RECORD: Darwin, C. R. n.d. Draft leaf of Descent, summary of Chapter II. Bonhams-27617Lot1032. Edited by John van Wyhe (Darwin Online,

REVISION HISTORY: Transcribed and edited by John van Wyhe. Corrections by Christine Chua 11.2022. RN3

NOTE: See record in the Darwin Online manuscript catalogue, enter its Identifier here. Reproduced with permission of William Huxley Darwin.

From the auction description: "draft outline of the subjects covered in Chapter II titled "Comparison of the Mental Powers of Man & the Lower Animals," 1 p, 4to (250 x 205 mm), ink on thin blue paper, c.1867-1868, with numerous deletions, additions and emendations in his hand, signed "Charles Darwin / Down Kent," likely a later presentation, additional words added in ink in a second hand above Darwin's autograph in two places...Provenance: Sold Sotheby's London, December 18, 1986, lot 332." Bonham's October 2022. Lot 1032.


Chapter II.

Comparison of the mental powers of men & the Lower Animals.—

The difference enormous in mental powers between the highest ape & lowest savage is even immense — Instincts in common.— Emotions — Curiosity — Imitation — Attention — Memory — Imagination — Reason — Progressive improvement — Tools & weapons — Language Self-consciousness, abstraction— Sense of Beauty — Belief in God, , & Spiritual agencies, Superstitions — Moral sense, & Conscience — Conclusion.—

[later insertion in Darwin's hand:]

Charles Darwin

Down, Kent

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Citation: John van Wyhe, ed. 2002-. The Complete Work of Charles Darwin Online. (

File last updated 21 October, 2023