RECORD: Gould, J. 1837. [Remarks on a Group of Ground Finches from Mr. Darwin's Collection, with Characters of the New Species]. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 5: 4-7.

REVISION HISTORY: Scanned by John van Wyhe, transcribed (single key) by AEL Data 6.2008. RN1

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Upon the head the yellow colour is most prevalent. The under fur is Thick and of a pale brown colour. The hair is about the same length or rather shorter than in the domestic cat, and much harsher to the touch. The hind feet are black beneath from the heel to the toes, and there is a streak of black about an inch and a half in length, passing upwards from the front paw on the outer side. The hair of the tail is long and bushy; the legs thick and moderately long; the general form is slender ; the head small in proportion to the body, and considerably arched above. The region of the anterior angle of the eye is black, with a yellowish white spot immediately above it. The eyes are very small; the ears short, broad, and obtusely pointed, thickly covered with hair, which on the outside is of a similar colour to that on the top of the head, excepting at the tip, where it is margined with black. Inside the ears the hair is of a paler hue. The under parts of the body are of the same general hue as the sides. The tail is of the same general colour as the body, but the hairs become gradually less ,annulated towards, the tip, their basal portions being brown and the apices black; the under side is of a somewhat paler hue than the upper. The lips and nose are black.

Mr. Martin remarked, that there was some reason for supposing two species were confounded under the same name, for he was aware of the existence of a cat with a shorter tail, agreeing very closely with Azara's description of the Yagourondi. Without, however, being in possession of more ample materials he did not like to characterize the present specimen as a new species, but in the event of its ultimately being considered distinct, he proposed that it should be called Felis Darwinii.

Mr. James Reid read some notes on several quadrupeds, also from the collection of Mr. Darwin, including a new species of Opossum, which he characterized as Didelphis hortensis*. He also noticed a very young specimen of the Viscache, Lagostomus trichodactylus of Brooks. This example, not much larger than our common Rat, differs from the adult in wanting the ridge of stiff black hairs over the eyes so conspicuous in old specimens, and in wanting also the grooves on the teeth.

Mr. Gould exhibited from Mr. Darwin's collection of Birds, a series a Ground Finches, so peculiar in form that he was induced to regard them constituting an entirely new group, containing 14 species, and appearing to be strictly confined to the Galapagos Islands. Mr. Gould believed the whole of these Birds to be undescribed, and remarked that their principal peculiarity consisted in the bill presenting several distinct modifications a form, while the general contour of the species closely assimilated. He proposed to characterize them under the separate generic appellations of Geospiza, Camarhynchus, Cactornis, and Certhidea.

* The characters of species newly described which have not yet been furnished by the respective authors, andare the refore necessarily omitted, will be inserted, if subsequently sent in, at the termination of the volume.

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Corporis figura brevissima et robusta.

Rostrum magnum, robustum, validum, altitudine longitudinem prætante; culmine arcuato et capitis verticem superante, apice sine denticulo, lateribus tumidis.

Naribus basalibus et semitectis plumis frontalibus.

Mandibulá superiori tomiis medium versus sinum exhibentibus, ad mandibulæ inferioris processum recipiendum. Mandibula inferior ad basin lata, hoc infra oculos tendente. Alæ mediocres remige primo paulo breviore secundo, hoc longissimo.

Cauda brevissima et æqualis.

Tarsi magni et validi, digito postico, cum ungue robusto et digito intermedio breviore; digitis externis inter se æqualibus at digito postico brevioribus. Color in maribus niger, in fœm. fuscus.

GEOSPIZA MAGNIROSTRIS. (Spec. typ.) Geos. fuliginosa, crisso cinerascenti-albo; rostro nigro brunnescente lavato; pedibus nigris.

Long. tot. 6 unc.; alæ,caudæ 2; tarsi, 1; rostri, 7/8; alt. rost., 1.

Fœm., vel Mas jun.; corpore intensé fusco singulis plumis olivaceo cinctis; abdomine pallidiore; crisso cinerascenti-albo; pedibus et rostro, ut in mare adulto.

GEOSPIZA STRENUA. Geos. fuliginosa, crisso albo, rostro fusco et nigro tincto; pedibus nigris.

Long. tot. 5½ unc.; alæ 3; caudæ, 1 3/8; tarsi, ¾; rostri, 5/8; alt. rost. 3/8.

Fœm. Summo corpore fusco singulis plumis nec non illis alarum caudæque, pallidè cinerascenti-olivaceo cinctis; gulá et pectore fuscis; abdomine lateribus et crisso pallidè cinerascenti-fuscis; rostra brunnescente.

GEOSPIZA FORTIS. Geos. intense fuliginosa, crisso albo; rostro rufescenti-brunneo, tincto nigro; pedibus nigris.

Fœm. (vel Mas jun.) Corpore suprà pectore et gutture intensè fuscis, singulis plumis cinerascenti-olivaceo marginatis; abdomine crissoque pallidè cinerascenti-brunneis; rostro rufescenti-fusco flavescente ad apicem; pedibus ut in mare.

GEOSPIZA NEBULOSA. Geos. summo capite et corpore nigrescenti-fuscis; singulis plumis cinerascenti-olivaceo marginatis; corpore subtus pallidiore, abdomine imo crissoque cinerascentibus; rostro et pedibus intensè fuscis.

Long. tot. 5 unc.; alæ, 2¾; caudæ,tarsi, ¾ rostri, 5/8; alt. rost., ½.

GEOSPIZA FULIGINOSA. Geos. intensè fuliginosa, crisso albo, rostro fusco; pedibus nigrescenti-fuscis.

Long. tot. 4½ unc.; alæ 2½; caudæ, 1 5/8; tarsi, ¾; rostri, 1½; alt. rostri, 3/8.

Fœm. Summo corpore, alis, caudáque intensè fuscis; singulis plumis cinerascenti-ferrugineo marginatis; corpore infra cinereo, singulis plumis medium versus obscurioribus; rostro brunneo; pedibus nigrescenti-brunneis.

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GEOSPIZA DENTIROSTRIS. (Fœm. Mas ignotus.) Mandibulæ superioris margine in dentem producto; vertice corporeque supra fuscis; singulis plumis medium versus obscurioribus; secundariis tectricibusque alarum ad marginem stramineis; gutture et pectore pallidè brunneis, singulis plumis medium versus obscurioribus, imo abdomine crissoque cinerascenti-albis; rostro rufo-fusco; pedibus obscurè plumbeis.

Long. tot. 4¾ alæ, 2 3/8; caudærostri, ½ alt. rost. 3/8.

GEOSPIZA PARVULA. (Mas.) Geos. capite, gutture, et dorso fuliginosis; uropygio cinerascenti-olivaceo; caudd et alis, nigrescenti-brunneis; singulis plumis caudæ et alarum cinereo-marginatis; lateribus olivaceis fusco guttatis; abdomine et crisso albis, rostro et pedibus nigrescenti-brunneis.

Long. tot. 4 unc.; alæ, 2 3/8; caudæ, 1½; tarsi, ¾ rostri, 3/8; alt. rost., 5/16.

Fœm. Summo capite et dorso cinerascenti-brunneis, gutture, pectore, abdomine crissoque pallidè cinereis, stramineo tinctis.

GEOSPIZA DUBIA. (Fœm. Mas ignot.) Geos. summo capite et corpore suprà fuscis, singulis plumis cinerascenti-olivaceo marginatis; strigá superciliari, genis, gutture corpore, infrà cinerascenti-olivaceis, singulis plumis, notá centrali fused; alis caudáque brunneis singulis plumis olivaceo-cinereo marginatis; rostro sordidè albo, pedibus obscurè fuscis.

Long. tot. 3 3/8 unc.; alæ,caudæ 1 5/8; tarsi, 7/8; rostri, 5/8; altitud. rostri, 5/8.

CAMARHYNCHUS (subgenus).

CAMARHYNCHUS differt a genere Geospizd, rostro debiliore, margine mandibulæ superioris minùs indentato; culmine minùs elevato in frontem et plus arcuato; lateribus tumidioribus ; mandibulá inferiore minus in genas tendente.

CAMARHYNCHUS PSITTACULA. (Spec. typ.) Cam. summo capite corporeque superiore fuscis, alis caudáque obscurioribus ; gutture corporeque inferiore, cinerascenti-albis, stramineo tinctis; rostro paIlidè flavescenti-fusco; pedibus fuscis.

Long. tot. 4¾ unc.; alæ, 2¾; caudæ 1¾; tarsi, 7/8; rostri, ½ alt. rostri, ½.

CAMARHYNCHUS CRASSIROSTRIS. (Fœm.) Cam. corpore superiore intensè brunneo, singulis plumis cinerascenti-olivaceo marginatis; gotture pectoreque cinerascenti-olivaceis, singulis in medio plumis obscurioribus; abdomine, lateribus crissoque cinereis tinctis stramineo.

Long. tot. 5½ unc.; alæ,caudæ 2; tarsi,, 1 1/8; rostri, ½ alt. rostri, ½.

CACTORNIS (subgenus.)

CACTORNIS differt a genere Geospizá rostro elongato, acuto, compresso, longitudine altitudinem excellente; mandihulæ superio-

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ris margine vix indentato; naribus basalibus et vix tectis; tarsis brevioribus, unguibus majoribus et plus curvatis.

CACTORNIS SCANDENS. (Spec. typ.) Cact. intensè fuliginosa, crisso albo; rostro et pedibus nigrescenti-brunneis.

Long. tot. 5 unc.; rostri, ¾ alæ, 2 5/8; caudæ,tarsi, ¾.

Fœm., Vel Mas jun. Corpore superiore, gutture pectoreque intensè brunneis, singulis plumis pallidiorè marginatis; abdomine crissoque cinereis, stramineo tinctis; rostro pallidè fusco; pedibus nigrescenti-fuscis.

CACTORNIS ASSIMILIS. (Mas jun. ?) Cact. corpore suprà fuliginoso, nec non gutture abdomineque, illorum plumis, cinereo marginatis; rostro pallidè rufescenti-brunneo; pedibus nigrescenti-brunneis.

Long. tot. 5½ unc; rostri, ¾ alæ,caudætarsi, ¾.

CERTHIDEA (subgenus).

CERTHIDEA differt a genere Geospizá rostro graciliore et acutiore; naribus basalibus et non tectis; mandibulæ superioris margine recto; tarsis longioribus et gracilioribus.

CERTHIDEA OLIVACEA. Cert. summo capite, corpore.superiore, alis caudáque olivaceo-brunneis; gutture et corpore infra cinereis; rostro pedibusque pallidè brunneis.

Long. tot. 4 unc.; rostri, ½; alæ, 2; caudætarsi, ¾.

Of the groups here characterized, Geospiza, Camarhynchus, and Cactornis, belong to one type; but with regard to Certhidea, Mr. Gould remarked that although he confidently believed that it should also be referred to the same group with the three former, yet in its slighter form and weaker bill it has so much the appearance of a member of the Sylviadæ, that he would by no means insist upon the above view being adopted until the matter shall have been more fully investigated.

Mr. Gould deferred entering into any further details respecting the species under consideration until Mr. Darwin had furnished him with some information relating to their habits and manners.

Mr. Gould then resumed the exhibition of a portion of his own collection of Birds from Australia, and characterized the following new species:


Hem. capite, auriculis, gulá abdomineque nigris; lined super oculum oriente et ad nucham excurrente, plumis singulis maculá ad apicem albá; nuchæ plumis nigris et castaneis, maculis pluribus albis; dorso superiore castaneo-fusco, plumis singulis maculá albá lineis duabus nigris cum fascid unicá nigrá apicali; scapulis, tectricibus primariis secundariisque rufo-brunneis, plumis singulis maculá albá nigro circumdatá remigibus primariis saturatè brunneis; femoribus et tectricibus superioribus et inferioribus caudæ brunneis nigro fasciatis et irroratis; rostro pallidè brunneo; pedibus carneis.

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