vermicelli pudding from the number of small thread like cylinders.— at about 1/20 of inch from exterior surface, there were placed at regular intervals small cup shaped balls 1/12th in diameter, of a bright "dutch orange".— the cup was filled with adhæsive, elastic, colourless, quite transparent matter (hence at first appeared hollow).— the upper edge of cup was divided into conical points about 10 or 12 in number [see sketch in margin], & these terminated in an irregular bunch of the above threads; the cup was easily detached from surrounding white substance excepting at its fringed superior edge.— Right over the cup there was a slight pit in the exterior surface: Which This afterward became an external orifice to the cup (where the gelatinous matter perhaps has formed seeds(?))— Some of the balls were attacked by Larvæ, but their entirely irregular course showed that they had no connection with the structure.— [notes end]

[page] 128 TIERRA DEL FUEGO JANUARY 1833

[CD P. 148 continues]

Fuegian

Paints

974

(not spirits)

(a)

The Fuegians paint their faces, bodies & hair with white, red & black in various figures & quantities. The red is the oxide of Iron & is prepared by being collected near the streams, dried & burnt. The White is of a more curious nature — in the state fit for use it is of very little specific gravity.— it is collected from under water, is made into balls (as J Button expressed it, 'all the same Ostrichs egg') & burnt: did not effervesce with acids.— & with bit of cobalt gave a permanent |149| blue.— I suppose therefore it [is] nearly pure alumina.— It occurs in the Slate Mountain, I imagine from the decomposition of the beds of Feldspathic rock.— The black I have not obtained: the black is I believe only charcoal & oil:— [note (a)] I found some of the feldspathic greenstones decomposed into a white substance to the depth of 3/10 of inch.— [note ends]

Heteromerous

insects2

1021...24

(not spirits)

copied

The habitat of these insects was the most singular I ever observed: it was in the fissures of slate rock & in which the genus Capulus [Limpet] was adhæring to the stone alive, & therefore of course beneath high water mark.— from the wet condition of the insects & their inactivity I do not believe they remove themselves.— There would appear to be two sorts, or in different states of maturity.— from the soft state of some specimens, the larva must have undergone its metamorphosis in this site:—

1 The idea that an insect was responsible for the existence of the edible excrescences was quickly abandoned by CD. As explained in Plant Notes pp. 221-4, the fungus was duly classified and named Cyttaria darwinii by M.J. Berkeley in 1845.

2 The insects in question were the coleoptera listed in Insect Notes p. 71, and the specimens are now in the British Museum.

[CD P. 149 continues]

Gasteropod1 559 (b)

(a)

 

March 7th.— Falkland Islands: As far as I was able to observe without dissecting the specimen, this would appear to be a curious animal.— Mantle orbicular, much convex, bordering over the foot on all sides: it evidently contains within it a [illeg.] much developed shell.— [note (a)] The right left side of the mantle is largest: [note ends] On the anterior surface, near to margin, there is a projecting tubular orifice, formed by the division & overlapping of the mantle.— (perhaps would be better described as anterior part of mantle echancrè [échancré = hollowed out]; but in its action it is a perfect tube). this conducts to a large cavity, lying behind the head & extending down a short way the right side: it is open, as in Crepidula for instance |150| for its whole length.— At the bottom of the cavity there is (I think) 3 rows of tapering, simple, white branchial fillets: on the right side within the cavity, there is (I think) anal orifice: Pænis very large, lying in the Branchial cavity, curved, flattened, & tapering.— seated behind the right antenna.— Foot oblong.— anterior margin truncate, scalloped or grooved with the corners recurved like horns: Head

[page] 129 EAST FALKLAND ISLANDS MARCH 1833

 

 

(a)

flattened, long, extensible, in front square, with antennæ on each side & eyes at the exterior base.— Mouth seated between the foot & head, longitudinally folded: Antennæ short, simple, cylindrical: Mantle covered with pointed papillæ: diameter .6: colour pale yellowish, with marks of flesh colour: in centre an irregular oblong mark of dark brown from which are sent off a reticulated vein & [illeg.] of same color:— Has power of considerable adhæsion to a smooth surface: can roll itself into a ball: was found at low water mark under a stone:— This animal would appear to belong to Pectinibrands; although most probably to Tectibrands: [note (a)] It would appear to have an intimate relation with the family of Capubridis: thinking the Branchiæ are arranged in several rows is a more wide difference than the Shell being internal instead of external. [note ends]

March 25th

584

[note (b) added later] Colour uniform "orpiment orange", with "vermilion red" brighter in regular spots.— length 10½ inch: foot larger, anterior part with not so large lateral horns:— head forked in front, antennæ more approximate.— body very convex & smooth.— I think it is a distinct species.

 

These animals are closely allied to Sigaretus, perhaps differ in spite of shell not being so lateral.— Shell highly developed, spiral.— sexes distinct: Branchiæ obliquely transverse, basal row with long fillets; the two superior rows with minute fillets:— I could not clearly see anus.— [note ends]

[CD P. 150 continues]

Gasteropod

570

583

 

March 9th. Caught two specimens of same genus: but I think different species: Habitat &c same: Body rather more oblong: length one inch: colour dirty pale yellow, thickly clouded & veined with purplish brown: surface smooth with few small papillæ.— This seems the most specific difference:— Also another smaller; dirty yellow with dark brown dots, surrounded by a halo of light brown: Are these Species or Varieties? |151|

1 Mesogastropoda, Naticidae, probably Sinum, moon snails.

[CD P. 151 commences]

Doris1

 

 

 

March 7th. Under large stones, East Falkland Island.— Shape elongated oval; length 3¼ inches; breadth 1 & ½; flattened; mantle much projecting over foot & covering head & tail; colour uniform white, with a faint tinge of yellow; Surface, smooth to the touch, but thickly were studded with minute cylindrical papillæ.— This gives a fine fimbriated appearance to branchial orifice:— Branchiæ very large, frondescent, beautiful; primarily divided into eight divisions; each of these like a folded leaf.— divided into

[page] 130 EAST FALKLAND ISLANDS MARCH 1833

tufts, which are again subdivided: surrounding anus: Generative orifice large: Superior or dorsal antennæ, short, thick pointed, horn-shaped, faint brown colour, surrounded by concentric oblique membranous ridges, which are divided anteriorly by a white space: summit uncovered white: frontal antennæ small. I could not see the eyes:— but under (by dissection) mantle & behind the dorsal ones are two black dots resembling eyes: Digestive tube, gullet muscular, surrounded by (vermiform salivary glands?), entering between the Generative organs into centre of liver, is slightly enlarged & turns removed backwards, & reaches the anus in an oblique direction on the dorsal surface of liver.— Liver very soft, white & red:—

 

 

 

(a)

 

 

Eggs deposited in a ribbon. this adhæres by its edge to the rock in a spiral oval of 4 or 5 turns. is evidently formed by the turning of the animal on its centre.— & the distance of axis is the length from generative aperture to centre of revolution in the foot: Eggs in diameter .003, are collected in number from 2 to 5, generally in a[n] oval transparent case or |152| ball, length .012: These balls are arranged, two deep, in transverse rows in the ribbon:— In a large collection, the ribbon must be 20 inches long, in breadth it is .5 of inch; from counting how many balls in a tenth of inch & how many rows in same length, at the smallest computation there could not have been less than the enormous number of six hundred thousand eggs.— This is a wonderful instance of fecundity: yet the animal is certainly not common: I only saw seven individuals:— [note (a)] Especially when it is recollected every individual is an Hermaphrodite & lays eggs:— [note ends]

1 The only Magellanic nudibranch of this colour with minute tubercles having such an enormous egg ribbon is the cryptobranch doridacean, Discodorididae, Anisodoris punctuolata D'Orbigny.

[CD P. 152 continues]

General

Observations

Jan & Feb Tierra del Fuego (South of Lat 54°45′)

Before mentioning any of the effects of climate, I will state, what I know, of its nature.— Capt King1 has observed during Autumnal & Brumal period.— & the thermometrical observations made in this ship include the hottest part of the year.

 

From the 18th of Decemb: to the 14th of Jan (a period of 18 days) the mean from 332 observations made meanly at every two hours interval gave

temp: 44.92

Mean daily Max: 47.98 Range

Min: 41.28 } 6.7

Mean of extremes 44.63

During this time half was on the outer SE coast & half at sea, sometimes

[page] 131 TIERRA DEL FUEGO JAN & FEB 1833

one or two degrees to the South of Cape Horn.—

 

From 15th of Jan to 20th of Feb (a period of 37 days) the mean from 161 observations, mostly at 6 AM: 12: 6 PM & some at the two hour interval give as:

Mean 49.9

Mean of Max: 55.54 Range

....... Min: 45.36 } 10.18

Mean of extremes 50.45

During this time the Ship was in different harbors, in Nassau bay & in Goree Sound. |153|

 

 

 

 

 

 

The mean from these two sets of observations from the 18th of Decembr to 20th of Feb. (a period of 65 days) gives

temp: 47.41

Mean Max: 51.76 Mean Range

Min: 43.82 } 8.44

Mean of extremes 47.54.—

 

The accuracy of this mean is affected by several causes.— the first set was out at sea & sometime at a higher latitude; it may therefore be supposed to be too low.— the second set is calculated from observations made in the day time (6 AM. 12. 6 PM) & the weather was, from the report, of those who have known the climate for some years, most unusually hot & fine; this second set gives perhaps too high a mean; it is to be hoped the mean of both may be near the truth.— These 65 days, judging from the appearance of the Vegetation in first part, & from the weather in Falkland Islands at the latter, includes the whole summer.—

Mr. Daniell

journal2

In the years 1820, 21, 22 in London, the mean of Extremes of June, July, August, which months correspond to the Fuegian summer, was 60.93: so that the English summer is 13.39 hotter than the Fuegian.—

 

Capt King from observat: at 6 AM. 9. 12. 3 PM. 6, makes the mean of May, June, July, the brumal period in Tierra del F. 34.49.— In London from same years as above & corresponding months, it is 41.34; making the winter of the latter 6.85 warmer than the Fuegian: From these facts, we may form some judgement of the climate.— |154|

General

Observations

(P 152 VB)

(P 227

V Buch)

I was surprised to see in Lat 55° & near to West ocean, magnificent glaciers forming perpendicular cliffs into the Sounds: this was in the end of January: Mr Bynoe3 has actually seen a glacier reaching to the sea & in the summer in the gulf of Penas in Lat 47°.— This is a most singular fact when we recollect that Von Buch4 first found glaciers on West coast of Norway in Lat 67° at Kunnen.— This gives a difference of 20 degrees for the same phenomenon in the Northern & Southern hemispheres.— It may

[page] 132 TIERRA DEL FUEGO JAN & FEB 1833

be here noticed that Capt. King gives the line of perpetual snow to St of Magellan (a little North of parallel of 50°) to be between 3000 & 4000 feet.— Von Buch in Norway says in Lat 70° the line is about 3000 above the sea.— Again there is this difference of 20° degrees.—

 

(a)

< >

Not Copied

(B)

 

At the end of December large patches of snow were lying on the East side of hills at about 1700 feet elevation: these had disappeared by the end of February (answering to our August).— The Westerly winds have the constancy of the trades. it is clear the snow lies longest on the ESE side from being most protected from WNW wind, which of the prevalent ones would be the warmest.— [note (a)] Jemmy Button5 said 'when leaves yellow, snow all go'.— Capt Fitz Roy states that in April the leaves of the trees which grow on the lower parts of the hills turn colour; but not those high up.— I recollect having read a paper to show that in England warm Autumns hastened the falling of the leaves: that the process is regular part of the vegetation: This fact would seem to show the same law.— It was in January in these very hills, abo<ut> 1400 feet high, that a snow-storm destroyed two of Mr Banks party6 & caused so much suffering to the whole of them.— [note ends]

[CD P. 154 continues]

 

At the height of about 1400 feet I found dwarf Beech trees, (about a foot high), in sheltered corners.— the main line of separation between the trees & grass is perhaps 2 or 300 feet lower. Within the Beagle channel this line was so horizontal & wound round in the vallies in so straight |155| a direction as to resemble the high water mark on a beach.—

General

Observations

Vegetation

(a)

(b)

1076.

984. 9858

(not spirits)

The extreme dampness of the climate favours the coarse luxuriance of the vegetation; the woods are an entangled mass where the dead & the living strive for mastery.— Cryptogamic plants here find a most congenial site.— Ferns however are not abundant.— The Fuegians inhabit the same spot for many years; in one place I found 10 inches of fine vegetable mould over the layer of muscle [sic] & limpet shells, in consequence of this these mounds may be told at a distance by the bright green of the vegetation.— amongst the concomitant plants are mostly the wild celery, scurvy grass, black-currant tree; these, although not used by the Fuegians, are the most useful plants in the country & seem placed to attract attention.—

 

[notes added later] (a) The appearance of these woods forests brought to my mind the artificial woods at Mount Edgecombe7: the greeness of the bushes & the twisted forms of the trees, covered with Lichens, in both places are caused by strong prevalent winds & great dampness of climate.— (b) It would be difficult to find a spade-full of earth in Tierra del F, excepting in the spots where the Fuegians have long frequented, & on the remnants of ancient alluvial formations, described in Geological Notes; but even this

[page] 133 TIERRA DEL FUEGO JAN & FEB 1833

latter ground is, in some places, covered with peat, as in Goree Sound.— [notes end]

[CD P. 155 continues]

Peat

[illeg. note

in pencil]

 

Peat

 

In every part of the country which I have seen, the land is covered by a thick bed of peat.— It is universal in the mountains, above the limits [of] the Beech; & everywhere, excepting in the very thickest parts of the woods it abounds.— The beech often grows out of it & hence great quantities of timber must annually be imbedded.— It flourishes It increases most on the sides of hills & is I think of great thickness: the only section I saw varied from 6 to 12 feet. In more level sites the surface is broken up by numberless pools, which have an artificial appearance, as if dug for the sake of peat.— These are often close to each other & yet of |156| different levels, showing how impervious the peat is when acted on by water.— At the bottom of these shallow pools there is a quantity of brown flocculent matter in which Confervæ flourish & very little moss.—

1075

& 976

(not spirits)

 

 

(1073)

not spirits

 

The great agent which forms the peat is a small plant with thick leaves & of a bright green colour (No. 976)9.— The plant grows on itself; the lower leaves die, but yet remain attached to the tap root.— this latter penetrates in a living state to the depth of a foot or two.— & from the surface to the bottom the succession of leaves can be traced from their perfect state to one almost entirely disorganized.— Subterranean streams are common, these & the pools of [illeg. word in pencil] water by breaking up the upper peat & dissolving macerating the rotten leaves helps to form the more compact parts.— Specimen (1073) is cut out of the surface of a peat Bog: This above plant is eminently social, few others grow with it: some small creeping ligneous plants bearing berrys (978 &c); another in its form, habits & colour strikingly resembling the Europæan heaths (1077); & a third equally resembling our rush (1045); It would appear to be necessary under similar circumstances, the landscape should possess the same form & tints.— These latter plants & some others doubtless add their efforts: But the plant (976) & not any sort of moss is the main agent; On the sides of hills where it mostly abounded the surface of the peat was often convex.— By these gradual changes of level, water rests on different parts & thus completes the disorganization of the plant & consolidates the whole.— |157|

General

observations

(b)

 

Upon considering these facts, which show how inhospitable the climate of Tierra del is, we are the more surprised to hear from Capt. King10 that Humming birds have been seen in Sts of Magellan sipping the flowers of the Fuchsia & Parrots feeding on the seeds of the Winters bark.— I have seen the latter South of the parallel 55°.— [note (b)] The tropical resemblance given by these birds & Plants is continued in the sea by the stony

[page] 134 TIERRA DEL FUEGO JAN & FEB 1832

branching Corallines, the large Volutans, Balanidæ & Patelliform shells.— [note ends]

Zoology
(a)
1002
not spirits

Amongst the Mammalia, excepting Cetaceæ & Phoceæ, I saw a Bat; 2 sorts of mice; one of which I have (1002); [note (a)] The other mouse was of much larger size: but I could not catch it: [note ends] a Fox & a sea otter; & in Navarin island there were plenty of Guanaco.— the presence of many of these animals in these islands is accounted for by the probability of there being at one time an extended formation of Alluvium which connected them. Vide Geology11:—

 

Amongst birds (I refer more to numbers of individuals than species) Certhia was abundant in the woods; also Fringilla, Sylvia & Merlus: On the sea:— Petrels & Albatrosses, especially the first, exceedingly numerous:— Gulls not nearly so numer. or [illeg.]. I never saw any reptiles; Jemmy Button5 states there are none.—

526

 

General

Observations

Besides small fresh water fish (526), I have good reason to believe the genus Salmo exists:— There a few land shells; Succinea in the damp climate is common; in the pools I did not find any molluscous animals: the only inhabitants were Colymbetes & some small Hirudo's.— In the sea.— Capulus, Crepidula & Fissurella are all abundant.— the latter of great size.— But of all the Gasteropods: Cyclobranche, Patella & Chiton, in numbers of individuals & species are |158| beyond everything numerous.— The Chitons reach up to a large size.

Crustaceæ

497:541

 

Amongst Crustaceæ: Cymothoades12 (Leach) take the lead.— the numbers of the genus Sphæroma are wonderful.— under every stone amongst the rocks at low water they swarm like bees: I was immediately reminded of the numbers of Trilobites in the Transition limestones:—

Insecta

(b)

 

(a)

 

In the Coleoptera the only genera which are abundant are some few Harpalidous & some few Heteromerous — they are chiefly found under stones high in the mountains (such as Katers peak, 1700 feet high) together with Lycosa (Arachnidæ): scarcely any other Coleoptera, excepting a few Curculios are found: The tribe of Cycliques (Lat:) so characteristic of the Tropics is here absent; [note (a)] I must except one alpine Haltica. [note ends] whilst Harpalidous insects, as I have noticed are common.— In the hottest part of the year, the mean maximum (during 37 days) was 55.34 & the thermometer often rose to about 60°.— Yet there were no Orthoptera, few diptera, still fewer butterflies & no bees, this together with absence of flower feeding beetles (Cycliques) throughily convinced me, how poor a climate, that of Tierra del F is.— [note (b)] It will be curious to ascertain whether the plants of Tierra del bespeak as high a Latitude as many of the above facts point out.— [note ends]

[page] 135 TIERRA DEL FUEGO JAN & FEB 1833

[CD P. 158 continues]

 

(c)

1834

The sea is very favourable to the growth of Hydrophites.— Here grows Fucus giganticus in 25 fathom water:— the little pools abound with small species, almost to the exclusion of Corallines.— Corallina was present: & some species of Clytia (or allied to it) grew on the F Giganticus — They were the same species which I found floating in Lat 45°: V P 135.— [note (c)] The immense number of encrusting Corallines form the strongest exception to this remark.— I think a comparison of the Corallines of this country & England (nearly similarly situated) would be interesting in showing a very wide difference in the leading forms.— [note ends] |159|

1 Capt. Philip Parker King R.N. was in overall command of H.M.S. Adventure and H.M.S. Beagle during their voyage to South America in 1826-30. His measurements of the temperature when the Adventure was anchored at Port Famine on the Straits of Magellan during May-July 1828 were cited in Narrative 1:582-5.

2 See John Frederic Daniell, Meteorological essays and observations. London, 1823.

3 Benjamin Bynoe, Surgeon on the Beagle during 1831-36, had been the ship's Assistant Surgeon for the voyage of 1826-30, when he had visited the western part of Tierra del Fuego.

4 See Leopold von Buch, Travels through Norway and Lapland . . . Translated . . . John Black. With Notes . . . by Robert Jameson. London, 1813.

5 Jemmy Button was the Fuegian boy who had been taken back to England by Capt. FitzRoy in 1830, and was now being returned to his tribe on Navarin Island.

6 See Beagle Diary pp. 121-2.

7 Mount Edgecombe is an estate in Cornwall overlooking Plymouth Sound.

8 See Plant Notes pp. 167, 170, and Beagle Diary p. 129.

9 For an identification of the species of plants involved in formation of the peat see Plant Notes pp. 164-70.

10 See Narrative 1:134 for Capt. King's account of humming birds seen at Port San Antonio on the Straits of Magellan in the middle of April 1828 shortly before the winter had set in.

11 CD is here referring to his Geological Diary and Geological Notes (CUL DAR 32-38), which are at the Cambridge University Library.

12 Isopoda. The Cymothoidae are ectoparasites of fish, and Sphaeroma is a small marine crustacean similar to a woodlouse.

 

[CD P. 159 commences]

Creusia1

574

Shell formed of four quadrilateral pieces overlapping each other, with no calcareous support.— Operculum bivalv<e> each may be considered as half an oblong, one end of which is bent obliquely at right angles: the line shows the direction of the bend: at the exterior corner there is a tooth (where a dot is) [see sketch in margin]: it is at this end that the tail or Cirrhi are protruded.— Animal, to begin with the tail, there are here seated

[page] 136 EAST FALKLAND ISLAND MARCH 1833

(b)

 

3 pair of the usual bifid articulated arms, approximal, the central ones longest from which they gradually decrease in length on each side; stipes formed of 2 joints: between the central pair is the trunk (there is no projecting joint as described by me in Pyrgoma). behind, or beneath as relates to position of the animal is a longitudinal anal orifice:— 4th & 5th pair of arm are short, thick, conical, articulated, seated together & between 3 first pair & the mouth; 5th pair rather shorter than the 4th, as also the 6th than the 5th. This 6th pair is seated in same line as other but at base of mouth; this pair is remarkable by the internal branch being finer & nearly twice as long as the external.— it reminded me of the external "pied machoire" of the Crustaceæ.—

 

 

N.B. (a)

Mouth seated on a projection.— Part answering to the Labium (lower lip) formed of two a pair of closely approximate simple, short arms, with ciliæ. Labium formed of a hard plate, bilobed, & bent into an angle, so as rather to form half of the gullet:— within these organs are the pair of mandibular organs [sketch in margin], which work lie vertically & parallel to the side of the Labium.— the one nearest Labium seen vertically is an elastic plate enlarged at extremity, truncate & fringed with spines. |160|

[notes for this page have been crossed through vertically]

(a)

 

On the Labium [illeg. insertion] or plate are attached two very small flattened arms or palpi with ciliæ, which fringing the sides of Labium close the mouth above.

(b)

March 31st

 

Upon reexamining the animal, I suppose it is a Conia, but the descriptions are very imperfect; the anterior palpi are closely approximate & seated on a footstalk, the front part of which is flattened & closing the mandibular organs acts as a Labium as lower lip.— the bilobed organ has (called upper lip Labium) has within it a projection, which more truly acts as a labium.— the posterior palpi axis at base of mandibles, & continued & united along the edges (with bristles) of bilobed pieces, terminates as described in a flattened organ.— The generative trunk lies behind on right side of body & passes backwards between 5th pair & external pied-machoire, & thus separates the two groups, the cirrhi & Trophi.— If we consider the bilobed organ, as palpi or pied-machoire altered, we shall [word missing] 5 pair of such organs & mandibles; also these 5 pair of bifid cirrhi or legs.— It is impossible not to be struck with the analogy with the Crustaceæ as Schizopedes.— (Generative trunk with bunch of few setæ at extremity & few scattered ones of sides.) [notes end]

[CD P. 160 commences, entry again crossed through vertically]

Creusia

They more resemble the Maxilla of Crustaceæ: the other pair is stronger|161|

[page] 137 EAST FALKLAND ISLAND MARCH 1833

(a)

 

 

 

(a)

 

 

 

& larger & true mandibles, hard with 5 strong teeth; superior one very large & decreasing in size to the 5th, which is rather a crenated surface.— So that of the Trophi, we have 5 4 pair of articulated organs, & the part called Labium.— Of the arms (legs or Cirrhi) then [illeg. deletion] 6 pair; one of which rather acts as external palpi for the mouth & indeed the intermediate ones I should think conveyed food from the beautifully constructed extreme 3 pair to the mouth: The body is attached behind the mouth to the Operculum: The trunk arises from the very extremity of body, where it is much contracted, varies in length.— sometimes 3 times as long as the arms, elastic with fine rings, tapering with internal tube.— appears to lie on right side of body:— This animal would be a Creusia of Cuvier in Dic Class.— The habitat is remarkable, it was found but little below high water mark, about 15 inches at most, & in a stream of fresh water.— In a note attached to (No 323 in spirits) I mention a Creusia found at M: Video under similar circumstances.— & that the animal then would expand its arms in fresh water.— These facts would appear conclusive that this genus of Balanidæ is especially fitted for brackish water, & for a certain time even for fresh.— At M: Video I thought the habits of the individual species had been changed gradually by the less salt water of the Plata.— but here there was no gradual change:— the water emptied itself over rocks into the sea, & on these rocks the Creusia was attached.—

[note for CD P. 160 entered a few days later, but not crossed through]

(a)

March 31st

590

[illeg.

pencil

note]

There is a common sort in the sea, exceedingly like this one in general habit.— but differing in the operculum being quadratic.— Within there is the same external tooth, & in addition several processes.— the suture is simply serrated.— The sutures of the < >shell are plainer.— The animal is precisely the same in every most minute part even of the mouth.— It is clear if the bivalve & quadrivalve operculated shells are not the same species.— they are same genus.— The only difference is the sutures being united & processes connected with articulation removed; yet this character is used as essential amongst the Balanidæ! — Can the fresh water have any action in obliging the animal to keep its operculum more throughily closed?— There were however some quadrivalve ones near the Bivalve:—

1 CD rejected his initial identification of the shell as the barnacle Creusia of Cuvier, and plumped instead for Conus, which belongs to order Neogastropoda and superfamily Toxoglossa, and is a poisonous turret snail. But his doubts remained, and he finally reverted to Creusia once more in his entry of Specimen 574 in the Spirits of Wine List. When he concluded a few days later that specimens 574, 590 and 591 all belonged to the genus Creusia, he was still wrong, because writing much later in his monograph on barnacles, he stated on p. 469 of Cirripedia that the commonest species in the Falkland Islands was Chthalamus scabrosus, and on pp. 375-82 mentioned no species of Creusia from this area. However, in 1833 he had not yet made himself familiar with the niceties of distinguishing

[page] 138 EAST FALKLAND ISLAND MARCH 1833

between some of the most closely related members of the suborder Balanomorpha.

 

[CD P. 161 commences: entry and accompanying notes crossed through vertically up to middle of CD P. 163]

Corallina1

Linn:

(inartic-

ulata)

585 & 1153

(not spirits)

(b)

(z)

(a)

Coralline, stony, brittle, inarticulate, encrusting rocks & sending forth lichen-shaped thin expansions.— Growth concentric, shown by lines & changes in the tint of colours; Colour darkish "crimson red" or that of Corallina officinalis: a section shows that the superior part is composed of horizontal layers of a stony & slightly coloured substance.— the other softer, white, & of a more granular nature:— the inferior surface is rougher (for attachment) & paler coloured than the upper: the border or extremity of the expansions is thickened; edges semipellucid, covered with a delicate transparent membrane, & containing a soft granular cellular tissue; in all these latter respects, the similarity of this with Corallina & its subgenera is very great.— On the superior surface, & in the more central parts, in some pieces there are numerous small cones or paps, with a minute circular orifice at the summit.— They precisely resemble those described at P 56 in an Amphiroa.— [note (a)] The ovule-bearing cones are very un-common; I only found one specimen with them, & out of many cones which I examined only three had the regularly formed ovules: The rarity of this generative process may perhaps explain the general ignorance of method of propagation in Corallina.— [note (b) added later] For similar particulars, in an Halimeda2, V 211. [notes end]

[CD P. 161 continues with a paragraph in square brackets not crossed through]

 

3[These cones are formed in any point by a separation in middles of the superior stony layers; & the upper part gradually assumes the conical shape.— At first they have no aperture, when it first appears it is small; but in time increases to a diameter of 1/500th of inch; after this epock, the cone becomes white & brittle & its surface exfoliates.— the concavity on which the younger ones rest is partially filled up & it is clear the little cone has performed its office in the economy of Nature.—]

 

Corallina

(z)

If the cone is removed in one of the early ones, the bottom is concave & on it there is a layer of the pulpy cellular |162| tissue or granular matter, such as occurs at the extremities of the branches.— this lies on the white softer substance of the Corall.— so that the stony layers are perforated.— At a later age, the granular matter is collected into [semi-opake spherical or oval bulbs, with a transparent case: these are slightly coloured & between 30 & 40 in number.— in diameter 1/500th of inch.—] They are ovules & the cones ovaries.—

 

The simplicity of this generative process is shown by its the similarity to

[page] 139 EAST FALKLAND ISLAND MARCH 1833

 

(a)

ordinary growth.— the external border is thickened, composed of precisely a similar substance & enveloped in a transparent membrane; it may be considered as formed by a juxtaposition of cones, or rather the cone & ovules owe their origin to the creative power acting on a point where the growth or extension cannot take place, hence the granular matter is enveloped in a spherical case & seeks an exit through the stony layers instead of increasing laterally.— [note (a)] It is to be remembered that the cones do not occur near the margin, where the Corall is growing.— [note ends] In some specimens these cones were absent; in others there were white spots with the surface exfoliating, & there I imagine cones to have existed.—

 

Corallina

(inarticulata)

The Corall abundantly coats the rock in the pools left at low water. According to Lamouroux4 it would be in the III Sous Ordres Corallinées inarticulees; but from the description of genus Udotea it cannot belong to it.— Upon reading over description of Amphiroa P 56, it will [be] evident how very close a relationship in manner of growth & cones |163| there exists between that Corallina & this. The absence of articulations is the chief difference: I think we may hence expect that the propagation in the whole family Corallinaæ will be somewhat similar to the one described.— I have never been able to perceive any Polypus or true cell, & till I do I must rank these beings as belonging to the Vegetable rather than animal world.— the simplicity of the reproduction would seem rather to favor this idea.— I suspect the strongest argument against it is the a false analogy of form with respect to Corallines; in this case however there is a stronger one to Lichens.

[notes added later for P. 161]

(z)

3557

 

N.B.

3557

 

On tidal rocks at King George's Sound, found a Corallina5 growing in nodules to a Granite rock: color such as is universal to the family in the Atlantic & Pacifick oceans, in T. del Fuego & Australia: consists of numerous, strong, cylindrical, inarticulate parallel small columns, partly adhæring one to the other. Many of them show an obscure globular necklace like structure, centre of each column white.— Some of the smaller & irregular arms were covered on all sides by the generative bladders. These in every segment resembled those already described: the older ones scale of with in form of an irregular particle of white crust.— Size of each pap or bladder rather more than the square of 1/100th of inch & the circular aperture has a diameter a shade larger than 1/1000 of inch.— I was not fortunate enough to extract an ovule: This Corallina is evidently a connecting species, most closely allied to the division of Inarticulatas.—

I saw in a delicate transparent articulate Corallina that the branch appeared to be composed of several hollow transparent ligamentous vessels, which in the solid parts between the articulations were filled up with calcareous granular matter.— Species with flattened joints & symetrical lateral

[page] 140 EAST FALKLAND ISLAND MARCH 1833

branches. [note ends]

(z)

[note (z) for CD P. 162] Decandoelle & Sprengel6 Botany P. 92 Consider that propagation in Lichens & Confervæ is a kind of budding & not true generation. In Halime[d]a & in the Inarticulatæ such certainly I think is the process.— In the method described in Corallina of Hobart town of the extremities of branches being "laid" in branches of trees, & when from the foliaceous expansion buds appeared, perhaps in this method we see the only kind of propagation known to this genus, in which the bladder-formed cones have not been discovered.— [note ends]

1 Corallina inarticulata (Specimens 585 and 1153) is the coralline alga Amphiroa exilis Harvey. See Plant Notes pp. 203-6.

2 Halimeda is a green alga (Chlorophyta). See Plant Notes pp. 194-5.

3 Square brackets inserted later by CD with a different pen.

4 See Lamouroux p. 27.

5 Another coralline alga, but precise species not identifiable. See Plant Notes pp. 197-8.

6 See Augustin Pyramus de Candolle and Kurt Polycarp Joachim Sprengel Elements of the philosophy of plants (Edinburgh, 1821).

[CD P. 163 continues]

Holuthuria

(a)

5861

(b)

Body cylindrical, transversely wrinkled, rather pointed at posterior extremity or anus:— length 1 & ½ inch: colour pale salmon: covered with 5 longitudinal irregular rows of (2 or 3 broard in each) long papillæ.— these rows extend whole length of body.— Mouth surrounded by 10 tentacula, these are unsymetrically branched & long.— much resembling a tree in growth.— Not uncommon under stones.— same as (522) in Tierra del F.—

[notes added later on back of page]

(a)

April 1st

5942

Holuthuria closely allied to last: body more elongated, coloured "peach blossom red", coriaceous.— Tentacula long, irregularly branched, [illeg] like.— On side of body generally used as attachment there are two clear longitudinal spaces clear of papillæ; but on each side they are thicker, hence look like three rows of papillæ. On back papillæ scattered irregularly.— There is a short smooth neck free of papillæ.—

(b)

Holuthuria (586) with short smooth neck with few papillæ; body coriaceous, transversely wrinkled. Bony collar round neck of œsophagus, simple, form of 5 double pieces, or 10, the alternate ones being slightly different.— the parts drawn rim only was white & calcareous, the intermediate parts cartilaginous.— Fig. collar cut open.—

One of the papillæ examined, shows its whole surface reticulated (rather

[page] 141 EAST FALKLAND ISLAND MARCH 1833

Port

Famine

June

1834

broard plates) with stony substance.— termination a saucer shaped depression.— I believe no sort of aperture: it is only a locomotive organ.— [notes end]

[CD P. 163 continues]

Sipunculus3

(allied to)

586

Body cylindrical, smooth, finely wrinkled, colour "yellowish brown", posterior extremity suddenly & much pointed; trunk about ½ length of body, total length between 4 & 5 inches. Mouth surrounded by several rows of small, short, flattened lancet-shaped tentacula, closely approximate so as to form a tuft.— Anus minute white speck at base of trunk; internal anatomy precisely as |164| described by Cuvier for true Sipunculus.— Body was exceedingly distended by water, so as when dead to squirt it out with force.— Animal was under stones in sandy mud.—

1 Dendrochirotida, Cucumariidae, sea cucumber, possibly Pseudocnus dubiosus leoninus Semper. The correct spelling of this animal, never used by CD, is Holothuria.

2 Same family, possibly Cladodactyla crocea Lesson.

3 Phylum Sipuncula, burrowing marine worm.

[CD P. 164 continues: next entry crossed through vertically]

Corallina1

(inarticulata)

1153

(not spirits)

This species somewhat resembles in appearance that of P (161). Corall, exceedingly hard, stony, compact; a section shows no horizontal layers & no great difference of hardness in different parts: is coated by thin layer of the soft cellular tissue, of which the cells are very minute.— The covering is so thin that it requires a microscope & lancet to procure any.— Superior surface coloured blackish "crimson red"; smooth, very regular:— expansions thick (about 1/10th or more), strong:— grows in large circular patches, when two interfere the junction rises in a crest; these were nearly the only ones which I could procure as specimens. Is not very common, chiefly distinguished from that of P 161 by the much greater thickness of expansions.— Amongst organized beings, few could be found which would show fewer of the signs of structure & life.—

Corallina2

(inarticulata)

1153

(not spirits)

This, as that of P 161, most abundantly coats the rocks, or growing on itself forms bosses: in its structure it is likewise closely related, although different in external form.— Corall mamillary, composed of numerous small oblong pieces, with globular heads; these often grow into each other & are always close together, so that the surface is very irregular. the summit of each

[page] 142 EAST FALKLAND ISLAND MARCH 1833

 

Corallina

(inarticulata)

nearly all its rounded heads is marked by an irregular line or suture, as if originally formed by the |165| junction of two pieces; colour pale with faint tint of purple.— Structure same as others, central parts of nearly uniform hardness; external coat of cellular tissue (or granules, for I am not yet sure whether each hexagon is a cell or grain) is thin, (but thicker at summits), but composed of rather larger cells, than the other species: If that of P 161 from its figure called to mind the Lichen which grows on rotten wood: this is equally like to a dry crumbling sort which grows on stone.—

Corallina3

(true)

1143

(not spirits)

 

Corallina

(true)

 

(Vide infr`) |

|

|

|

Trichotomous, joints nearly cylindrical; those which give off branches triangular. others round; articulations semi-pellucid; colour same as usual, grows in small, low, tufts:— A longitudinal section of extreme part of limb gives following appearance: beneath a thin transparent coat is a mass of cellular tissue (such as so often described) & within this, parallel longitudinal darker coloured fibres surrounded on all sides by the cellular tissue: the extremities of these follow the same arched line as the external surface, & it is probably by the successive hardenings of these that an occasional appearance of concentric lines is seen in a section of older joint limb.— At base of ultimate limb, the outside part first becomes stony:— A section of old limb gives first a very thin coat of cellular tissue, & I think the external transparent membrane.— then then a semi-pellucid hard stony case, which by the appearance in microscope appears to be part of cellular tissue of young extremity filled |166| up with stony matter; the lines are rather transverse in it.— the central part is white, softer, yet calcareous & with longitudinal lines; this is clearly the horny fibres of extremities also hardened.— The distinction between the central & external stony parts is best seen in the penultimate limb.— as the external case becomes perfect before the former.— The connection between the whole Coralline must chiefly be carried on by the external soft cellular tissue:

The articulations have not much motion, & that must only be from increased elasticity: within these is a largish cavity, with arched roof & filled with a soft substance, which I imagine to be the central mass, not lapidified:—

I am convinced that it is out of the question to suppose these beings have any connection with Polypi.— What claims have they to be considered as animals?—

 

 

At the articulations the stem is contracted & the external stony case bends in & is not continuous with that of the adjoining limb.— A Section gives the appearance of a cavity; but is really formed of a globular mass of tough semi-pellucid inelastic matter. This at its base unites with the central softer stony part, & above articulates into an arched cavity in the next limb.— hence motion is tolerably free.— |167|

1,2 Coralline algae related to Amphiroa, but Specimen 1153 has not been specifically identified

[page] 143 EAST FALKLAND ISLAND MARCH 1833

in Plant Notes pp. 186-206.

3 Specimen 1143 is preserved in the Herbarium of Trinity College Dublin as Corallina officinalis Linn., the coralline alga Amphiroa caloclada Dne. See Plant Notes pp. 191-4.

[CD P. 167 commences]

Balanus1

Linnæ:

591

 

Shell depressed quadrivalve: base membranous with narrow calcareous rim: externally rough, irregular.— Operculum quadrivalve, suture doubly serrated.— [Sketch in margin] within plain, & no external tooth. Animal,

with 4 pair of the usual bifid articulated cirrhi (like the three pair of animal P 159): 5th pair short strong.— Then the generative trunk passes on right side backwards, it is rather short & rings plainly marked on it.— External pied machoire with equal arms.— Maxillæ with the truncate spinous edge irregular: Mandibles with superior tooth not larger than others, than in regular proportion.— In other respects mouth agrees well with animal P 159.— Mouth, Trophi & Cirrhi all coloured dark greenish blue.— This is the commonest sort, which at low water mark covers the rocks.—

Synoicum2

595

 

 

 

 

 

Synoicum

(b)

April 2d.— Aggregate body, oblate spheroid, seated on a footstalk, which tapers at root to a fine point: gelatino-membranous, external parts yellowish transparent, internal reddish orange. Formed from the aggregate of numerous animals, the bodies of which point towards common centre or footstalk, hence the central ones are longest & others gradually decrease in length towards the sides.— They adhere side by side, & from each a narrow elastic ribbon goes proceeds to the footstalk & passes down to the root.— External surface slightly mamillated, with apertures each of which is common to the branchial cavity & other orifices of |168| each animal.— Orifice bean shaped, edge slightly fringed.— near to convex side, there is a white internal mark formed of collection of dots.— [note (b)] I do not know what to make of these white dots, which are universally present: they can easily be separated.— numbers also occur about the region of the stomach, but in this latter place they are not constant in numbers or site.— [note ends] this side is external to pole of sphere on inferior.— From these white marks & shape, consistence & colour, body resembles some fruit, such as a Strawberry: size of large specimen, breadth of sphere .8: height .6; length, including head & stalk, about 2 inches.— Grows on the leaves of the Fucus giganticus.— .separated

 

(c)

Body of animal may be is divided into two parts;— branchial cavity,— & abdominal viscera.— Branchial cavity bell-shaped, furnished with slightly tubular lip, on which are two rows of differently sized papillæ, about 16 in number (?): these project across the expanded aperture.— [note (c)] The papillæ resemble on a small scale those on the arm of an Asterias.— When the animal is undisturbed, the branchial cavity is widely open & a slight circulation of water may be perceived at the aperture.— [note ends] the

[page] 144 EAST FALKLAND ISLAND APIRL 1833

 

(a)

V. Pl: 7

¼ & 1/3 focal

distance

sides on mantle is [are] divided into two halves [note (a)] not separated or cut [note ends] by vessels running up on each side; in both there is a most beautiful & symetrical trellis work of branchiæ. They It consists of 5 concentric rows (or combs) of parallel filaments, which are vertical; they are attached at each extremity to mantle; in middle rows they are attached to bands.— Perhaps they might be described as four concentric bands with filaments above & below, but where opposite united.— The filaments towards each end of the comb decrease in size length.— When the animal is undisturbed the two upper & larger rows can only be seen, the others were discovered by difficult dissection; On these filaments, with a high power, a rapid vibrating motion is visible, as if of ciliæ, clearly a function of respiration.— |169|

[next two pages have been crossed through diagonally in pencil. CD P. 169 commences]

Synoicum

 

(a)

 

The vessels which divide the mantle & the two sets of trellis work; are very clear near the aperture but by no effort could I trace them to a junction with others of the viscera.— On the external side, a clear space runs up, to which the concentric bands unite.— & in this is a vessel, containing another, which runs up seems to unite to the white space by branchial aperture.— [note (a)] Is it impossible that this vessel is connected with base of tentacula or papillæ & from thence leads to mouth of œsophagus at base of branchial cavity.— animal would then live solely by absorption!? — it is the simplest method of joining the vessels: [note ends] I could not see any orifice.— I could trace these vessels down the side of cavity, but not across it, which direction it must pursue if it unites to any of the viscera.— On the anterior & superior side there is a minute vessel, which seems also to terminate in a yellow dot by branchial aperture & right opposite to white space.— the interval between this vessel & intestine is so small, that I have no doubt that it is the anus.—

 

 

X

 

 

Synoicum

Near base of Branchial cavity the œsophagus enters, & proceeding descending a short distance, bends nearly at right angles & passes under & through the liver.— forming together large dark reddish orange unequally sided oval.— the intestine taking a sweep ascends close by the œsophagus to near aperture of bran Mantle.— between the stomach & bend of intestine the heart lies, appears elongated & very transparent; pulsating strongly; I could trace the oscillations to within the Branchiæ, I imagine therefore the circulation is simple:— Resting on & beneath the intestine & stomach: there is a large sack of white pulpy matter, which generally often is divided internally into a star like mass.— it is in this state when most undeveloped. |170| When a little more advanced, the white matter is collected into globular ova.— from the centre of this sack a vessel descends & bending suddenly ascends close by the intestine & therefore on the outside of animal.— I could trace it as far as the end of intestine, but from these vessels & œsophagus all lying close between the trellis work of

[page] 145 EAST FALKLAND ISLAND APIRL 1833

branchiæ, I could by no effort trace them to their orifices.—

 

|

|

|

|

|

|

Synoicum

This last vessel is clearly the oviduct: I will first describe the most extraordinary ovules & then the process of generation.— From the first rudimentary globular collection of white matter, they pass into (2nd state) defined reddish orange spheres: 3rd with a point on one sides: 4th.— surrounded by clos a transparent band in which are transverse opake partitions: 5th a rounded oblong, with central dark mass enveloped by gelatinous transparent matter, furnished with a long tapering tail.— Tail has numerous transverse partitions, & in 4th state was curled around ovum.— it terminates by a fin[e] hair & in different times is either filled with homogeneous matter or opake partitions.— Total length .11; breadth of head .015, so that the tail is about 5 times as long as head.— it Ovule is capable of rapid vibrating motion & hence progressive: it is evidently a young Synoicum in search of a Fucus on which the tail will be fixed & become a footstalk: From appearance of head it is a single |171| animal.— This gemmule resembled in its habits some Infusoria3, as Circaria.—

 

 

 

 

Synoicum:

 

In the described ovarium, only those ova in 1st & 2d state are found.— For independent of this organ, there are, when the aggregate body abounds with ovules, two intestine shaped sacks, longer than the body & attached near to extremity of intestine, or supposed anus.— I never saw these except when with eggs. At lower extremity the ovule appears to be much in same state as in the true ovarium, but at the upper end or mouth they are in state 4th: & some even with when fused their tails uncurl: I should suppose that ovules pass down the oviduct & enter the two additional ovaria & there remain till ready to become independent animals.— In same proportion as the two additional ovaria contain many ova, the central one contains few & the whole animal becomes exceedingly shrunk; so that the aggregate body is of a darker reddish orange & appears to be composed of intestine shaped sacks with ova.— The number of eggs in each animal vary according to its size, so that those near the footstalk only contain a few, whilst the large central ones very many.— The ovules in same aggregate body were nearly in same state.— some with central ovarium only containing white pulpy matters, others filled with large bright coloured ovules: |172| Aggregate bodies of different sizes (therefore ages?) contained ovules; otherwise I should have thought from shrunk state of bodies that after parturition animals had died.— [pen changes] The footstalk is enveloped in strong membrane & consists of the elastic ribbons & some granular balls, the nature of which I am ignorant of, enveloped in gelatinous matter:

|

|

|

I have called this animal Synoicum, as in external characters being nearest, but it is evidently distinct.— In the anatomy the generation is very curious & one more instance of ovules having a motion of which the parent animal is not possessed.— the number of tentacula round edge of mantle, & the curious trellis work of Branchiæ are all remarkable facts.—

[page] 146 EAST FALKLAND ISLAND APIRL 1833

Plate 7, Figs. 5-10

|

|

|

|

Plate 7, Fig 5. represent, but stiffly drawn, an animal with branchial cavity expanded: tentacula about aperture: the vessels within branchiæ are disjoined from fault of observ: heart lies on under surface just by function of stomach & intestine, not (drawn): ova just formed: Fig 6 is the vessels which lead towards collection of white dots, with upper band of branchiæ of the two trellis works.— Fig 7. one whole set of trellis work expanded; miserably drawn, filaments longer & far more numerous & regular.— Fig: 8.— Ovule in 4th state: Fig: 9:— Ovule in 5th state.— Fig 10, piece of tail much magnified:— |173|

1 In footnote1 on p. 137 it has been seen that in his monograph CD said that the commonest barnacle in the Falkland Islands was Chthamalus scabrosus. It may also be noted that although on p. 136 he had commented on the strong affinities between barnacles and crustaceans, in his Specimen Lists he always classified barnacles as molluscs, being unaware until the end of the voyage of the discovery that had been made by J. Vaughan Thompson in 1830 of their metamorphoses.

2 Ascidiacea, a tunicate or sea squirt. CD has well observed, independently of its discovery by Milne Edwards a few years earlier, the brooding larvae typical of the animals in cold waters, and the way in which the tails of the tadpoles curve around the trunk. But it is their heads rather than their tails that become attached to their supports.

3 Infusoria are ciliated protozoa.

[page] 147 EAST FALKLAND ISLAND APIRL 1833

 

[CD P. 173 commences]

Holuthuria1

596

 

April 4th. Body very smooth, soft, with three rows of papillæ on under side & on back two sorts of low crests formed of more rudimentary papillæ united by a membrane:— 10 tentacula round mouth.— simple short, irregular but not much branched, or rather tuberculated: colour "dutch orange", often with much darker specks: when first taken out of water, quite shapeless:— Bony collar round œsophagus exceedingly rudimentary: there is a mere vestige of calcareous matter on upper rim.— the rest being cartilaginous:— there are 5 double pieces [sketch in margin]: at base of grand division is point of attachment for the longitudinal ligamentous band. 5 of these extend whole length of body & thus differ from Sipunculus.— Also intestine not spirally convoluted.— Found in great numbers between the roots of Fucus giganteus.—

Obelia2

(a)

597 &

1161 (not

spirits)

 

Obelia

Corall, stony, brittle tender, growing in mass specks [?] like incrustations of Fucus gigantes; polypiferous tubes, curved cylindrical growing in united groups, from 2 to 4 on stony plate, nearly in a direction from one centre; & pointing upwards nearly vertically; tubes & plate thickly covered with punctures; colour very faint yellow:— Polypus I only saw by dissection: tentacula 10 in number, fine simple, seated on a neck, which joins cylindrical body with central vessel.— nearly at base it contracts & is bent; perhaps lies in curved position in tube; body terminated by mass of reddish matter & above this (which is a very curious but certain fact) there was a collection of reddish grains, enveloped in transparent matter, which possessed a |174| rapid revolutionary motion; each separate grain might be seen with 1/3 focal D: revolving: when cut out of body they mingled with the water: the exact position of the ball seemed to vary & in one I thought there were 2 or 3, although only one with motion.— What is this, a heart? or preparation of ova?—

 

(a)

On same Fucus there was what appeared to be a different species of Obelia, only differing from the last in the puncture being smaller, colour white.— tubes not so high & generally united in rows, which, like fibres from the mid-rib of a leaf, branch off on each side; several of these leaves sometimes form a star: Both these species belong to Obelia of Lamouroux3:— Are very abundant:

[notes for CD P. 173 added later]

(a)

890

 

March 1834.— on Fucus leaves, in Ponsonby Sound, were minute specks of Coralline.— which perhaps may be same species as this in young state, when the punctures are not developed.— Arms 10(?), terminal red, viscus nearly sphærical, at one side small enlargement near junction of basal vessel of tentacula, evidently [illeg.] organ, as mentioned in note (a) to next

[page] 148 EAST FALKLAND ISLAND APIRL 1833

species.—

1834 May

971

I examined a small species of Obelia: its body has the true structure of the Flustraceæ: as this was one of the first I examined I am not surprised at overlooking the curved vessel with the (Liver?) attached at both extremities: it was probably ruptured in detaching the Polypus.—

[note for CD P. 174]

(a)

1834. AO.

 

March 1st. East entrance of Beagle Channel; there is an abundance of these white stars on the Fucus. highly polypiferous Polypus, with 10 or 12 arms, very delicate, only the arms were protruded; body resides in the tube: body len[g]thened cylinder, which near base (as described in other species) contracts & slightly bends & in extremity contains a red viscus is of an oval shape.— there is a central vessel.— just before the bend, this vessel seems to pass by another & smaller viscus also of a red color. (liver?) This same vessel or another conducts to the main terminal reddish mass; in this were two spots where rapid revolution of the contained fluid was evident.— one & the upper centre of motion was most energetic.— the site of both is close above the terminal viscus where the arms are extended; whole body moves.— [note ends]

[CD P. 174 continues]

Phocœna4

711

 

Body, above & before dorsal fin, depressed, before tail compressed & arched:— belly tapering gradually to tail: Head forming about an equilateral triangle, conical.— Upper part slightly "bombè": Outline of the junction of the upper jaw with head straight, but on each side junction there is a slight depression:— Eye with iris dark brown placed above & behind corner of mouth: Teeth slightly curved, placed regularly; in upper jaw 28, (on each side) in lower 27; the two most anterior teeth are in the latter lower jaw: lower lip projects beyond upper; Eye & breathing vent in same circle around head; concavity (or horns) of vent point towards anterior extremity of body: Dorsal fin posteriorly simply excised: Pectoral, placed rather below a line joining under lip & tail, posteriorly doubly excised. Tail, between extremities straight, with central deep division.

Phocœna

The specimen appeared to be of the common |175| size:

Length (following curvature of back) from

tip of nose to end of tail 5ft : 4 inches.—

From do to Anus 3 : 10.9

From do to anterior base of dorsal fin 2 : 6.5

From do . . . . . . . . . . . . pectoral . . 1 : 4.5

From do to eye 0 : 9.9

From do to vent (following curve of head) 0 : 10.7

[page] 149 COAST OF PATAGONIA APIRL 1833

From do to corner of mouth 0 : 7.9

Girth of body

Before dorsal fin 3ft : 0.6inch

. . . . pectoral . . 2 : 8.2

. . . . . . tail fin 0 : 7.8

Over the eyes 2 : 0

Length of dorsal fin following convex each edges 1ft : 0.5in

a perpendicular dropped from tip to the back 0 : 6.4inch

Length of pectoral following anterior or convex edge 1 : 2.8

Width of tail from tip to tip 1 : 4.5.—

 

(a)

 

Phocœna

 

 

 

Colour: beneath resplendent white, above jet black, most of junction the two generally shading into each other by grey: extreme of snout, edge of under lip, ring round eyes, & tail fin, jet black: dorsal & pectoral fins dark grey.— this latter colour is continued from corner of mouth to the pectorals; but above them there is an oblique white band, which gradually shades into a pale grey above the eyes.— Again the dark grey is continued from back in an oblique line to anus.— but within this tail part, there are two white & grey bands which run parallel to that above the pectoral; thus forming the diagonal white & grey bands on the side: the two posterior ones I should think would |176| occasionally coalesce & be subject to variation: [note (a)] There were several small Crust. Læmodipodes5 adhæring to the skin near to the dorsal fin: colour dark reddish brown with white spot near base of leg.— By mistake these were lapped [?] up & put into spirit without number being attached to them.— [note ends]

 

 

This specimen was a female & harpooned out of a large troop which were sporting round the ship in St Josephs Bay; Lat 42°.30′ S.— April 17th.— Vide drawing of animal by Capt.— Fitz Roy.—

1 Apodida, Chiridotidae, a sea cucumber, possibly Trochodota purpurea.

2 Not the thecate hydroid Obelia, but might be a calcareous hydrocoral of order Stylasterina. On the same Fucus, specimen 1161 (dry) in the George Busk Collection had in addition bryozoans listed as Porella margaritifera and Tubulipora phalangea. On specimen 1877 (dry) in the Busk Collection CD later found the same hydroid together with P. margaritifera and Diastopora tubuliporide.

3 Probably Obelia geniculata. See Lamouroux p. 81.

4 This porpoise was named by George Waterhouse Delphinus FitzRoyi in Zoology 2:25-6, where a lithograph after FitzRoy's watercolour was included. Specimen 711 was the head only of the animal, and the dimensions cited by Waterhouse were supplied by CD's measurements.

5 See A.-G. Desmarest Considérations générales sur la classe des crustacés (Paris, 1825) pp. 272-80.

[page] 150 MALDONADO MAY-JUNE 1833

[CD P. 176 continues]

 

Snakes taken at Maldonado for May & June.

Bipes1

608

Copied

Beneath white gradually shading into a light brown above, with four dark brown lines.— the 2 central ones being the broardest was caught near the water of a lake.— motions inactive.—

Coluber2

623 & 702

Copied

Above of a uniform blackish lead colour, with an opaline bluish gloss; beneath pale, at the junction of the two sorts of scales the gloss is least seen; differs from the following one in shape of scales, & proportional length of tail &c

Coluber3

624

Copied

The commonest species in this country; is it not same as taken at Bahia Blanca, reaches 3 or 4 feet long.— The first maxillary tooth is very large: by aid of microscope I saw a narrow deep groove running down on convex surface.— Is it for conveying poison?— Specimen of tooth is in pill-box (1320)

Coluber4

639 & 705

Copied

Beneath cream-coloured with irregular rows of blackish dots as if of interrupted chains; above all the scales, "yellowish" ½ "wood brown", with lateral darker band on each side; chiefly on anterior part of body, the interstices between scales are coloured in symetrical small spaces of white, "tile red" & black, (the latter most strongly marked), this gives a singular mottled appearance to the animal.— Inhabits not uncommonly the sand dunes.— |177|

[following entries are dated May 14th]

Limas5

Ferussae[?]

(a)

614

 

Body narrow, of a uniform black-lead colour, beneath & sides paler.— Superior antennæ short, thick, blunt, with terminal eye, same colour as body; inferior as usual, much shorter, rugose: Branchial orifice seated on right side of shield & about 2/3 from the its anterior margin.— Shield covering about half the body; leaving a little of the neck exposed when the animal crawls — on the shield there are parallel furrows, following its curvature:— tail moderately pointed; body length .1 inch, but slightly wrinkled, found crawling in a field near head of the R. Tapes.— North of Maldonado.— [note (a)] May 29th.— Found some more specimens crawling on plants in a very wet place; their length, colour, & general appearance the same, so that I have no doubt they are full grown:— body very narrow linear, when crawling .9 long & sup: antennæ (protruded) 1/12th of inch long.— [note ends]

1 Anguidae. Ophiodes vertebralis Bocourt.

[page] 151 MALDONADO MAY-JUNE 1833

2 Colubridae. Clelia occipitolutes Duméril.

3 Colubridae. Philodryas patagoniensis Girard.

4 Colubridae. Lystrophis dorbignyi Duméril.

5 Stylommatophora. Land slug.

[CD P. 177 continues: the entries up to p. 164 which follow were copied by CD with a number of small changes in Ornithological Notes pp. 214-25, and the majority of the birds were identified by John Gould in Zoology 3 as noted in brackets. A list of modern synonyms of Gould's names is given by Pete Goldie in Darwin 2nd edition, Multimedia CD-ROM, Lightbinders Inc., San Francisco, 1997.]

Ornithology

The following are a few scattered observations on the habits of various birds in the vicinity of Maldonado during the months of May & June.

Furnarius

rufus

(b)

Copied

No. (1200) is commonly called the oven bird, from the form of its nest.— this is composed of mud & bits of straw, & in shape about 2/3 of a sphere: within & much afterward is a large semicircular opening; within & fronting this there is a sort of partition which reaches nearly up to the roof, so as to form a sort of passage to within the nest.— The bird is very common, often near houses & amongst bushes, is active in its habits, & utters loud reiterated peculiar & shrill notes.— The nest is placed in the most exposed situation on the top of a post, stem of cactus or bare rock. [note (b)] Is now (end of May) working at its nest: it walks on the ground like a dove; & thus feeds on Coleoptera:— Is called "Casera" [copied as "Casita"] or house maker. [note ends] [listed as Furnarius rufus Vieill in Zoology 3:64, and see Ornithological Notes p. 214]

 

(1201) Icterus. Exceedingly abundant, in large flocks, generally making much noise, in habits resembling our starlings: Found also at R. Negro. [listed as Leistes anticus G.R.Gray in Zoology 3:107]

(c)

(1202) Anthus. resembling in most of its habits a lark, very common; not in flocks; alights on twigs:— [note (c)] Eggs, spotted & clouded with red. nest on ground, simple. Nor (1592) [note ends] [listed as Anthus furcatus D'Orb. & Lafr. in Zoology 3:85; numbered 1202? at NHM] *

 

Ornithology

(1203) Scolopax. flight irregular as in Europe; makes |178| a singular drumming noise as it suddenly stoops downwards in its flight; this it frequently repeats whilst flying round & round in a lofty circle.— [listed as Scolopax magellicanus King in Zoology 3:131]

 

(1204) Lanius. (I call all these birds thus, although I believe the greater number belong to Muscicapa, & this species is not very common.— Iris bright red coloured.— [listed as Xolmis nengeta G.R.Gray in Zoology 3:54]

[page] 152 MALDONADO MAY-JUNE 1833

(b)

(1205) Lanius.— very abundant, most beautiful; sits on a twig or thistle & habits like a true Lanius, but more quiet & not noisy.— [note (b)] the female has some grey on its back & shoulders. This & the foregoing bird seen to catch most of their insects in the air: they frequent the open camp & sit on thistle or twigs.— [note ends] [listed as Fluvicola azaræ Gould in Zoology 3:53]

 

(1206) Muscicapa. common, sits on thistles & habits like English fly catcher, but does not so generally return to same twig; also feeds on the turf; in stomach coleoptera, chiefly Curculios.— beak, eye-lid, iris beautiful primrose yellow:— [listed as Lichenops perspicillatus G.R.Gray in Zoology 3:51-2, numbered 1206D at NHM] *

 

 

(1207) Fringilla. common amongst the reeds in swamps, loud shrill cry: flight clumsy as if tail was disjointed: base of bill dusky orange.— [listed as Emberizoides poliocephalus G.R.Gray in Zoology 3:98; now No. B19600 at the Victoria Museum in Melbourne it carries CD's original label] *

 

(1208) Arenaria. on sea beach [not located in Zoology 3]

 

 

(1209) Fringilla. very abundant in large flocks, female specimen: male with head & throat gorge jet black, colours more brilliant.— [Chrysomitris magellanica, Zoology 3:97]

(a)

 

(1210) Alcedo. with long tail, frequents the borders of lakes; sits on a branch or stone & taking short flights dashes into the water to secure its prey.— as might be expected, it does not sit in that upright manner as the European Alcedo [Kingfisher], & the neither is the flight remarkably direct & rapid; but rather undulating as one of the soft billed birds.— [notes (a)] not uncommon; flight weak & short: note low like the clicking of two small stones: in stomach fish, internal membrane of stomach bright orange colour.— Stops in its flight & hovers over one place, as European, also when seated on twigs perpetually elevates & depresses its tail.— Exceedingly abundant on the R. Parana. said to build its nest in trees.— [notes end] [Ceryle americana, Zoology 3:42]

(c)

(d)

 

(1211) Icterus pecoris, common in flocks, often with Icterus (1201); frequently alights on the back of cattle: in the same flock there are frequently many brown specimens (1212).— are these one year birds as amongst European starlings?— Females? |179| [note (c)] A flocking, when basking in the sun, in a hedge. Many of them sing, but the noise is most curious; resembling bubble of air passing through water from small orifice & rapidly, so as to give an acute sound. I at first thought it was a frog.— [note (d)] egg snow white. Found at Bahia Blanca [notes end] [this parasitical bird was listed as Molothrus niger Gould in Zoology 3:107-

[page] 153 MALDONADO MAY-JUNE 1833

8, and as explained in Journal of Researches pp. 60-2, is closely related to Molothrus pecoris of North America]

[CD P. 179 commences]

Ornithology

(d)

 

 

(1213) Lanius with a long tail; very active in its habits, in its motions expands its fan tail in same manner as English magpie: is exceedingly abundant:— often near houses, from at which it feeds on the meat hung up & chaces away other small birds.— harsh note: generally in thickets. [notes] (d) Besides the harsh note this bird has a short warbling song: & is the most musical of any I have heard in this country: yet it only deserves the name of song relatively to the other birds:— More generally frequents thickets & hedges; [added later] (d) August 10th.— Shot at R. Negro specimen (1461).— Inhabiting wild desert plains: manners apparently rather different, wilder, does not seem to use its tail so much.— Alights on summit of twig & enlivens by a very sweet song the dreary plain.— Song resembling the sedge-warbler, but more powerful.— some harsh notes & some very high ones intermingled with a pleasant warbling.— Called by the Spaniards Callandra.— Also found at St Fe Bajada. [notes end] [from Zoology 3:60, specimen (1213) appears to have been the mocking bird identified by John Gould as Mimus orpheus, NHM 1855.12.19.227, while specimen (1461) was the closely related Mimus patagonicus] *

 

(1214) Limosa. legs yellow; shot near a lake [? listed as Totanus flavipes in Zoology 3:129]

 

(1215) Sylvia. shot in a Garden.— [possibly the specimen of Trichas velata identified in Zoology 3:87]

(c)

 

(1216) Lanius. exceedingly abundant, in habits generally like a butcher bird; also I have often seen it hunting a field by fluttering in one place as a Hawk & then proceeding onwards: it does not, however, stoop so suddenly.— it often frequents the neighbourhead of water, & will in one place remain like a King fisher stationary; it thus catches small fish which come near the margin.— In the evening this bird seats itself on a branch & repeats continually a shrill rather agreeable note without any alteration; & which somewhat resembles some articulate words.— [note (c)] flight undulatory; head as if weighed down by the bill.— When hovering much resembles Hawk: [note ends] [listed as Saurophagus sulphuratus Swains in Zoology 3:43]

(e)

 

(1217, 1218) Xanthornus. common in large flocks.— [note (e) added later] Found at Bahia Blanca [note ends] [listed as Xanthornus flavus G.R.Gray in Zoology 3:107; labelled 1217D at NHM] *

[page] 154 MALDONADO MAY-JUNE 1833

[CD P. 179 continues]

 

(1219) Psittacus. common in small flocks; feeds on the open plain; there is also in this country a wood-pecker: one would not expect to find these two climbers common in a country where there are no trees.— 2500 said to be killed in one year on corn land near Colonia. build conjugating in trees. vast heap of sticks form joint nest; many in islands of R. Parana [listed as Conurus murinus Kuhl in Zoology 3:112]

(b)

 

(1220) Turdus? in small flocks; feeding on the plain, in its flight & habits resembling our field-fares.— [notes (b)] Hops, not walks: in stomach seeds & ants: iris rich brown: (b) I have seen this bird at Bahia Blanca; pursuing & catching on wing large Coleoptera.— [notes end] [listed as Xolmis variegata G.R.Gray in Zoology 3:55]

(f)

 

(1221) Himantopus. legs rose pink.— [note (f)] This bird is very numerous in the swamps & Fens between Sierra Ventana & B. Ayres: its appearance is by no means inelegant when walking about in shallow water, which is their proper position, wrongly accused of inelegance.— Cry curiously alike to a little dog barking while it hunts.— at night often paused to discriminate [note ends] [listed as Himantopus nigricollis Vieill in Zoology 3:130]

(a)

 

(1222) Furnarius(?) common amongst the sand dunes. a quiet little bird.— I do not believe this bird is found South of R. Negro.— [notes] (a) also frequent in the camp: walks, but not well: in stomach Coleoptera, chiefly Carabidous insects.— (a) When disturbed flies but a short distance; set down alights near bushes; is quiet & tame; is it a Furnarius? if so, habits very different from the active habits of "rufus".— (a) At certain times it utters a peculiar shrill reiterated cry (I especially noticed it at Bahia Blanca) in this respect its habits are similar in a small degree to the noisy Oven bird.— (a) Dusts itself; in action in the evening; always very tame:— [notes end] [listed as Furnarius cunicularius G.R.Gray in Zoology 3:65-6, NHM 1855.12.19.57. See also extended entry in Ornithological Notes pp. 217-18. Labelled 1222D at NHM.] *

 

Ornithology

(Egg 1378)

 

(1223) Perdrix. very abundant; does not live in covies: runs more & does not lie so close |180| as an English partridge; note a high shrill chirp; but not so much of a whistle as the other greater species.— Flesh most delicately white when cooked; more than a Pheasant.

(1224) V P 193.— [listed as Nothura major Wagl. in Zoology 3:119, NHM 1855.12.19.34; labelled 1223D at NHM.] *

 

(1226) Certhia; does not use its tail much, but alights vertically on the reeds & other aquatic plants, which grow round the borders of lakes & which are

[page] 155 MALDONADO MAY-JUNE 1833

its resort:— iris rusty red:— [listed as Limnornis rectirostris Gould in Zoology 3:80, NHM 1855.12.19.77] *

 

(1227) in same habitat as last; is in small flocks: in its stomach various Coleoptera [not located in Zoology 3]

(a)

 

(1228) Sylvia Certhia. tailless: same habitat: conceals itself:— [notes] (a) Certhia: turns out not to be tailless: vide specimen in spirits (630). The tail would appear very liable to fall out; even in this specimen it is imperfect: there would seem a great degree of similarity in the construction of this birds tail & that [of] the two Certhias (1226 & ??), as there is in the loosseness of their attachment (a) iris of eye yellow.— legs pale coloured. [notes end] [listed as Synallaxis maluroides in Zoology 3:77-8]

 

 

 

(1229) Fringilla. feeding on the fruit of a cactus.

(1230) . . . . .

[listed as Aglaia striata D'Orb. & Lafr. in Zoology 3:97-8]

(c)

(1231) Muscicapa, not very common.— iris yellow; small eyelid, plain color [note (c)] Generally frequents the rushy ground near lakes: base of bill, especially lower mandible, bright yellow.— eyelid or cere blackish yellow: walks. [note ends] [listed as Lichenops erythropterus Gould in Zoology 3:52-3]

[CD P. 180 continues]

 

(1232) Emberiza, in very large flocks, feeding on the open plains on the ground: as they rise together, they utter a low shrill chirp.— [listed as Crithagra? brevirostris Gould in Zoology 3:88-9]

 

(1233) Turdus, not very common.— Note of alarm, like English one: [listed as Turdus rufiventer Licht. in Zoology 3:59, NHM 1855.12.19.235 as T. Albiventer] *

 

(1234) Fringilla: not common: in stomach seeds.— [listed as Pipillo personata Swains in Zoology 3:98; labelled 1234D at NHM] *

(b)

 

(1235) Rallus; easily rises on being disturbed.— [note (b)] Base of bill, especially lower mandible, fine gree<n> colour.— [note ends] [listed as Crex lateralis Licht. in Zoology 3:132]

 

(1236) Tringa: on the Camp [not identified in Zoology 3]

(e)

 

(1238) Picus, not uncommon; frequents stony places & seems to feed exclusively on the ground.— the bill of this one was muddy to the base:

[page] 156 MALDONADO MAY-JUNE 1833

in the stomach nothing but ants:— cry loud, resembling the English one, but each note more disconnected: also flight undulating in the same manner: they are generally by threes & fours together.— tail does not seem to be used: the tongue is in spirits (620) [note (e)] When it alights on branch of a tree, not vertically but sits horizontally [illeg.] very like common birds:— I have since seen it alight vertically; in old specimens a little red in corner of mouth, & tail seems to be used.— Also scarlet tuft on to head. [note ends] [listed as Chrysoptilus campestris Swains in Zoology 3:113-14.]

 

[Writing in Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1870, pp. 705-6, CD was rather indignant when in P.Z.S. 1870 p. 158, W.H. Hudson disputed the accuracy of the statement that this woodpecker, now named Colaptes campestris, often lives in the open plains far from trees, as does the related Colaptes pituis of Chile. See p. 244 and Collected papers 2:161-2]

(d)

(1239) Lanius; not common; cry rather loud, plaintive, agreeable.— |181| [note (d)] Iris reddish orange, bill blue especially lower mandible; there are specimens in which the narrow black & white bands on breast are scarcely visible, & what is more remarkable the under feathers of the tail are only most obscurely barred.— as this absence varied in extent, I imagine it to be the effect of age not sex.— [note ends] [listed as Thamnophilus doliatus Vieill in Zoology 3:58]

[CD P. 181 commences]

Ornithology

(1240) Muscicapa, in stomach chiefly Coleoptera [? listed as Alecturus guirayetupa Vieill in Zoology 3:51, NHM 1855.12.19.245] *

 

(1241) Fringilla, not common

 

(1242) Icterus in small flocks, in marshy places, not so abundant as the other species.— [possibly Molothrus pecoris, as discussed in Zoology 3:107-9]

 

(1243) Scolopax, differs from (1203) in being rather larger & different colours.— it is this bird which more especially makes the drumming noise, & is then very wild.— it is also more abundant.— [listed as Scolopax magellicanus King in Zoology 3:131]

(c)

(1244) Icterus, not common, marshy places, utters a loud shrill reiterated cry, with beak largely open;— tongue cleft at extremity.— [note (c)] the note of this bird is plaintive & agreeable & can be heard at long distance, is sometimes single, sometimes reiterated; flight heavy, is a much more solitary bird than most of its family.— I have since seen it in a flock, young birds with head & thighs merely mottled with scarlet:— [note ends]

[page] 157 MALDONADO MAY-JUNE 1833

[listed as Amblyramphus ruber G.R.Gray in Zoology 3:109-10]

 

(1245) Fringilla, does not appear to go in flocks [? Anthus correndera Vieill in Zoology 3:85]

 

(1246) Anthus, rare.— [? Cyanotis omnicolor in Zoology 3:86]

 

(1247) Fringilla. in small flocks, amongst bushes, females with very little yellow.—

 

(1248) Certhia. legs blueish [listed as Limnornis curvirostris Gould in Zoology 3:81, NHM 1855.12.19.56 and .74 type, labelled 1248D] *

(a)

 

(1249) Certhia [note (a)] iris bright yellowish orange, legs with faint tint of blue.— [note ends] [listed as Anumbius ruber D'Orb. and Lafr. in Zoology 3:80, NHM 1855.12.19.53] *

 

(b)

 

 

 

(1250) Certhia. legs blueish. These three birds together with (1226 & 1228) are very similar in their habits & general appearance; they all frequent & conceal themselves amongst the rushes & aquatic plants on borders of lake.— the tongue of all of them is bifid & with fibrous projecting points: legs all strong: iris of eyes all yellowish red.— tails have a somewhat similar structure; the note of those I have heard are somewhat similar, a rapid repetition of high chirp.— Yet how different their bills.— Are they not allied to the genus Furnarius?— [notes (b)] These numerous species & numerous individuals seem to play the same part in Nature in this country which Sylvia does in England, feeding on small insects which are concealed amongst the bushes & plants near the margin of water.— (b) When winged crawl with great activity amongst the thickets: tail curiously loose.— I have seen individuals of most of these species flying about without tails. [notes end] [listed as Limnornis rectirostris Gould in Zoology 3:80, NHM 1855.12.19.77 type, labelled 1250?. See also Ornithological Notes pp. 218-21.]

(d)

 

(1251) Certhia: have never seen more than this one; flight different from length of tail & it alighted on the summit of a thistle in an open & dryer site.— legs blueish, very pale: |182| [notes (d)] I have since seen others: they do not frequent the thickets on borders of lakes & especially differ in feeding on the ground.— Furnarius? S. Covington saw the nest of this bird (I recollect seeing one which I then believed to belong to the above). it was made of a vast number of sticks in a thick bush, in length between one & two feet (nearer 2), with the passage vertical, or up & down, making a slight bend both at the exit & entrance of nest itself, lined with feathers.— [listed as Oxyurus? dorso-maculatus Gould in Zoology 3:82, NHM 55.12.19.177] *

[page] 158 MALDONADO MAY-JUNE 1833

[CD P. 182 commences with entries dated May (latter half), June]

Ornithology

June

(1252) Certhia: legs pale colour, iris rusty red; exceedingly like to (1226), differs in that depth of lower mandible & curvature of upper; I scarcely believe it to be a different species, more especially as I found one specimen which was intermediate in character between them both.—

 

(1255) Certhia. only differs from (1248) in shape of bill. Upper mandible in the latter is longer, & the symphysis of the lower one is of a different shape in the two specimens: Are they varieties or species?

 

(1256) Certhia: iris yellow reddish; legs pale with touch of blue [? listed as Synallaxis ruficapilla Vieill in Zoology 3:79]

 

(1257) Parus (?) in very small flocks, habits like Europæan genus [of tit]: there is specimen (650) in spirits, because the beak of this one is imperfect.— [listed as Serpophaga albo-coronata Gould in Zoology 3:49-50]

 

(1258) Sylvia, not very common

 

(1259) Sylvia, uncommon, amongst reeds

(a)

 

(1260) (Furnarius. same genus as (1222)?) This is a common bird: & is always easily distinguished by the double reddish bands it shows in its flight.— Note like (1222) is a succession of high notes quickly repeated; they are here higher: flight similar; but does not walk:— not very tame: chiefly abounds on margin of lakes, amongst the refuse; but also common in the camp: in stomach nothing but insects & almost all Coleoptera; some of them were Fungi-feeders: often picks the dung of cattle. tongue of a bright yellow colour:— I know nothing of the nidification of this bird or of (1222); but it [is] clear they do not make nests like Fur: rufus; for they could not escape notice in such open countries as that of Falkland Isds. — Bahia Blanca & the country:— |183|

 

[note (a) added later] This species & (1222) make their nest by boring a hole said to be nearly 6 feet long in a bank of earth. A thick strong mud wall, round a house at Bahia Blanca, was perforated in a score of places by these birds, thinking it to be a bank or cliff: curious want of reasoning powers, since they were constantly flying over it.— The species (1222) I hear is found at Cordova, as I have seen it at St Fe.— I know not how much higher it is found.— M. Lisson is curious about the nidification of these birds.— They are called Casarita, as the Oven bird is called Casar<a>. the Spaniards have observed their alliance, although their nidification, the original cause of name, is different.— [note ends] [listed

[page] 159 MALDONADO MAY-JUNE 1833

as Opetiorhynchus vulgaris G.R.Gray in Zoology 3:66-7. There was a copy of René-Primevère Lesson's Manuel d'ornithologie (2 vols. Paris, 1827) in the Beagle's library]

[CD P. 183 commences with date now altered to June (early part)]

Ornithology

 

(1261) Lanius (?). Legs pale blueish; iris reddish: I have never seen but this one specimen: Coleoptera in stomach. [listed as Cyclarhis guianensis Swains in Zoology 3:58]

 

(1262) Fringilla. uncommon.— [listed as Ammodramus manimbè G.R.Gray in Zoology 3:90; No. B19633 at Victoria Museum, Melbourne]

 

(1263) (Charadrius) legs "crimson red"; toes leaden colour, under surface most remarkably soft & fleshy: in small flocks common in open plain; often with Turdus (1220); as they rise utter plaintive cry: iris dark brown:— [listed as Oreophilus totanirostris Jard. & Selb. in Zoology 3:125-6]

 

(a)

 

(1264) Rhyncops: base of bill & legs "vermilion red". This curious bird was shot at a lake from which the water had lately been drained & abounded with small fish.— They were in flocks: I here saw what I have heard is seen at sea: these birds fly close to the water with their bills wide open, the lower mandible is half buried in the water. they thus skim the water & plough it as they proceed: the water was quite calm & it was a most curious spectacle to see a flock thus each leave the on the water its track: they often twist about & dexterously manage that the projecting lower mandible should trip plough up a small fish, which is secured by the upper.— This I saw as they flew close to me backwards & forwards as swallows: they occassionally left the water, then the flight was wild, rapid & irregular: they then also uttered a harsh loud cry: The length of the 1st remige must be very necessary to keep the wing dry: the tail is most used in steering their flight: It appears to me their whole structure, bill weak, short legs, long wings, appear to be more adapted for this method of catching its prey than for what |184| M. Lisson states, viz. that they catch open & eat Mactræ buried in the sand.— [see R.-P. Lesson Manuel d'ornithologie Vol. 2, p. 385]

[CD P. 184 continues]

 

I have stated that at M: Video, when these birds are in large flocks on the sand banks, that they seem to go out to sea every night.— now if I were to conjecture, I should imagine that they fished at night, when their only method of catching prey would be by thus furrowing the water: it is probable that they eat other animals besides fishs; & many, for instance Crustaceæ, come to the surface chiefly at night.— It would be curious to note whether the lower mandible is well furnished with nerves as an organ of touch.— I imagine these birds fishing by day in a fresh water lake an extraordinary circumstance, & depended solely upon the myriads of minute fish which were jumping about.—

[page] 160 MALDONADO MAY-JUNE 1833

Crustaceæ, come to the surface chiefly at night.— It would be curious to note whether the lower mandible is well furnished with nerves as an organ of touch.— I imagine these birds fishing by day in a fresh water lake an extraordinary circumstance, & depended solely upon the myriads of minute fish which were jumping about.—

October

 

[note (a) added later] These birds are common far inland near the R. Parana. They rest on the grass plains, in same manner as in day time near the sea on mud banks: are said to stay whole year & breed in the marshes. One evening near Rozario, as it was growing dark, we were anchored in a narrow Riacho or arm; here there were many smaller fry, & I saw one of these birds rapidly flying up & down ploughing the water as described at Maldonado. Class. Dic. is aware of this habit.— I think these & other marine birds perhaps enter far inland the more nearly from its extreme flatness. [note ends] [the Scissor-beak Rhynchops nigra Linn. is discussed in Zoology 3:143-4, and it is mentioned that Richard Owen had dissected the head of a specimen brought home by CD in spirits, but had not found any special innervation in the lower mandible. See also Ornithological Notes pp. 221-3]

[CD P. 184 continues]

 

(1268) Larus. common in flocks near a lagoon

 

(1269) Ardea. not uncommon, also in Patagonia: hoarse cry: iris & cere, bright yellow — bill waxy colour.— [listed as Egretta leuce Bonap. in Zoology 3:128]

 

(1270) Owl. uncommon: in long grass, flew in mid-day:— [listed as Otus palustris Gould in Zoology 3:33. Labelled 1270D at NHM] *

 

(1271) Sylvia. (male of 1259?)

 

(1272) Palombus. uncommon.— [listed as Columbina strepitans Spix. in Zoology 3:116. Carries CD's own label numbered 1272 at NHM.] *

 

(1273) Perdrix — Scolopax. male of (1224)

 

(1274) Turdus [listed as Turdus rufiventer Licht in Zoology 3:59, NHM 1855.12.19.235, labelled 1274?] *

 

(1275) Alecturus; sits on a thistle, from which by short flights catches prey: in stomach Lycosa & Coleoptera. tail seems useless in its flight.— [listed as Alecturus guirayetupa Vieill. in Zoology 3:51, NHM 1855.12.19.245] *

[page] 161 MALDONADO MAY-JUNE 1833

(1276) Alecturus. is this different species?

 

(1277) Parus (?). most beautiful. amongst reeds. very rare.— Soles of feet, fine orange: |185| [note (a)] This bird is also found at Bahia Blanca [note ends] [listed as Cyanotis omnicolor Swains in Zoology 3:86]

 

 

[CD P. 185 commences]

Ornithology

 

(1293) Owl.— Excessively numerous. mentioned by all travellers as a striking part of the Zoology of the Pampas & live in burrows especially where the soil is sandy. in B. Ayres seem exclusively to use holes of the Biscatche: stand on the hillocks near their hole & gaze on you: are generally out in the day, but more especially in the evening.— flight remarkably undulatory: very frequently utter shrill harsh cries on the wing & occassionally hoot: in stomach of one, remains of mice. if I had not known by my traps, the extraordinary number of the smaller Rodentia, I should have been puzzled to have conjectured on what food such great numbers of owls could live on.— I saw one kill a snake; said often to do, cause of appearance by day. [listed as Athene cunicularia Bonap. in Zoology 3:31-2, labelled 1293D in NHM]

 

(a)

(1294) Vulture. very abundant around the Ranchos & towns: these small carrion feeders, in large flocks, finish what the host of large black ones (called Cuervos & Carranchas) have begun. Called Chimango. [listed as Milvago chimango in Zoology 3:14-15]

 

 

[note (a) added later] This Vulture & the Carranchas (saw a Carrancha at Cape Negro in the Sts of Magellan.—) frequent the dryest most sterile plains, & feed on the animals which dies; in such passages as between R. Negro & Colorado.— the (Gallinoras?) or black Cuervos always frequent damp places. I have seen them at the Colorado &c &c. they would seem to require animals in a more rapid state of putrefaction; & do not like picking dry bones.— it is natural for I believe they are are more abundant within the tropicks.— They are certainly pretty gregarious; on fine day which wheel at great height in graceful turns in bodies, uttering short cry.— clumsy near the ground, but run fast:— Carrancho utters very harsh cry like Spanish G & rr.— very crafty, steal eggs.— do not run fast, or soar, or gregarious.— build in cliffs if a person lies down in the plain, one of these birds will soon appear & patiently watch you with an evil eye.— (V P 239 & P. 260).— more particulars.—

 

[note continues with different pen] Chimango very abundant archipelago of Chiloe (known by diff name), will eat bread: often injures potatoe fields

[page] 162 MALDONADO MAY-JUNE 1833

by scratching them up & devouring them!.— Is a great enemy to the Carrancha: When the latter is seated on a branch, the Chimango flies in a semicircle backwards & forwards upwards & downwards, trying to strike at each turn the other. Will continue thus flying for a long time [note ends]

[CD P. 185 continues]

 

 

(1295) Water hen. bill fine green: legs brown, toes with much membrane.— [listed as Crex lateralis in Zoology 3:132]

 

(1296) Parus (?). common on the borders of lakes or ditches with water; frequently alights on the aquatic plants.— expands its tail like fan when seated on a twig.— [listed as Serpophaga nigricans Gould in Zoology 3:50]

 

(1297) Rare & beautiful Fringilla.—

 

(1340) Palomba.— legs coloured dull "carmine red". frequent the Indian corn fields in large flocks.— [listed as Columba loricata Licht. in Zoology 3:115]

 

(1349) Thalassidromus shot in the bay being driven in by gale of wind; walks on the water, very tame:— [listed as Thalassidroma oceanica Bonap. in Zoology 3:141]

 

(b)

 

(1382) Perdrix. much rarer than the other species: they are generally found several together; flesh [when cooked] snow white; are unwilling to rise, uttering a whistle shriller than in species (1223) whilst on the ground.— Generally frequent marshy places on borders of lakes.— In the common [continued on P. 185(bis), on back of P. 185] partridge, the habit of uttering a whistle before rising on the wing, is different from the English one.— [note (b)] Found also at B. Blanca. [note ends] [listed as Rhynchotus rufescens Wagl. in Zoology 3:120]

 

(1383) Ostralogus — Guritti Island

 

(1384) Sterna do do

 

(1385) Palomba.— exceedingly abundant, living in small flocks in every sort of situation.— [listed as Zenaida aurita G.R.Gray in Zoology 3:115]

 

(1390) Larus. soles of feet deep "reddish orange", legs & bill dull "arterial blood red". Breeds & frequents fens far inland. in B. Ayres: slaughtering

[page] 163 MALDONADO MAY-JUNE 1833

houses. [listed as Xema (chroicocephalus) cirrocephalum G.R.Gray in Zoology 3:142]

 

(1396) Falco. not very uncommon |186|

[CD P. 185(bis) having ended, CD P. 186 commences]

Ornithology

The following observations are necessary to complete the Ornithology in the neighbourhead of the town.— There are several sorts of Hawks which I have been unable to procure: of the carrion feeders there are three which I have not.— ??? The brown sort, which is so plentiful at the Falklands is not very common here, but the large black ones (here called Cuervo) are excessively so.— I have never seen the Turkey Vulture:

(b)

 

 

 

||

||

 

(c)

 

Amongst the Passerinæ my collection is very perfect: day after day & walking long distances impossible to procure any others.— Amongst birds which I have not, a sparrow (there was a specimen (683) & (1615)1 at M: Video.) this bird is excessively common.— often near houses; but not in flocks: they have not that air of domestication which the English ones have:— no more than the gorged Vultures, of a blackish color, resemble Rooks1. There also is a black bird with rusty back & long claw (903) common on sand dunes:2 Also Sturnus ruber, not very abundant: I have never seen the Cardinal The Cardinal is found here1: There is a larger species of Kingfisher, same as in T del Fuego1: a large partridge: Ostrich: a Vanellus3 (1602) with horn to wings is exceedingly abundant: is called "pteru-pteru" from their incessant & odious harsh cry: always seem to wish to attack you: give notice to all other birds of your approach.— [note (c)] The bird seems to hate mankind: shams death like the Peewit.— eggs pointed oval, brownish olive thickly spotted with dark brown. [note ends] There is a large sort of Water Hen: There are some duck, & black necked swan & others with black tips to wings:— [note (b)] Capt Fitz Roys collection has another Cassicus Icterus & another Parus(?): evidently both rare birds: Decemb. Icterus is (1418): Also Certhia (1451) occurs at Maldonado1. [note ends]

 

(a)

 

The birds generally are very numerous in the camp: especially Cassius & Lanius (or more properly Tyrannius).— It is impossible not to be struck with great beauty: the most general colour is yellow, & it is worth noting that from the prevalence of certain flowers this is the general tint of the pasture.— [note (a)] As Songsters they are miserably deficient: I have never heard one which could compare with one of our English performers, although of a low class.— [note ends] |187|

1 The words shown in italics were added later with a different pen.

2 Listed as Muscisaxicola nigra Gray in Zoology 3:84, now Lessonia rufa.

[page] 164 MALDONADO MAY-JUNE 1833

3 Vanellus is the English peewit. Specimen 1602, the bird called pteru-pteru, was listed in Zoology 3:127 as Philomachus cayanus Gray.

[CD P. 187 commences]

Hyla1

606

Copied

Hyla.— above emerald green, beneath white, on sides a black & silvery stripe, also a shorter one at corner of mouth.— under side of hinder legs & side of abdomen marked with black spots. tympanum brown, iris gold-colour. Hind feet semipalmated.— They frequent in great numbers the open grass camp, also marshes.— These can never ascend trees, for they are entirely wanting.—

Rana2

607 Cop.

Brown, with circular & asymetrical marks of black.— always in immediate neighbourhead of water.— Same as in Brazil?

Rana3

631 Copied

Eye very prominent; behind & by the side of them fine green markings; body brown with black markings; beneath silvery, with lateral band do:

Coluber4

644

(a)

Copied

645

Above "clove brown", shading beneath into pale; on the sides & back, there are regular black spaces with yellow specks; likewise whole length of body two narrow dorsal ribbons of "saffron yellow": on under side of tail a broard central band of "tile & ½ scarlet red".— there is also on the back a faint trace (chiefly shown by interrupted chain of specks) of a similarly coloured band. [notes (a)] Upon taking this animal out of spirits I observed in its worms mouth several small worms; as there was a tight ligature (to kill it) round the neck, they could not have proceeded from the stomach. In the mouth of another Coluber (623) I noticed one alive (the animal being strangled as the former one), & if I remember right it crawled like a leach by the aid of its extremities. Common in the swampy plains between Sierra Ventana & B. Ayres. [notes end]

1 Hylidae. Listed by Thomas Bell in Zoology 5:46-7 as Hyla agrestis Bell. Currently Hyla pulchella pulchella Duméril.

2 Leptodactylidae. Leptodactylus mystachinus Burmeister.

3 Leptodactylidae. Leptodactylus ocellatus Linn.

4 Colubridae. Liophis anomalus Günther.

[CD P. 187 continues]

Cavia cobaya1

1266

(not spirits)

Head 1318

(not spirits)

This animal called the Aperea is exceedingly abundant.— it inhabits the sand dunes, hedge rows of Cactus, & especially marshy places covered with aquatic plants. On gloomy days & in the evening they come out to feed, are not very timid & can easily be shot. In dry places they have burrows, but in swamps the mud is so soft that it is impossible. They are very injurious to young trees in the garden.— The hair is remarkably loose on

[page] 165 MALDONADO MAY-JUNE 1833

Copy(b)

their bodies.— An old male weighed 1 lb. 3 oz. (Imperial weight) |188|

Cop

Jan: 1834

[note (b) added later] Killed in August at R. Negro another species2 (1471); besides the difference in colour & fineness of hair: it is smaller; & in habits is tamer, more of a day feeder: frequent dry hedges, produces two young at a time (good authority). I have specimen of its head (1587): Generally called Conejos3.— Old male, Port Desire, weighed 3530 grs.— [note ends]

[CD P. 188 commences]

Rodentia

Talpiformes

Toco Toco

12674

(not spirits)

Head (a)

1311

(not spirits)

659

Spirits

This curious animal is abundant, but difficult to be procured & still more difficult to be seen at liberty:— it lives almost entirely under ground; prefers sandy soil & gentle inclination, as for instance where the sand dunes join the camp, but they are often found in other situations.— it is not often that there is an open burrow; but the earth is thrown up as by a mole & generally at night.— the burrows are said not to be deep but of great length.— they seem gregarious.— the man who procured my specimen found six together; in many places the ground is so much undermined that the horses hoofs sink into it.— They are well known & take their name from their peculiar noise: the first time it is heard, one feels much astonished, as it is not easy to judge where it comes from & it would be impossible to guess what made it:— It consists in a short nasal noise repeated for about four times in succession: the first time the noise not being so loud & more separated from the others: the musical time is constant.— This noise is heard at all times of the day.— It is said that they come out at night to feed; that they come out is certain for I have seen their tracks, but I must think that their principal food is roots; it is the only way of accounting for their extensive burrows.— In the stomach of one there was a yellowish greenish mass, in which I could only distinguish fibres.— |189|

Toco Toco

 

When kept in a room.— They move slowly & clumsily, chiefly from the outward action of their hind legs: cannot jump: their teeth (of a bright wax yellow) cannot well cut wood: when frightened or angry make their peculiar noise; are stupid in making attempts to escape: When eating biscuit, rest on hind legs & hold it in fore paws; appeared to wish to drag the food away: Many of them are very tame, & will not attempt to bite or run away, others are a little more wild.— The man who brought them [asserted5] that very many are always blind: specimen (659 for dissection) would appear to be so; did not take any notice of my finger when placed within ½ an inch of its head.— it made its way about the room nearly as well as the others.— An old male weighed [no weight given]

[note (a) added later on back of CD P. 188 is headed: Covington — Copy all this out at end of regular account]

[page] 166 MALDONADO MAY-JUNE 1833

(a)

 

 

At R. Negro (in August) an animal frequents the same sites & makes the same burrows: but the noise is decidedly different: it is more distinct, louder, sonorous, peculiar, much resembles the sound of a small tree being cut down in the distance.— the noise is repeated twice & not 3 or 4 times as at Maldonado.— At Bahia Blanca the animal makes a noise repeated at single intervals, at equal times or in an accelerating order.— I was assured these animals were found of different colours.— Having caught one of the Gerbillos (1284) I was assured that this was the Toco Toco which made the noise.— Very many people said the same.— What is the truth? Monsieur Dessalines d'Orbigny6 who collected many animals at R. Negro must have specimens of them both &c &c.— Immense tracks of country between R. Negro & Sierra Guitro-Leignè are curiously injured by these animals; the horses fetlock sinking in every 2 or 3 steps.—

Feb 3rd.—

1834

At Cape Negro, the last of Patagonia, where features of Tierra del F are present, the ground is a warren of holes: several heads were lying about, of which (1795) may perhaps be sufficient to recognise identity of species. [note ends]

1 Described by George Waterhouse in Zoology 2:89 as Cavia cobaia Auct.

2 Described by George Waterhouse in Zoology 2:88-9 as Kerodon Kingii Bennett.

3 A modern Spanish dictionary gives the translation of 'conejo' as a 'rabbit'.

4 Described as Ctenomys Braziliensis Blain. by George Waterhouse in Zoology 2:79-82, where an extended account of the species is given, based on this entry and the slightly revised version copied out later, not by Syms Covington but by CD himself.

5 The word 'asserted' was originally omitted by CD, but was inserted when he recopied the sentence.

6 Alcide d'Orbigny was a palaeontologist sent out by the French government to South America, who as reported by CD to Henslow in a letter dated 24 November 1832 had just been working on the Rio Negro for six months. A report on his labours reached CD in 1835, and a full account was later published in Paris. See Correspondence 1:280-2.

[CD P. 189 continues]

Lycoperdium1

or

Phallus

647

Copied

Nearly all my specimens are in their young state.— They then look like the bulb of from which the Phallus springs, only with the difference that the outer coat is penetrated with apertures.— This outer coat seems to expand untill it becomes a bag of trellis work.— There is a fragment showing the structure.— They are of a salmon colour.— but through the aperture the internal parts are brownish green.— They grow on the sand dunes & near to a Phallus, but appear to be uncommon.— Did not possess any strong odour.— |190|

Lacerta-

Sides of body light rich brown, with black marks, a longitudinal white line

[page] 167 MALDONADO MAY-JUNE 1833

Ameiva2
648,649

on each side; Within these & the inner brown for 2/3 of anterior part of body there is a fine emerald green colour.

Hyla3

652

Copied

Above coppery brown, mottled with black, which latter colour is most distinct on hinder thighs & sides of body extending over the tympanum a blackish brown band; iris coppery on edge of upper mandible white line.— Caught under stone

Rana

653

Copied

Body above light greenish yellow, with lateral brownish black band & distinct circular patch on sides before the thighs.— There are obscure longitudinal marks on under upper surface of thighs & the under is tinged with reddish orange.— Caught under a stone

Bufo

654

Copied

Above yellowish green, with central line on back more bright: [illeg.] brown; beneath yellowish.— Under stone. Same as at M Video?.—

 

Coluber

663

Copied

Above dark "Pistachio green", with central narrow dorsal line of brown: beneath "Aurora & ½ Vermilion red" but mostly on posterior half of body, altogether very beautiful. open camp.—

Lycoperdium4

664

Copied

This curious fungus consists of a dark brown bag containing powder, like a common Lycoperdium: but instead of growing on the ground, it is seated on a circular flat disk (of a lighter colour) the superior & inferior edges of which are cracked & curled.— They would seem like sphere burst through, especially the lower one: which latter is slightly attached to the soil.— Grow in damp & rather shady places:— |191|

Bufo5

613

Copied

This is the same extraordinarily coloured animal which I found at Bahia Blanca (P 99).— They were not very uncommon amongst the sand-dunes: the quantity of marks of "buff orange" varied, in some individuals being these being more, in some less than at B. Blanca.— Eye jet black.— When placed in water could scarcely swim at all.— & I think would shortly have been drowned.— They crawl about during the day & frequent the driest places.—

1 Identified as Clathrus crispus var. obovatus Berkeley in Plant Notes pp. 224-5.

2 Listed by Thomas Bell as young specimens of Ameiva longicauda Bell in Zoology 5:29.

3 Listed as Hyla Vauterii Bibr. in Zoology 5:45-6.

4 Identified by M.J. Berkeley in Annals and Magazine of Natural History 9(1842):447 as Geaster saccatus Fries.

5 Identified by Thomas Bell in Zoology 5:49-50 as Phryniscus nigricans Weigm.

[CD P. 191 continues]

[page] 168 MALDONADO MAY-JUNE 1833

Insecta

610

or

3281

June 1833

The following facts I have noticed at M. Video & frequently in this place:— After a heavy thunder storm in a little pool in a court-yard which had only existed at most seven hours.— I observed the surface strewed over the with black specks; these were collected in groups, & precisely resembled pinches of gunpowder dropped in different parts on the surface of the puddle. These specks are Insects of a dark leaden colour; the younger ones being red.— Viewed through a microscope, they were continually crawling over each other & the surface of the water; on the hand they possessed a slight jumping motion.— The numbers on each pool were immense:— & every puddle possessed some of the pinches.— What are they? & how produced in such countless myriads? We have seen their birth is effected in a short time, & their life, from the drying of the puddles, can not be of a much longer duration.—|192|

1 Identified in Insect Notes pp. 40-3 as Collembola, or springtails.

[CD P. 192 commences, crossed through vertically to foot of page as are previous entries on Planaria, and continued for the entry on capybara]

Planaria1

627

 

I found under stones, on rocky hills, great numbers of terrestrial Planariæ.— in same manner as mentioned (P 71) at M: Video.— There are two species they seem to be the same as there described.— I observed two of them in perfect close contact on the under surface.— Is it a generative process?— On opening the body at the situation of orifice, there was a hard white cup-shaped organ with a sinuated margin.— The animal not being quite dead.— This expanded & contracted itself.— I have not the slightest doubt, if this organ was protruded & perfectly expanded it would present the appearance described in Planariæ (P 15 & 21).— When the contraction was most it might be described as being star shaped, from the sinuated margins being drawn in to central point.— On the surface I noticed the corpuscular motion.— [note written vertically in margin] (Ocelli numerous black round anterior extremity & foot) [note ends]

Cavia

Capybara2

(a)

Copied

 

Cavia

capybara

These animals are abundant on the borders of the lakes in the vicinity of Maldonado, & occassionally frequent the islands even at sea: During the last voyage two were shot on Goriti.— At Maldonado Three or four generally live together; in the day time they are either lying amongst the aquatic plants or feeding openly on the turf plain.— When viewed at a distance, from their manner of walking & colour they resemble a pig; but when seated on their haunches & watching with one eye, they reassume the appearance of their congeners the Agoutis.— Their great depth of jaw gives to their profile & front view a quite ludicrous appearance.— They are very tame, by cautiously walking I approached within |193| three yards of four large ones: As I came nearer they frequently made their peculiar noise; it is a very abrupt one: there is not much actual sound, but

[page] 169 MALDONADO MAY-JUNE 1833

rather the sudden expulsion of air.— The only noise I know at all like it is the first hoarse bark of a large dog. Having watched them (& they me) for several minutes, almost within arms reach.— They rushed into the water with the greatest impetuosity at full gallop; & emitting at the same time their bark.— When three or four thus dash in together the spray flies about in every direction.— After diving a short distance, they come to the surface, but only show just the upper part of the head.— In the stomach & duodenum of one there was a great mass of a yellowish liquid matter, in which nothing could be distinguished.—

 

[note (a) added later] These animals I believe do not occur South of the R. Plata.— I could not hear of any at the R. Negro.— Number in islands of Parana & Uruguay. chief food of the Jaguars.— where there are not many Capinchos there is most not much fear of these animals. In the water the two young of the Capincho often sit on its back.— N.B. There is a Laguna Carpincho East of B. Ayres, at the higher part of the Salado.— [note ends]

[CD P. 193 continues]

Perdrix—

Scolopax(?!)

1224 & 12733

not spirits

707 spirits

(a)

Copied

Perdrix-

Scolopax

At P 99, I have mentioned this bird.— They were more abundant here.— They generally frequent the same spot; & that always a dry one.— I have repeatedly noticed them in a particular part of a dry road.— They are either in pairs or in small flock; when in the latter they all rise together, when in former one waits (even when one is shot) for the former: As they rise they utter a cry like a Snipe & in same manner fly high & irregularly & generally a long distance.— they however occassionally soar for short distance like a partridge.— Their general habits so much resemble a snipe |194| that our sportsmen call them "short-billed snipes".— their real connection is marked by the length of the Scapulars.— When on the ground, they squat close to escape observation & are not easily seen; in this position, & when walking from the width which their legs are apart, they resemble a Partridge.—

 

In the stomach of several which I opened there was nothing but pieces of rushy grass, the summits of which were pointed, also small bits of some leaf & grains of quartz: the intestine & dung were bright green.— In another (killed at different time) there were seeds & a dead ant.— The specimens have either black markings round the neck or not.— They are specimens in Spirits of both.— Male & female?

 

 

 

[note (a) added later] This is perhaps the most common bird in the dry plains between the R: Negro & Sierra de la Ventana.— it runs in flocks from 3 or 4 to 30 or 40 in number.— it is said to builds on the borders of lakes & has 5 or 6 eggs in its nest, white spotted with red.— In its nidification & flocking resembles Snipes; is called by the Spaniards.— Avescasina.—

[page] 170 MALDONADO MAY-JUNE 1833

[CD P. 194 continues]

Bufo4

665

Copied

Elegantly marked with black & pale green; colours most vivid on the lumbar glands; hinder thighs with little tinge of orange on softer parts.—

Coluber5

673 Cop.

Above "sage green", shading into beneath "siskin green": most beautiful:

Coluber

674

Copied

Scales generally dirty "oil green", the interstices on the sides & edge of ventral plates, dark brown. these brown interstical [sic] spaces likewise form numerous irregular transverse bars on the back; the sides scales themselves in these parts being brown; beneath with dirty "siskin green".—

Coluber

675

Copied

Ventral plates fine "Vermilion red["], becoming paler towards the gorge, with black specks on each side; sides "greenish grey", back reddish grey, with central "blackish grey" line: head & upper side of neck, "umber brown".— |195|

[CD P. 195 is headed: Specimens collected by the Officers in Schooner, Coast of Patagonia. Note in margin says 'Copied all on this page']

Agama6

681

General colour blueish grey with tinge of rust colour on back. broard transverse bands with white undulation behind them.—

Agama

682

General colour not so blue, with pointed, bright yellow undulations in hinder part of brown band

Agama

683

General colour rather darker; back dark brown with central light reddish longitudinal band with small transverse ones branching off.—

Agama

684

Pale reddish grey, brown transverse bands, yellowish white posterior undulations

Agama 685

General colour especially tail much redder:

 

All these Lizards were caught at Port Desire in beginning of January by the officers in the small Schooners.—

Lizard

686

On back transverse rows: each with 3 semilunar rich brown marks, edged with cream colour. Lateral line of same colour; about head traces of bright green.— Port Desire

Lizard

687

Mud colour with lighter lateral line.—

[page] 171 MALDONADO MAY-JUNE 1833

Bufo

689

Head remarkably flat, dark grey, with much blacker & symetrical markings. Rio Chupat

Bufo

690

Slate colour, with dark markings.— Rio Chupat.— B. Engaño Bay.—

 

All the above specimens were collected by the officers in the Schooners under the command of Mr Wickham7, during the summer of the year: the colours of each were stated not to have altered, only to be less vivid.— |196|

1 Identified by Darwin (1844) (loc. cit.) as Planaria pulla, currently Pseudogeoplana pulla Darwin. The animals might indeed have been copulating, though another possibility is that one was eating the other.

2 Identified in Zoology 2:91 as Hydrochœrus capybara Auct. See also Journal of Researches 1:56-8.

3 Specimen 1273 was the male of 1224. CD was mistaken in identifying the bird as Scolopax, and it was identified in Zoology 3:117-18 as Tinochorus rumicivorus Eschsch. For an account of its anatomy see Zoology 3:155-6.

4 This frog was said by Thomas Bell in Zoology 5:36-7 to be 'remarkably bufonine', and was listed as Pleurodema Darwinii Bell.

5 See list of Specimens in Spirits of Wine for Thomas Bell's identifications of specimens 673-6 and 682-90.

6 From the description of its colouring given by Thomas Bell in Zoology 5:21-2 this lizard is confirmed to be Diplolæmus Bibronii Bell.

7 Lieutenant John Clements Wickham was second in command of the Beagle.

[CD P. 196, dated June-July at its head, commences]

Mus1

1280

not Sps.

Was killed at the Island of Goriti where they are said to be common.— They are also said to be occur in numbers at East Point.— They inhabit burrows in the sand dunes.— It is a likely place for ships to leave this animal, if they are infected with such monsters.— But I think from habits it is an aboriginal.— The occurrence at Island Goriti is no difficulty as a reef now connects the it with mainland, probably was once continuous.— The ears were whitish & oddly contrasted with rest of body.— An old male weighed 15 & ¾ oz:

Cervus2 1292

(Nt Spirits)

(815) (b)

not spirits

Horns (z)

1440:1441

(old in

front) Cop

Are very abundant in the mamillated plain round Pan de Azucar.— Manners resembling those at B. Blanca.— This specimen was shot out of a herd of seven.— The Gauchos say he is nine years old:— teeth all decayed.— Smell intolerably strong & offensive, almost creating Nausea.— this seems to occur at seasons when the Horns are perfect: Out of same herd (without moving I shot three. from having crawled a long distance the deer did not know what I was & as usual advanced to reconnoitre me) I shot another & younger buck.— Horns (1337 & 1337)

 

[page] 172 MALDONADO MAY-JUNE 1833

[notes added later] (b) The officers of the Beagle have never seen this animal to the South of the R. Negro.— The smell is most offensive.— I have often perceived the whole air impregnated, when the distance of Buck could not have been less than ½ a mile to Windward.— Are said by Gauchos to change their horns annually. Seem to like mountains. excessively numerous near the Sierra Ventana.— But they are spread more or less over the whole country.—

 

(z) A pocket handkerchief, in which I carried on horseback the skin; has constantly been in use since & therefore repeatedly washed; not withstanding this, now 13 months have intervened I know this handkerchief from the others by its smell.—

 

Cervus Campestris. It will be seen in my journal3 when I shot the deer at Maldonado: a pocket handkerchief, in which I carried the skin, has been in constant use & repeatedly washed, yet in December 1834 the odour was very perceptible.— [in different pen] do in Jan:— 1835 [notes end]

[CD P. 196 continues]

Procellaria4

(c)

Cop

I took a specimen at Maldonado which I suppose is "gigantea", appear however to differ in colour: colour "greyish black", or shade darker above & one lighter beneath.— The following measures may help to point out differences with any future specimen: Extreme points of Tarsus of legs 3.4inch, measured on outside: Fibula from centre of articulations 10.8inch: Lower mandible from feathers to extremity 3.15: nose on central part from a membrane at base to concavo—truncate extremity, 1.65in: depth of bill, including nose, 1.2in: 16 rectrices:.— |197|

 

[note (c) added later] Specimen (2080) procured at Port Famine.— Mr Low5 says it [is] the young one of the common grey sort.— Their flight however appears rather more elegant, & the distinction of color strongly marked. I have long notice<d> this bird & thought it was a different species. They build at Malaspina Sea Lion Isd, S. Cruz & other places on coast of Patagonia.— The officers have seen them at P. St. Antonia pursue & kill some sort of Coot.— The latter tried to escape by flying & diving: but was continually struck & beaten by its enemy. at last when rising from beneath the water the Nelly cut his its head off with its bill. At Port St Julian there was the bill of a very large Cuttle fish in the stomach: flight very like albatross; often settles & rests on the water: frequent inland ba<ys> & as well as open sea.— I think not generally very far from the coast.— Specimen (2080), bill wax white: legs black, upper surface greyish.—

[page] 173 MALDONADO MAY-JUNE 1833

 

June 15th

I saw two this very day, 80 miles from West Coast of Patagonia.— [notes end]

1 Identified in Zoology 2:33-4 as Mus (decumanus var. ?) maurus.

2 Identified in Zoology 2:29-31 as Cervus campestris Cuvier.

3 See entry for 20-28 June in Beagle Diary p. 160.

4 This large petrel known to the English as a "Nelly" was listed in Zoology 3:139-40 as Procellaria gigantea Gmel.

5 William Low was a Scottish trader and sea captain for many years in the waters around Patagonia, who provided CD with much valuable information.

[CD P. 197 commences]

Siliceous

tubes from

Lightning1

1375

1376

 

Lightning

tubes

 

In the great sand dumes which separate Laguna del Potrero from the sea.— I found numerous fragments of those siliceous tubes, which are supposed to be formed by lightning entering the sand.— The dumes are not protected by vegetation & are in consequence perpetually moving their position.— From this cause I first observed the tubes projecting out, & fragments which clearly were parts of the same broken off, & strewed immediately around.— [note added at top of page] circumference of biggest smooth one 4:(.2 inches) [note ends] I found four of these entering the sand perpendicularly & going deeper than I could trace.— By clearing away the loose dry sand I traced one for two feet, & close to this there were fragments, which placed together, formed a tube 3ft.3 inches long; So that here the tube must have been 5ft.3inch in length, & as the diameter was the same throughout, probably extended to a far greater depth.— At the level of about 12 feet below these were pools of water, left by rain: it is probable that these tubes penetrate to where the sand is of so damp a nature, as easily to conduct the electric fluid. Besides the four tubes which I found vertical & traced beneath the surface, there were several other groups of fragments, the original site of which was doubtless near.— The situation was upon a level piece of bare sand & amongst lofty sand-dumes; at about ½ of a miles distance there was a chain of hills of 400 or 500 feet in height. The internal surface of these tubes is vitrified; the external is very rugged with longitudinal furrows: the grains of sand which adhere to it are the same as the surrounding mass.— This sand is peculiar in possessing no |198| scales of mica.— The diameter of different sets varied; in shape more generally compressed, sometimes circular.— They entered the sand vertically, in some however there were slight bends.— In one case, which was much more irregular than the generality, the deviation at the bend from a right line amounted to 33°.— In this same one, there were two small branches which gradually tapered to a point; they were about a foot apart, & one pointed downward, the other upwards.— In this latter, the branch with the stem included an angle of 26°, this is remarkable as one would not expect the Electric fluid to make [an] effort to return at so acute an angle.—

[page] 174 MALDONADO MAY-JUNE 1833

V: Fig:

 

 

(a)

I do not see any cause which could have produced these curious tubes excepting lightning; The sand hillocks were bare & evidently of short duration: Certainly the neighbourhead of the R. Plata is a likely place to meet with such phenomena; for the number of electrical storms is astonishing.— Twice on entering the river St Elmos light has shone on the Beagles mast head.— It is a curious circumstance the occurrence of so many groups of tubes, within a space of 60 yards square by 20.— Were these the result of one shock, & the electric fluid dividing itself shortly before entering the ground? or of distinct & successive ones? I should think the former the more probable case.— |199|

 

[note (a) added later] In 1793 A.D. Lightning struck B. Ayres in one storm in 37 places: & killed 19 people.—

Encyclo: Brittanica.—

Cause of furrows.— smooth internally.— [two illeg. words].— sand siliceous black glass.— air bubbles.— fibrous appearance.— [note ends]

[CD P. 199 commences]

General

Observations

June 25th.— The Temperature of two Springs situated of South side of low rocky hills; & tolerably well protected from the effects of radiation; but not emitting much water: one gave 56½°. the other 57¼°. I should imagine the mean 56⅞° somewhere near the truth, & therefore as mean of year.

 

 

The nearly entire absence of trees in such a fine climate & in such deep rich a soil is a very surprising & inexplicable fact.— Some have explained it from the strong winds, but in the neighbourhead of Maldonado this is quite insufficient. the number of rocky & abrupt hills rising out of the plain render ample protection for the growth of the most tender.— This same paucity extends is common both to the modern beds of the Buenos Ayres country & to the granitic rocks of Banda oriental.— Can it originate in the covering of Alluvial soil being of very recent origin.— It is clear that the

[page] 175 MALDONADO MAY-JUNE 1833

latter has been formed over a large extent at same time & beneath water: from not containing organic remains, probably suddenly.—

(a)

In Lat 35°!

General

Observations

 

I was told that near the Arroyo Tapes there was a wood of Palms. From the number of leaves (used in thatching) it is very probable.— One I saw which appeared about 20 feet high & thick in proportion.— They grow at Pan de Azucar: on the West bank of the Uruguay they are not found untill you arrive at the Arroyo del Palmas |200| in Latitude 32°. Here likewise a sandy Granitic soil commences.— This would appear to be adapted to them.— [note (a)] These Palms & some semi-aquatic trees, which follow the courses of the streams, are nearly the only exceptions to the general & entire absence: it is said that forest timber does not occur for a long distance N of Rio Plata.— In the mountainous country on the Northern half of the Laguna de los Petos, there is an abundance.— [note ends]

[CD P. 200 continues]

 

(c)

 

(b)

 

 

 

After being accustomed to the great numbers of Coprophagous insects in England.— It was at first with surprise that I here found the ample repast afforded by the immense herds of horses & cattle almost untouched.— Aphodius2 (?) (No 1181) is the only good exception: this insect amongst the sand dumes burrows holes beneath Horse dung:— Aphodius (1225) I have only observed once under very old dung.— Any other Aphodii which I have taken have been wandering.— It is curious to enquire what animal (No 1181) belonged to before the introduction of horses.— All the larger animals here, such as Guanaco, deer, Capincho, have dung in the form of pellets, which must be of a very different nature with respect to insects. M. Video was founded 1725, it is said the country abounded with Vicunnas. Cattle & horses have perhaps only abounded for about 80 years. This absence of Coprophagous beetles appears to me to be a very beautiful fact; as showing a connection in the creating between animals as widely apart as Mammalia & Cole Insects. Coleoptera, which when one of them is removed out of its original Zone, can scarcely be produced by a length of time & the most favourable circumstances.—

 

The same subject of investigation will recur in Australia: If proofs were wanting to show the Horse & Ox to be aboriginals of great Britain I think the very presence of so many species of insects feeding on their dung, would be a very strong one.—

|201|

(a)

 

 

[notes added later] Turf or Peat is not generally supposed to be formed within the Tropics; as the Latitude of this place is under 35° I thought it worth while to enquire respecting its occurrence.— In many marshy places the earth is very black, & contains much vegetable matter, in one place reposing on this there was another of much less specific gravity & so penetrated by roots & fibres as almost to be capable of burning.— (leaving

[page] 176 MALDONADO MAY-JUNE 1833

however great quantities of ashes). This I was assured by a person well capable of judging was the nearest approach he had ever seen to the Turf of Ireland. As there are an abundance of situations favourable for the production [of] this substance, its existence only in the above imperfect state shows that this Latitude is too low for it.—

(b)

 

 

At Bahia Blanca (September) there were very great numbers of Copris (1491).— Almost every heap of horse & cow dung was undermined by a deep circular hole, as is seen in England.— It is clear this beetle is partly omni-stercovorous.— & that before the introduction of latter animals [7 illeg. words crossed out] to S. America could not have been in any numbers.— At the [illeg.] Guitro-Linguè there were countless numbers of Aphodii (1492) flying about in the evening.— there was much horse dung, but I never saw one alight upon it.— The troop of horses had not been there more than 5 months & before that the plain was desert.— What dung or other substance could these Animals Insects feed on?

(c)

1833. March

1834. April

At the E. Falkland Islands there are no beetles under the dung.— Here perhaps the Climate so damp would be highly unfavourable to them (& all insect) life.—

 

Chiloe & Hobart town V. 264 (a) [notes end]

1 Described by CD at greater length in Journal of Researches 1 pp. 69-72, while for a modern account of the phenomenon see W.B. Harland & J.L.F. Hacker (1966) 'Fossil' lightning strikes 250 Ma ago. Advancement of Science 22:663-7.

2 According to Insect Notes pp. 76-81 and 103, no specimens of the Scarabaeidae collected by CD would appear to have survived, so that an exact identification of the species cannot be provided. But the Aphodius that he later found in St Helena might have been A. (Nialus) pseudolividus or A. granarius.

[CD P. 201 commences]

Salmacis1

1392

not spirits

(a)

 

 

 

Growing in abundance in pools of water. Guritti Island. Colour "sap green".— Diameter of filament .004 or rather more.— length of each from a little greater than this, to double: Very transparent containing but little internal matter.— The spires (with hyaline globules) close, each globule however not approximate to the others, the whole having net appearance.— There were 6 or 7 spiral lines: I could only count these by observing the apparent angle one made with a transverse line & thus guess its point of reappearance on upper surface, & then noting how many lines were included in this space.— In each cell about 9 lines encircled it.— [note in margin] there were about 12 hyaline dots in one complete spire [note ends] The gemmules were semi-opake, dark green & slightly oval.— The tube which connects the two the filaments was longer than that figured in Dic:

[page] 177 MALDONADO JULY 1833

class: & not cylindrical, the central parts having a larger diameter; & evidently formed by two slightly well funnel-shaped tubes having joined.— The mark or lip where these would arise was visible in the cells with spiral lines of globules:— The necessity of the connection of two filaments to produce gemmules was clearly proved by the occurrence of occassional cells with spires surrounded by those with gemmules, & which had not, from the varying length, an opposite one to unite to.— One end of a filament would often contain gemmules whilst the other had not been joined & therefore remained in its original state.—

 

 

 

 

 not 9

as before

stated

[note (a)] Having kept the plant for four days in a dark & warm place.— I noticed the following fact.— The gemmules are circular & much flattened. They lie in a plane in which the connecting tube is.— The stem or filament is cylindrical. In the interval of these days the gemmules had altered their position, They were now inclined in different planes, so that of course I immediately saw they were not spherical.— I found filaments (which appeared young ones) with the middle of each cell marked with cross lines, of a green colour & not extending whole length of cell. These cross lines were really each a part of a spire & from transparency of stem & their shortness appeared like cross bars.— They evidently were extend till those of different cells nearly join. The number of these lines or vessels in each cell is 7; the hyaline points have not appeared, but even then the lip of where junction would take place was evident.— The appearance is of a set of spiral lines, alternately erased for an equal length. In some specimens these lines were quite rudimentary & short & others those of two adjoining cells were almost united. Then the filament or stem must exist previously to their perfect formation.— [note ends]

[CD P. 201 continues]

Arthrodièes2

1393

not spirits

Arthrodièes

In same pool there was a genus belonging to this family: joints or cells cylindrical, about ½ & inch long & 1/18 in diameter; extremities rounded: it forms a trellis work, either pentagons, hexagons or square; three limbs articulating together being most common.— |202| Limbs are transparent, turgid & elastic with water, appear to have no communication one with another: outer case colourless, no organization; is lined with thin layer of soft tender gelatino-granular matter, which is grouped into small numerous irregular dots.— Colour pale yellowish green.— Floats on surface with the above Salmacis, & in large net or trellis work pieces, several inches square.— I know not to what family this belongs

 

Daphnia3

727

Daphnia & an Ostracodes were in great plenty amongst the above described plants.— Daphnia of usual shape; with spine at posterior extremity: length .8, breadth .5: colour light brown transparent: case very thin marked with

[page] 178 MALDONADO JULY 1833

 

 

Daphnia

 

regular cross lines. like [illeg.] etching or fishing net:— eyes large black with irregular motions: Antennæ bifid, each division with 3 joints; & terminated with 3 setæ, the outer branch has likewise two lateral ones the inner only one.— Mouth with mandible formed of a narrow plate more bent at extremity & rounded, overlapping each other. & tips coloured brown; under surface with 3 raised rough lines or ridges:— In my imperfect examination did not see Maxillæ:— 1st pair of legs seated at base of last organs. peduncle very short, with few irregular long setæ.— 2nd pair is divided into two parts (perhaps 2 distinct legs) which do not act in for same plain, one semicircular with close even pecten of setæ; the other with few long scattered setæ & a jointed peduncle bearing setæ: 3rd, layer semicircular even pecten of setæ with few irregular ones at one corner: then three pair of [two words lost] act towards the tail: the 4th pair is very |203| similar to & approximate to the last, but seems to act or fan towards the head or in opposite direction: Heart in strong action: Intestine bright green; with Cæcum very plain in head.— tail terminated by a narrow sort of foot: which is terminated by two claws.— heel with two long bristles: sole on each side with short curved spines: in this spaces or sole is anus.— sole of foot is turned towards back of shell:— Eggs lie in dorsal space & imperfectly formed young ones: Antennæ large in proportion:— The legs do not seem used in progression:— At very point of head there are two most minute bundles of setæ.—

Fish4

(spirits)

747

Caught in October in the R. Parana — as high as Rozario.— The four first fish are the common fry of the river.— Back blueish silvery, with silver band on side: blueish black spot behind the Branchiæ.— Fins pale orange, tail with central part band black.—

Plate 8, Fig. 1

748

Back iridescent greenish brown, silver band on side.— Fins dirty orange, tail with central black band, above & below bright red & orange

749

Silvery; eyes fine black, peculiar form of belly; grows to twice size of specimen.

750

 

Fish called Salmon grows to one or two feet long.— Above blueish gradually shading down on sides; fins tipped with fine red, especially the tail, which latter organ has central black band

746

Fish. not very abundant. Upper part of body with its fins with tint of yellow, but stronger on the head, with dorsal clouds of black.— tip of tail black. Beneath silvery white.— pupil black. iris white; usual size sometimes larger.— |204|

[page] 179 MALDONADO JULY 1833

1 The specimens of these filamentous algæ have not survived, so that the species cannot be identified (see Plant Notes pp. 190-1).

2 But from Plant Notes (loc. cit.) this alga appears to be a species of Halodictyon.

3 Cladocera, water flea.

4 In Zoology 4:123-5, Specimens 747 and 748 were identified by Leonard Jenyns as new species of Salmonidæ, respectively Tetragonopterus Abramis Jen. and T. rutilus Jen.

[CD P. 204 commences]

Armadilloes

 

 

(b)

 

 

(a)

I have had opportunities of seeing something of four species of this genus.— & hearing respecting their habitats.— The Taturia Pichiz1 (375 Spirits); the T. Apar.2 (403 spirits) called Mataco.— The T. villosa3, called Paluda.— are all found in some numbers on the sandy plains of Bahia Blanca, Lat. 39°.— The three species show no difference in choice of situations.— The first Pichiz, or sometimes called Kerikincha [later spelling Queriquincho]; is excessively numerous in all the dry country of B. Blanca, Sierra Ventana, R. Negro &c. It appears never to be found on this East side of America, to the Northward of the Sierra Tapalguen in Lat: 37°.30' They are said to occur plentifully in the Laguna desagualero at the foot of the Andes.— Some of the officers of the Beagle have seen it at Port St Elena Desire, Lat 48° 30' I have frequently opened the stomach of this animal; generally it contains Coleoptera & various Larvæ.— I have found roots & an Amphisbœna.— When surprised, it either buries itself very quickly, or lies close to the ground to escape observation.— in loose dry earth it is necessary to get off your horse quickly in order to secure your prize, which when fat & roasted is most excellent eating.— it often frequents the sand dumes & can drink no fresh water for years together.— They bring forth 2 or 3 young ones at a time.— They are constantly wandering about by day.— The Mataco & Paluda appear to have a wider range.— they are found at St Iago in Lat 28°.— The Paluda is a nocturnal animal & is taken by going out at night with dogs.— The fourth species, T. hybridus4 (1413) does not occur to the South of S. Tapalguen, Lat 37°30′; to the North of this it is common & supplies Buenos Ayres; near to which latter place it is not found.— It seems rather to prefer rocky ground, |205|

(a)

[continued on back of page] rocky ground occurring commonly in Banda oriental.— It & the Paluda occur both there & in Entre Rios. as high as St Fe 32°, how much higher I know not.—

(b)

 

[note (b)] Not having specimen of the Paluda, I give an imperfect description.— Front legs with 5 toes; 2 middle claws longest very broard flat; 2 outer ones shorter, 1 inner one very narrow long.— the 2nd toe has a remarkable ball on the under side at its base.— belly with rows of stiff hair; back with 8 moveable bands long hairs scattered on back.— Tail half

[page] 180 PROVINCE OF BUENOS AYRES DECEMBER 1833

length of body 9 teeth in upper jaw; 10 in lower on each side.— Nearly 3 times as big as a Pichiz

 

[continued with a different pen] & at S. Cruz (1697) is Specimen Q. whether it is the same species with Pichiz?.—

The whole four species are found near Mendoza.— [note ends]

1 T. Pichiz was identified by Waterhouse in Zoology 2:93 as Dasypus minutus Auct., a no longer valid name. It is the Pichi, sole member of the current genus Zaedyus (formerly Taturia) under the name Z. pichiy.

2 Specimen 403 (Spirits) of T. apar was listed by CD as D. tricinctus, and in Zoology 2:93 as D. mataco. It is the Southern Three-banded Armadillo (Apara), currently named Tolypeutes matacus.

3 The species of which CD did not have a specimen was the Paluda, listed in Zoology 2:93 as D. villosus. It is the Larger Hairy Armadillo, Chaetophractus villosus, and is the type species of the current genus Chaetophractus.

4 Identified in Zoology 2:92-3 as D. hybridus Auct. In the list of Animals copied out by CD in CUL MS DAR 29.1, he says on p. 12 'The fourth species, T. Hybrida, is called Mulita or Mulillo (little mule)'. It is the Southern Long-nosed Armadillo, and the name Dasypus hybridus is still valid.

[CD P. 205 commences]

Biscatche1

(a)

1442

(not spirits)

 

The Viscatche is exceedingly numerous in the neighbourhead, to the South it appears less frequently although it is found at the R. Negro.— Late in the evening they come out to play; but do not seem to wander far from their holes.— they run very awkwardly; from their tail being elevated & shortness of the front legs they resemble rats. In the evening are very tame, you may ride quite close, without disturbing the gravity with which sitting in the mouth of their holes they watch you.— They are abundant even in the great thistle beds where there are no other vegetables: are said to live on roots, which from great size of teeth I think probable.— They inhabit very dry regions.— I have been informed on the best authority, that quasi canes post coitum adnexi sunt2.— Their flesh is very white & good eating.—

They have one very singular habit; it is the constant dragging of all hard things to their holes.— around every hole group of holes you will see many bones, thistle stalks, hard pieces of earth, dry dung &c &c collected to the amount sometime of more than a wheel barrow could carry.— The holes enter the ground at a small angle; it is above the mouth, on the that the greater quantity of rubbish is placed.— I cannot even guess for what reason they take this trouble; it cannot be defence, for they are not in front of the mouth.— the trouble must be considerable for not a bone or stone is left uncollected for many yards from the burrow.— I was told (on good

[page] 181 PROVINCE OF BUENOS AYRES DECEMBER1833

 

Biscatche

 

 

 

 

authority) that a Gentleman riding at night dropped his watch; the next morning he went & examined all the Biscatche holes in the line of road, & as he expected found the watch |206| near the entrance of one.— The Biscatche is abundant in all parts of the province of B: Ayres & Entre Rios; it is very curious they have not crossed the R. Uruguay. In the Banda Oriental there is not one of these animals; there are plains with thistles exactly like B: Ayres & others equally well suited to the habits of the animal.— It is a puzzle in the geographical distribution of the Biscatche, which I cannot solve, & is no small advantage to B: Oriental.—

(a)

(a)

 

[notes added later] They are numerous near the Sierra Guitro-Leigniè.

The habit of collecting hard things round its burrow is seen near Mendoza.— This animal is very different from the mountain species.— the tail in this appears more bushy & the breast reddish — stony inaccessible spots.— [notes end]

1 Identified by Waterhouse in Zoology 2:88 as Lagostomus trichodactylus. Both in his account and in that given by CD in Journal of Researches 1 pp. 143-5, the Spanish name of the animal is spelt Bizcacha.

2 In CD's notes on Animals in MS CUL DAR 29.1, the words in Latin were first copied out, and then deleted. However, they were included in the description of the Bizcacha quoted by Waterhouse (loc. cit.).

[CD P. 206 continues]

Guanaco1

V (b) 205

 

 

 

(a)

These animals occur in the Sierra de la Ventana Lat: 38°.12′ S. I should think on this side of America this was the Northern limit.— They are found in the islands of Tierra del Fuego & particularly abundant on north side of the straits of Magellan.— When at B. Blanca, I saw the track of a herd of 50 or 60; they appeared to have come on an exploring party from the interior.— their line of march was had been in a direct line till they arrived at a muddy salt creek. Here they seemed to have found out that that the sea was near, for they the track wheeled like a body of cavalry, & returned in as straight line as it had arrived.— Byron2 says he has seen the Guanacoes drinking salt water:— our officers saw a herd drink out of the brine pits or Salinas at Cape Blanco.— they swim readily, & were seen crossing at Port Valdes from one island to another.— on the mountains of Tierra del I have seen the Guanaco, when disturbed, not only squeak or neigh, but jump & prance in the most ridiculous manner, apparently in defiance as a sort of challenge.—3 It is commonly believed amongst the Gauchos, that where there are Guanaco, there is Gold. |207|

(b)

May-

1834

 

[note added later on back of P. 205] Excessively abundant in central Patagonia; banks of rivers; the herds are much larger. I saw one with I should think 500, & many from 50 to 100.— The Southern part of [note ends]

[page] 182 PROVINCE OF BUENOS AYRES DECEMBER 1833

S. Cruz

Guanaco

Patagonia, here & at Strs of Magellan, their more favourite haunts.— Measured the foot of one from the Lava country4: width of sole 2 6/8 inches: of one claw of fork 1.4 of hind leg: color of hair on upper parts dark "clove B with blueish grey": Saw a heap of dung 8 feet in diameter, it was suggested to me they sleep in same place, & in a circle with their head outwards, to keep watch for the Lions, & hence the heaps of dung.— The Guanaco seem to come to particular places to die; the ground in some low bushy places near the river is white with bones, in circumscribed spaces; the animals have crawled under bushes & bones are not torn by Pumas; I have seen 10 to 20 heads in one spot.— Mr Bynoe has noticed the same thing at R. Gallegos.— A wounded Guanaco immediately walks to the river: The Guanaco often dusts itself in saucer-shaped cavities in the dry plains.—[note ends]

 

[note (a) for CD P. 206] Guanaco seem particularly liable to have in their stomach Bezoar stones.— The Indians, who come to trade to R. Negro, bring great numbers to sell as remedies, quack medicine.— I saw one man with a box full, large & small.—

December 24th

 

[further notes added later] Shot at Port Desire a Guanaco; without blood, lower lungs or intestines weighed 170 pounds: From tip of tail to nose 7ft.— circumference of chest, 4ft.8inch: Tail in length 9inch: from extremity of nail to joint (hind leg) 6 & ½ inches: from this joint to extremity of Tarsus, 11 inches.— Most wide part of sole of foot 2.⅞th inch.—

 

 

The Guanaco at Port Desire & St Julians are excessively numerous. They are very wary when in a flock (generally from 10 to 30) & see very great distances. Mr Stokes5 saw through a glass a herd of Guanaco evidently running away from us when they were not visible to our naked eyes.— When in pairs or single, not infrequently may be approach<ed> or suddenly met with.— If by chance you get within a few yards even of a herd, they will stop some time to graze, but if seen at a couple of hundred yards, the whole herd go off at a canter.— is this from mistaking at a distance a man for the Puma.— the footsteps of which animal are often-times to be seen.— The males seem to fight together. I shot one of two, who came squealing close to me, & another was marked with deep scars.— The Guanacoes have the habit of dunging on different days in the same place, & evidently more than one.— the heaps of dung from this cause are very large. Dung is oval pellets, rather larger than a Sheep. Frezier6 remarks that Guanacoes & Llamas dung in heaps & that the habit is useful to the Indians as it saves them the trouble of collecting fire them for fuel.— [note ends]

1 Identified by George Waterhouse in Zoology 2:26-8 as Auchenia llama Desmarest.

2 See J. Byron The narrative of the Honourable John Byron Commodore in a late expedition

[page] 183 PROVINCE OF BUENOS AYRES DECEMBER 1833

around the world . . . Aberdeen, 1822. In seeking for water along the coast, Byron's officers had observed guanacoes drinking at the salt pans.

3 The immediately preceding passage on P. 29 of CD's Animal Notes (CUL MS DAR 29.1) runs as follows: 'Frequently the sportsman receives the first intimation of their [the guanacoes] presence by hearing from a long distance the peculiar shrill neighing note of alarm; if he then looks attentively, he will perhaps see the herd standing in a line on the side of a distant hill. On approaching, a few more squeels are given, & the herd set off, at an apparently slow, but really quick canter, along some narrow beaten track to a neighbouring hill.— If however by chance, he should abruptly meet a single Gaunaco, or a herd; they will generally stand motionless & intently look at him — then perhaps move on a few yards, turn round & graze again.— What is the cause of this difference in their shyness? Do they mistake a man in the distance for their chief enemy the Puma? Or does curiosity overcome their timidity? That they are curious is certain, for if a person lies on the ground, & plays strange antics, such as throwing up his feet in the air, they will almost always approach by degrees to reconnoitre him. It is an artifice, which has been repeatedly practised by our sportsmen: it has moreover the advantage of allowing several shots to be fired, which are all taken as parts of the performance.'

4 According to a footnote in CD's Animal Notes (CUL MS. DAR 29.1), the guanacoes from Tierra del Fuego had been reported to have broader feet than others.

5 John Lort Stokes was Mate and Assistant Surveyor on the Beagle.

6 See A.F. Frézier A voyage to the south-sea and along the coasts of Chili and Peru in . . . 1712-14. London, 1717.

[CD P. 207 commences]

Puma

(b)

Very numerous in some parts of the province; I was told that near Tandeel [Tandil] 100 were killed in three months.— They are by no means a dangerous animal to man, excepting when a female has young, when I believe they will (very rarely) attack a man; of course when wounded they must be avoided. They are easily taken by being balled & then lassoed.— They live in the open plains, either amongst the reeds, or in a hole in a cliff.— It is a very silent animal, never roaring, even when lassoed.— They chiefly live on small quadrupeds, Deer, Biscatche, Ostriches &c.— The former they catch, sometimes in the middle of the day, when the deer is resting from the heat.— They but rarely kill colts or young oxen1. When they do it, it is by springing on their back & pulling the head back so as to break the neck. This latter is what all the Gauchos say.— For some particulars about their flesh see P 376, 482 Chili [added above], Private J.2

 

[note (b) added later] Very abundant banks of S. Cruz: live solely on Guanaco, kill them by breaking their necks; live in the valleys amongst the bushes; do not retire from man, but look at him; the marks of their claws on the hardened clay are very frequent, as if scratching the ground like the Jaguars do the trees:— I have seen the footsteps of a Lion in the

[page] 184 PROVINCE OF BUENOS AYRES DECEMBER 1833

Cordilleras of St Jago, not much below the line of Perpetual snow, the height must have been about 10,000 ft.— [note ends]

[CD P. 207 continues]

Jaguar

copied

 

no danger

 

(a)

This is a far more dangerous animal; kills many young oxen & horses by same method as the puma. If disturbed from their prey will not, unless much pressed, return to it.— The Jaguar seems to require damp places with trees, such as the streams & islands of the Parana.— I have heard of them living amongst the reeds on the borders of a lake.— It is said the foxes plague the Jaguars at night by continually barking: in same manner as Jackall does the Tiger in India.— It is a very noisy animal, roaring much before bad weather.— Is decidedly very dangerous to mankind.— When hunting for one on the coast of the Uruguay, I was shown certain trees on which they are said to sharpen their claws.— In front the [continued at (a) on back of P. 207, treated by CD as P. 208] trees are worn smooth & on each side deep scratches (or rather grooves) a yard long.— It is clearly done, in same manner as a cat with protruded claws, sometimes scrapes the legs of a chair.— The scars were of different ages.— it is common method of discovering the Jaguar by examining the trees.— In the course of the ride we passed 3 well known trees.— The object I should think was rather to blunt, than to sharpen claws so seldom used.—

 

 

The Jaguars are killed without much difficulty by dogs baying & driving him up a tree, where he is easily dispatched with bullets.— for anecdotes of these attacks V 387 private Journal3.— I heard of Jaguars, though uncommon near the Sierra Guitro-gugo [?] (N of the Ventana) & believe they certainly (though very rarely [closing bracket ) omitted] are found in the islands of the R. Negro, Lat 41.— Falkner4 says, the Lake Nahuel-Naupi5, from which this river rises, takes its name from the Indian name of Tiger. Its Latitude is 42°.— The same author talking of the many tigers at South entrance of the Plata says they chiefly live on fish.— I was told the same thing in the Parana & it well explains their great abundance in the islands of this river6.— |208|

1 In his Animal Notes (CUL MS DAR 29.1), CD states: 'In Chile however, probably from the scarcity of wild animals, it destroys very many young cattle & Colts; I have moreover heard of several instances where men & women have so met their fate.'

2 For CD's comments on the palatability of the puma's flesh, see Beagle Diary p. 189. The second reference is to P. 483 (not 482) of his journal, which describes the manner in which a puma hunts his prey ( Beagle Diary p. 259).

3 See Beagle Diary p. 195.

4 See T. Falkner A description of Patagonia, and the adjoining parts of South America . . . Hereford, 1774. Copy in Beagle library.

5 In a modern atlas the lake in the Andes from which the Rio Negro arises is spelt Nahuel.

[page] 185 PROVINCE OF BUENOS AYRES DECEMBER 1833

Huapi

6 CD P. 208 is missing, but it concerned an attack of rust on wheat on the north bank of the Rio Plata, as explained in Plant Notes pp. 174-5.

[CD P. 209 commences]

Lizard1

764

Back with double semilunar transverse marks of "gamboge yellow": above before which, irregular patches of black, intermediate spaces, blueish-greenish-grey, mottled with black & rust colour: belly "primrose & gamboge yellow.— Common genus.— Sluggish, often asleep:

Lizard1

765

Back with 13 snow white transverse lines; intermediate spaces most beautifully sparkling with green & orange: iridescent.— centre of each scale black: belly orangish "tile red", clouded & net work black.—

Lizard1

766

Numerous jet black transverse bands, intermediate spaces, grey, & very pale reddish brown, belly grey

Lizard1

767

Blackish grey, with medial line black; row of marks of same color on each side of this, & marks on the sides.—

Lizard1

768

Whole body & tail ringed with "french grey", before which salmon colour, with anterior edge indented with "primrose yellow.— before this dark brown. anterior edge jagged.— then as before french grey &c &c.— Beneath whitish except tail with rings.— under the chin spotted with white

Gecko2

769...771

(a)

 

803

Centre of back "yellowish brown" sometimes with strong tinge of dark green, sides clouded with blackish brown.— in very great numbers under stones.— cannot climb up glass.— makes a grating noise when dis taken hold of.— After death looses its darker colours.— [note (a)] A specimen, being kept for some days in a tin box, changed colour into an uniform grey, without the black cloudings.— I thought I noticed some change after catching & bringing home these animals; but could observe no instantaneous change.— Under same stone found a very black variety & another one "Hair brown" with tinge of green; mottled on sides of back with "Oil & Pistachio green" centre of each patch [illeg. word deleted] brownish black.— Being kept for 3 or 4 days, not the slightish change of color.— [note ends]

Lizard1

772

Three whitish grey longitudinal bands, between which there are square black-brown marks in pairs, which together with lateral marks, form transverse bands: intervals grey & pale rust; belly grey & black, mottled & with a tinge of orange.— |210|

Lizard1

Seven or eight very irregular transverse rows of dirty white, intervals

[page] 186 PORT DESIRE JANUARY 1834

773

blackish brown, grey & rust.— sides more mottled with yellow.— Belly blackish grey, scales of belly orangish

Rana3

774

Back blackish; flanks with three or four circular marks of black.— young individual.— is bred in & inhabits water far too salt to drink.—

Lizard

793

Copied

Belly rather silvery white, with very fine waving lines of black: back with very indented brown bands, between which spaces grey with stains of "lemon yellow". Head figured brown do do yellow.— upper surface of feet yellow, tail ringed brown, white & grey.— Port St Julians.—

Ornithology

(b)

 

(c)

Ibis

(a)

On the dry sterile plains of Port Desire & St Julians birds are infrequent: even the Carrion Vultures which are tolerably common at B. Blanca & the uninhabited wild plains of the North are here excessively scarce.— I saw two or three Carranchos & small vulture (1772).— [note (c) added later] This small Vulture4 is common on the banks of the S. Cruz [note ends] But the Guanaco left for a long time uncovered were never touched.— The commonest bird is a sparrow5 (1704), & this is seen in every place: we have also the Sturnus ruber: the Solopax-perdrix (1224), the Lanius (1220), the Charadrius (1623), Furnari are all present in small numbers. Furnarius (1698) is not uncommon & Furnarius (1702) amongst bushes takes the place of (F. 1222).— In the bushy valleys, some Lanii, a Fringilla (1701) are present, though uncommon.— The Ostrich is not abundant.— An Ibis6 (1773) in pairs frequent the desart plain; builds its nest in cliffs on sea shore: egg dirty white freckled with pale reddish brown. length circumference 7 inches. |211| [note (a)] In its stomach Cicadæ, Lizard, (Scorpions !!) Cry very singular.— I have often mistaken it for the distant neigh of the Guanaco.— Legs "carmine & scarlet red", iris scarlet red.— [note ends]

May 19th

 

 

 

100? miles

distant

 

 

[note (b) added later] Some miles near the head of inlet, where there are lofty precipices of Porphry, there are many Condors7.— It appears to me that, that a mural precipice determines the presence of these birds.— I have seen them in sandstone cliffs at the R. Negro Lat. 40° & not further to the North (400 miles from the Cordilleras, their supposed residence), at St Joseph cliffs, & here: where the Ship was anchored, there are no precipices, hence the Condor seldom comes so far to the coast, but as stated 15 & 20 miles up the creek they are numerous.— At S. Cruz, near anchorage there are cliffs & Condors; proceeding up the river, there were none, till we first again met Lava perpendicular cliffs, where Condors were again abundant.— Condors are generally seen in pairs, & a single or 2 young brown birds (in winter season) are seen with them.— They breed in the cliffs, & many together; in one place there could not be fewer than 20.— They must at S. Cruz in central Patagonia live entirely on dead Guanaco, those which die & are killed by the many Pumas.— When gorged they return to a pinnacle or ledge in their favourite cliffs:—

[page] 187 PORT DESIRE JANUARY 1834

A female, I shot: 8 ft tip to tip; length 3ft:8inch: Iris scarlet red: [3 illeg. words]

1 Some difficulty was experienced by Thomas Bell in sorting out these closely related lizards, and there are discrepancies between his MS notes as transcribed on p. 344 and the listings of Diplolæmus Darwinii and D. Bibronii in Zoology 5:19-22, and of Proctotretus Fitzingerii, P. Kingii and P. Darwinii in Zoology 5:11-15.

2 Identified in Zoology 5:26-7 as Gymnodactylus Gaudichaudii Bibr.

3 Described in Zoology 5:39-40 as Leiuperus salarius Bell.

4 From Zoology 3:13-14, the small vulture taken at Port Desire was Milvago pezoporos.

5 Described in Zoology 3:91-2 as Zonotrichia canicapilla Gould.

6 Identified in Zoology 3:128-9 as Theristicus melanops Wagl.

7 Identified in Zoology 3:3-6 as Sarcoramphus gryphus Bonap. See also Ornithological Notes pp. 240-5.

[CD P. 211 commences with an entry on Halimeda that is crossed through vertically in pencil]

Halimeda1

1770

(797 Spirits)

 

 

 

(b)

Considerable quantities of this Corallina was thrown up on the beach: on each side of the limb were little pustules; such as described P 161 & 56. They varied in number from one to four.— when old they became white & exfoliated.— Aperture beautifully round.— When the pustules were broken open ovules were found in three states; sphærical & opake; lengthened & pointed oval, where the internal matter was clearly seen separate from the transparent case.— & 3d where this pulpy matter was divided into distinct articulations sometimes 2, 3, or 4.— the shape of articulation the limbs even were clearly visible, one basal one was largest. the transparent case was in this case very delicate, the slightest touch rupturing it.— color dark "crimson red".— in short a small Halimeda ready to float forth was indisputably evident.— the longer limb probably becoming the point of attachment.— As all the pieces I picked up of this Corallina were furnished with these ovules it may be suspected that the parent plant is easily torn from its root & like Fungi perishes after reproduction.— I have now seen this process in a Halimeda, Amphiroa2 & one of the inarticulata.—

 

 

in all

Zoophites

 

 

[note (b)] This observation appears to me of considerable importance in settling the long disputed point, whether the genus Corallina belongs to the grand division of plants, or to that of animals being included in the Zoophites.— The gemmules containing several distinct articulations, I believe is entirely contrary to any analogy drawn from the propagation of Zoophites: I am ignorant what relation it bears to any of the articulated Cryptogamic plants such as the oscillariæ.— But, anyhow, we should certainly expect that one gemmule would produce only one young Polypus & we might as certainly expect that each inarticulation one (or pair or some definite number) would contain & be formed by a Polypus, neither of these

[page] 188 PORT DESIRE JANUARY 1834

expectations are realized in the manner of propagation of the Corallina. Therefore, I do not believe Corallina to have any connection with the family of Zoophites. [note ends]

1 CD's conclusion that Corallinas were not plants like Halimeda, which as explained in Plant Notes pp. 194-5 is a green alga (Chlorophyta), was a significant one. However, his arguments were confused because included with 1770 and 797 (spirits) were specimens of Cellaria, a true bryozoan later identified as Menipea patagonica, which survives in the Busk Collection of the Natural History Museum.

2 The specimen of Amphiroa orbigniana Harvey ex Decaisne, collected at Port Desire and included in CD's jar no. 1770 with Halimeda and Cellaria, is preserved in the Cryptogamic Herbarium of the Natural History Museum, and is illustrated on Plant Notes p. 193.

[CD P. 211 continues]

Sea weed1

 

 

(a)

 

Sea weed

 

 

First narrows Sts of Magellan: Branches very fine bifurcate. colour "Hyacinth red with little Aurora". Extremities of branches finely pointed, with tranverse divisions; shortly then are divided by longitudinal plates making double set of cells, as long as broard.— in mains stems, 6 (or 10?) oblong cells, six times as long as broard; [note (a)] often enveloped by fine transparent epidermis seen at junction of cells.— [note ends] side by side, extremities of cells not united in a straight transverse line; at stem junction of ends |212| of these oblong cells, there are small globular bodies.— Many of the branches are changed into a short, bluntly pointed, very slightly oval cases.— this at first is full of red pulpy matter, which subsequently contracts & forms only ¼ of bulk at upper extremity.— in this state it is an aggregation of small sphæres, which in a more mature state, are quadrifid, that is they present the appearance of four short mushrooms growing from a common central root, (a flattened head on short footstalk) These are enveloped in a transparent case; which nearly fills up the small vacuity between the separate divisions.— diameter of whole .0025 or rather more than 1/500th of an inch.— color. dark red.— Are there four eggs or one singularly shaped one?—

1 Identified on p. 226 of Plant Notes as probably a red alga, Rhodophyta.

[CD P. 212 continues]

Avestruz

Petises1

(a)

1832...1836

Page 112 (b) there is some notice about a second species of Rhea.— which is very rarely found N of the R. Negro.— Mr Martens2 shot one at Port Desire, which I looking slightly at it pronounced to be a young one of the common sort.— that is it appeared to be 2/3 in size of the common one.— I also [saw] some live ones of same size, but entirely forgot the Petises.— I have since reclaimed the Head, Legs & several feathers. 1832. . . 1836.— The scales on legs are of a different shape, & is feathered below the knees,

[page] 189 STRAITS OF MAGELLAN FEBRUARY 1834

 

Avestruz

Agrees with
Gauchos
stating them
to be many
in San Josè

petise

this accounts for their being said to be shorter in the legs & perhaps for being feathered to the claws.— (it is a bird which the R. Negro Gauchos have only seen once or twice in their lives).— An egg was then found, which is more pointed & 2 or 3/8th of an inch less in circumference; it is an |213| old one, but yet retains a slight blueish-green tint, different from the yellowish one of the common one.— The feathers amply bear out the Gauchos expression of "overo" or speckled, & some added that it was darker.— With the Patagonians at Gregory Bay there was a semi-Indian, who had lived with them for four years.— He tells me there are no others, excepting the Petises in these Southern parts; that like the other ostrich many females lay in one nest, but that mean number of eggs in one nest is considerably less, namely not more than 15.— (The port Desire Egg was a Watcho3).— Whatever Naturalists may say, I shall be convinced from such testimony as Indians & Gauchos that there are two species of Rhea in S. America.

[there follow in a different pen two notes added later]

1837./1838.4

I bought from the Chinas some feathers & a skin

April 1836 (a)

 

In the plains of central Patagonia, I had several opportunities of seeing this Ostrich: it unquestionably is a much smaller & darker coloured bird than the Rhea.— it is excessively wary; I think they can see a person approaching, when he is so far off as not to distinguish the Ostrich; in ascending the river tracks &c &c were very abundant yet we saw scarcely any; but when rapidly & quietly descending, we saw many, both pairs & 4s or 5s together. It was observed, & justly, that this Ostrich does not expand its wings as the Northern one always does, when first starting at full speed: takes to the water readily; saw four crossing the river where 400 yards wide & very rapid; & another day. one very little of the body appears above water:—

[CD P. 213 continues]

Puffinus5

(1816)

(a)

(z)

 

This bird is very abundant in the Sts of Magellan near P Famine.— It is particularly active late in the evenings & early in the mornings.— flies in long strings, up & down very rapidly, settles in large flocks on the water.— [note (a)] On the East coast of Tierra del Fuego single ones & Pairs may generally be seen flying about. [note ends] When slightly wounded could not dive.— The male & female are of the same plumage.— In the stomach of one, small fish & 7 or 8 Crust. Mac. same as (820 spirits). stomach much distended.— shot late in the evening in a boat.— very wary & shy, will not approach a ship.— Mr Bynoes has seen them in very great number in the quiet sea of straits & passages of the Western Coast.— [In foot] inner web "red lilac purple", edges of all & greater part of outer web blackish; legs & half of lower mandible pale "do purple".— |214|

[page] 190 STRAITS OF MAGELLAN FEBRUARY 1834

 

[notes added later] (z) The Petrel6 (1782) I saw between Falkland Islands & Patagonia. Mr Stokes says they build on the Landfall Islands, in holes about a yard deep, even ½ a mile, on the hills, from the sea.— somewhat like Puffins.— If a person stamps on the ground, many will come out of one hole: eggs elongated white, about size of pidgeon.— [correction] I find I am mistaken. this observation of Mr Stokes applies to the small blue petrel with waving dark line (like S) on the wings.—

1834

December

 

I never saw so many birds of any sort together as of this Petrel in the inland sea behind Chiloe. There were hundreds of thousands, flying in an irregular line, in one direction for an infin many several hours, & when on the water it was black with their numbers.— Said to be very irregular in their movements, appearing in certain places in number & on the next day not one to be seen.— The water here contained clouds of small Crustacæ.— The flock together made a cackling noise, somewhat like people talking at the distance.— [notes end]

1 Named by John Gould Rhea Darwinii in Zoology 3:123-5. Further material was added by CD to his account of this smaller species of Rhea when he copied it out later, and the question of the Avestruz Petise is discussed at length in Ornithological Notes pp. 271-7.

2 Conrad Martens was the second official artist on board the Beagle. For the story of how he shot the ostrich, and it was partly eaten before CD realised that it was not a young R. americana, see Beagle Diary p. 212.

3 A 'Watcho', correctly spelled 'huacho', was the term applied by the gauchos to an ostrich egg not laid in one of the communal clutches (see CD P. 112).

4 This date suggests that the line must have been added to the text much later, but CD wrote again in 1836 that he had bought some feathers and skin from the Chinas (see Ornithological Notes p. 274).

5 Identified as Puffinus cinereus Steph. in Zoology 3:137-8.

6 Identified as Prion vittatus Cuv. in Zoology 3:141.

[CD P. 214 commences with an entry dated Feb. 13th]

Sigillina1

(832)

Brought up by the Anchor. 14 Fathoms. East entrance of the straits of Magellan.— Stem much flattened 3ft:4 inches long: free extremity rounded, thickest & broardest from which it tapers to the root.— These two extremities are alone preserved in the spirit (832).— Orifices approximate, tubular, slightly flattened, simple, edges very thin, projecting 1/12th of an inch.— Color "Lemon. with little wax Yellow". section shows the individual animals to be of bright "sulphur yellow".— On cutting the specimen into two parts. I noticed in many of the animals (strong difference with Zoophites) a collection from 10 to 15 pale "auricular purple ovules".— They were enveloped in a mass in a gelatinous substance.— They were primarily sphæres, from which state they gradually altered (those

[page] 191 STRAITS OF MAGELLAN FEBRUARY 1834

 

 

 

(a)

in same state being in same body) till they were the object figured (Plate 8. F 2.) This consists of an cup shaped capsule with tail about 3 & ½ times as long as body.— tail gradually tapering lower half & extremity are most fine, transparent natatory membrane or fin.— central vessel divided in lower part by transvers partitions.— upper end of cup (in the semi-developed specimens which I obtained) became blended blended in the gelatinous pulp, in which the ovules were irregularly placed. (tail not coiled). within the Capsule was opake body united with tail & having a neck in upper part which ended in 3 sorts of horns or processes. (these parts, although I do not quite understand how, would probably form the orifices): the chief part of opake internal body was formed by paralled longitudinal vessels. (rudimentary Branchiæ?). Total length of tail & body, 1/10th of inch.— |215|

Plate 8, Fig. 2

 

[note (a)] I have omitted to state the most curious part, that these young Sigillines by the aid of their tadpole-like tail & flat membrane could with a vibratory motion gain a tolerably rapid progress motion.— V. Synoicum Falkland Isds.— [note ends]

[CD P. 215 commences]

Feby 25th

Holuthuria2

(843)

Length of whole animal .7: head globular 1/3 greater diameter than body. length .2: body tapering to tail: 3 rows of papillæ (2 or 3 deep) on one side of body; few scattered round base of the anterior spherical enlargement or head.— This latter part is flattened on the top, round which are seated 10 much but irregularly branched tentacula; two approximate ones are very small & different from the rest.— In centre tubular, long projecting lip, with concentric lines. highly extensible & dilatable. Head obscurely lobate.— Surface covered with small oblong patches of fine punctures, which feel a little rough.— General color "peach blossom red". tentacular orange, with few brownish orange spots at their bases: central lip on mouth yellow.— Low-water mark.— Wollaston Island.—

Holuthuria3

Doris-like

 

 

Body oval depressed, strikingly resembling a Nudibranch. Upper surface convex covered with scales, form truncated angular [sketch in margin] pointing from edges of body to central parts.— outer ones small (but not gradually) increasing towards the centre. Scales covered with punctures.— Lower surface soft concave.— The mouth is situated at ¼ length of body from anterior extremity; circular is completely closed by 5 pointed scales: [sketch in margin] Tentacula 10. long. ½ length of body:

[page] 192 TIERRA DEL FUEGO FEBRUARY 1834

854 (a)

Feb. 26th.—

tapering, little branched, tree like (in contradistinction to bush-like).— Resemble that of Holuthuria (P 163).— They surround the mouth.— The bony collar consists of 10 truncated gothic arches or rather 5 pair.— slightly stony.— When the Tentacula are retracted this collar is nearly in centre of body & lies in an inclined position with respect to the plain [sic] of body.— |216|

 

[note (a) added later] June 3d. 1834. Port Famine. Found abundantly in 5 & 6 Fathom water, adhæring to the large stones to which the Fucus gigant. grows.— They lie very flat & fill up any irregularities in the surface of the stone.— Removing one large one.— I found beneath 10 to 20 ovules beneath it; the animal being placed in water these were washed away: ovule — dark orange color. length 1/15th of inch; elongated oval soft sack, with several blunt, rough conical projections (doubtless in nature tentacula); by which it made attempts to crawl — Perhaps the lower membrane was ruptured or if not the mouth of the oviduct is on the inferior surface.— [note ends]

[CD P. 216 commences]

Holuthuria

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Anus is placed on the back, & in the same relation to the posterior extremity as the mouth is to the anterior:— it is closed by 5 unequal scales or valves & one small central one; nearly heart shaped.— The scales which lie between these orifices are larger & squarer than the others.— The viscera on lower surface do not fill up the whole concavity, but as far as where the small scales commence, which latter form a case over the body.— the inferior membrane is sprinkled over with hyaline spots points.— its outer edge has short striæ, pointing from the centre, of the same stony natures as the scales.— within these, there is a single row of papillæ, which extend round the under body.— the head of these is flat slightly coloured plate; the surface of which seen with a high power is covered with small suckers.— this plate is not contractile, but the long transparent footstalk is. Length of one specimen ¼ of inch; generally more than half this.— Edge of body from the scales, sinuous.— Color "Flesh & Aurora red".— under surface more orange".— They are found adhæring pretty firmly to leaves of sea-weed & in 16 Fathom water. NE end of Navarin Isd.— When the Tentacula are half protruded this animal most curiously resembles a Doris.— Can crawl, (but very slowly) by the aid of the Papillæ & the Tentacula which are adhæsive.— these when the animal moves are extended before it. & can be seen. When detached from a leaf, the animal can curl in the edges of the shell to a small degree.— The animal is very pretty from elegant arrangement of scales & color.— |217|

[page] 193 TIERRA DEL FUEGO FEBRAUARY 1834

(a)

[note (a)] "Peach blossom with little Aurora red" is more accurate. Tree like Tentacula are coloured orange.— [note ends]

1 Ascidiacea, Clavelinidae, another brooding tunicate, or sea squirt. See Dic. Class. 15:421. CD notes that as in the Synoicum observed in the Falklands (see pp. 144-5) the larvae swim skilfully with the aid of their tadpole-like tails.

2 Dendrochirotida, Cucumariidae, sea cucumber, probably Pseudocnus dubiosus leoninus Semper.

3 Dendrochirotida, Psolidae, sea cucumber, probably Psolus antarcticus Philippi or P. patagonicus Ekman.

[CD P. 217 commences]

Animal?1

853

Oval globules, with tough external skin: color dark olive brown — centre of sack filled with thick adhæsive brown substance, without vessels.— Adhæres to sea weed, by a flocculent substance at one extremity, through which a vessel might be seen.— No signs of irritability. when placed in fresh water, burst itself.— I believe several being detached & placed together in watch glass, reunited themselves one to the other.— 16 Fathom. NE of Navarin Isld, on sea weed &c &c.

Spongia (?)2

852

[in pencil]

copied

Bowebank

Mass irregularly sphærical. general length of whole .3 of inch. sponge-color; thickly covered with numerous fine spines or hairs.— from centre of body a tube proceeds, length .1. formed of white approximate hairs; near base has delicate transverse partition, from this point the hairs slightly diverge, making the tube gradually widen at its mouth; tube conducts to central linear cavity, lined with hexagonal net work, which are the orifices of oblong spongy cells, which fill up the mass.— Could perceive no currents.— Adhæres to sea-weed.— Hab: same as above.—

1 Not identifiable.

2 Porifera,? Demospongiae. Bowerbankia is a basic bryozoan.

[CD P. 217 continues]

Crust. Mac:1

860

 

March 1st.— East end of Beagle Channel.— Roots of Fucus G. Back "Hyacinth & brownish red" with oblong marks & spots of gem-like "ultra-marine blue". one white transverse mark & longitudinal one on tail; 1st & great legs, same color as body, but penultimate limb centre part white edged with "do blue". anti-penultimate ringed with white, "do blue" & "do red". other limbs legs with basal limbs faintly ringed but ultimate limbs orange.— sides with oblique stripes "reddish brown".— Animal most beautiful.— |218|

Pleuro-

Length .6 crawling: breadth .3: color very pale dirty yellow: beneath

[page] 194 TIERRA DEL FUEGO MARCH 1834

branchus

861

Sigaretus2

white — semi-transparent: very soft. (impossible to touch it after being killed in fresh water). mantle much depassing foot: superior feelers. approximate at foot, length .1, extremities square or truncate.— inferior feelers. extremities rounded. Seated wide apart, from tip to tip when extended .3: there is a connecting membrane which unites them half way up.— which has 3 sinuosities, central one greatest deepest; there are fine dots of black on it: Branchiæ. on right side, large, forming a pyramidal mass of tufts.— 10 Fathom: roots of Fucus Giganticus. East end of Beagle Chal.—

Octopus

862

 

863

General color. "Hyacinth red". which appeared when viewed through lens in fine dots: the animal being left in impure water & frightened, the arms & basal connecting membranes would become quite white, sometimes however leaving patches of the red on the arms or body: when irritated, or placed in fresh water, the red was driven to the surface in the space of 3 or 4 seconds: from which it might again be seen to retire, (as a blush from the face) but irregularly.— could swim backwards.— was very soon killed by fresh water; were found coiled up in roots of Fucus Giganticus. Hab as above: with near them were small ones, spotted on upper-surface of body arms with a brighter red:

Crepidula3

864

Crepidula

The ovules or young shells were on a stone beneath the parent shell; were contained in 9 oblate sphæres or sacks which were connected by tubes in a circle to a common base.— There were about 12 to 15 in |219| each sack, sometimes more or less: the young shells were crawling about in the interior; every part seemed perfect.— the bars or lines of the Branchiæ were very much developed in superior part of shell.— Body large in proportion to shell: anterior part of foot much produced.— Eye black dots: general color, yellowish white. Hab: as above:

1 Decapoda, Hippolytidae, identified as Nauticaris magellicana (M. Edwards) in Oxford Collections p. 212.

2 Notaspidea, Pleurobranchidae, probably Berthella platei (Bergh, 1898).

3 Mesogastropoda, slipper limpet.

[CD P. 219 continues]

Flustra1

(with moving beak)

(874)

(1874 not

spirits)

(a)

March 1st.— East entrance of Beagle channel: adhæring to roots of Fucus G:— I shall generally only mention those parts which are not preservable.— Cells spindle shaped. placed in straight rows — each cell adhæring laterally by 4 supports to others, forming a most elegant net work.— the base &c &c.— Polypus, with 26 arms which are very nearly length of whole cell.— These rest on an inverted cone (Pl. 8 Fig. 3). this cone acts as a mouth. a central vessel or opening may be seen closing, with a peristaltic motion; this again joins to a slight enlargement of the main red

[page] 195 TIERRA DEL FUEGO MARCH 1834

viscus.— I believe just beneath in enlargement this (stomach? or œsophagus?) makes a bend; but this part is very difficult to [be] made out, for when the Polypus is protruded, this part is just in the aperture of cell; & when drawn back it is doubled at the very base.— These last parts are enclosed in a delicate tube: which & the arms are enclosed in a transparent case; which is protrudable:

Plate 8, Figs. 3-6

 

 

 

 

 

Flustra

 

 

Fig 3 is a drawing of the above parts: all which is beneath the dotted lines I have not actually seen in this position, but have no doubt it [is] the true one: For in (Fig. 4) we have a back view of polypus.— we here see a curved thick vessel, with more or less red granular matter, lying obliquely across the cell: (A) is rather globular, & the most solid viscus |220| in the body. Close to this at (K) there was a rapid revolution of small red grains, which apparently were contained in a sort of vessel or sack.— this sort of circulation sometimes extended ½ down the gut (B), the posterior end of which is full of red matter. Close to (K) a longitudinal red vessel (now seen over base of arms) contracts in diameter, bends & unites to the main one.— Fig 5. is same seen in front view, but is much more obscure.— The longitudinal vessel I think it is probable I have drawn too long — it is difficult to see distinctly.— When dying, the body is protruded as far even as in the circulating organ (K): but generally only beneath inverted cone.— Is the rapid motion of (K), that of the stomach (A) the liver & (B) the cæcum? The side of extreme part of (B) is attached to the middle of cell & all round liner. like those of muscles, are connected with the polypus. The position of all the above organs is not very constant, but subject to the will of the animal: the mouth of cell is composed of a moveable arched lip (like lower jaw of a bull-dog). Before the Polypus protrudes itself, this lip is lifted up & backward baseward.

 

[note (a) added April 1834] Also common in Falkland Isds. As every cell

[page] 196 TIERRA DEL FUEGO MARCH 1834

 

 

939

grows before another in perfectly straight lines, & as the piece is irregularly circular; branch lines must frequently be sent off: one cell in this case producing two others, one in the usual place, another in the place of anterior connecting link or bracket: How completely does the Polypier produce cells & Polypi.— Specimens (939) [in spirits] were attached to a Spider Crab.—

 

 

[note added July 1834 or later] I saw this species at Chiloe. on a stone, roots of Kelp.— [notes end]

[CD P. 220 continues]

 

 

||

||

||

 

Flustra

with capsule

 

(a)

This Coralline is extraordinary from the presence of capsules resembling vulture heads2, noticed in another coralline of the same family (P 78).— Each cell has 2, seated at its anterior end, just above where the two upper brackets go off to connect the lateral cells. These capsules have a peduncle, with basal articulation: when at rest, they lie obliquely so as almost to meet at the very extremity of cell.— The peduncle is capable of being moved upwards & towards the base & nearly through 180 degrees; the |221| lower mandible (keeping up simile with Vulture head but really superior) is kept wide open, so as to form a straight line with the upper one: it is occasionally closed, but not kept so; this motion is more frequent than that of the whole peduncle; both are rapid; chiefly take place when irritated by being touched, or fresh water: the mandibles firmly hold on to a needle: I never saw both capsules move at once, or any isochronism between different cells, excepting when affected together by fresh water or other cause.— There was an appearance of gullet at base of Mandibles, but I could trace no vessel or communication with cell.— (this can be investigated in the spirit specimens) I do not think these Capsules are exactly same shape with those of P 78.— [note (a)] The Capsule retained its irritability longer than the Polypus was dead & removed: this continued its rapid & starting motion.— This rapidity of motion is different from that of P 78.— [note ends]

[CD P. 221 continues]

 

 

 

There is another curious organ3; In any row, the base of one cell is contracted & cylindrical & unites itself to the posterior one beneath the mouth.— Posterior to this point of junction, the greater number of cells have a thick, transparent, flexible, straight cylindrical vessel, projecting out.— it bends at right angles close to cell, & then continues parallel & beneath the row of cells; it is 3 or 4 times longer than cell, so as to project beyond the edges of Coralline. the extremity is rounded & impervious; it

[page] 197 TIERRA DEL FUEGO MARCH 1834

 

Flustra

with Capsule

appears to me these stalks form a trellis work for the cells to lie, & perhaps also as means of attachment.— The connecting brackets appear hollow; where two rows of cells diverge, in the centre of an anterior bracket a globular enlargeme<nt> takes place, which afterward form a cell, so as to |222| fill up the divergence between the rows.— In the young & extreme cells, the arms of Polypus do not reach half its length (Fig 6). they are enclosed in a bead, the neck of which is attached to anterior extremity of cell.— Here the four brackets are shown by knobs.— the capsules by a club-shaped mass with central little ball.— the posterior horn or vessel, & the site of anterior or other young cell is shown by short tube ending in a knob.— Before the arms of Polypus are complete & before any red viscera can be seen, the moving capsules are perfect.— The youngest form of cell, is globular mass with central spot or mark.— In some of the central & therefore old cells, I noticed (but did not examine sufficiently), a young Polypus — as at (F.6), Above anterior to which was a shrunk dark red viscus with central ball: it appeared as if the old Polypus had died (or produced an ovum) & a young one took its place in the cell. I could see no reproductive ovules.—

 

 

This coralline, when alive, from its extreme symetry, complicated Polypus, curious motion of capsules, was a most interesting spectacle: Coralline colored from Polypi dirty orange.— This Polypus is closely allied to that of Obelia, P 174. there the vessel which comes from the base of arms is elongated, possesses [?] a red organ, bends, contains a revolving mass & ends in a red-gut-shaped mass.— there is no difference, excepting that in this one, the longitudinal vessel joins an oblique one instead of passing by the Liver & then bending.— |223|

Flustra

(encrusting)

(a)

878

 

March 1st.— East entrance of Beagle channel.— (Pl. 9, F 1)4 is drawing of Polypus from one of the cells, as I extracted it.— length from tip (if contracted), arm to end of cœcum or blind gut .015:— arms 16 in number.— they rest on footstalk in which an inverted conical space is contained.— there was here a small degree of the same corpuscular motion as will be described at (K).— It would seem to act as a mouth; just beneath this the stem contracts & bends.— & then proceeds in straight; it is generally full of reddish matter & is here (from A to B) much contracted. Above the centre of body is an irregular quadrangular body (K), more transparent than rest, formed of double edges, & revolving on its internal edges5, especially & centre reddish granules.— From its external & lower edge, a line goes which seems to form the sack (cœcum?) (D), which contains reddish granular matter; a thick mass of which generally lies at the bottom, above the pointed extremity.— I do not know what the connection is between the red substance in (D) & in stem A & B.—

[page] 198 TIERRA DEL FUEGO MARCH 1834

Plate 9, Figs. 1 and 2

[CD P. 223 continues]

 

Flustra

encrusting

 

 

(a)

Above the revolving organ, the body takes a turn & forms an oblong case, which contains a dark red kidney mass.— this (I believe) is connected by its base with vessel running nearly to foot of arms.— the case is joined at its extremity to the case of the tentacula on arms & (I believe) at the base by a bracket with the stem (A B).— The position of these parts in the cell will be seen from the back view (F2). Here we have the stem (AB) much extended, & joining near the revolving organ (K) to the body, which lies underneath & close to mouth of cell: the other end of stem bends & doubtless joins to base of tentacula, which are |224| represented by dotted lines, for it is not possible to see them.— Cell is perforated by curiously shaped orifices [sketch in margin] .— Above the mouth of cells are long spines or hair & blunt points: which perhaps are young hairs.— There is also another very curious organ. it projects up like at hatchway on deck; is triangular; the door lies wide open on the surface, it appears to have a terminal tooth.— This door can be made exactly to close the hatchway, but immediately by elasticity or actual motion pulls open again.— This organ has some alliance with curious one of foregoing Flustra.—

 

887

[note (a) for CD P. 223] In Ponsonby Sound6 procured more specimens: did not here notice triangular hatchways; but before the mouth of cell there were circular hollows for orange ovules: [note ends]

[page] 199 TIERRA DEL FUEGO MARCH 1834

(a)

880

[note (a) for CD P. 224] Flustra with cells on one side of branch: Beagle Channel: 15 Fathom: Polypus essentially the same as in the above animal; stem (AB) as might be supposed from form of cell is longer in proportion; near point of junction, revolving organ was visible, but the greatest difference was in the regular oval figure of the organ, which in the above animal is kidney-shaped, & in being much more distinctly divided from the cæcum: point of junction is merely a neck.— I could not count the arms or tentacula [note ends]

1 The several species of Flustra described here are bryozoans of orders Cyclostomata, Cheilostomata and suborder Ascophora, and superfamilies Tubuliporoidea, Malacostegoidea and Cellularioidea, being sessile colonies formed of polymorphic zooids. 33 different species of polyzoa collected by CD during the voyage, of which 7 came from Tierra del Fuego, were listed by George Busk in his Catalogue of marine Polyzoa in the collection of the British Museum. 2 pts. London, 1852-4. Some 120 of CD's dry specimens are still held in the George Busk Collection at the Natural History Museum, and about 20 of those stored in spirits are still in the Zoology Museum of Cambridge University, where they were catalogued by S.F. Harmer in 1901. In Specimen 874 (in spirits) Harmer found Tubulipora organisans D'Orb., Beania magellanica Busk, and Schizoporella hyalina var. (= Escharina brongniartiana D'Orb.).

2 CD's vulture heads in constant motion were specialized zooids now known as pedunculate avicularia, whose polypide are reduced but which have strong muscles operating a mandible-like operculum, also described on P. 220 as the 'lower jaw of a bull-dog'. CD and Busk concluded that the function of avicularia might be defensive, but it has been pointed out by Judith Winston in an article entitled Why Bryozoans have Avicularia - a Review of the Evidence (American Museum Novitates, No. 2789. New York, 1984) that there is still little direct evidence in support of this or any other hypothesis.

3 CD here describes the specialized kenozooids which form supporting and attachment structures.

4 Plate 9 Fig. 1 shows the polypide of a feeding autozooid removed from its cell. A pencil note on the drawing states 'I believe L is not sufficiently circular & is attached too high to tube B', but the picture is not very informative.

5 CD has observed correctly the rotating food-cord driven by the action of epithelial cilia in the pylorus of anascan bryozoans. The reddish food particles may have been phytoplankton.

6 Ponsonby Sound opens out from the Murray Narrow running southwards from the middle of the Beagle Channel, and separating Hoste and Navarin Islands.

[CD P. 224 continues]

Polype?1

881

Stem creeping, throwing up upright footstalks, which bear at extremities, each one animal. Whole substance membrano—gelatinous.— Animal cup shaped, one side being more convex than other, & considerably flattened: On the edge there are from 16 to 18 (17 common number) arms or tentacula; these are connected for about ¼ of their length, at their bases by a membrane. The summit of cup within arms is flat & oval; at one end,

[page] 200 TIERRA DEL FUEGO MARCH 1834

there is a rather large transvers mouth, at the opposite small orifice of anus.—

Plate 10, Figs. 1-5

[CD P. 224 continues]

 

Polype?

Pl. 10, Fig 1 is a side view of broard side of animal; The mouth conducts into straight, irregular vessel or sack; this possesses a peristaltic motion & another which resembles that produced by ciliæ. This sack contracts & enters in another & larger vessel, which varies in shape & dimension, fills up bottom of cup & generally contains some reddish granular matter; in this we see the rapid revolving motion, lately so frequently mentioned amongst the Flustræ.— This stomach leads into a |225| cylindrical vessel which lies in end of cup, opposed to (œsophagus?).— This generally contains pellets of dark red matter, which both by force & by animals will I have seen ejected.— they are fæces.— In centre of cup above the stomach, there is a transparent globular organ which contains (generally) from 4 to 5 small irregularly shaped bodies; these consist of central opake mass in transparent case, are irritable & highly contractile: there would appear to be two faintly coloured prominences, & between these there is a curved spaces covered by small vibrating fillets or ciliæ: These are sufficient to move the mass.— It is clear there are half-matured ovules.— Besides these the centre of cup, perhaps may contain some organs connected with the stomach.— All the above organs are enveloped in case independent of the outer one; which latter seems to form connecting membrane between base of arms.—

 

 

(Fig. 2) is view of anus & intestine end of cup: F (3). vertically from above, mouth & anus.— (Fig 4) is one of the tentacula; they are lined on inner surface by numerous minute fillets, which are in incessant rapid vibration; & thus cause current in water.— the back part is filled with small globular

[page] 201 TIERRA DEL FUEGO MARCH 1834

 

 

Polype?

grains, between them & the fillets there is a clear space, which I think acts as a vessel & is connected with a circular one at base of membrane, which I believe emties itself near the mouth?— The connecting membrane is filled with grains, twice as large as those in the Tentacula: (Fig 5) shows manner of growth.— the first sign is then cylindrical projection: this soon has a globular head, & even when very |226| small (C) little tentacula make their appearance. From this epock, they merely increase in size; in all the early stages the cup is very large in proportion to the stem.— The footstalk, in its lower part, has a shoulder, & increases suddenly in diameter.— this is .004, & is little less than that of the creeping stem.— They both contain semi-opake granular matter in a transparent case. Whole animal delicate, transparent; length of footstalk .005 .05, of cup with collapsed arms .02. with those extended must be more than .03. Animal highly irritable; sensation evidently communicated from one to the other.— Beside the contraction & collapsement of the tentacula, the animal can move in all directions the footstalk: this it sometimes does in a circular manner & tolerably rapid.— When the cup was cut off & placed in water, it revolved steadily & slowly: power of motion must lie in that part.— Occurs plentifully, filling up the longitudinal furrows or wrinkles in the leaves of the Fucus Giganticus.— Ponsonby Sound.— March 5th.— What is this animal? Where does it come in the scale of Nature?—

[CD P. 226 continues]

Cellaria2

or

Loricaria

885

Loricaria

 

886.—

Ponsonby Sound.— Growing in small flesh-colored tufts on the leaves of the Fucus giganticus: Polypier. brittle very thin; each cell has its face excised by a shield shaped piece of thin membrane which extends ¾ length of cell; the separation between the cells is of a soft nature &c &c &c.— Polypus 16 arms: in the young terminal, cells are seen pursed |227| up in a sack, as represented in Flustra (PL 8, F 6).— Body essentially same as in encrusting Flustra (P 223 PL: 9).— The revolving mass was evident; when in cell, the cæcum (D) & organ (L) formed nearly a straight line, instead of lying obliquely.— Organ L. more circular & more detached from cæcum.— it was most evidently attached both to sides of cell & to the base of tentacula.— (I imagined I here saw external to the tentacula an orifice or anus!?).— Body altogether small.— On the same Fucus leaves there was another Cellaria, closely allied but I believe a different species.— (886).

Coralline

stony

(870. not

spits:)

Small. white. branching stony Polypier; composed of central tubes encased in a stony net work, through which cells pass at right angles, these have a projecting tube, are placed in lines or irregularly on Coralline.— Extremity of branches flattened, rather dilated, composed of angular & circular net work of orifices, which would appear to be forming the cells.— Polypus I had very little opportunity (bad weather) of examining: possessed few tentacula, I believe 10 or 12; seated on long base, highly simple &

[page] 202 TIERRA DEL FUEGO MARCH 1834

apparently not enveloped in case (?).— Growing in 54 Fathoms, some miles off Staten Land.— March 8th.—

1 This animal belongs to the small phylum Entoprocta, similar to a bryozoan except that as CD's drawings clearly show, the anus opens within the ring of tentacles. In consequence, the feeding currents driven by the cilia are in the opposite direction to those in a bryozoan.

2 In a modern classification, Cellaria is an anascan bryozoan in superfamily Pseudostegoidea.

 

Plate 11

[CD P. 227 continues]

Clytia1

5th species

894

Clytia

 

 

Clytia

 

 

March. East Falkland Island: (PL. 11) will generally represent this Coralline.— the central living mass pursues a slightly zig-zag course, sending off rectangular branches, which bending upwards bear a cup & tentacula: it is remarkable by the |228| enlargements of the outer case, which cup-like contains the rt-angle of the living mass (C).— The living stem besides this outer case, which in the younger stages buds enclose even the mouth of cup, is enveloped in other & more close case.— this is best seen at the angle (D), & at base of cup, where it lies near to the outer

[page] 203 EAST FALKLAND ISLAND MARCH 1834

case.— it is traversed by central vessel, which being surrounded by granular matter forms the cell stem.— this granular matter can be forced to circulate in the its case.— the living stem having passed through the two semi-globular enlargements at base of cell, is much contracted, & chiefly consists of the central vessel; it is then suddenly enlarged into cylinder almost (E) filling the cup: which contains is filled by granular matter in which I twice perceived corpuscular motion.— In the middle of the tentacula there is the mouth; this when contracted is an inverted conical projecting tube, with round top & central vessel (B): when expanded it only forms a largely labiate mouth & this enters into the organ E.— the tentacula are 30 in number (am nearly sure) are short, thick, granular, with granulated surface are seated on superior & outer edge of (E).— We may imagine E & B to be enlargements of central vessel of stem & the tentacula, the coat of granular matter in a different form.— I consider E to act as a stomach.— The specimen was very poor; the tentacula, I think, could never be entirely retracted in cell.— [note in margin] Plate bad in this respect. [note ends] |229| There is a retraction of the outer case above the angles (F).— At extremities of branches stem (DC) is not so horizontal, & after the cup is nearly perfect a fresh branch springs out at (F).— There were elongated oval ovaria attached by the enlargements at base of cell.— This Clytia grows on creeping stem in furrows of leaves of Fucus, throwing up short branches bearing alternate cups.—

Flustra2

membranous

895

 

 

Hab: same as above Clytia: encrusting Fucus stalks: is very remarkable from being extremely soft & membranous (disproving classifications such as Lamouroux3) Cells hexagons, with pretty regular cells; orifice tubular lipped.— Polypus in every main feature resembling that of (PL. 9, F 1, Page 223). Arm D & AB full of red granular matter; revolving organ K was evident, but I do not know of what figure.— the organ L was more sphærical & separated by very much longer & more narrow junction.— was united to case of tentacula, the point of union appearing near to upper edge: (the difference in this point in the various Flustra, is owing I believe to the transparency of the case & greater or less retraction of the arms).— the swallowing or peristaltic motion was present at base of tentacula; D & L were more in a straight line.— but every essential point is the same: Arms I am nearly sure 16 in number: delicate long (with central vessel?) the inner surface is lined with very fine, rapidly vibrating, fillets; which create rapid revolving motion in neighbouring fluid.— This is remarkable.— |230|

Cellaria4

(a)

915

 

Growing in short branches. semi-stony Coralline, growing on Fucus G: branches, cylindrical composed of many cells placed in lines & each cell placed between four others: allied to Cellaria cerealis5.— Pl. 12, Fig. 1 is Polypus as seen far protruded out of cell: represented by dotted lines.— Arms 12. 14. 16. I know not which. I believe 14.— inside parts vibrating, especially at base.— are seated on inverted cone in which swallowing

[page] 204 EAST FALKLAND ISLAND MARCH 1834

action may be seen.— unites at base entrance of cell with vessel which is enlarged (Liver?) into oval organ containing dark oval mass & this is attached to side of case, not far from its mouth.— Whether this attachment is tubular I do not know.— (But this is certainly its arrangement, which probably holds good in all Flustraceæ; but is difficult to be seen by dissection) The dotted bag is supposed place of cæcum.— The transparent cylindrical case (is not drawn sufficiently cylindrical) is first protruded, bringing with it the Liver & then almost at same time the arms.— Coralline dirty "flesh red".—

 

[note (a)] I recognise it.— it is bifurcate, cells placed in oblique lines: about 8 in the circumference: extremities of branches formed of the cells.— I have often found it on the beach & very seldom on the leaves of the common Kelp: but yesterday I pulled up other sort with smooth edged leaves & thicker tree-like stem, & this abounded with this Coralline.— (Point of attachment stronger?) [note ends]

1 This animal is a hydroid in order Leptothecata, similar to those described by CD on PP. 93/4, 118/20 and 126. But Plate 11 looks more like a very stylized drawing of Obelia geniculata than of Clytia.

2 Another anascan bryozoan.

3 See Lamouroux pp. 3-4.

4 Another anascan bryozoan.

5 Not listed by Lamouroux.

 

Plate 12, Figs. 1-3

[CD P. 230 continues]

Flustra1

with moving

 

(or rather Cellaria). Is allied to that of page 219, but differs in many remarkable respects.— Polypus with 20 arms. body with essentially the

[page] 205 EAST FALKLAND ISLAND MARCH 1834

beak

 

920
or
1913
(n. sp)
Flustra
withcapsule

same structure: Each cell has one lateral capsule, these are squarer, or shorter footstalk. at hinge of lower jaw an excisement; it is very remarkable; although the Polypi were active I never could perceive the slightest motion in these beaks; again all the beaks were tightly closed: in these respects diametrically different from the two kinds: that the beaks are opened is certain, because I saw a fibre in one of them had been firmly caught & held. Mouth of cell |231| I believe labiate, protected by four spines: on each side of cell there is a straight line of short curved spines (like teeth of comb). there are 12 or 13 on each row, the points interfold & overlap in middle of front of cell.— These teeth are not very regular in their shape; often forked; extremities pointed: in young cell are blunt: give very curious ribbed appearance to cell: must form protection to it.— each one can with a needle be moved separately: It appears At back of cell there is a branch or vessel as at (P 219). but in this case is terminated by root for attachment; resembling the root in miniature of F. giganticus.— This proves that the simple organ in other kind was, as I supposed for this end.— There the attachment is much slighter, growing in irregular patches, edges free.— Here in circular patches much more firmly fixed to leaf of Fucus.— The cells are more adnate: the basal brackets are shorter than the anterior grow as before from the back part of inferior one. these brackets seem to be divided in middle. I could only trace a connexion of the capsule, root & brackets with the polypier & not body of polypus.— The young terminal cells grow as in other; arms of polypus in case, beak & brackets knobs &c &c.— In many of the basal ( old) cells. have a large dark oval organ in oval transparent case, close to which is a revolving organ: nothing else is clearly distinguishable: but I believe it to be a highly developed Liver for an immature Polypus. Young terminal cells have it not so much developed, or regular cells: What causes the absence of Polypus in these cells?— Is it connected with generation? This family of Flustræ is most truly remarkable.— |232|

[CD P. 232 commences]

Flustraceæ2

927

 

 

 

 

Stony: in more or less globular masses: formed of cells united by their sides, not closed at base, but attached to Barnacle — colored dirty "flesh red".— Orifice of cell thus shaped [sketch in margin]; on each side of hinder part is small projecting orifice: & in front there is one or two others (this can easily be afterwards ascertained).— This gives the Coralline a most remarkable appearance.— Polypus dark orange color: arms (certainly) 14: body in every respect as in the family.— peristaltic motion, revolving organ, liver & cæcum: total length about 1/25th of inch: it is however peculiar: 1st in having a thin transparent plate thus shaped with edges orange [sketch in margin], & which forms a valve some way down in the orifice, the hinge being at parts A: it is attached to the case of arms, so as to be pulled close down.— 2d at the base of arms, about ¼ diam: of arms, there is a nest of delicate white transparent vessels or threads, external

[page] 206 EAST FALKLAND ISLAND APRIL 1834

to the body & round the tops of inverted cone.— Have these & the lateral small orifices any connection? When the valve, as in defence, is closed do these supply communication with the water? Anyhow no other part of body passes through these orifices; but I could not trace these threads into them:— Mem: the Flustra with open capsule like Vultures head, had its cell closed by a lip.— Is there any parallelism in the cases?— Ova oval. with dark included, kidney shaped mass.— I believe generated between the cells or internally in the Coralline.— I was glad to find this change of structure in the Polypier followed or produced by one in the Polypus.— & the valve is an important one.— |233|

Flustra3

with capsule

932

4th species

 

Cells — pear-shaped encrusting; placed without order at base of cell there is a fixed "vultures head". (of less regular form than hitherto): the lower beak or jaw is generally open & but rarely closed itself, excepting when touched & then it firmly seizes the object.— I believe there is a membranous valve to the orifice.— Polypus with 14 or 16 arms). There is a human-ear-shaped indentation or orifice on each side of cell.— Upper rim of mouth transversely ribbed. Body of Polypus same general structure as in the family.— This Coralline in the simplicity of its structure: fewness of arms of Polypus. fixed "vultures head". evidently approaches to the common encrusting Flustræ.— Grows on a smooth leaved Fucus.—

Flustra4

(a)

1424 (not

spirits)

Encrusting: upper surface of cell with stony ribs, projecting like rays from the sides: orifice of cell thus shaped [sketch in margin].— Polypus. with 18 (certainly) arms; vibratory at base: Cæcum & Liver remarkably small & globular in proportion to length of arms.— I believe shape & size of viscera depend much on quantity of food &c &c.— It is interesting seeing this Coralline, so closely allied to many other species, with its Polypus with 18 arms showing of how little consequence is their number in distinguishing genera.—

[note (a) added later] I mention these particulars about Polypier from my own recollection [note ends]

Flustra5

931

(b)

Cell oval. Mouth square, with membranous valve, hinge superior: surface of cell with symetrical arrangement of hyaline stary points.— a centra[l] small orifice into cell, with its edges toothed.— Covering ovum, beautiful radiated structure: Polypus same general structure 14 or 16 arms:— Coralline orange color.— Growing Encrusting leaves of smooth leaved Fucus: |234|

 

[note (b)] The number of arms of Polypus is in all these cases difficult to be counted.— [note ends]

(c)

 

 

 

[note added later]6 Found a better specimen in which the greater number of cells had anterior to the orifice an enlargement containing dark orange

[page] 207 EAST FALKLAND ISLAND APIRL 1834

ova.— (These ova appeared in early stages to be connected by a vessel to to the Coralline beneath them?). The cells with ova possessed equally active Capsules with those which did not: This proves they have no direct connexion with the ova: from the great similarity of this Coralline even in external character & much more in body of Polypus with common Flustræ, it is certain that the Capsule is connected with any important viscus.— In this species where there is only one kind (viz lower beak) of motion it entirely resides in the organ, for when separated it continued for some time to open & close itself — I believe there to be a direct communication between it & cavity of cell: Where there were Ova, the Polypi were not visible: Where there were none, I think they had lately burst forth, these cells contained a dark oval organ (as in P 231), which I believe to be commencement of growth of a fresh Polypus.— If this is the case how completely is the Polypus the flower of the Polypier.— (NB. The Capsule in this case more resembles a Crabs pincers than Vultures beak) [note ends]

[CD P. 234 commences]

Flustraceæ7

937

(b)

Cells nearly cylindrical, nearly a little narrower at summit & enlarged in lower half; substance entirely soft membranous transparent: length nearly .04, breadth .01 invisible to the naked eye from transparency.— the cells are attached by a narrow junction to straight cylindrical creeping stem or vessel .004 in diameter. The cells are entirely separate, excepting by their springing from the same stalk: the structure of the body proves it to belong to the Flustraceæ.

[note (b) added later] Speaking merely from recollection I think (891) is perhaps of same genus with this, but a different species.— [note ends]

[CD P. 234 continues]

 

 

(a)

 

 

 

PL 12. F 2. represents as forced out through the base of the cell: the only difference is the greater size of (c) where all parts unite, & the partial separation of cæcum (E) into two parts: [note (a)] The cæcum has a pointed termination & lies at very base of cell.— [note ends] The liver F is precisely the same as is others general.— the revolving organ motion was visible in two parts of (c) & I am not sure about its exact site: the swallowing motion was seen at base of arms: Arms 8 in number, rather short & thick: When as thus drawn, an inner case is seen much stretched.— When the arms were protruded (giving them a total length of .06), a transparent case was also protruded with its included vessel: Now from this (V Fig 1) I think in all these cases of the Flustraceæ the structure must be a cylinder at one end united to orifice of cell, at other to base of arms.— As represented in the Flustra Fig 1.— Now this turned inside out lying close on the arms would show the liver as in F 2.— Hence there always

[page] 208 EAST FALKLAND ISLAND APIRL 1834

 

Flustraceæ

is a resistance in forcing out the Polypus at base of cell & we explain the protrusion of case & arms where the latter, untill fully expanded is ½ enveloped in the case. |235| F. 3 is drawn too narrow as F 2 is too broard: the former represents the Polypus as seen quietly in its cell. (C & E) are in one line from which vessel of liver runs transversely.— the base of arms (perhaps from their shortness) are not, as is generally the case, drawn down to the bottom of cell, from which œsophagus (C to A) ascends, but this part would appear rather to be contracted & coiled in middle of the cell.— The very orifice of cell is slightly colored red, & when Polypus is withdrawn is contracted.—

 

 

[indistinct

pencil note

in margin]

This curious little Coralline generally is attached on Cellepora (933). the stems run in straight lines, sending off at intervals little groups of four or 6 cells: it appears that when the stem crosses the Fucus, on which the Cellepora adhæres it does not often bear cells.— I have seen stems crossing each other thus: they extend for several 1/10ths of an inch.— the structure is excessively delicate & tender.— The stem must I think contain granular matter for at the cut extremity there was an exuded mass.— there would appear to be an internal tunic: this best seen at the first enlargement, where a cell commences (D).— Perhaps the development of this forms the Polypus. The cell in a more perfect state than at D is oval, with rounded summit & broard junction with stem. (chief difference with old cell). Polypus can be indistinctly seen within.—

 

This Coralline by Lamx. arrangement would be one of the Sertulariæ8. Yet how truly different from the only one I have examined, the Clytias.— At first sight however it resembles in its appearance the creeping sorts.— |236|

1 Cellularioidea, bryozoan identified by S.F. Harmer as Beania costata Busk.

2 Anascan bryozoan.

3 Coelostegoidea, bryozoan identified by S.F. Harmer as Micropora uncifera.

4 CD's little marginal sketch nicely depicts the sinuate (sinus possessing) orifice found in many bryozoans in suborder Ascophora.

5 Another anascan bryozoan.

6 CD has omitted to mark the entry on his P. 233 to which this note refers.

7 This specimen may have been a stoloniferous bryozoan in order Ctenostomata such as Bowerbankia, rather than an anascan like most of the others.

8 The 'Sertulariæ' of early 19th C. authors comprised many families of hydroids, one of which was Sertularidae in the modern sense. CD's description could apply to any of several families as defined today.

 

[CD P. 236 commences]

[page] 209 EAST FALKLAND ISLAND APIRL 1834

Lepus

Magellanicus1

1885

(not spirits)

1902

 

 

(a)

 

The black rabbit of these islands has been described by M. Lesson Rang2 as a distinct species, the Lepus Magellanicus.— I cannot think so: my reasons are.— The Gauchos, who are most excellent practical naturalists, say they are not different: & that they breed & the grey breed together: that the black are never found in distinct situations from others: they have seen piebald ones: then other varieties such as white &c but not common (it would be curious to see how long varieties have remained, if the time of introduction was certain; the same idea applies to the cattle & horses which are of as varying color as a herd in England): there are no black rabbits on any of the small islands:— These rabbits do not travel far of their own accord, the Gauchos have transported black & others together to different places & hence know they do not breed.— I saw none to the South of the main chain of hills.— The spots on head of the specimens on board are not the same one with another nor with M. Rang description.— I have a head (1902) with broard white band, the sides of which do not correspond: this was a young animal, it had grey & brown hairs on its back, & a white patch on one thigh: Weight of my specimen 3 £b: of another 6 £b.— M. Rang2 states that Magellan found this animal in his Straits.— Is it not the wild Guinea pig or Aperea, which is of a dark color & is to this day very frequently called a Conejos (rabbit): these are very abundant on N shore of Sts of Magellan: I have seen a small mantle made of their skins with the Indians. [note (a)] A Sealer has taken some of these rabbits to an island in Skyring Water in Patagonia.— [note ends] |237|

Vulpes

Antarcticus3

 

 

(c)

 

Common in both islands. (M. Rang2 states only in one) They are extraordinarily tame. The Gauchos have frequently taken them by holding a piece of meat in one hand & a knife in the other: they are inland as well as on the coast: dig holes in the ground: do not hunt in flocks: are generally very silent: but in the breeding season make a noise, like a Fox.— Gauchos & Indians from nearly all parts of Southern part of S. America have been here & all say it is not found on the Continent: an indisputable proof of its individuality as a species.— It is very curious, thus having a quadruped peculiar to so small a tract of country: [note (c) Gauchos state there is no other quadruped whatever: With respect to the fish the Grebe (1918) was plentiful in a lake where there was no communication or very small streamlet with the sea.— [note ends]

 

 

553....555

(a)

 

(b)

The rat (1159) is also an aboriginal: it is evidently become partly domesticated & attached to the houses: There certainly are field mice, (I could not procure one), besides English ones now living far from the houses: The fresh water fish (which are found in inland lakes) & the number of common earth worms probably belong to the same class.— [note (a)] Earth worms, from salt water being so deadly a poison (hence probably to the eggs?) is a difficult animal to account for accidental transportation? [note ends] The plants & insects might easily be transported from Tierra del in the SW furious gales!— [note (b)] I may mention

[page] 210 EAST FALKLAND ISLAND APIRL 1834

besides my collection plants as common to this island & Tierra del F. 1157: 1163: Bog plant: Rush-looking plant: tea plant: Celery: [note ends] Rats occur on the small islands.— The Sealers say this Fox is not found or any other land quadruped in the other Islands, as Georgia, Sandwich, Shetland &c &c.— Very few of No foxes are found in the NE peninsula of the East island (between St Salvador Bay & Berkeley Sound).— very soon these confident animals must all be killed: How little evidence will then remain of what appears to me to be a centre of creation. |238|

[further notes were made by CD on the back of P. 237 with changes of pen, all but the last apparently while he was still in E. Falkland Island]

 

[1st note] The Gauchos state there are no reptiles now that this place is settled, in a few years this animal [the Falkland fox] will add one to the list of those perishing from the inhabitants of this globe.—

[2nd note] Out of the four specimens of the eyes Foxes on board, the three larger ones are darker & come from the East; there is a smaller & rusty coloured one which comes from the West Island: Lowe states that all from this island are smaller & of this shade of color.— There is a specimen of eyes from the East Island to show whether Fox or Wolf.—

[3rd note] I have seen the Culpen of Chili mentioned by Molina4. it is quite different from this Wolf-like animal.— [notes end]

1 These remarks are quoted by George Waterhouse in Zoology 2:92, where Lepus Magellanicus is listed as a black variety of the domesticated species.

2 CD is evidently mistaken in referring here to the work on molluscs and their shells by Rang, which was in the Beagle Library, but did mean to refer to René-Primevère Lesson's Manuel de mammalogie (Paris, 1827), which was also on board. Lesson was co-author of the section on Zoologie in L.I. Duperrey Voyage autour du monde . . . sur la corvette . . . La Coquille 1822-5 (Paris, 1826-30).

3 Identified by George Waterhouse in Zoology 2:7-10 as Canis Antarcticus. CD comments that the species is confined to East and West Falkland Islands, and that because of its tameness it is threatened with extermination by the settlers. This premonition proved to be correct, and the Falkland Fox, later renamed Dusicyon australis, is now extinct.

4 See Juan Ignacio Molina Compendio de la historia geografica natural y civil del Reyno de Chile. Part 2 (Madrid, 1795) was acquired by CD when he arrived in Valparaiso.

[CD P. 238 commences]

Ornithology

Caracara

N. Zælandiæ1

1882 (a)

(not spirits)

 

 

 

Is a young Specimen (1882) is a young bird: but there are old birds precisely colored in the same method: the proportional length of wing feathers is different (specimen [no number given] of wing of old bird) & the skin about beak is quite white. There are others, but in considerably smaller proportion, where the legs & skin about beak is bright yellow, thighs rufous &c &c as described it is rather larger: now the Gauchos state this latter is the female & the grey legged

[page] 211 EAST FALKLAND ISLAND APRIL 1834

 

 

Ornithology

(d)

one the male. The only one old one male I dissected confirmed this.— It appears to me that all naturalists have ranked these latter as young birds.— They build in the cliffs on sea coast, but only in the islands: an odd precaution in such very tame birds.— They are excessively numerous in these islands; are said to be found on the Diego Ramirez & Il Defonsos. (hence live entirely on dead marine animals), but never on Tierra del Fuego: Are not found in Georgia or the Orkneys:— They are true Carrion feeders; following a party & rapidly congregating when an animal is killed; are extremely tame, especially when gorged with their craws projecting: in general habits much resemble the Carrancha; same inelegant flight & patient watching position: they however run much faster, like poultry or like the Cuervos (Cathartes atratus?). They have several harsh crys; one very like an English rook; when making this, they throw their heads quite backwards on their back.— are very quarrelsome, tearing |239| the grass with their passion: are commonly said to be very good to eat; flesh quite white.—

 

 

 

 

[note (a) for P. 238] Mr Mellersh2 having wounded a cormorant, it went on shore & immediately these birds attacked & by blows tried to kill it.— Connection in habit as well as in structure with true Hawks.— I have now seen the bodies of three specimens which the Gauchos would call male birds, & which were so.— in some, as in (1882) the feathers appear young, but in others they were old.— Capt F. & Mr Bynoe have such.— Specimen (1932, unfortunately injured by fire) was a female with eggs as large as goose-shot; it generally agrees with the specific description of C. novæ-zelandæ:— legs & skin about beak bright "dutch orange", beak "ash-grey", in the male it is nearly black:— Specimen (1933) is remarkable, it is like the female, larger: black back blacker; thighs & under parts of wings partly rufous: tail without white band: feathers on neck same shape.— soles of feet slightly yellow, legs ash-grey, skin about beak with yellow margin. Beak lower mandible grey, upper black & grey.— By dissection could not see an<y> granulated surface in generative organs, so must be male or more probably young female — (bones rather soft, but feathers completely developed). Perhaps this bird, among the females does not acquire full plumage for 2 years, which together with males will account for larger proportion of grey legs over orange.— [note ends]

(d)

Cop

[note (d) for CD P. 239 added later] From the accounts brought by the Adventure3, these birds in winter are very bold & ravenous: they come on board to steal from the vessel; & will pick up anything laid on the ground: a hat was carried a mile; a pair of balls: & a Katers compass.— they picked the very hide from the ropes on board.— It is said these birds wait, several together, at mouth of rabbit hole & seize the animal as it comes out.— They frequently attack wounded geese, & seized hold of a dog which was asleep.—

[page] 212 EAST FALKLAND ISLAND APRIL 1834

 

[CD P. 239 continues]

Vultur Aura4

(a)

The Vultur aura? (1915) is tolerably common; is rather shy. may be known at a great distance from the Caracara by its lofty soaring elegant flight: I may notice, that for many days I saw scarcely one near the settlement, when suddenly one day I observed considerable numbers, as if they moved in bodies.— Is found near Port Famine. [note (a)] This bird if at all found in La Plata must be very rare.— for I have never seen one.— [note ends]

 

Caracaras

(c)

Copy

(b)

The Carrancha5 does not come from Patagonia to these islands.— It is found but very sparingly on that coast: it there builds in low bushes: generally however in cliffs or banks: I have seen this bird tormenting horses with sore backs, trying to pull off the healing skin: the horse stands with back curled & ears down & the hawk hovers over his back.— Mr Bynoe once saw this Carrancha seize a live partridge, which escaped from his hold & was again pursued but on the ground.— This is very rare: the Caracaras, although placed amongst the Eagles, are in their habits inactive flight, cowardly disposition, protruding craw are true carrion feeders.— The Carrancha must be the Caracara vulgaire or Braziliensis of Dic Class:—

 

Cop

 

[notes added later] (b) North of B. Blanca, I saw (& believe one or two others) a Caracara in figure & shape like the Carrancha, but differing entirely in color; legs & skin about bill blue: whole body light brown, excepting crown of head & round eyes which are dark brown.— I believe this to be Caracara shot at R. St Cruz (2028).

(c) All these particulars refer to the Carrancha of M: Video [in pencil above] Tharu of Molina [notes end]

[CD P. 239 continues]

 

I do not believe the Chimango (1294) is found South of the R. Negro, without the one Caracara seen & shot at Port Desire (1772) is the same: anyhow it is very rare.— For more particulars V 185(bis).—

1 Identified by John Gould in Zoology 3:15-18 as Milvago leucurus.

2 Arthur Mellersh was a Mate on board the Beagle.

3 The Adventure was a schooner purchased by Capt. FitzRoy at his own expense from Mr Lowe for assistance in the surveys from April 1833 to October 1834.

4 Identified in Zoology 3:8-9 as Cathartes aura Illi.

5 Identified in Zoology 3:9-12 as Polyborus Brasiliensis Swains.

[CD P. 239 continues]

 

Ornithology

 

M. Lesson states that three sorts of Penguins are found about these islands: Capt. FitzRoy has a fourth |240| which kind I have seen in the Sts of

[page] 213 EAST FALKLAND ISLAND APRIL 1834

Penguin

Magellan. I saw much amused by watching a Demersa1, having got between the water & it.— it continually rolls its head from side to side (as if it could only see with anterior portion of eye), stands quite upright: can run very fast with its head stretched out, & crawls amongst the tussocks by aid of its little wings so as extraordinarily to resemble a quadruped: throws its head back & makes a noise very like a Jackass, hence its name: but when at sea & undisturbed its note is very deep & solemn, often heard at night.— When diving (can do so in very shoal water) uses its wings very rapidly & looks like a small seal: from its low figure in water & easy motion [illeg. word] crafty like a smuggler.— is very brave, regularly fought & drove me back till it reached the sea.— nothing less than heavy blows would have stopped: every inch he gained he kept, standing close before me erect & determined.—

Steamers2

 

Steamers

Ornithology

(b)

A logger-headed duck called by former navigators & now race-horses & now steamers has often been described from its extraordinary manner of splashing & paddling along: they here abound; in large flocks: in the evening when pruning themselves make the very same noise mixture of noises which bull-frogs do in the Tropics: their head is remarkably strong (my big geological hammer can hardly break it) & their beak likewise; this must well fit them |241| for their mode of subsistence: which judging from their dung must chiefly be shell-fish obtained at low water & from the Kelp.— They can dive but little; are very tenacious of life, so as to be (as all our sportsmen have experienced) very difficult to kill: they build amongst the bushes & grass near the sea.— [note (b)] The egg is pale blueish white.— [note ends] Mr Stokes once shot one which weighed 22 £b

Lark3

 

(1898) is tolerably common over the island. Mr Sorrell4 states it is found in Georgia & South Orkneys; & that it is the only Land-bird: this may truly be called "antarctica"; reaching to Lat: [not filled in] beyond which in this pole perpetual snow must reach to waters edge.—

Goose5

[in pencil]

also Anas

Hybrida

The Upland goose is common in small flocks, 3 to 7 & pairs, all over the island; does not migrate, but builds in the small outlying islands, it is supposed from fear of the foxes: from which same reason it is perhaps wild in the dusk but very tame by day.— it lives entirely on grass & vegetables. is good to eat.—

 

The black-necked swan is an occasional visitor in winter.—

(a)

[in pencil]

It is proverbial

The extreme tameness of the Furnarius6 has been remarked on by M. Lesson: it is common to many every bird: Geese, Hawks. snipe; the emeberiza, & the thrush in flocks will in the stony valleys surround a person, within two or three feet of him. This tameness is remarkably seen

[page] 214 EAST FALKLAND ISLAND APRIL 1834

tameness of certain birds (c)

in the water fowl, as contrasted with same species [in] Tierra del Fuego; where for generations they have been persecuted by the inhabitants.— many individuals there must have seen as little or less of man, than here |242| so that the wildness seems hereditary.—

 

[notes added later for CD P. 241] (a) I suspect this Furnarius is of different & much darker color than that of Tierra del F, (1823).— & sometimes frequents inland parts.— Did I send a specimen last year?— (I have now a Specimen (1931)6, in its stomach there was a small Cancer Brachyurus & a Buccinum .25 of inch long.— I think my collection of land birds with the Troglodytes of last year is nearly perfect.—

(c) The goose or Duck which is so tame here, up the river of S. Cruz, where they are entirely unmolested by man, are very wild.— What can the cause be?— The Puma? or migrations to Tierra del Fuego.— [notes end]

1 A slightly extended account of the jackass penguin Aptenodytes demersa appears in Journal of Researches 1 pp. 256-7.

2 Identified in Zoology 3:136 as Micropterus brachypterus Eyton.

3 Identified in Zoology 3:85 as Anthus correndera Vieill.

4 Thomas Sorrell was Acting Boatswain on the Beagle.

5 Identified in Zoology 3:134 as Chloephaga Magellanica Eyton. The trachea of CD's specimen was dissected and described by Eyton.

6 Identified in Zoology 3:67-8 as Opetiorhynchus antarcticus Gray.

[CD P. 242 continues]

Zoology

(marine)

 

(a)

 

The Zoology of the sea is I believe generally the same here as in Tierra del Fuego: Its main striking feature is the immense quantity & number of kinds of organic beings which are intimately connected with the Kelp.— This plant I believe (the Fucus giganticus of Solander) is universally attached on rocks. from those which are awash at low water & those being in fathom water: it even frequently is attached to round stones lying in mud. From the degree to which these Southern lands are intersected by water, & the depth in which Kelp grows, the quantity may well be imagined, but not to a greater degree than it exists.— I can only compare these great forests to terrestrial ones in the most teeming part of the Tropics; yet if the latter in any country were to be destroyed I do not believe < >nearly the same number of animals would perish in them as would happen in the case of Kelp: [note (a)] I refer to numbers of individuals as well as kinds [note ends] All the fishing quadrupeds & birds (& man) haunt the beds, attracted by the infinite number of small fish which live amongst the leaves: (the kinds are not so very numerous, my specimens I believe show nearly all).—

 

 

 

 

 

Amongst the invertebrates I will mention them in order of their importance. Crustaceæ of every order swarm, my collection gives no idea of them,

[page] 215 EAST FALKLAND ISLAND APRIL 1834

 

Zoology

marine

(b)

especially the minute sorts.— Encrusting Corallines & Clytia's are excessively numerous. Every leaf (excepting those on the surface) is white with such Corallines or Corallinas & Spirobæ1 & compound Ascidiæ2. Examining these with strong microscope, infinite |243| numbers of minute Crustaceæ will be seen.— The number of compound & simple Ascidiæ is a very observable fact.— as in a lesser degree are the Holuthuriæ & Asterias.— [note (b)] The number of Corallinas inarticulæ, encrusting & coating rocks & shells both in & out of Tidal influence is very observable.— [note ends] On shaking the great entangled roots it is curious to see the heap of fish, shells, crabs, sea-eggs, Cuttle fish, star fish, Planariæ, Nereidæ3, which fall out.— This latter tribe I have much neglected.— Amongst the Gasteropoda, Pleurobranchus4 is common: but Trochus5 & patelliform shells abound on all the leaves.— One single plant form is an immense & most interesting menagerie.— If this Fucus was to cease living, with it would go many: the Seals, the Cormorants & certainly the small fish & then sooner or later the Fuegian man must follow.— the greater number of the invertebrates would likewise perish, but how many it is hard to conjecture.

 

 

[notes for CD P. 243 added later] (c) Mr Stokes states that the furthest point North he has seen the Kelp on the East coast is about St Elena in Lat 43°.— It not uncommonly grows in 10 & 15 Fathom water.—

It may be remembered, as rather curious, that the Kelp Fish so abundant in T. del F. here scarcely seem to be found.—

Near the Is of Chiloe Lat 42°, Kelp grows with no great vigor — but it is very curious to see that here neither the numerous shells & Clytias & Isopod Crust are quite absent; some few encrusting Flustræ, but they are much rarer; & some different compound Ascidiæ.— [notes end]

1 Spirorbidae are fan worms, sedentary tube-dwelling polychaetes.

2 Tunicates.

3 Nereididae are freely crawling polychaete worms.

4 Pleurobranchus is an opisthobranch gastropod of order Notaspidea.

5 Trochacea, top snails.

[CD P. 243 continues]

Time of

generation

 

 

I may mention that last Autumn as well as this, I noticed that most of the marine animals had their ova nearly mature; for instance, very many encrusting Flustraceæ, Doris, Synoicum, Asterias, Shell fish, Crustaceæ & Corallina.— The motion of the sea seems necessary to the life of its productions: this island is much intersected by water (Capt FitzRoy has compared it to the arms of the Cuttle fish). these far inland seas are nearly motionless, they seem to produce scarcely any organic beings. Creusia occasionally encrust the rocks. even where streams enter: The grebe (1917)

[page] 216 EAST FALKLAND ISLAND APRIL 1834

 

(a)

proves that some few small fish are present; the water instead of cherishing the elegant forms of sea-weeds & Corallines throws up [continued at (a) on back of page] a putrid mass of rubbish.— The powers however of Geology are quickly covering up these unproductive specks on this our globe.— V 157 & 158 for more particulars. |244|

Polyclinum1

940

[in pencil]

Synoicum

Blainville

Didemnum

Savigny

Very abundant: coating Fucus G in large irregular masses: when undisturbed in water, the superior surface is studded over with very numerous, circular more transparent spaces, rather less than .01 in diameter: within this is an hexagonal orifice, the sides of which are rather convex, giving it a star-like appearance.— the edges are composed of white dots like rest of body mass, hence when closed very difficult to be seen: The mass is colored pale "buff orange", is composed of transparent substance containing infinite minute globular granules: upper surface transparent membranous: the orifices lie in this: they are seated in valleys on the irregular outline of surface & without any fixed position: There was not the slightest sign of orifices being placed in pairs: three would be close together & no other near them. The thickness of the substance is from 1/10 to 1/20th of an inch. it presents a section presents this appearance.—

 

 

 

Polyclinum

 

 

 

 

 

where (1) is transparent case in which the orifices lie: (2) granular matter: (3) cells with animals: (4) same as (2) & as partitions between the cells, these are generally very thin.— With respect to the cells I am much puzzled, the lower ones are in the most regular line & rather the largest being more than .01: their connection with the superior ones is obscure & must be by a very narrow junction: in not more than one or two case could I see appearance like (A). the upper cavities communicate directly through (2) with the orifices: each cavity having only one.— In the upper sack I believe I could perceive a most delicate pale orange sack, with 2 orifices, & a transparent globular organ with dark viscus, in the lower one an intestine shaped mass.— If each orifice has two cavities (Branchial & Abdominal) |245| from their very numbers these cavities would be packed irregularly: yet I do not understand not being able more clearly to trace the junctions. The membrane which forms the external orifice is highly contractile; & animal whole mass very sensitive: if one orifice is most lightly touched all close for some 1/10 of an inch round.— this appears to the naked eye like a white cloud passing over the substance; (from dark apertures closing).— In parts of the lower granular matter there were globular masses, dark red, few in number. I do not believe they were ova.

[page] 217 EAST FALKLAND ISLAND APRIL 1834

 

Plate 12, Fig. 4

[CD P. 245 continues]

Tubularia-

Clytia2

943

(a)

 

Growing abundantly at the bottom of the Beagle; therefore an inhabitant of these latitudes: in general appearance resembles a Tubularia, but in the apparent articulations a Clytia.— From a very short examination I believe the structure of the Polypus to be very curious. PL 12, Fig 4.— The living stem is enclosed in transparent case which (I believe (AB) specimen not fresh) terminates in a small cup not large enough to confine polypus.— The polypus, or rather the enlargement of the central matter, is a very elongated oval: summit rounded with an orifice; contains red matter: surface studded with numerous cylindrical thick papillæ, transparent colourless, which have a granular slightly enlarged head.— These I believe to act as tentacula in the common polypus, & the whole mass to be a production of the mouth:— Amongst these papillæ, others may be seen, enveloped in transparent case (C), larger & containing central red matter: the superior extremity of which appear divided into papillæ. & there were young Polypi?— Santa Cruz.— April 16th.— |246|

 

 

 

2009

[note (a) added later] After being a month in spirits I reexamined this most curious Coralline.— There is a cup but I could not see a perfect one: I think from its shape it never was intended to receive more than ¼" of Polypus: indeed from its oval shape the Polypus could not protrude & retract itself into any cell which at all fitted it; the arms or tentacula or papillæ are slightly enlarged, probably from contraction, caused by death: in each longitudinal row there are from 5 to 6 & from 10 to 16 of such rows, seen when held vertically.— length of oval or Polypus, 4/100th: breadth 3/200th.— length of arm rather more than 1/200th, probably when alive nearly longer.—

Dry specimen.— [note ends]

[page] 218 COAST OF PATAGONIA MAY 1834

1 Aplousobranchia, Didemnidae, a colonial tunicate.

2 Anthoathecata, Corynidae, but not necessarily from the southern latitudes because it might have survived being transported on the hull of the Beagle from warmer waters.

[CD P. 246 commences]

Tubularia1

 

I procured off C. Virgins one single cell or stem of this coralline: the tube contracted towards its base, was horny, sides covered with contained numerous linear, slightly serpentine cavities, which were concentric & gave a ringed appearance to it. (contained a little red matter) The living stem, arms retracted, white & soft: by dissection I imagined I saw some arms or tentacula: stem itself is a circular aggregation of transparent sphæres, with a central opake mass [sketches in margin]: the coat is granular, interior matter pulpy; soft; At base, or near root these are easily detached from the viscous matter, in which they all are enveloped; at anterior parts they adhære much more firmly.— The sphæres with the highest parts showed no orifices.— I record this for any future dissection.—

Sertularia2

(Flustra)

PL 12, F 63

2006

(not spirits)

(a)

972

 

Sertularia

 

Off S. Cruz. I procured a bad specimen of this Coralline, which is miserably drawn.— The central living stem (which I believe is pulpy matter contained in a vessel) is slightly zig-zag & comes in contact with the base of each cell.— When first watching this Coralline, I was astonished at seeing, as I then thought, 2 different sorts of polypi protruding themselves, not only from different cells, but from the same: I presently saw two distinct Polypi, each furnished with eight arms, protrude themselves from a cell; the tubular case, which always in the Flustraceæ comes out with arms, was here dilated into a funnel about ¼th of length of arms; the membrane of which |247| this is formed is so delicate as scarcely to be visible, but it contains & is supported by at least 30 rays, Hence the exact appearance of a small Polypus with numerous arms.— AC3 shows a Polypus partly protruded through the case with the funnel termination: There is an appearance of separation between the two Polypi when in the cell, but the cell itself is not divided by any solid substance such as the outer integument: the Polypi seem closely attached at their bases.— I in vain tried to separate a Polypus, case & viscera entire from its cell.— I detached organ A [sketch in margin] by pressure through the funnel & I could see a globular organ with an intestine shaped appendage [sketch in margin] filled with dark red pulpy matter, possessing peristaltic motion:—

 

The arms of the Polypus were vibratory on their internal surface.— By reading over my descriptions of the structure of the Flustraceæ, it cannot be doubted that this Sertularia belongs in its body to same divisions.— Shape of case & double polypus [are] strongest are difference; the connection of (A) with Case must be different from what I imagined (V P 234) in the

[page] 219 COAST OF PATAGONIA MAY 1834

Flustraceæ (or that conjecture is wrong); because the brush-like termination of the case is the last part which is withdrawn.— (I forgot) — the vessels or organs (A) lie (I imagine believe I saw) for the two polypi on opposite sides of the cell; convex side outwards:— |248|

 

Plate 12, Fig. 7

 

May 27th

 

 

 

 

P. 248

 

 

 

V (z) next

Page

 

[note (a) added slightly later] Off C. Virgins I had the luck to obtain some specimens, but could not examine them till they had been for some days in the spirit.— A slight pressure would force out the two polypus-like funnel shaped cups. the rays I believe are either 24 to 28.— Some other cells only contained one Polypus, in which case generally there was a dark red oval ball enveloped in a transparent case.— in other occupying the place of the other Polypus.— in other cells, there was the appearance represented in another Sertularia (Plate 12, F 7, D & E). I saw one where the footstalk was nearly length of cell, in the same cell with a fully developed Polypus: it occurred to me that very likely the red ball united itself to the base of cell & the living axis & thus grew into another Polypus.— this occurrence of a granular red ball in place of a Polypus has been noticed in some of the Flustræ (with moving capsule).— I could by no means (softness from spirits) detach an entire Polypus. I could see that the "case" was united to a long "œsophagus". I could see 2 dark red small globular viscera. I could see a transverse connection of two main vessels.— but I am not certain that the structure is the same with the Flustraceæ.— (although far most probable).— Each Polypus seems to be enveloped in transparent sack; closely connected at base.— (I should not be surprised if the viscera were united).— the central living axis is enveloped in case, is brown, & from central transparency must be hollow.— doubtless its structure is same as in Dynamena (PL 13, F 3)4; in some cases the axis seems to fill whole vacuity, in others sends off branches as in (PL 12, F 7).— The "case" is much enlarged & se<ems> [continued at (z)] globular beneath the funnel, more than represented: The coralline has numerous false articulations or

[page] 220 COAST OF PATAGONIA MAY 1834

globular impressions beneath above root & at branches: Each cell branch has on each side a delicate ligamentous vessel, which forms a square at base of each cell & sends up a branch on external edge.— This band or vessel is easily detached from horny envelope of Coralline: In one place in specimen there was is a large bivalve-shaped capsule; it springs from between two cells.— is I suppose the ovarium; was empty & ruptured.— [note ends]

 

[note (a) facing P. 248] The two Polypi are withdrawn in parallel lines & apparently similarly to the Flustraceæ by the flexure & turning bending upwards of basal parts of œsophagus.— the funnel case is but smally irritable; the Polypus having withdrawn itself from a touch, the funnel remains protruded: upon again being touched it retires & from the contract approaching of the rays resembles a brush. The funnel often is seen projecting without its Polypus.— [note ends]

1 Hydroid in order Anthoathecata.

2 Flustra is a bryozoan, but at that time species of both bryozoans and hydrozoans were referred to Sertularia.

3 This drawing has unfortunately not been preserved.

4 See p. 225.

[CD P. 248 commences]

Sertularia1

PL 12 F 7

(= Clytia)

959

2005

(not spirits)

Found a small fragment off C. Virgins, & from its great general similarity, thought it same as one last described, first found my mistake by wonderful difference in Polypi. These I only saw by dissection; (& this sufficiently imperfect) Stem filled with granular matter, which at b through base of cell sends off forms a narrow stem connected with Polypus (in last Sertularia I could not see this actual connection & branching off) Polypus (as drawn) lies obliquely in the a straight line across the cell, base reddish. over this is the mass of the Polypus, & the arms coiled up on it.— It is all represented as seen by strong light in cell.— Arms short 24 in number (I certainly believe this very number perhaps 22) seated on a wide extensible collar or ring: Polypus (I believe firmly) not contained in the case. I tore open & dissected many Polypi but could see no trace of the organs characteristic of the Flustraceæ: but all agrees with the Clytias.—

 

(a)

If my observations are nearly exact (& I have no reason for doubting it, for I was myself at first quite incredulous) it establishes a wide difference in material structure in the genus (even distinct from Dynamena) Sertularia of Lamarck2.— Yet some of the familys Sertulariæ, Flustra & Celleporareæ have the same structure!!! Perhaps the connection junction of central living mass with Polypus may be an important character?— Coralline coloured yellow.— V next Page.— |249|

[page] 221 COAST OF PATAGONIA MAY 1834

 

[note (a)] I omitted; Coralline much but irregularly branched; on basal parts of stem there are many false articulations & some on medial parts.— This Coralline Polypier most singularly agrees with that Sertularia = Clytia (V 250) in external characters; excepting by comparative ones, it would be difficult to describe them specifically; only differences are stem of this is more thickly branched: broarder, cells more projecting, curvature of upper part of Cells rather different.— What trivial characters when we consider the wide difference of the inhabiting Polypus.— In the same manner, I think the Polypier of Sertularia (P. 234) would be with difficulty distinguished as a genus from the creeping Clytias.—

[CD P. 249 commences]

Sertularia

= Clytia

(1st species)

 

May 18th. Perused some more specimens (I do not know the reason, but all these & following species had the greater number of their cells empty, as if Coralline was dying). Coralline springs from a creeping stem: generally very little branched: basal part of stem with those false articulations (globular enlargements & contractions) [sketch in margin] which are so common in Clytia: stem with few true articulations, especially where branches occur; tufts about an inch high.— There is a[n] obscure central vessel in the pulpy axis.— The arms of the Polypus are certainly not contained in a case.— Many of the cells contained (as drawn at D Fig 7) instead of a Polypus a red mass of shape as drawn: in others this became more developed (E) into a broard stem or base, with a crown where rudimentary arms might be seen; the base continues to develop till the Polypus is inclined in an opposite direction as at (B) & is then perfect.— Young Polypi.— In one specimen many of the cells contained dirty orange egg-shaped ova (?), rather more than 1/100in in length. there were others about ½ this size, almost colourless.— a cell only contained one; they were easily liberated.— there was no Polypus in these cells.— I conjecture them to be ova.— When branches occur, they are formed at base of cell as at (K) by prolongation of the pulpy matter, & its central vessel, which has belongs to that cell.—

Sertularia

= Clytia

2d species

961

Sertularia

Clytia

Coralline, delicate white, not much branched, which spring from long creeping stem, adhæring to Terebratulæ2: stem zag-zig, many false articulations at basal parts; the medial ones obscure.—

|250| Cells more detached from stem, spindle shaped, with obscure concentric lines.— The Polypi were in bad condition; but I could make out, that they at least possessed 20 thick short arms seated on large mouth or ring & not enclosed in a case: I could also see junction with central living axis.— 16 Fathom

Sertu: Clytia

3d species

900

Coralline pale yellow; much branched, generally in regular alternations; tufts inch & ½ high: cell different shape from both foregoing species: none or very few basal false articulations: many on branches.— I could make little for certain respecting the Polypus; but have not the least

[page] 222 COAST OF PATAGONIA MAY 1834

doubt from what I saw did see that the structure is same as in the 2 foregoing species.—

 

Plate 13, Fig. 1

[CD P. 250 continues]

Eschara3

PL 13, F 1

963

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Eschara

 

Brought up from 48 fathom off S. Cruz: being kept a week in spirits, the description of Polypus is necessarily very imperfect.— Coralline, coloured "Brownish purple red", stem quite inflexible, very hard, branched (like a Flustra) 4 or 5 inches high.— Expansions or branches formed of a double set of small cells, placed back to back & in regular "seriales".— Cells as seen at surface hexagonal, about 1/50th in length, near anterior or superior extremity (E) is mouth, nearly circular; beneath this is a small oblong orifice which is furnished with a membranous, red, pointed lid, which works on a hinge, & opens downwards.— (m. n. represents it open; H. L being hinge): this orifice & its lid is generally rather indistinct from smallness in the middle cells: On the edges of the expansions, these lids may be seen projecting upwards; they are here are 3 or 4 times as large as the central ones; they are membranous |251| with the extremity pointed & bent at right angles: (O. 2. is a side view; it can be moved backwards & down-ward to P, or upward to 2 so as to cover the orifice.— This organ being larger for the external cells than for the internal, is as it happened in the first of the moving-capsule Flustra's.— A transverse section appears as at (D) where pairs of cavities rest on a double plate: when a cavity is accurately divided, we see it as at A.— this cavity contains its the Polypus, with its arms is coiled up in the same manner as in Flustra; the pipe (B) opens into the mouth on external surface: I several times pretty clearly saw a very small stony vessel, running from the orifice with lid to base of Polypus cavity, where it becomes slightly enlarged, I could not trace any certain junction with it or with central plate.— The intervals between C & B is filled with stony plates & the pipes from the cells above & beneath them.— The Polypus has about 14 or 16 delicate arms, contained in a case,

[page] 223 COAST OF PATAGONIA MAY 1834

which is contracted at bottom & joins on to œsophagus & intestine (R), both filled with dark red granular matter.— at T there was a general appearance of other vessel being torn off.— I never succeded in seeing the Liver! (organ so called) in its usual position.— But the Polypus was so soft & tender, it was impossible to detach it from cavity without tearing the body.— It is pretty certain that the Escharæ are allied closely, in the structure of their bodies, to those curious Flustræ which possess moving capsules or beaks.— |252|

1 Clytia is a hydroid of order Leptothecata.

2 Brachiopod, lamp shell.

3 Bryozoan in suborder Ascophora, a bilaminar erect colony with zooids characterized by possession of a calcified frontal wall and an underlying sac, the ascus, opening to the exterior at one end. The structure in Plate 13, Fig. 1 is a frontal adventitious avicularium, CD's red lid being the mandible.

 

Plate 12, Fig. 5

[CD P. 252 commences]

Alcyonium1

PL 12, F 5

962

 

 

Abundant in 9 Fathoms off C. Virgins, on shingle.— Colour white, with pale salmon color.— branched appearance very elegant.— extremities so thickly studded with Polypi, that the circles from which they protrude touch each other.— surface coriaceous from white stony striæ.— Polypus consists of cylindrical slightly tapering transparent tube, surmounted by (A B) a trans crown, (F) viewed from above, formed of eight bluntly conical pieces, these rise from a collar formed of concentric stony striæ; the pieces

[page] 224 COAST OF PATAGONIA MAY 1834

 

 

 

Alcyonium

on the external surface are strengthened by longitudinal striæ, the curvatures of the striæ between these & those on the collar very graceful; the extremities of the internal surface of their arms, have a row on each side of short papillæ; these are seldom to be seen; but a contracted head being torn open a bunch of about 10 papillæ will be found at the base of each arm & attached to its membranous lining.— in the centre there is a large tubular mouth, which conducts to a passage, within a vessel containing pulpy matter, & all within transparent tube (AC).— At the base of tube, there is a collar formed of strong striæ; hence the transparent tube appears to rise through an orifice; When the Polypus is touched, the collars (B & C) are brought into close contact by contraction of tube, but there is no absolute withdrawal of Polypus.— A transverse section of any main branch shows a number of hexagons (G) packed closely together, formed of a ligamentous substance they contain (H) a circular opake mass, which |253| is roughly divided by about 8 rays, & a central passage.— A Longitudinal section (Z) shows the sides of (KK) the hexagonal tubes each contains a delicate vessel (L) which contains & is enveloped in pulpy matter.— These tubes pass to the very base of the Alcyonium & are separated from the stone by no fleshy base: Each Polypus however, doe cannot send its tube to the very base, from their great number. They hence thin out, as represented at (Z):

 

 

(a)

 

 

 

 

 

Alcyonium

 

In all parts of the Branches, there are ova, oval length about 7/200th, containing a yoke colored fine "Carmine R" (it is curious how general the assumption of brilliant colors for the ova is amongst all low sea animals): When procured by a transverse section & pressure, they are forced out through the central vessel in the circular dark mass (H).— There are immature ones, colourless, furnished with a pointed tail or placenta, which grows from a truncated extremity (n); the central yoke points to this; length with tail about 2/3 of full-sized one; without tail ½.— In longit: section, these immature ova may (m) be seen firmly attached to delicate vessel (L).— I believe they are enveloped within it; for the perfect ones when free, are ejected by this vessel; three or four adhære in a line:— The pulpy matter within (L) most likely forms the ova:— When examining the ova, I saw much granular-pulpy matter of different sizes & shapes, with a rapid revolutionary morion.— I only saw this |254| once.— V. a similar appearance with a Virgularia at B. Blanca: there also connected with ova.— There is little communication of sensation between one Polypus & another; if one is cut off, his neighbour does not shrink; if however the whole mass is torn from the stone, the Polypi & whole stems contract & do not again expand; they then appear like cheese, & shaped like a Brain-stone.— When the Polypus is closely retracted — crown contracted, it can hardly be seen.— The Alcyonium is very tenacious of life, lives in same impure water far longer than most animals can do.

 

[note (a)] If the stony striæ had been so numerous as to form solid envelope, if the outer tunic of each body (which externally is striated) had

[page] 225 COAST OF PATAGONIA MAY 1834

been internally stony; this polypier would have formed an aggregation of stony tubes in a common stony envelope; allied to what Zoophite would it then have been? [note ends]

 

Plate 13, Figs. 2 and 3

[CD P. 254 continues]

[page] 226 COAST OF PATAGONIA MAY 1834

Escara2

PL 13, F 2

2007

(not spirits)

 

(a)

 

Coralline in foliaceous expansions, quite hard inflexible: Cells in regular series, on both sides.— A transvers section of branch shows (B) merely cavities, separated from each other by double plate & from external surface by stony matter; here & there a smaller cavity (C) will be seen.— I was puzzled to understand this, but a longitudinal section showed (A) a longer, oval, cavity connected with mouth by bent tube: these cavities are placed length-ways in branch, so that small cavity (C) was section at (E).— All I could see of the Polypus (it had been for some time in spirits) were intestine shaped masses of granular red matter & in stony tube (B) a transparent cylindrical case as in the Flustraceæ: Mouth of cell with a pair of oblong points inclined to each other  cells as elongated hexagons.— edges of cells, superior surface joined by crenulated suture: the double plate (H) being separated, base of cells is seen as at [D]: the short lines are vessels with red matter, they form ridges at internal base of cavity, & extend a short way [continued at (a) on back of page] up sides.— These perhaps strengthen (& produce?) the cells: I believe the Escara has Polypus of same general structure with the Flustraceæ.— Color "Brown purplish with some Cochineal R": 48 Fathom growing in.— |255|

 

 

[CD P. 255 commences]

Sertularia3

Clytia

968

PL.13, F.3

Hab: V infr`

Coralline. white, branches proceeding from long straight creeping stems: Cells only on one side: False articulations at base of stem or tuft, at branches & in stem.— Polypus had 26 short arms on wide ring &c &c (if not 26, there were 24): As the stem was very transparent.— I have drawn what was apparent. The central line (A) is of a brown color, it must I think be a hollow vessel, because it is more transparent in the centre, as shaded: it is enveloped in a case, & both branch off to join Polypus.— We have then a tunic (B B), which is not affected by the false articulations in the outer coat (CC).— (BB) lines the cell of Polypus.— Polypus lies obliquely in cell, the basal parts reddish.— I saw in some young tufts Polypi appearing in cells in the manner described P. 249.—

Dynamena4

968

(b)

 

Coralline. long delicate branches; dirty yellow colored.— very few false articulations, excepting one or two just above roots.— The structure of stem & Polypus is the same as in the above: the tunics are not so clearly separated: the base of Polypus is not oblique in its cell.— Polypus has (I believe but am not certain) 16 arms without case, on larger ring. short. thick.— 8 Fathoms.— Off Sts of Magellan.— [note (b)] This Dynamena has sometimes (pear-shaped?) faintly purple Ovaria, attached between two of the cells.— [note ends]

1 Alcyonacea, soft coral, dead men's fingers.

2 A bryozoan listed as Eschara gigantea 1854.11.15.163 in the George Busk Collection at the Natural History Museum.

3,4 Thecate hydroids in order Leptothecata, noted by S.F. Harmer as 'Sertularians'.

[CD P. 255 continues]

Crisia (?)1

Lam.x2

970

PL. 13, Fig 4

(a)

Crisia

 

10 Fathoms.— off C. Virgins.— Colored "tile R with little Vermilion R". The structure of the Polypier is complicated; I have but very roughly examined it: Cells alternate, opening on one side: (A) represents this; (B) the ovary's: between which are the orifices of cells, irregularly semilunar protected by an inclined plate; within this a short truncate spine (F): the divisions of cells are but little shown, at the point there arises, a long moveable |256| bristle which will be particularly described.— [note (a)] There are punctures on this surface? this side of branches very complicated.— [note ends] (L) the back view shows these bristles & the cells divided by a double line, (which I believe is tubular). The Polypus lies at the bottom: at the back there are ligamentous bands, which I believe are connected with the roots.— The young terminal cells have on external angle two obtuse spines, internal angle one, & between them (2).— These spines (R) are hollow (proved by air bubbles).— they are lined internally by Membrane, which is suddenly contracted near base.— I imagine by the

[page] 227 COAST OF PATAGONIA MAY 1834

growth of these spines the edges of the cell are formed.— The external ones spring from just above & upon the plate which protects the mouth.— The ovary lies directly over the basal parts of the anterior cell (represented by dotted line E in A).— I am doubtful whether the ovary & bristle belong to the anterior or (posterior & inferior) cells.— I believe to the latter; so that young cell in (L) could not have them.— The ovary opens towards the inferior.—

 

Plate 13, Fig. 4

[CD P. 256 continues]

Common Character of structure of what I call Flustraceæ excepting nor of arms

Crisia

The polypus has 12 arms enclosed in case & has same structure as the Flustraceæ, that is the arms rise from a cylindrical long base, which joins to another transverse vessel (place of junction rather enlarged; one end half of this transverse vessel is an intestine-shaped mass with red granular matter: the other a long vessel containing having central enlargement containing red oval organ & united to (or about) the case of the arms.— The extraordinary organ the bristle is drawn up at (H). it is about 1/20th long; arched, serrated on outer margin, supported on basal concave side by ridge: connected to its cell by a hinge, & has a membranous |257| appendage or vessel (K) leading into cell or polypier: These bristles stand out at right angles, on the outer edge of the alternate cells: I was perfectly astonished, when I first saw every bristle in one branch, suddenly with great rapidity, collapse together on the branch & one after the other (apparently

[page] 228 COAST OF PATAGONIA MAY 1834

||
||
||

||
||
||
||

by their elasticity) regain their places. Directly other branches commenced, till the whole Coralline, driven by these long oars, started from side to side on the object glass.— the motion of the Coralline & the setæ was visible to the naked eye: a bit of Coralline being dried on blotting paper, yet for a short time in the air moved its bristles.— Irritation would almost always cause the movement in a branch, & when one branch began, generally the others followed.— They likewise moved (even after being kept a day) spontaneously.— Any one bristle being forcibly moved, re-took its position & would move by itself.— The Coralline placed on its face entangled must entangle the bristles, they often made violent efforts to free its themselves: Generally the bristles on each side of a branch moved together, but one side sometimes would remain collapsed for a longer time than another: this generally was only a second or two.—

||
||

May 22d

Crisia

||

||
||
||
||
||

The bristle was never depressed much below the rt angle: when collapsed on branch the concave & smooth side was on the branch. & in the extreme cells, the bristles were mingled with the spines.— A bristle, when detached, never moved, the power must lie in the hinge.— Polypus sometimes protrudes its arms during the motion of |258| the bristles.— The above facts are very important as showing a co-sensation & a co-will over whole Coralline.— I think the bristle is not directly connected with the Polypus.— What is its use? As the serrated edge is external it an cannot be to collect food: as the motion is most vigorous & necessarily first towards the branch, it cannot be to drive away enemies or impurities.— The motion must cause currents.— Does it give warning to the Polypus that danger is at hand? When collapsed it does not protect mouth of cell.—

 

Crisia

(a)

The ovaries contain dark orange ova; some of these I liberated, others liberated themselves; when immature they are simply oval, with included opaker mass.— When more mature the form varies.— (m) is a common form; when in this state, the ovum can move by starts in a zig-zig line & revolving very rapidly (so as not to be followed with ¼th focal distance): its length is about 2/300th: on upper surface there is a collar or projection: on one side four or 5 long curved setæ, (which sometimes seem to rise in a depression). ovum singularly resembles some of the Ostracodes.— the whole mass is surrounded by what appears to be a rapidly revolving transparent ring.— This is best seen, when the ovum is at rest, by the long setæ (which are prehensile) being adhæring to some fibre.— This appearance of a revolving ring (which is most faithful & exceedingly curious) is caused by numerous, curved, minute fillets, moving very rapidly in one direction one after the other; |259| the motion of the longer setæ is totally distinct from this & often at right angles to it.—

 

(n) is a more developed form; the collar (z) is here much larger; the base is slightly pointed; an internal sack is visible, which contains three small dark red organs.— the apparent revolving or ring is present.— When in

[page] 229 COAST OF PATAGONIA MAY 1834

this state, the motion was (I daresay always) slower; the collar always was first; there was revolutionary motion, round an axis joining collar & base.— Viewed from right above the collar, we see it, as at (P), where the three small organs are placed, triangularly: here also, & from every point of view, the apparent revolving ring was to be seen.— Hence doubtless the whole surface is covered by fillets such as described: when at rest, it was curious to see the rapid, oddly curved, & extensive currents produced by these setæ.—

from impurity

of water

 

(n) having died, the setæ appeared like a faint halo, (the appearance of ring having vanished). The collar, hence, appeared to project further; on dissection, short the collar was certainly formed of the short arms of a Polypus enveloped in membrane: I fancied I could trace some resemblance (it probably is the case) between the three little organs, with the three in the old Polypus.— The pointed base is probably point of attachment for young cell, which perhaps is formed by outer tunic of the ovum; when the setæ have dropped off.— The motion of the minute fillets is continued with equal rapidity, when the ovum is at rest & when moving.— (Respiratory?).— |260|

Jany.

1835

[note (a) added later] At Lowes Harbor — Chonos Archipelago. Lat: 43°.49′ Found some of this Crisia & again clearly saw the motion of the toothed setæ caused by irritation. [note ends]

1 Crisia is a bryozoan in class Stenolaemata, order Cyclostomata, which do not have avicularia. CD's specimen, possessing a novel type of heterozooid nowadays known as a vibraculum, whose movements controlled by modified opercular musculature he describes brilliantly, was later identified by S.F. Harmer as the species Caberea minima, which belongs to class Gymnolaemata, order Cheilostomata, and superfamily Cellularioidea along with Beania and Bugula. The 'ovaries' were in fact ovicells, the cheilostome brood chambers.

2 See Lamouroux p. 7.

[CD P. 260 commences]

Zoology

S. Cruz

 

 

(b)

 

 

 

 

During the expedition up the river1 I noticed found the same animals, birds, insects & plants, which I have collected near to the coast: this extreme similarity in the productions of the sterile plains of shingle is a very striking feature in the whole of S. Patagonia. The geology likewise being similar, one view can hardly be told from another.— Amongst animals, the smaller rodentia, in importance, far takes the lead of all other animals; besides several sorts of mice: we have the Aperea2.— Tocco Toco3 & Gerbillus? (2032)4 in great numbers; On such animals the Foxes, which are in considerable numbers, perhaps prey.— [note (b)] Then Taturia (1697)5 exists thus far South.— [note ends] The skunk or Zorilla is found.— The Guanaco are abound in large flocks & thus support the Pumas: The number

[page] 230 RIO SANTA CRUZ APRIL 1834

(a)

(z)

of Guanaco is the reason, why out of the few birds, four very striking ones should be Carrion feeders.— The Condor, & three Caracaras.

 

 

[note (a)] I am quite at a loss to know whether Caracara (2028) is the same with the Carrancha of the R. Plate6: I opened several, many were females, others had the ovaries (as for instance this specimen) quite smooth.— Yet I saw some more white beneath their on throats: Habits same as Carrancha — tolerably numerous all up country.— I saw one soaring at a great height — this very unusual in the whole tribe.— The Caracara (1772) is also pretty common.— & lastly a beautiful Caracara (Rancanea?) (2029)7: is abundant some distance up the river, but rare at coast.— I never saw it any-where else.— Skin about beak, yellow.— bill blue, black lines: Legs pale yellow.— [crossed through in pencil] Caracara (or Chimango) 1772, not uncommon at P. Famine [note ends]

 

 

[note (z) added later] Shot in Port Famine decided old female: Bill, Cere & legs as in descript. of "Vulgaris" in Dic. Class: Head "Lines & Blackish Br" all the dark brown, are this color: pale are "yellowish Br", Gorge rusty yellow — — breast & under tail coverts banded with (1/10th of inch) pale brown & do. yellow.— Back banded darker: wing coverts pale do.— .6 first tectrices remiges, central parts whitish. Rectrices broarder bands, outer margin of outer feather darker.— Under parts of secondaries broard bands: Length (full stretch) 18½ inch; breadth tip to tip 4Ft 7inch.—— [note ends]

[CD P. 260 continues]

 

The Sparrow (1704)8 is the commonest bird: & the Fringilla (2017)9 is also abundant: there are the huge flocks of Sturnus ruber10: the Callandra often sings (2011)11 amongst the spiny bushes.— Short billed snipe (1224)12 inhabits the driest parts of the plains.— Three Furnarii are found: one 202513: 182214: & 1823: this latter15 I was much surprised to see a hundred miles up the river; never before had I seen it distant from its favourite Kelp.— Alauda (1898)16, Avestruz Petises: several hawk & insect birds. V. Collection:

 

 

 

(c)

 

Heteromerous insects are always numerous; a comparison with those of the N. Traversias will be interesting.— (I suspect Patagonia has but few productions of its own.— is the Botany sufficiently known to tell.— The extreme infertility, even close to running water, has [continued at (c) on back of page] has [word repeated] often much surprised me.— At different times I have attributed this general sterility to the salt contained in the sandy clay.— the extreme dryness of the climate, (which is an undoubted fact).— the poorness of the soil of the gravel beds.— and to no creation having taken place, since this country was elevated (I yet think this applies to the Northern parts): I am now most inclined to attribute it all to the poorness

[page] 231 RIO SANTA CRUZ APRIL 1834

of the soil.— Yet in the Lower country, where there was water, it was but little better!.— |261|

1 After following the course of the Rio Santa Cruz for 245 miles, and approaching close to Lago Argentino, FitzRoy turned back on 5 May and travelling fast with the current reached the mouth of the river on 8 May. For CD's account of the journey see Beagle Diary pp. 231-9, and for pictures painted by Conrad Martens see Beagle Record pp. 199-213.

2 Listed in Zoology 2:89 as Cavia patachonia.

3 Listed in Zoology 2:79-82 as Ctenomys Braziliensis.

4 Listed in Zoology 2:69-71 as Reithrodon cuniculoïdes.

5 Listed in Zoology 2:93 as Dasypus minutus.

6 Listed in Zoology 3:9-12 as Polyborus Brasiliensis Swains.

7 Listed in Zoology 3:18-21 as Milvago albogularis.

8 Listed in Zoology 3:93 as Fringilla gayi, NHM 1855.12.19.42, though might perhaps be the smaller Fringilla formosa, NHM 1855.12.19.24 and 1856.3.15.12, now Phrygilus sp.

9 Listed in Zoology 3:95-6 as Chlorospiza? melanodera Gray, which also is Fringilla (1879), NHM 1855.12.19.50.

10 Sturnus ruber is Sturnella loyca of Molina, listed as S. militaris in Zoology 3:110.

11 Listed in Zoology 3:60-1 as Mimus patagonicus Gray, NHM 1855.12.19.221 and .311.

12 Listed in Zoology 3:117-18 as Tinochorus rumicivorus Eschsch.

13 Listed in Zoology 3:69-70 as Eremobius phœnicurus, NHM 1855.12.19.73.

14 Listed in Zoology 3:66-7 as Opetiorhynchus vulgaris Gray.

15 Listed in Zoology 3:67 as Opetiorhynchus patagonicus Gray.

16? Listed in Zoology 3:84 as Muscisaxicola nigra Gray.

[CD P. 261 commences]

Holuthuria1

975

PL.13, F.5

 

 

 

(B)

miserably

drawn

 

 

Is pretty closely allied to Fist: (P 141): found crawling amongst roots of Kelp in mud.— length in this state 5 to 7, narrow.— Color dirty pale flesh color.— semi-transparent, smooth; with transverse fibres in bundles.— 5 internal longitudinal bands.— Anus blunt with very extremity rather pointed; capable of much distention with water.— Mouth surrounded by 10 or 12 arms: from "alternate motion" difficult to be counted, white: each arm with 12 papillæ, central longest, gradually decreasing on sides; bases connected with membrane; The papillæ adhære on a longer base than in P 141: so do not have not so much the appearance of a hand: they adhære & crawl by their aid: When considerably contracted its length 3 inches, breadth .4:— in this state there may be seen in one of the intervals between the longit: ligamentous bands, & chiefly (not quite solely on the posterior half) 2 or 3 dozen small white very slightly projecting eminences or papillæ: about 1/20th of inch: their shapes was [sketch in margin], probably owing to contraction of body: they were sometimes in single, double or more rows.— they consisted of numerous (20 or 30?) little cups overlapping each other (owing to of do contraction) placed on slightly convex surface & adhæring together on a gelatinous base.— Each little cup (A)

[page] 232 PORT FAMINE JUNE 1834

(A) (a)

was most symetrical, more than 1/500th of inch in diameter, quite transparent, very shallow.— edges folding in, most finely serrated (to be seen with 1/10th or 1/20th" focal distance). bottom base of cup consists of 6 tapering spokes, perhaps connected by membrane, & uniting close to a puncture.— Are evidently used for adhæring.— [note (a)] (A) is the cup, seen from directly above; the central ring with the puncture in the bottom: the serrated edge is seen folding inwards.— it is a good likeness of all which is visible.— [note ends] |262|

Plate 13, Figs. 5 and 6

[CD P. 262 commences]

Flustra2

encrusting

983

I examined the Polypus of this very simple Flustra, so that I might errect at some future day, my imperfect notions concerning the organization of the whole family of Dr Grants Paper3.—

Pl. 13 F. 6

 

 

 

(K) represent[s] what is seen in a front view of cell, the transvers organ (A) lies attached to the case of the tentacula, & as here seen, beneath it.— (A) consists of a pointed oval case, one end simply attached to trans above case, the other joining on the main viscus.— it contains a small rounded oval red ball where granules are connected by transparent gelatinous substance.— this also lies in a very obscure vessel; by stretching the whole organ, I could pretty clearly trace it into the enlargement (B), where itself becomes enlarged.— This ball is very easily detached & will then keep its proper shape.— When first I examined the specimen, no motion was perceptible in any of the viscera, upon being kept for some minutes, in every polypus there was a rapid revolutionary & circulatory motion in the contained granules in (D). this motion seemed to be confined to the enlargement of the delicate vessel already mentioned.— the appearance was very strong of vibratory setæ which caused this motion.— Where this vessel led to or how

[page] 233 PORT FAMINE JUNE 1834

 

Flustra

there is an

appearance

of central

vessel.—

it ended I cannot say.— In one, (which was rather injured & there the motion is generally most evident), I could clearly trace the same particles. revolve in (D), be circulated into (B); then into (C) & return to revolve in (D).— from this I am led to infer, that this vessel freely communicates with (B & C).— in this case viscera likewise had a peristaltic motion. Polypus has 16 tentacula, each one is provided on each |263| side with setæ, half its diameter long; these rapidly vibrate, in a progressive manner up one side & down the other.— Hence when all moving, complicated currents; I have seen particles at a little distance from extremity, revolving at one point from the different currents.— Where the tentacula join on the base, there is an inverted cone, in which a rapid vibration, as of setæ, is very clear; this unites directly with the intestine, or stomach.—

 

 

 

The tentacula are included in a case, one end of which is attached to the labiate orifice, the other I believe to base of tentacula, on the outside of this in central part. when the Polypus is quietly in the cell, the Liver (A) is attached.— The cells are separated by stony plates, each side of which is crenated with little points; in the centre I believe there is a vessel.— each cell has six projecting conical points [sketch in margin] (where plates from other cells meet), these have a corresponding (to one) hollow, filled with reddish matter & I believe connected with vessel in plates.— These vessels must be central axis which developes Polypi, from eggs builds cells; the Polypi are connected at base to side of plate.— the membranous covering of cell is easily detached from the sides.— At base of tentacula there was an appearance of fibres.— Flustra exceedingly abundant coating the Fucus Giganteus.— |264|

1 Apodida, Chiridotidae, probably Taeniogyrus contortus Ludwig.

2 Identified by S.F. Harmer as Membranipora membranacea, belonging like Flustra to superfamily Malacostegoidea.

3 When CD was a student at Edinburgh in 1826, his friend Robert Edmond Grant had published a translation of a paper by August Friedrich Schweigger which supported the view that corallines should be regarded as plants rather than animals. See CD's letter to Henslow dated 24 July 1834 in Correspondence 1:397-403.

[CD P. 264 commences]

Actinia1

987

 

 

The superior & exterior

margin of animal is

formed into eight blunt

foliaceous expansions.

These are thickly

covered with "Hair

brown" papillæ, which are

shorter but much [more] numerous at the extremities. The flat surface

[page] 234 CHILOE JULY 1834

which surrounds mouth nearly free from papillæ.— Mouth small, with internal longitudinal folds.— From the structure of animal, it is with difficulty that the papillæ can all be concealed, the depth of the animal being small in proportion to width.— Color of surface "Orpiment orange" with short irregular concentric lines of "deep reddish O" which on the superior edge are so frequent as to form the prevailing color.— Round mouth narrow rim of do colour.— A specimen being removed from the rocks, during the night moved its position & firmly attached itself to the glass.— Tidal rocks.—

Gasterop=

terus2

996

Length of mantle 1.5 inch, breadth 1.1: far surpassing its foot, edge sinuous: inferior antennæ connected for ¾ of length by a membrane forming a larger angle with each other than the superior ones, which are slightly winged.— General color straw-yellow, branchiæ & viscera of rather a darker tint.— Roots of Kelp.—

Geotrupes3

(a)

 

copied

This insect is excessively abundant, boring deep holes beneath every heap of horse dung (& once I saw sheep's).— Curious instance of increase in number & change in habit. no large quadruped in Chiloe.— At the depth of 2 & 3 feet, balls of earth, lined with a darker kind (dung?), containing larvæ, are very commonly found in gardens [continued at (a) on back of page] (when dung is not directly present) from what I can hear I have little doubt that no other beetle than the Geotrupes exists in numbers proportional to the balls.— I saw a man [word missing] 10 or 12 in a few minutes.— When first found they are not quite so hard as at present.— The Larvæ of many had eaten their way out & had escaped.— Vide Page 200 for a discussion on this subject:— |265|

Febry 1836

3446

3504......

......35124

copied

[further note on back of page added later] Hobart town, Van Diemens land. I carefully examined dung of the Herds: damper climate favourable to their increase as compared to New S Wales.— The Horses [&] Cattle have now been introduced since 1803 (33 years) & I find Onthophagus (2 species) very abundant under Cow's dung; there is a third species.— Al<so> 3 species of Aphodii; one of which was beneath hor<se> dung: Thus we have 6 species found even dur<ing> my short stay:— The dung of Kangaroos is in Pellets & there were no other large animals as in the case of Chiloe.— The subject is a curious one5.— [note ends]

1 Actiniaria, a sea anemone.

2 Opisthobranchia, a sea slug, but CD's description does not fit with any species known today to be found in this area.

3 Scarabaeidae, Phanaeus, a dung beetle. No specimen was found in CD's collection. See Insect Notes pp. 80-1.

4 These specimens of Scarabaeidae from Tasmania have not survived. See Insect Notes p. 97.

5 See Introduction p. xxi and long footnote in Journal of Researches 1 pp. 583-4.

[CD P. 265 commences]

[page] 235 CHILOE JULY 1834

Ornithology

2127

(a)

 

(b)

Specimen (2127)1 is a curious bird; is called by some of the officers the Robin, to which when hopping about the woods it bears some resemblance.— This bird frequents the most gloomy & retired spots in the damp intricate forests; it utters a loud, singular, repeated whistle; Can be seen only with some difficulty: & then perhaps by standing still, it will come quite close, busily hopping close to the ground amidst the impervious mass of Canes & dead branches of trees.— It is called by the inhabitants Cheucau1.— The gizzard is muscular, it contained fragments of stones, hard seeds, buds of plants & vegetable fibres, but I could see no part of any insect.— Mr Stokes2 has seen this bird near C. Tres Montes.—

 

 

C. Tres

Montes

 

 

[note (b)] This bird utters three very distinct & strange crys, one of which is called Chiduco & is a good sign; another Huitreu the bad sign; so called from a resemblance to the sounds — This bird is regarded with much superstition, & its noises serves for omens.— It is excessively tame & intruding to a person standing quite still: cocks its tail vertically like the Tapacolo3 of Valparaiso.— is a most comical bird.— Is said to build its nest in low bushes:— Very abundant at C. tres Montes: opened a Male specimen, found seeds & parts of insects & vegetable fibres in stomach: The Barking bird4 is also very abundant here: habits exactly similar to Cheucau; but rather more shy.— Noise exactly like little dog yelping, & flies badly like the Turco5 of Valparaiso.— [note ends]

 

 

Copy

ornithology

[note (a)] These forest[s] wear from the climate a gloomy look: yet in many respects they have a more Tropical appearance than the latitude would lead one to expect.— The woods contain various sorts of trees: they are very thickly placed together: they are much covered with parasitical plants, many of them monocotylidenous.— An Arborescent grass jointed like bamboo, which intertwines the trees to the height of 30 feet is very abundant: the Ferns are singularly large.— I no where saw the Beech tree which forms the whole forests of T. del Fuego.— the Winters bark in common to both countries.— [note ends]

[CD P. 265 continues]

2132

2133

The Emberiza6 (?) is very common in small flocks; the commonest bird in the island; by the manner in which it frequents the cleared land round the houses resembles the Sparrow: in the stomach much seed & sand.—

2134

(a)

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Trochilus7 (2134) is very numerous; perhaps the next most abundant bird to the foregoing Emberiza: This little bird looks very much out of character amongst the gloomy dripping foliage & the endless storms of rain.— The commonest site, where these birds may be found, is on marshy open ground, where a Bromelia (?) (a plant bearing pine-apple sort of edible

[page] 236 CHILOE JULY 1834

fruit with long toothed leaves) forms thickets.— It frequently hovers at the sides of these plants & then dashes into them near the ground, but whether it alights on the ground I never could |266| see.— There are at this time of year scarcely any flowers, & none whatever where the above plants grow.— I was well assured that these birds did not feed on honey.— on opening the stomach (or rather duodenum) by the help of a strong lens, in a yellow fluid I discovered small numerous fragments bits of the wings & legs of most minute Diptera, probably Tripulidæ.— It is evident the humming bird[s] search these insects out, in their winter-quarters, amongst the thick foliage of the Bromelias.— [note (a)] I opened stomach of this species killed near Valparaiso, there were as much debris of insects as in a Certhia. besides Diptera I pretty clearly recognized remains & not so very small of ants.— [note ends]

[CD P. 266 continues]

 

 

 

Besides the birds I have collected I know of the following birds:— the Condor, which seems uncommon: the Vultur aura: the Carrancha.— the Chimango, which follows in < >great numbers the plough, I suppose to pick up Larvæ.— Hawk (2014)8: Furnarius same as (1822):— Wren same as (1831): Icterus (1784), common: Scarlet-headed & black Woodpecker: all these same as at Port Famine: the birds generally being very similar in the two places.— We have also the noisy Pteree-Pteree: & the Barking bird.— The Scissor beak9.

1 Listed in Zoology 3:73 as Pteroptochos rubecula Kittl. See also Journal of Researches 2:288-9, where CD admitted to having forgotten what the third strange cry actually was.

2 John Lort Stokes was Mate and Assistant Surveyor of the Beagle.

3 Listed in Zoology 3:72 as Pteroptochos albicollis Kittl. See also Journal of Researches 1:329-30.

4 Listed in Zoology 3:70-1 as Pteroptochos Tarnii Gray. See also Journal of Researches 1:352-3.

5 Listed in Zoology 3:71-2 as Pteroptochos megapodius Kittl. See also Journal of Researches 1:329.

6 Listed in Zoology 3:93 as Fringilla Diuca Mol. NHM 1855.12.19.187.

7 Listed in Zoology 3:110-11 as Trochilus forficatus Lath., but in Journal of Researches 1:330-2 as Mellisuga Kingii. See also Ornithological Notes pp. 251-3 for a fuller account of the humming birds.

8 Listed in Zoology 3:29 as Tinnunculus Sparverius Vieill.

9 For an account of the Scissor-beak Rhynchops nigra see Journal of Researches 1:161-2.

[CD P. 266 continues]

Apple

Tree

 

 

 

 

In Chiloe the inhabitants have a mode of propagating trees so that in three years it is possible to have an orchard of large fruit-bearing trees.— At the

[page] 237 CHILOE JULY 1834

lower part of every branch, there are small (2 or 3 1/10th of inch), conical, brown, wrinkled projecting points; these are roots, as may be seen where any mud has fallen on the tree.— A branch, as thick as a man's thigh is chosen, & is cut off just beneath a group of points; this |267| is done in very early spring: the extremities of all the sub-branches being are lopped off, it is placed about 2 feet deep in the ground with a support.— the ensuing summer it throws out very long shoots, & sometimes bears a few apples (I saw one which had most unusually produced as many as 23): the 2d summer, the former shoot throw[s] out others: in the third summer it bears a good deal of fruit & is (as I have seen) a small wooded tree.— Are the incipient roots present as trees in any part of England? or is this whole process owing to the extremely damp nature of the climate? it is a most valuable method, where applicable.— I have noticed that in the Apples, not above one in a hundred will have any seeds in its core1.—

 

Plate 14, Fig. 1

Medusa2

PL. 14

Fig. 1.—

 

 

 

 

Medusa

 

(a)

[July 22nd] About 10 miles off Valparaiso: the sea contained many angular Medusæ.— Body perfectly transparent, colourless.— rather hard, Length .4: Shape like a wedge, where the four corners of the head are "replaced" by four planes, (which form a vertex or point at the top).— Line (AB) is the edge of the wedge; two of the replacing planes are seen (drawn out of perspective), one side (the narrow side) of the wedge is scooped out & form a: when the animal is turned on its narrow side, a slit or opening is seen, extending from m to n, & more than half way deep in its body. At the very back part of this cavity, but separated from it, there is a semilunar, thin vessel, which |268| is united just above mouth of another organ: This organ (D) lies in the very centre of superior part of body: (the mouth open[s] into the narrow slit or cavity).— it consists of an elongated oval sack filled with semiopake matter, which seems divided into irregular sphæres; in the interstical spaces I saw a slow circulation: the mouth of sack is something like vermiform processes not well defined.— [note (a)] I could see no trace of communication with external surface from top of sack.— I have not attempted to keep any specimens. [note ends] the specimen being kept some time I saw several small bodies shaped thus [sketch in margin], proceed from the mouth into the open cavity.— I

[page] 238 VALPARAISO JULY 1834

presume this sa