RECORD: Darwin, C. R. 1838. Notebook M : [Metaphysics on morals and speculations on expression]. CUL-DAR125.- Edited by Paul Barrett and John van Wyhe (Darwin Online,

REVISION HISTORY: Text prepared by Kees Rookmaaker 1.2009 based on the transcription by Barrett 1974. Corrections and editing by John van Wyhe 10.2009, etc. Footnotes by Paul H. Barrett. RN3

NOTE: See record in the Darwin Online manuscript catalogue, enter its Identifier here. Reproduced with permission of Wilma M. Barrett, the Syndics of Cambridge University Library and William Huxley Darwin.

This 175 X 97 mm notebook is bound in red leather with the border blind embossed. THe brass clasp is intact. The notebook had a total of 156 numbered pages; 30 were excised by Darwin, of which 18 pages (9 leaves) have been found and restored in the transcription; 12 pages (6 leaves) have not been found, i.e. pages 3, 4, 5, 6, 47, 48, 65, 66, 67, 68, 133, 134. In appearance it resembles Notebook D, the two notebooks being apparently manufactured twins. Both covers bear cream-coloured paper labels with clipped corners. Scans of pages 61-64 are kindly reproduced by permission of the Trustees of the Natural History Museum (London).

See the introduction and notes to the fully annotated transcription of this notebook by Paul H. Barrett in Notebooks.

[front cover]



[inside front cover]


Charles Darwin Esq
36 Grt. Marlborough Str. —

Finished. Octob. 2d.

(p. 64. On insect Ants getting on Table. Col. Sykes)1

This Book full of Metaphysics on Morals & Speculations on Expression —


Selected Dec 16 1856

1. Sykes, W. H., "Descriptions of New Species of Indian Ants," Transactions of the Entomological Society of London, 1 (Pt. 2):99–107, 1835.


July 15th 1838
My father says he thinks bodily complaints & mental disposition oftener go with colour, than with form of body.— thus the late Colonel Leigton2 resembled his father in body, but his mother in bodily & mental disposition. —

My father has seen innumerable cases of people taking after their parents, when the latter died so long before, that it is extremely improbable that they should have imitated.— when attending Mr Dryden Corbet,3 he could not help thinking, he was prescribing to his father & old Mrs Harrison, said, although constantly seeing him, she was often struck with this fact.— the resemblance

2. Leighton, Francis Knyvett (1772–1834), Mayor of Shrewsbury, 1834, Ref.: Morris, Joseph, "The Provosts and Bailiffs of Shrewsbury," Shropshire Archeological Society Transactions, 3rd Ser., Vol. 5. See also Barlow, Nora, Charles Darwin and the Voyage of the Beagle (London: Pilot, 1945), p. 118: Col. Leighton's death is mentioned with regret in a letter April 23, 1835, from Charles Darwin to his sister Susan.

3. Probably Dryden Robert Corbet of Sundorne (1805–1859), son of John Corbet, M.P., Shrewsbury and High Sheriff of Salop (1793). Ref.: Burke, Bernard, A Genealogy and Heraldic History of the Landed Gentry, Burke, London, 1925, P. 395. ["Mrs Harrison" has not been identified. JvW]


was in odd twiching of muscles, & general manner of holding hands &c &c.— Mr Dryden Co said he could not remember his father. —

My father thinks people of weak minds, below par in intellect frequently are have very bad memories for things which happened in early infancy4 — of this fact Mr Dryden C. is good instance as he is very deficient, & he was nearly 9 years old. when his father died.—

The omnipotence of habit is shown about meals, no

4. Darwin's interest in memories of early childhood may have prompted him to write, in 1838, when 29 years old, an autobiography beginning with his earliest recollections. See Darwin, Francis, and A. C. Seward, editors, More Letters of Charles Darwin, 2 vols., Murray, London, 1903, Vol. 1, pp. 1–5.

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There is a case of Mr Anson,4a who told a story of hunting — habitual fits.— which my Father thinks is mentioned in the Zoonomia.—5

Now if memory of a tune & words can thus lie dormant, during a whole life time, quite unconsciously of it, surely memory from one generation to another, also without consciousness, as instincts are, is not so very wonderful.— Now is not epilepsy an habitual disease of the muscles.???

4a. Possibly Sir George Anson (1769–1849). See Correspondence vol. 1. JvW

5. Zoonomia, p. 437: "Master A. about nine years old, had been seized at seven every morning for ten days with uncommon fits . . . he began to complain of pain about his navel, or more to the left side, and in a few minutes had exertions of his arms and legs like swimming. He then for half an hour hunted a pack of hounds; as appeared by his hallooing. . . ."


Miss Cogan's memory of the tune, might be compared to birds singing, or some instinctive or sounds.— Miss C. memory cannot be called memory, because  she  did  not  remembered,  it was  an habitual action of thought-secreting organs, brought into play by morbid action.— Old Elspeth's in Antiquary power of repeating poetry in her dotage is fact of same sort.6
Aunt. B.7 ditto. —

6. Scott, Walter, The Antiquary, 3 vols., Ballantyne, Constable, Edinburgh, 1816, Vol. 3, p. 220: ". . . shrill tremulous voice of Elspeth chaunting forth an old ballad in a wild and doleful recitative."

7. Aunt Bessy, i.e., Elizabeth Wedgwood (1764–1846), wife of Josiah Wedgwood of Maer, and mother of Emma, Darwin's wife.


Case of Mr Corbet of the Hall Park,8 after paralytic stroke, intellect impaired. after paralytic stroke. could converse well on any subject when once started, — could receive a new train9 through eyesight, though, not through hearing, — Thus when dinner was announced he could not understand it, but the watch was seen shown him.— Mr Corb the servant showed him watch & said dinner is ready, what, what.— then showed the watch upon which he exclaimed, why it is dinner time.—

My father asked him whether he had gardener of name A.B., &c &c. & he maintained he had never heard of such a man & had no gardener.— My F. then asked Mr C. to come to the window & pointed out the Gardener & said, who is the? Mr C. answered

8. For a genealogy of the Corbets of Shawbury Park, of Moreton Corbet, and of High Hatton Hall, see The Family of Corbet: Its Life and Times, St. Catherine Press, London [1915].

9. Train (of ideas). Erasmus Darwin in Zoonomia, often uses this expression, e.g., p. 46.


why do you not know, that is A. B my gardener.— Thus was he in every respect, no communication could be held by means of hearing. —

Mr Corbet, however, in conversation could catch up a new train if early association were called up.— My F. asked him, did he know whom Mr Child of Kinlett10 had married.— Answered never heard of such a man.— (My Father explained who he was & all about him, but still maintained he had never heard of him).— My F. then said you remember

10. Kinlet, 25 miles southeast of Shrewsbury. Arthur Childe, born April 2, 1820, son of William Lacon Childe, Esq., M.P., of Kinlet Hall, was committed to the lunatic asylum in 1838, and again declared insane and recommitted by a Commission of Lunacy in 1854, on the basis of his having written 203 letters in code to the Queen expressing his infatuation for her. In his own defense Captain Childe, in his 43rd year, testified that the letters had been written for amusement and to keep himself occupied during his incarceration. Ref.: "Commission of Lunacy on Capt. Childe. A Lover of the Queen," Shrewsbury Chronicle, July 28, 1854.


Jack Baldwin at school.— Answered To be sure I do.— What became of him.— Answ Had large fortune left, him, took name of Child of Kinlet & married Miss A. B.— all the same names as a few minutes before he maintained he had never heard of.— Thus in many things if he began at one end, he knew the whole subject.— if at the other nothing.— He could repeat the alphabet straight, but did not know (Z) when heard isolately. —11

11. Erasmus Darwin (Zoonomia, p. 134) expresses a similar idea: "In respect to free will, it is certain, that we cannot will to think of a new train of ideas, without previously thinking of the first link of it. . . ."


In old people. (Aunt. B.) when they hear a thing it often does not take any effect at the time, but some time afterwards it calls up pain, or pleasure. & is often recurred to & mentioned as a thing which had just taken place.— as if the idea of time had been disturbed.— These foregoing cases of mental failure very general effect of early slight habitual intemperance.— often accompanied by extreme anger, at not being understood. —


My F. says there is perfect gradation between sound people and insane.— that everybody is insane, at some time. Mania is quite distinct, different also from delirium, a peculiar complaint stomach not acted upon by Emetics.— people recognized,— sudden changes of disposition, like people in violent intoxication, often ends in insanity or delirium.— In Mania all idea of decency & affection are lost.— most delicate people do most indelicate actions,— as if these emotions acquired.— this may be doubted, whether rather not going against natural instincts.— My Grand F. thought the feeling of anger, which rises almost


involuntarily when a person is tired is akin to insanity.— I know the feeling also of depression, & both these give strength & comfort to the body. I know the feeling, thinking over somebody who has, perhaps, slightly injured me, plotting speeches, yet with a sort of consciousness not just.— From habit the feeling of anger must be directed against somebody.— Have insane people any misgivings of the injustness of their hatreds, as if in my case.— It must be so from the curious story of the Birmingham Doctor12 praising his sister who confined him, & yet disinheriting her.— This

12. Probably Dr. John Ash, "respected Birmingham physician," and member of the Lunar Society with Dr. Erasmus Darwin (ref.: Schofield, Robert E., The Lunar Society of Birmingham, Clarendon, Oxford, 1963, pp., 39, 87, 88, 124, 227—228, and 323). Dr. John Ash obtained a position in Birmingham for a Dr. William Withering, with whom both Dr. Erasmus and Dr. Robert Darwin were to have bitter public disputes.


N B. I have read paper somewhere on horse being insane at the sight of anything scarlet.— dogs ideotic.— dotage.— Doctor communicate to my grandfather his feeling of consciousness of insanity coming on.— his struggles against it, his knowledge of the untruth of the idea, namely his poverty.— his manner of curing it, by keeping the sum-total of his accounts in his pocket, & studying mathematics.— My Father says after insanity is over people often think no more about it than of a dream. —


Insanity is produced by moral causes (idiotcy by fear. Chile earth quakes), in people, who, probably otherwise would not have been so.— In Mr Hardinge, was caused by thinking over the misery of an illness at Rome, when by accidental was delay of money, he was only nearly thrown into a Hospital.— My father was nearly drowned at High Ercall,13 the thoughts of it, for some years after, was far more painful than the thing itself.

13. High Ercal, approximately 6½ miles northeast of Shrewsbury.


asked my F. whether insanity is not distinguished from whims passion &c by coming on suddenly. Ans no.— because often, if not generally does not really come on suddenly.— Case of Miss Mrs. C.O. who threw herself out of the window to kill herself from jealousy of husband connection with housemaid two years before, to prove she was not insane, answered she had known it at time & had bought arsenic for that purpose.— this found to be true.— Her Husband never suspected during these two years that she had been insane all the time. —


Case of Shrewsbury gentleman, unnatural union with turkey cock,— was restrained by remonstrances on him

There are numberless people insane of particular ideas, which are never generally, if at all discovered.— Sup Sometimes comes on suddenly from I (in one case ipecacuhan14 — not acting) in others from drinking cold drink.— then brain affected like getting suddenly into passion.— There seems no distinction between enthusiasm passion & madness.— ira furor brevis est.15 — My father quite believe my grand F doctrine is true, that the only cure for madness is forgetfulness. —

14. Ipecacuanha is mentioned in Zoonomia, p. 55, as affecting the sphincter of the anus.

15. The expression "Ira brevis furor est" (Rage is a brief insanity) occurs also on page 445 in "An Introduction to the Philosophy of Consciousness," Part 2, Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, 43:437–452 (Anonymous), 1838. See also n. 53 and n. 122.


which does appear a real difference, between oddity & madness.— but then people do not well recollect what they have done in passion. —

People are constantly well aware that they are insane & that their idea is wrong.— (Dr Ashe, the Birmingham Doctor), in this precisely like the passion, ill-humour & depression, which comes on from bodily causes. —

It is an argument for materialism, that cold water brings on suddenly in head, a frame of mind, analogous to those feelings, which may be considered as truly spritual. —


a person twitching when a disagreeable thought occurs, is closely analogous to Epilepsy & convulsion.— affections of the thinking organs — the action of brain which gives sensation of pain, emits its power on the muscles in the twitching.

Pride & suspicion are qualities, which my F says are almost constantly present in people, likely to become insane.— now this is well worth considering, if pride & suspicion can be well understood.


In insanity, the ideas do not go back to childhood, (but appear most capricious) as in delirium after epilepsy, but in the failing from old age, they constantly do.— In Mrs P. of B. talked of thought herself near Drayton & Ternhill,16 (where she was born) though she never naturally talked of these places.— My F. says, shows that early impressions are most durable.— (but Miss Cogan shows that repetition is not necessary) — the words second childhood full of meaning: — Dreams do not go back to childhood — People, my Father says, do not dream of what they

16. Probably Market Drayton, 18 miles northeast of Shrewsbury, on the road to Maer. Ternhill, 3 miles southwest of Market Drayton.


think of most, intently.— criminals before execution.— Widows not of their husbands — My father's test of sincerity. —

People in old age. exceedingly sharp in some things, though so confused in others.— Mrs P. when in state as above described, (forgetting that her husband was dead) yet instantly perceived when my Father to distract her attention took her left hand to pretend to feel her pulse.—
What fails first? — How is this? — Does memory bring in old ideas


I have elsewhere remarked do Dogs take pleasure, when doing, what they consider their duty.— as carrying a basket, bringing back game, or picking up a stone, though only acquired rules by art.— like the law of honour.— they feel pleasure in obeying their instincts naturally.— (generosity in defending a friendly dog).— they feel shame, when doing anything which is wrong.— as eating meat., doing their dirt, running home.— in these cases their actions do not look like


fear, but shame.— I cannot remember instances, but I feel sure I have seen a dog doing what he ought not to do, & looking ashamed of himself.— Squib17 at Maer, used to betray himself by looking ashamed before it was known he had been on the table, — guilty conscience.— Not probable in Squib's case any direct fear. —

My father thinks that selfishness, pride & kind of folly like (Mr George S.) is very heredetary. —

17. Pet dog of the Wedgwoods. Also mentioned in Henrietta Litchfield: Emma Darwin. A Century of Family Letters (Cambridge: University Press, 1904), in a letter from Henry ("Harry") Wedgwood (1799–1885) to his mother, written May 24, 1827: "What brilliant evenings [Jos. and Allen] must be spending together, what a flow of soul! I pity even Squib when I think of it."


My father says on authority of Mr Wynne18 that bitch's offspring is affected by previous marriages with impure breed. —

A cat had its tail cut off at Shrewsbury & its kittens h (in number 3) had all short tails; but one a little longer than rest they all died:— she had kittens before & afterwards with tails.
My father says, perfect deformity, as an extra number of fingers.— hare lip or imperfect roof to the mouth stammering in my Father family19 (as in Lord Berwick's20 family) are heredetary.— other deformities are illnesses of the foetus.— some mothers, have first dead children, then children which were short term, & lastly healthy ones. —

18. Wynne, see "Questions for Mr. Wynne".

19. Darwin's grandfather Erasmus ". . . stammered greatly, and it is surprising that this defect did not spoil his powers of conversation." Erasmus' eldest son, Charles (1758–1778), also stammered. See Krause, Ernst, Erasmus Darwin, with a Preliminary Notice by Charles Darwin (London: John Murray, 1879).

20. Lord Berwick, probably of Berwick Hall, 2 miles northwest of Shrewsbury.


Insanity & Epilepsy remain many generations in families.— My father does not know whether trains of insanity are heredetary in any one family. —

In Aunt. B. the affections

N B affections very soon go in Maniacs

seem to have failed even more than the memory.— therefore affections effect of organization which can hardly be doubted, when seeing Nina with her puppy.— The common remark that fat men are goodnatured, & vice versa Walter Scotts remark how odious an illtempered fat man looks, shows same connection between organization &


mind.— thinking over these things, one doubts existence of free will every action determined by heredetary constitution, example of others or teaching of others.— (NB man much more affected by other fellow-animals, than any other animal & probably the only one affected by various knowledge which is not heredetary & instinctive) & the others are learnt, what they teach by the same means & therefore properly no free will.— we may easily fancy there is, as we fancy there is such a thing as chance.— chance governs the descent of a farthing, free will determines our throwing it up.— equall true the two statements. —


Catherine21 remarks that pleasure received from works of imagination very different from the inventive power, — this, though very odd is perhaps true.— mem Erasmus & mine taste for music.— Children like hearing a story told though they remember it so well that they can correct every detail, yet they have not imagination enough to repe recall up the image in their own mind, — this may be worth thinking over.— it will perhaps show differences between memory & imagination.
Catherine thinks that children like looking at ani pictures, an early taste, of animals, they know.— pleasure of imitation (common to monkey), & not imagination. —

21. Emily Catherine, Darwin's sister (1810–1866).


Thinking over the scenes which I first recollect, at Zoos they are all things, which are brought to mind, by memory of the scenes, (indeed my American recollections are a collection of pictures).— when one remembers a thing in a book, one remembers the part of page.— one is tempted to think all memory consists in a set of sketches, some real — some fancied.— this fact of early memory consisting of things seen, quite agrees with my Fathers case of Mr Corbet of the Hall understanding, (on hearing old association brought up) by sight & not by hearing


One is tempted to believe phrenologists are right about habitual exercise of the mind, altering form of head, & thus these qualities become heredetary.— When a man says I will improve my powers of imagination, & does so, — is not this free will, — he improves the faculty according to usual method, but what urges him,— absolute free will, motive may be anything ambition, avarice, &c &c An animal improves because its appetites urges it to certain actions, which are modified by circumstances, & thus the


appetites themselves become changed.— appetites urge the man, but indefinitely, he chooses (but what makes him fix!? ) — frame of mind, though perhaps he chooses wrongly,— & what is frame of mind owing to.— ) — I verily believe free-will & chance are synonymous.— Shake ten thousand grains of sand together & one will be uppermost: — so in thoughts, one will rise according to law.22

How strange all so many birds singing in England, in Tierra del Fuego not one.— now as we know birds learn from each other though different species when in confinement, so may they

22. Darwin drew a bracket of emphasis along this sentence in the left margin in his notebook.


learn in a state of nature.— Singing of birds, not being instinctive, is heredetary knowledge like that of man, & this agrees with the stated fact, that birds from certain districts have the best song. (Migratory birds return to same quarter for many years).— Beauty is instinctive feeling, & thus cuts the Knot: — Sir J. Reynolds23 explanation may perhaps account for our acquiring the instinct one notion of beauty & negroes another; but it does not explain the feeling in any one man. —

23. Reynolds, Joshua, Seven Discourses Delivered in the Royal Academy by the President, Cadell, London, 1778, Discourse VII, pp. 322–323.


Music & poetry opposite ends of one scale.— former pleases from instinct the ears (rhythm & pleasant sound per se) & causes the mind to create short vivid flashes of images & thoughts.— Poetry, the latter thoughts are in same manner vivid & grand, the frame of mind being just kept up by the music of the poetry.— (therefore singing intermediate, who has not had his blood run cold by singing).— Granny24 says she never builds castles in the air — Catherine often, but not of an inventive class. —

24. Susan Elizabeth (1803–1866), Darwin's sister.


Now that I have a test of hardness of thought, from weakness of my stomach I observe a long castle in the air, is as hard work (abstracting it being done in open air, with exercise &c no organs of sense being required) as the closest train of geological thought.— the capability of such trains of thought makes a discoverer, & therefore (independent of improving powers of invention) such castles in the air are highly advantageous, before real train of inventive


thoughts are brought into play & then perhaps the sooner castles in the air are banished the better.— The facility with which a castle in the air is interrupted & utterly forgotten —, so as to feel a severe disappointment

in real train of thought this does not happen, because papers, &c &c round one. one recalls the castle by going to beginning of castle

because train cannot be discovered — is closely analogous to my Fathers positive statement that insanity is only cured by forgetfulness.— & the approach to believing a vivid castle in the air, or dreams real again explains insanity. —


Analysis of pleasures of scenery.— There is absolute pleasure independent of imagination, (as in hearing music), this probably arises from (1) harmony of colours, whi & their absolute beauty, (which is as real a cause as in music) from the splendour of light, especially when coloured.— that light is a beautiful object one knows from seeing artificial lights in the night.— from the mere exercise of the


organ of sight, which is common to every kind of view — as likewise is novelty of view even old one, every time one looks at it.— these two causes very weak.— (2d) form, some forms seem instinctively beautiful as round, ovals;— then there the pleasure of perspective, which cannot be doubted if we look at buildings, even ugly ones.— the pleasure from perspective is derived in a river from seeing how the serpentine lines narrow in the distance.— & even on paper two waving perfectly parallel lines are elegant. —


Again there is beauty in rhythm & symmetry, of forms — the beauty of some as Norfolk Isd fir shows this, or sea weed, &c &c — this gives beauty to a single tree, — & the leaves of the foreground either owe their beauty to absolute forms or to the repetition of similar forms as in angular leaves, — (this Rhythmical beauty is shown by Humboldt from occurrence in Mexican & Graecian to be single cause)25 this symmetry & rhythm applies

25. Humboldt compares Mexican sculpture with that of Egypt, India, Greece and Italy. See Humboldt, Alexander, Political Essay on the Kingdom of New Spain, etc., 2 vols., transl. by John Black, London, 1811. (In the Darwin Library, Cambridge University Library, is a copy signed, "Charles Darwin, Buenos Ayres.")


to the view as a whole.—26 Colour & light has very much to do, as may be known by autumn, on clear day.—

3d pleasure association warmth, exercise, birds singings.— 4th. Pleasure of imagination, which correspond to those he awakened during music.— connection with poetry, abundance, fertility, rustic life, virtuous happiness.— recall scraps of poetry; — former thoughts, & in experienced people — recall pictures & therefore imagining pleasure

26. In Zoonomia, p. 145, Erasmus Darwin says, "A Grecian temple may give us the pleasurable idea of sublimity . . ." and ". . . when any object of vision is presented to us, which by its waving or spiral lines bears any similitude to the form of the female bosom, whether it be found in a landscape with soft gradations of rising and descending surface, or in the form of some antique vases . . . , we feel a general glow of delight." See also n. 49.


of imitation come into play.— the train of thoughts vary no doubt in different people., an agriculturist, in whose mind supply of food was evasive & ill defined thought would receive pleasure from thinking of the fertility.— I a geologist have illdefined notion of land covered with ocean, former animals, slow force cracking surface &c truly poetical. (V. Wordsworth about science being sufficiently habitual to become poetical)


the botanist might so view plants & trees.— I am sure I remember my pleasure in Kensington Gardens has often been greatly excited by looking at trees at great compound animals27 united by wonderful & mysterious manner.— There is much imagination in every view, if one were admiring one in India. & a tiger stalked across the plains, how ones feelings would be excited, & how the scenery would rise.

Deer in Parks ditto. —

27. Metaphorically viewing plants as animals seems to have been a family tradition, for Erasmus Darwin in Zoonomia, p. 102, says: "the individuals of the vegetable world may be considered as inferior or less perfect animals; a tree is a congeries of many living buds, and in this respect resembles the branches of coralline, which are a congeries of a multitude of animals." Emma Darwin in a letter to Lady Lyell, August 1860, said, "At present he [Charles] is treating Drosera just like a living creature, and I suppose he hopes to end in proving it to be an animal." (Litchfield, Vol. 2, 1915, p. 177.) And beside the sand walk at Down is a large beech tree, the "Elephant Tree," so-called by grandchildren of Charles (Raverat, Gwen, Period Piece: A Cambridge Childhood, Faber and Faber, London, 1960, pp. 157–158).


My Father says there is case on record he believes in Philosoph. Transactions, of idiot 18 years old eating white lead, who was most violently purged believe worms were passed off. & vomited, but who when he recovered, was found to be ignorant, but quite sensible & no ways an idiot.—
in this case must have been functional.— He has some idea of a son of Dr. Prietly who was cured from a fall of idiotcy.— The story of the Corbets & big noses, quite conjectural, in Blakeways book of Sheriffs. —


July 22d. 1838

No Deliriums, yet in some inflammatory diseases, where there has been no cloud on the mind, every occurrence for a day or two are absolutely forgotten.— My father signed a bond, yet when he paid the Attorneys bill, he asked what bond he could have had. yet during whole illness, he had been able to direct about his own health.— This complaint was carbbuncl on Head Neck.— He has seen other cases of similar nature.— like FitzRoy28 in sleep giving directions,— & forgetfulness

28. FitzRoy, Robert, captain of H.M.S. Beagle during Darwin's five-year voyage around the world.


after bad accidents: — After journey, a fit of gout, has affected his memory of everything in a [illeg] Mr B journey, short time previous, — because, pain prevents repetition of idea.— Mr Blakeway has mentioned in Antiquities of Shrewsbury something about big noses & name Corbet, perhaps nonsense.— look to it

My father has somewhere heard (Hunter?) that pulse of new born babies of labouring classes are slower than those of gentlefolks. & that


peculiarities of form in trades (,as sailor tailor blacksmiths?) are likewise heredetary, & therefore that their children have some little advantage in these trades.29

Delirium seems to rest the sensorium — analogous to sleep; some doctors care it, by stimulus & afterwards patient sinks. —

29. See Zoonomia, p. 356: "Now as labour strengthens the muscles employed, and increases their bulk, it would seem that a few generations of labour or of indolence may in this respect change the form and temperament of the body."


When a muscle is moved very often, the motion becomes habitual & involuntary.— when a thought is thought very often it becomes habitual & involuntary,— that is involuntary memory, as in sleep.— a new thought arises?? compounded of the involuntary thoughts.— An intentionally recollection of anything is solely by association, & association is probably a physical effect of brain the similar remark thoughts, being functions of same part of brain, or the tendency to habit of producing a train of thought. —

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Fox30 believes cats discover birds nests & watch them till the young are big enough to eat.— There was blackbirds nest, near hot-house at Shrewsbury, which the cat was seen by Hubbersty31 to visit daily to see how the young got on. this nest the cat could

If cats will ever eat little birds, this most curious instance of reason & abstinence. —

30. Fox, William Darwin, Darwin's second cousin, fellow student at Christ's College, and intimate who introduced him to entomology.

31. Probably (Nathan) Hubbersty, Assistant Master at Shrewsbury School, 1826–1828.

32. Page crossed out with four diagonal lines, and the word "inaccurate" written across the page.


My Father remarks that things of great importance are easily forgotten, (if unconnected with fear &c) because people think that the importance of the event by itself will make it to be remembered, whereas it is the importance.— people very often forget where money is placed.— (How often one forgets where put one key. where all keys are placed)

Memory cannot solely be number of times repeated, because some people can remember poetry when once read over. —


The extreme pleasure children show in the naughtiness of brother children shows that sympathy is based as Burke maintains on pleasure in beholding the misfortunes of others.—33

In young children, the violent passions they go into show how truly an instinctive feeling, may not pa In reflecting over an insane feeling of anger which came over me, when listening one evening when tired to the pianoforte

how true the heart the scene of anger.

it seemed solely to be feelings of discomfort, especially about heart as of

33. Burke, Edmund, Philosophical Inquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful: with an Introductory Discourse Concerning Taste (London, 1757), Part I, Section XIV, "The Effects of Sympathy in the Distresses of Others."


excited action, accompanying violent movement; may not passion be the feeling consequent on the violent muscular exertion which accompanies violent attack,— Even the worm when trod upon turneth, here probably there is no feeling of passion, but muscular exertion consequent on the injury & consequently excited action of heart.— now this is the oldest her inherited & therefore remains, when the actual movement does not take place.— A start is habitual movement to avoid any danger — Fear, shamming death, or running


away, accompanied with want of muscular exertion, palpitation, voiding urine because done by some animals in defence, &c

Starting must be habitual involuntary movement from wish to avoid some danger — but it is instinctive because Nancy34 tells me very young babies start at anything they hear or see which frightens them.— Now every animal moves quickly away from any sudden sound or noise, & therefore brain has been accustomed to send a mandate to the muscles & when the noise comes it

cannot help doing it.—

Fanny Hensleigh35 doubts whether young babies start.— . If children wink, it is instinct
Fear must be simple instinctive feeling: I have awakened

34. Nancy, Darwin's old nurse.

35. Frances Mackintosh (1800–1899) married her cousin Hensleigh Wedgwood.


in the night, being slightly unwell & felt so much afraid though my reason was laughing & told me there was nothing, & tried to seize hold of objects to be frightened at.— (again diseases of the heart are accompanied by much involuntary fear) In these cases probably the system is affected, & by habit the mind tries to fix upon some object: — When a man, child or colt has once been frightened & started much more apt, this partly owing to heart? readily taking same movements, senses being on the look out, & the conveying means


from the senses to the mind being more alive.— How is it. with people nervous from illness., the it must be an excited action in the involuntary mind which is startled.— My Father says he should think that in old people, in their dotage, who sing the songs & tales of infancy, it is very doubtful whether they could recollect these same things from any effort of will whilst their minds were sound.


Caroline tells me that Nina,36 when brought from Shrewsbury to Clayton,37 (though so fond of her & of servant of Richard & of Mary & her bed brought from Shrewsbury) yet for a fortnight continued wretchedly unhappy, constantly whined, would not remain quiet in any room, would not sleep at night even when in bed room — grew very thin, would not go out of house except with Caroline — After fortnight, continued to grow thin & did not seem quite happy, in five weeks was so thin, that she was sent back to Shrewsbury, then immediately fell into her old ways & became fat! What remarkable affection to a place.— How like strong feelings of man. —

36. Caroline Sarah (1800–1888), Darwin's sister. Nina, a pet dog. Caroline married her cousin, Josiah Wedgwood.

37. Clayton, Caroline Wedgwood's home, near Etruria.


The sensation of fear is accompanied by troubled beating of heart, sweat, trembling of muscles, are not these effects of violent running away, & must not this running away have been usual effects of fear.— the state of collapse may be imitation of death, which many animals put on.— The flush which accompanies passion & not sweat is the state effect of short but violent action.—38 To avoid stating how far, I believe, in Materialism, say only that emotions, instincts degrees of talent, which are heredetary are so because brain of child resembles parent stock.— (& phrenologists state that brain alters)

38. Note similarity of this paragraph to the following from Zoonomia, p. 57: ". . . the whole skin is reddened by shame, and an universal trembling is produced by fear; and every muscle of the body is agitated in angry people by the desire of revenge."


It is known that birds learn to sing & do not acquire it instinctively, may not this be connected with their power of acquiring language.— Hensleigh. W.39 says that babies know a frown very early in life, before they (I think I have seen same thing before they could understand, what frowning means)

if so this is precisely analogous or identical, with bird knowing a cat, the first it sees it.— it is frightened without knowing why — the child dislikes the frown40 without knowing why — a man

39. Hensleigh Wedgwood, Darwin's brother-in-law.

40. ". . . children long before they can speak, or understand the language of their parents, may be frightened by an angry countenance, or soothed by smiles and blandishments." Zoonomia, p. 146.


as in Guy Mannering,41 feels, pleasure, in seeing the scenes of his childhood without knowing why — had not conscious of recollecting it — this may be nearest approach to the such instincts which full grown men can experience —

Instinctive walking of animals, that is the ready movement & co-relation of the proper muscles, may be illustrated by the extreme difficulty of moving muscles in different way from what they have been accustomed to, in certain actions — the difficulty of getting on a horse on the left side (not good example,) because leg is right handed. —

41. Scott, Walter, Guy Mannering or, the Astrologer, 3rd ed., Ballantyne for Longman, etc., Edinburgh, 1815, Vol. 3, p. 26: "It is even so with me while I gaze upon that ruin, nor can I divest myself of the idea, that these massive towers and that dark gateway . . . not entirely strange to me. Can it be that they have been familiar to me in infancy, and that I am to seek in their vicinity those friends of whom my childhood has exchanged for such severe taskmasters?"


In Review (Edinburgh)42 of Froude's life, that author remarks, that writing down his confessions of sins, did not make him more humble.— it has obscurely occurred to me that Capt. F. R. candour & ready confession of error made him less repentant. In making too much profession, or rather in only fully expressing momentary feelings of gratitude, I had a sort of consciousness I was not right; though I never realized the idea that I was tending to make myself in act less grateful.— How comes this tendency in these cases? How did my mind feel it was wrong (& it was not

42. "Remains of the Rev. Richard Hurrell Froude, M.A., Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford, 2 vols. 8vo. London: 1838." Art. X.–2. The Edinburgh Review, or Critical Journal, for April 1838 . . . , 67:525–535, July 1838, pp. 528–529.


merely morally wrong, but hurting my character I felt it) — this is kind of conscience, is obscure memory of having read or thought of some such remarke as now advanced; for I caught it like a flash.— strange if judgment remains, where reason is forgotten, it is conscience, or instinct.

Hensleigh says to say Brain per se thinks is nonsense; yet who will venture to say germ within egg, cannot think — as well as animal born with instinctive knowledge.— but if so, yet this knowledge acquired by senses, — then thinking consists of sensation of images before your eyes, or ears (language mere means

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of exciting association.) — or of memory of such sensations, & memory is repetition of whatever takes place in brain, when sensation is perceived. =

Aug. 7th — 38. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London Vol. I. p. 106. Col. Sykes43 on Formica indefessa placed table in cups of water which they waded or swam across.— they then stretched themselves from wall to table.— table being removed a little further, they ascended about a foot & then leapt across. (Col Sykes compares this with pidgeons finding their way home — there is something wrong in comparing these cases, when agency is unknown, with simple exertion of

43. Sykes, op. cit.

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intellectual faculty) if ants had at once made this leap it would have been instinctive, seeing that time is lost & endeavours made must be experience & intellect.— do. p. 157. Westwood44 remarks that some imported plants are attacked by insects & snails of this country (thus Dahlias by snails) — The Apion radiolum undergoes transformation in the stem of Hollyhock, although ordinary Habitat is Malva sylvestris

do. p. 228 Newport45 says Dr Darwin46 mistaken in saying common wasp cuts off wings of flies from intellect, but it does it always instinctively or habitually.— good Heavens is it disputed that a wasp has this much intellect, yet habit may make it act wrong, as I have done when taking lid off tea side of tea chest, when no tea

44. Westwood, J. O., "On the Earwig," Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1 (Pt. 3):157–163, 1836.

45. Newport, G., "On the Predaceous Habits of the Common Wasp, Vespa vulgaris, Linn.," Transactions of the Entomological Society of London, 1 (Pt. 3):228–229, 1836.

46. Zoonomia, p. 183: "One circumstance I shall relate which fell under my own eye, and showed the power of reason in a wasp, as it is exercised among men. A wasp, on a gravel walk, had caught a fly nearly as large as himself; kneeling on the ground I observed him separate the tail and the head from the body part, to which the wings were attached. He then took the body part in his paws, and rose about two feet from the ground with it; but a gentle breeze wafting the wings of the fly turned him round in the air, and he settled again with his prey upon the gravel. I then distinctly observed him cut off with his mouth, first one of the wings, and then the other, after which he flew away with it unmolested by the wind."

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do. p. 233. Mr Lewis47 describes case of insects a Perga of Terebrantia, laying eggs on leaves of Eucalyptus, watching few days till larva excluded, then though not feeding them nor helping larva from egg watching them, brooding over them, preserving them from the sun & enemies — would not fly away, but bit pencil when touched with it — do not know their own larvae, but one female may be moved to other larvae, when two groups near, mother desert one sometimes & go to other, so that two mothers to one group.— (as in birds blind storge

They continue till death, thus acting 4 to 6 weeks. The deserted broods appeared healthy — This remarkable case may be normal, with insects, but habit forgotten in all older species. The earwig & a doubtful one of Acanthosoma grisea described

47. Lewis, R. H., "Case of Maternal Attendance on the Larva by an Insect of the Tribe of Terebrantia, Belonging to the Genus Perga, Observed at Hobarton, Tasmania," Transactions of the Entomological Society of London, 1 (Pt. 3):232–234, 1836.

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as first caused by will of Gods, or God secondly that these are replaced by metaphysical abstractions, such as plastic virtue, &c (Very true, no doubt savage attribute thunder & lightening to Gods anger.— (∴ more poetry in that state of mind: the Chileno48 says the mountains are as God made them, — next step plastic virtue natures, accounting for fossils). & lastly the tracing facts to laws, without any attempt to know their nature.— Reviewer considers this profoundly true.— How is it with children.— Now it is not a little remarkable that the fixed laws of nature should be universally thought to be the will of a superior being; whose natures can only be rudely traced out. When one sees

48. See Darwin, Charles, Journal of Researches into the Geology and Natural History of the Various Countries Visited by H.M.S. Beagle, under the Command of Captain FitzRoy, R. N. from 1832 to 1836, Colburn, London, 1839, pp. 435–436: "My geological examination of the country generally created a good deal of surprise amongst the Chilenos . . . [they] thought that all such inquiries were useless and impious; and that it was quite sufficient that God had thus made the mountains." As late as 1861 Darwin again used the same expression in a letter to Lyell: "It reminds me of a Spaniard whom I told I was trying to make out how the Cordillera was formed; and he answered me that it was useless, for 'God made them.'" Darwin, Francis, and Seward, 1903, op. cit., Vol. 1, p. 192.


this, one suspects that our will may be arise from as fixed laws of organization.— M. le Comte argues against all contrivance — it is what my views tend to.— When a man is in a passion he puts himself stiff, & walks hard.— He cannot avoid sending will of action to muscles, any more than prevent heart beat

remember how Pincher does just the same; I noticed this by perceiving myself skipping when wanting not to feel angry — such efforts prevent anger, but observing eyes thus unconsciously discover struggle of feeling.— It is as much effort to walk then lightly as to endeavur to stop heart beating: one ceasing, so does other. —


What an animal like taste of, likes smell of, ∴ Hyaena likes smell of that fatty substance it scrapes off its bottom.— it is relic of same thing that makes one dog smell posterior at another.

Why do bulls & horses, animals of different orders turn up their nostrils when excited by love? Stallion licking udders of mare strictly analogous to men's affect for womens breasts. ∴ Dr Darwin's49 theory probably wrong, otherwise horses would have idea of beautiful forms.— '

49. Zoonomia, p. 145: "Our perception of beauty consists in our recognition by the sense of vision of those objects, first, which have before inspired our love by the pleasure, which they have afforded to many of our senses; as to our sense of warmth, of touch, of smell, of taste, hunger and thirst; and secondly, which bear any analogy of form to such objects." And on page 253: "So universally does repetition contribute to our pleasure in the fine arts, that beauty itself has been defined by some writers to consist in a due combination of uniformity and variety." See also n. 26.


With respect to free will, seeing a puppy playing cannot doubt that they have free will, if so all animals., then an oyster has & a polype (& a plant in some senses, perhaps, though from not having pain or pleasure actions unavoidable & only to be changed by habits). now free will of oyster, one can fancy to be direct effect of organization, by the capacities its senses give it of pain or pleasure, if so free will is to mind, what chance is to matter (M. Le Compte) — the free will (if so called) makes change


in bodily organization of oyster, so may free will make change in man.— the real argument fixes on heredetary disposition & instincts—.— Put it so.— Probably some error in argument, should be grateful if it were pointed out.— My wish to improve my temper, what does it arise from but organization, that organization may have been affected by circumstances & education, & by choice which at that time organization gave me to will — Verily the faults of the fathers, corporeal & bodily are visited upon the children. —


The above views would make a man a predestinarian of a new kind, because he would tend to be an atheist. Man thus believing, yet would more earnestly pray "deliver us from temptation," he would be most humble, he would strive to do good to improve his organization for his children's sake & for the effect of his example on others. // It may be doubted whether a man intentionally can wag his finger from real caprice, it is chance, which way it will be, but yet it is settled by reason. —


How slow habits are changed may be inferred from expression, "relict of bad habit." as child is cured of sucking his finger by rubbing them with alum, so more slowly does animal leave off ( instinct, when attended with bad effects

Martineau.50 How to observe, p. 21—26. argues with examples very justly there is no universal moral sense.— from difference of action of approved Yet as, I think, the opposite side has been shown — see Mackintosh.—51 Must grant, that the conscience varies in different races.— no more wonderful than dogs should have different instincts.— Fact most opposed to this view, where

50. Martineau, Harriet, How to Observe. Morals and Manners, Knight, London, 1838, p. 22: "A person who takes for granted that there is a universal Moral Sense among men, as unchanging as he who bestowed it, cannot reasonably explain how it was that those men were once esteemed the most virtuous who killed the most enemies in battle, while now it is considered far more noble to save life than to destroy it." And on page 23: ". . . every man's feelings of right and wrong, instead of being born with him, grow up in him from the influences to which he is subjected."

51. Mackintosh, James, Dissertation on the Progress of Ethical Philosophy Chiefly During the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. Edinburgh, 1830, "There is no tribe so rude as to be without a faint perception of the difference between right and wrong. There is no subject on which men of all ages and nations coincide in so many points as in the general rules of conduct. . . .


the moral sense seems to have changed suddenly — but are not such sudden changes rare, — as when Polynesian mothers ceased to destroy their offspring — & yet perhaps if they had murdered their children, this moral sense, would have been so much, as in other races of mankind.—

p. 27. Mart.52 allows some universal feelings of right & wrong (& therefore in fact only limits moral sense) which she seems to think are to make others happy & wrong to injure them without temptation.— This probably is natural, consequence of man, like deer &c, being social animal, & this conscience or instinct may be

52. Martineau, op. cit., p. 27: "The traveller having satisfied himself that there are some universal feelings about right and wrong, and that in consequence some parts of human conduct are guided by general rules, must next give his attention to modes of conduct, which seem to him good or bad, prevalent in a nation, or district, or society of smaller limits. His first general principle is, that the law of nature is the only one by which mankind at large can be judged. His second must be, that every prevalent virture or vice is the result of the particular circumstances amidst which the society exists."


most firmly fixed, but it will not prevent other being engrafted.— No one doubts patriotism & family pride are heredetary., & therefore he has these strong, & does not act up to them, no doubt disobeys & hurts conscience more than other.— A Scotchman will his country or Swis.— it may be answered effects of education, may be opposed undoubted cases of heredetary pride & in single families.


Edinburgh. Phil. Transact, p. 365.53 Case of double consciousness, one only little less perfect than other, absolutely two people. Consider this profoundly, may throw light on consciousness, explained by Dr Dewar54 on principle of association.— fully bears out my fathers doctrine about people forgetting their insanity

there seem other cases somewhat analogous, & which I think will lead to fact of old people singing songs of their childhood. & certainly of Miss Cogan, & fully corroborates the fact of her not remembering which repeating song when she had recollected it in perfect senses.— These things, & drunkedness, show what trains of thought depend on state of turn

53. Possibly "An Introduction to the Philosophy of Consciousness," Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, 43 (Pt. 1):187–201; (Pt. 2):437–452; (Pt. 3):784–791, 1838, p. 199: "It is reserved for man to live this double life. To exist, and to be conscious of existence; to be rational, and to know that he is so." See also n. 15.

54. Dr. Dewar; see Abercrombie, John, Inquiries Concerning the Intellectual Powers and the Investigation of Truth, 8th ed., Murray, London, 1838, pp. 301–302, for discussion of ignorant servant girl, mentioned by Dr. Dewar, who during paroxysms showed surprising knowledge of geography and astronomy, a case of double consciousness.


In drunkedness same disposition recurs, such as of Trinity always thinking people were calling him a bastard.— when drunk.— having really been so.— some always sentimental, some quarrelsome as B.e55 on board Beagle, some merry goodhumoured as self.—

When Miss Cogan has remembered her song, then the song was to her like one which though learnt in infancy, had often been repeated: Now it is remarked that A. Bessy repeated things, which none about her had ever before heard, so very probably forgotten.

Such facts bear on such characters as Allen W. & Babington, both half ideotic in some respects & with store of accurate & even profound knowledge or other & unusual line — both odd appearance about eyes.— one botanist & great knowledge of Irish Politics, both bad jokers.— the other army officer, horticulture & religious sects.— yet Allen. W.56 remark about his slippers bad for fires, what is wrong in his head. & Babington's57 silly joking

55. Probably Benjamin Bynoe, "Assistant and Later Surgeon on H.M.S. Beagle." Barlow, Nora, ed., Charles Darwin's Diary of the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle, Cambridge, University Press, 1933.

56. Probably John Allen Wedgwood (1796–1882), son of John and Louisa Jane Wedgwood.

57. Babington, George Gisborne, Esq., John Allen H. Wedgwood, and Charles Darwin are listed as members of the Athenaeum in 1838: Rules and Regulations for the Government of the Athenaeum with an Alphabetical List of the Members, etc., London, III, 1834–1839. Perhaps Darwin has reference to Prof. Charles C. Babington, botanist.


The possibility of the brain having whole train of thoughts, feeling & perception separate from the ordinary state of mind, is probably analogous to the double individuality implied by habit, when one acts unconsciously with respect to more energetic self, & likewise one forgets, what one performs habitually.— Agrees with insanity, as in Dr Ash's case, when he struggled as it were with a second & unreasonable man.— If one could remember all ones farthers actions, as one does those in second childhood, the or when drunk they would not be more different, & yet they would make one's father & self one person — & thus eternal punishment explained.


These facts showing what a train of thought action &c will arise from physical action on the brain, renders much less wondefful the instincts of animals—

Aug. 12th. 38. At the Athenaeum Club, was very much struck with an intense headache after good days work which came on from reading review of M. Comte Phil, which made me endeavour to remember, & to think deeply, & the immediate manner in which my head got well when reading article by Boz.—58 now in this I was interested as was I in the other, & read so intently as to be unconscious of all around, yet there was no strain on the intellectual powers — the difference is of a man wagging his foot & working with his toe to perform some difficult task. —

58. Boz, i.e., Charles Dickens.


Aug. 12th. When in National Institution & not feeling much enthusiasm, happened to go close to one & smelt the peculiar smell of Picture, association with much pleasure immediately thrilled across me, bringing up old indistinct ideas of FitzWilliam Musm.59 I was amused at this after seven years interval.

Augt. 15th. As child gains habit or trick so much more easily than man, so may animal obtain it far more easily, in proportion to variableness or power of intellect.— Some complicated trades can hardly be considered as actions otherwise than habitual.— instances??

59. According to Dr. Sydney Smith (personal communication), in the early 1830s the Fitzwilliam Pictures hung in the Free School (Perse) Hall, Cambridge.


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The possibility of two quite separate trains going on in the mind as in double consciousness may really explain what habit is — In the habitual train of thought one idea, calls up other, & the consciousness of double individual is not awakened.— The habitual individual remembers things done in the other

habitual state because it will (without direct consciousness?) change its habits.— Aug. 16th. As instance of heredetary mind. I a Darwin & take after my Father in heraldic principle. & Eras a Wedgwood in many respects & some of Aunt Sarahs,60 cranks, & so is Catherine in some respects —. good instances.— when education same.— My handwriting same as Grandfather.61

60. Probably Sarah Elizabeth Wedgwood (1778–1856), Darwin's mother's sister, and sister of Josiah Wedgwood of Maer, the father of Emma, his cousin, whom he married five months later.

61. In the Transmutation Notebook E, p. 89, on Jan. 6, 1839, Darwin wrote, "Handwriting is determined by most complicated circumstances, as shown by difficulty in forging. Yet handwriting said to be hereditary, shows well what minute details of structure [are] hereditary." The upper half of pages 83–84 were excised by Darwin, but are restored in this text.

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Aug. 16th Anger Rage in worst form is described by Spenser (Faery Queene. (Descript of Queen) O62 of Hell Cant IV or V.) as pale & trembling. & not as flushing & with muscles rigid.— How is this? dealt with p. 24163 CD 25

Origin of man now proved.— Metaphysic must flourish.— He who understands baboon will would do more towards metaphysics than Locke

A dog whines, & so does man.— dogs laughs for joy, so does dog bark, (not shout) when opening his mouth in romps, so he smiles.

Many of actions as hiccough & yawn are probably merely coorganic as

62. A circle drawn here.

63. This particular reference not positively traced, but see The Canterbury Tales and Faerie Queene: With Other Poems of Chaucer and Spenser, William P. Nimmo, ed., Ballantyne, Edinburgh, 1870, Book I, Canto IV, verse 33, p. 326: "As ashes pale of hue, and seeming dead, And in his dagger still his hand he held, Trembling through hasty rage, when cholor in him swell'd."

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connexion of mammae & womb.— We need not feel so much surprise at male animals smelling vaginae of females when it is recollected that smell of ones own pud. not disagree.— Ourang outang at Zoolog Gardens touched pud. of young male & smelt its fingers. Seeing a dog & horse & man yawn, makes me feel how much all animals are built on one structure.— He who doubts about national character let him compare the American whether in the cold regions of the North, — the elevated table land of Peru


the hot plains of the Amazons & Brazil — with the negros of Africa, (or again the black man of B Van Diemens land & the energetic copper coloured natives of New Zealand)— the American in Brazil is under same conditions as Negro on the other side of the Atlantic. Why then is he so different— in organization. —


Same cause as colour & shape & ideosyncracy.— Look at the Indian in slavery & look at the Negro — look at them both savage — look at them both semi-civilized —

Perhaps one cause of the intense labour of original inventive thought is that none of the ideas are habitual, nor recalled by obvious associations, as by reading a book.— Consider this. —


"The fledge-dove knows the prowlers of the air" &c &c &c so is conscience &c &c Coleridge,— Zapoyla p. 117, Galignani Edition64

Fine poetry, or a strain of music, when the mind is rendered ductile by grief, or by bodily weakness, melts into tears, with sensations of sorrowful delight, very like best feeling of sympathy.— Mem: Burke's65 idea of Sympathy. being real pleasure at pain of others, with rational

64. The Galignani edition has not been traced, but see The Poetical Works of S. T. Coleridge, 3 vols., Pickering, London, 1836, Vol. 2, p. 323, in "Zapolya, a Christmas Tale," Part II, Act IV, Scene 1 (Casimir's 13th speech).

65. Burke, op. cit., n. 33.


desire to assist them, otherwise as he remarks sympathy could be barren. & lead people from scenes of distress.— see how a crowd collects at an accident, — children with other children naughty.— Why does person cry for joy?

17th. August Montaigne (Vol. I)66 has well observed, one does not fear death from its pain, but one only fears that pain, which is connected with death! — How has this instinctive fear arisen?

19th. When I went down to Woollich67 I was trying to unbend my mind as much as possible (testing success by decreasing headache) & found best plan was allowing my mind to skip from subject

66. Montaigne: this reference has not been traced.

67. Probably Woolwich, London (S.E. 18).


to subject as quick as it chose.— although thinking & talking for the moments with interest on each.— ∴ my father, is right in saying delirium rest— therefore dreams thus act.— ∴ weak minded people are fickle & full of levity (?do I not confound action & thought here?) The opposite extreme of this desultory thought is following out such an idea, as effect of sea on coves68 when waters had fallen, as in my Glen Roy paper.— this greatest mental effort, of which I am capable — I suspect from these facts that whole effort consists in keeping one idea before your

68. See Darwin, Charles, "Observations on the Parallel Roads of Glen Roy, and of Other Parts of Lochaber in Scotland, with an Attempt to Prove that They Are of Marine Origin," Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Part 1:39–82, 1839, p. 73. Darwin has reference to the mental exertion expended in mentally reconstructing the series of events occurring over a long span of time in producing the coves indenting the otherwise regular parallel roads of Glen Roy. He had to struggle with such problems as: Did the land rise? Or did the sea sub-side? Or both? Was it due to marine or fresh-water action? Or glacial? Or a combination? And when and to what extent had erosion altered the original condition? See also: Barrett, Paul H., "Darwin's 'Gigantic Blunder,'" op. cit.


mind steadily., & not merely thinking intently for that one does with novel for a length of time.— Then if one endeavour to keep any simple idea as scarlet steady before mind for period, if the scarlet was before one effort less one is obliged to repeat the word, & think of qualities as flowers, cloth &c & with all this difficult experimentize upon this effort.— it looks so analogous to muscle in one position great fatigue.— may explain excessive labour of inventive thought.— Examine frame of mind in following changes during fall of sea.— Is the effort


greater if the idea is abstract as love, (or an emotion not so) than if simple idea as scarlet? — How can people dwell on pain, no definite idea, nor is an emotion.— People who can multiply large numbers in their head must have this high faculty, yet not clever people.

Aug. 21st. 38 When a dog in play has his mouth open ready to bark, & lip twisted up, in that peculiar manner they do, even more than in a real snarl, they are enjoying a satirical, laugh.— when snarling real bitter sarcasm. —


These Seeing how ancient these expressions are, it is no wonder that they are so difficult to conceal.— a man insulted may forgive his enemy & not wish to strike him, but he will find it far more difficult to to look tranquil.— He may despise a man & say nothing, but without a most distinct will, he will find it hard to keep his lip from stiffening over his canine teeth.—69 He may feel satisfied with himself, & though dreading to say so, his step will grow erect & stiff like that of turkey.— he may be amused, he need not express it, he may most earnestly wish to do it, but an involuntary laugh will burst forth, this & yawning, (common to other

69. Two vertical pencil lines in margin beside this sentence.


animals) scream of agony, whine of children, puppies do so dogs nearly silent, so with men.— sigh of discomfort & weariness. & meditative tranquility, How is crying— peculiar not common? — no bark of anger nor have monkeys & many other animals, — but yet when angry it is hard not to growl out some sound even if it be inarticulate.— the maniac shouts & bellows with passion.— It is not a little remarkable that those sounds which are involuntary, are common to animals.— Curious to trace, which of these actions are habitual, & which now connected physical relations.— (like sighing to relieve circulation after stillness.— Now I conceive if organization were changed, I conceive sighing might


yet remain just like sneering does.— is yawning habitual from awaking from sleep see how a dog yawns when he awakes. & streching & yawning can be explained from too long rest of muscles.— evidently habitual when transferred, (also how often) to the tale of a wearisome man.— Is frowning, result of straining vision, as savages without hats put up their hands, & as attention would amongst lowest savages clearly be directed chiefly by objects of vision.— Does the contraction & wrinkling of the skin contract iris? — same way as one lifts up eyebrows to see things in dark. & hence is this the cause of expression of surprise — viz seeing something obscurely with the wish to make it out? —


Seeing a Baby (like Hensleigh's)70 smile & frown, who can doubt these are instinctive — child does not sneer, because no young animal has canine teeth.— A dog when he barks puts his lips in peculiar position, & he holds them this way, when opening mouth between interval of barking, now this is smile. With respect to sneering the very essence of an habitual movement is continuing it when useless.— & therefore it is here continued when the uncovering the canine useless.— The distinction as often said of language in man is very great from

70. Probably infant (Ernest Hensleigh, 1838–1898) of Hensleigh and Frances Wedgwood.


all animals — but do not overrate — animals communicate to each other.— Lonsdale's71 story of Snails, Fox of cows, & many of insects — they likewise must understand each others expressions, sounds, & signal movements.— some say dogs understand expression of man's face.— That How far they communicate not easy to know, — but this capability of understanding language is considerable, thus carthorse & dog.— birds many cries, monkeys communicate much to each other. —

71. Probably William Lonsdale (1794–1871), Assistant Secretary and Curator of the Geological Society, 1829–1842. But possibly Rev. J. Lonsdale, member of the Athenaeum. Athenaeum, Rules and Regulations, 1834–1839.


Waterhouse72 says far more instincts in all of the Hymenoptera; therefore than in other orders (study Kirby with this view) therefore there is Instinctual developement in one order, as there is Intellectual in human — probably some genera in different orders more advanced than others just as dog & Elephant most intellectual.— Hymenoptera typical insects, ie have all parts. Waterhouse

72. Probably George Robert Waterhouse (1810–1888), Keeper of the Department of Geology in the British Museum, 1851–1880. Waterhouse published descriptions of numerous species of mammals and insects collected by Darwin during the voyage of the Beagle.


Study well the greater number of insects in insecta — not connected with transformation because Spiders have many, — great powers of communicating knowledge to each other —

August 23d. Jones73 said the great calculators, from the confined nature of their associations (it is not so in punning) are people of very limited intellects, & in the same way are chess Players — A man at Cambridge, during his time, almost an absolute fool used to play regularly with D'Arblay74 of Christ of great genius, & yet invariably used to beat

73. Possibly Rev. R. Jones mentioned M 155 and D 41.

74. Probably Alexander d'Arblay (1794–1837), son of Frances (Burney) d'Arblay; tenth wrangler in 1818 and Tancred studentship at Christ's College, Cambridge; deacon, 1818; priest, 1819; minister of Ely Chapel, 1836. See Stephen, Leslie, ed., Dictionary of National Biography, Smith, Elder, London, 1885, Vol. 2, p. 57.


him — The son of a Fruiterer in Bond St. was so great a fool that his Father only left him a guinea a week. yet he was inimitable chess player.

Peacocks75 remark about mathematicians not being profound reasoners.— all same fact— for, as Jones observed, in playing chess however many places, & contingency a man has keep in mind, all is certain.— there is judgment of probabilities, therefore this judgment gives a man common sense, & the highest intellectual powers of perceiving

75. Undoubtedly Rev. George Peacock (1791–1858), Lowndean Professor of Astronomy at Cambridge, Dean of Ely, member of the Athenaeum, and consulted as to appointment of naturalist for the Beagle prior to Darwin. See Barlow, op. cit.; and Athenaeum, Rules and Regulations, 1834–1839.


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(Can't go with this FD)76

& classifying distinct resemblances.— The facts of half instincts, when two varieties are crossed as in Shepherd dogs— Inherited Habits: Have Effect in Bones is valuable it shows that new instinct can originate.— strong argument for brain bringing thought, & not merely instinct, a separate thing superadded.— we can thus trace causation of thought.— it is brought within our own limits of examination.— obeys same laws, as other parts of structure.78 C.D.27

Can an analogy be drawn between heredetary associated pleasures & pains & emotions — such as child sucking, gives pleasure, & always has done therefore sight of own child, (when frame in condition to receive pleasure) gives pleasure, ie. love.— & so pain gives fear of death.79

76. According to Dr. Sydney Smith (personal communication), added by Francis Darwin.

77. This parenthetical phrase inserted in pencil. The word "Horse" is difficult to decipher, and three or four words following it are illegible.

78. "CD 27" is written in following this line, in pencil, by Francis Darwin, according to Dr. Sydney Smith.

79. There are 3 vertical lines in the margin beside this paragraph in the notebook.


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Mayo Philosophy of Living,80 p. 140 — Dreams good account of thinks are recollected when intense, or when so near waking, that an associated is kept up with waking thought.— Ld Brougham thinks no dreams except at this time. how does he account for dogs & men speaking in their sleep.— Characters of dreams no surprise, at the violation of all rules relations of time, identity, place & personal connections — ideas are strung together in manner they quite different from when awake. peculiar sensation as flying. (No memory of past events?) or influence on our conduct, the links which when conscious connect past, present & future

80. Mayo, Herbert, The Philosophy of Living, 2nd ed., Parker, London, 1838, p. 139, discusses when dreaming occurs during sleep, and disagrees with Brougham's conclusion that it is most frequent at the "'instant of transition into and out of sleep.'"


thoughts are broken — Sir J. Franklin81 when starved, all party dreamt of goo feasts of good food — The mind wills to do this & hears that, but yet scarcely really moves.— the willing therefore is ideal, as all the other perceptions.— The mind thinks with extraordinary rapidity — We may conclude that neither number, vividness, rapidity, novelty of separate ideas cause fatigue to the mind, — it is solely the comparison, with past ideas, which makes consciousness — & which tells one of reality — castle in the air, is more prolonged than dream, never fatiguing, — else it is only our consciousness, & senses tell us it is not real.— dreaming appears clearly rest of the mind, with all other faculties:

Vide page no, by mistake.82

81. Ibid., p. 141: "Sir John Franklin remarks, when his party was in the extremity of physical exhaustion and physical suffering,—'Although the sensation of hunger was no longer felt by any of us;—yet we were scarcely able to converse on any other subject than the pleasure of eating.'" See also Franklin, John, Narrative of a Journey to the Shores of the Polar Sea, in the Years 1819, 20, 21, and 22, Murray, London, 1823, pp.465–466: "The dreams which for the most part, but not always accompanied it [i.e., comfort of a few hours of sleep during prolonged starvation] were usually (though not invariably) of a pleasant character, being very often about the enjoyments of feasting." In Darwin's copy of Zoonomia, E. Darwin, 1794, now kept in the Anderson Room, Cambridge University Library, on page 23 is the following marginal notation penciled in in Darwin's handwriting: "This is strange as hungery men never dream of hunger." The text passage reads, ". . . in his dreams, he [a 50-year-old man who had been deaf for nearly 30 years] always imagined that people conversed with him by signs or writing, and never that he heard any one speak to him. From hence it appears, that with the [loss of] perception of sounds, he has also lost the ideas of them. . . ." Perhaps, when he wrote his margin note, Darwin had in mind, his statement on M 21: "People, my Father says, do not dream of what they think of most intently.—criminals before execution.—Widows not of their husbands—My father's test of sincerity."

82. Darwin apparently inadvertently continued M 110.


N B. Everything which happens to man who does not produce children, or after he has useless, does not affect race, argument for early education.— fear of death !!! as Montaigne observes, distinct from pain, for one hates pain from this fear — & not death for the pain.— How was this instinct gained.? by conversation — ∴ modified in those races, where it is customary to die —

August 24th. As some impressions Hume83 become unconscious, so may some ideas.— i e habits, which must require idea to order muscles to do certain the actions. is

83. Darwin probably read in the Athenaeum Club library the copy of The Philosophical Works of David Hume, 4 vols., Constable, Edinburgh, 1825.


it the becom impression becoming very often unconscious, which makes the idea unconscious, if so (think of this) study what impressions become unconscious those which are viewed with little interest, & those which are viewed very often.— former do not give rise to ideas so much, as objects of interest.— do) I was much struck with observing how the Baboon (Macaco Cyanocephalus Sphynx Linnaeus) constantly moved the skin of forehead over eyes, at every emotion & look turn of the head.


I could not perceive any distinct wrinkle, but such movements in skin of eyebrow important analogy with man.— I see monkeys grin with passion, that is show all the teeth:

& make noise not like pish, but like chit-chit-chit, quickly uncovering their teeth, this the Keeper thinks is from pleasure, & may be compared to laughing

they dance with passion, ie. nervous impulse to action is sent so fast to limbs that they cannot remain still.— I do not doubt this Baboon, knew women.— Another little old American monkey (Mycelis) I gave nut, but held it between fingers, the peevish expression was


most curious, like remember the expostulatory angry look of black spider monkey when touched, also another monkey to dog. I showed nut & then closed my mem. expression of fury, jump to scratch my face. The ourang outang, under same circumstances, threw itself down on its back & kicked & cryed like naughty child.— Do monkeys cry?— they whine like children.— Expression, is an heredetary habitual movement consequent on some action, which the progenitor did, when excited or disturbed by the same cause, which now excites the expression. —


Habitual actions are the reverse of intellectual, there is no comparison of ideas — one follows other as in blindest memory — also low faculty of understanding.

Adam Smith84 (: D. Stewart life of. p. 27), says sympathy we can only know what others think by putting ourselves in their situation, & then we feel like them— hence sympathy very unsatisfactory because does not like Burke explain pleasure.

August 26th. I cannot help, thinking horses admire a wide prospect.— The very superiority of man perhaps depends on the number of sources of pleasure & innate tastes, he

84. Smith, Adam, Essays on Philosophical Subjects. To Which is Prefixed, An Account of the Life and Writings of the Author by Dugald Stewart, Cadell and Davies, London, 1795, pp. xxvi–xxvii.


partakes, taste for musical sound with birds. & S howling monkeys — smell with many animals — see how a dog likes smell of Partridge — man's taste for smell of flowers, owing to parent being fruit eater.— origin of colours?

Nothing shows one how little happiness depends on the senses.; than the small fact that no one, looking back to his life, would say how many good dinners or [space in the text] he had had, he would say how many happy days he spent in such a place. —


Vide page 103, supra (by mistake)
have lower animals these vivid thoughts

In same book85 (p. 143) wonderful case of perfect double consciousness

Mayo compares it with Somnambulism.— the young lady almost equally in her senses in either state.— does this throw light on instinct, showing what trains of action may be done unconsciously as far as the ordinary state is concerned?—

Mr Mayo told me the case of a lady, (whose name was told me, who told the fact to Mr Mayo himself.86 she was one day reading a book, with ivory paper cutter, which she valued, & she was suddenly called to go on the lawn to see something, on her return could not find paper cutter, hunted in vain

85. See Mayo, 1838, op. cit., p. 145: ". . . I believe it [double consciousness] to exemplify sudden transitions to and from the state of somnabulism."

86. Both Herbert and Thomas Mayo are listed as members in 1838 in the Athenaeum. See Athenaeum Rules and Regulations.


for it — ten years afterwards whilst at a meal, she suddenly like a flash without any assignable cause, remembered she had put it in branch of tree, & apologising to party, went out & found it there!!! Lady in perfect mental health.— Erasmus had almost same thing happen to him about a knife, which he had hid some years before.— was greatly astonished, at the time. & could trace no chain of association

Mayo Philos. seems certain that muscular, mental, & digestive nervous influence replace each other

August 29th. Went to Bed. & built common Castle in the air, of being compelled, from some quite imaginary cause to start at once to Shrewsbury, vaguely thought of packing up.— was lying on my back fell to sleep for second & wakened.— had very clear & pretty vivid & perfectly characterized dream, in continuation of waking thought — my servant was in the room, with my trunk out & I was engaged in hurriedly giving orders.— Now what was difference between Castle & dream


No answer shows our profound ignorance in so simple case.— There was memory, for it related to past idea.— there was a kind of ideal consciousness for moment, implied by presence my servant, box my own manner of ordering things to be done.— The senses are closed probably by sleep & not vica versa, anyhow I might have been quite still, & not attending to bodily sensation & yet the Castle would not have turned into dream.— It appears to me, that the mind is wholly absorbed with one idea (hence apparent vividness) & there being no other parallel trains of ideas connected with past circumstances.— as whether I really was going to Shrewsbury, whether I had rung for Covington,87 whether he had come & opened box, whether I had thought what clothes to take (how often

87. Syms Covington, "Fidler and boy to Poop cabin" at the beginning of the Beagle voyage, and Darwin's servant from the second year of the journey until after their return to England.


one cannot tell whether one has rung the bell. when one recollects circumstances were such one naturally would do so!) Now all these parallel trains of thought necessary heirs of every action, & always running on in mind, being absent, one could not compare the castle with them, therefore could not doubt or believe.— When I say trains, it may be instantaneous changes in order to every calling up ideas of every late impression.— (do the ideas, direct effect of perception by senses fail first, as whether I had pulled the bell??) — It may be deception to say the mind thinks quicker in sleep, it may do less work & yet do so, from the exertion of keeping up the memory of every late impression. & likewise gaining new ones from senses. & comparing their calling up old ones, to be sure of ones consciousness. —


Mayo88 observe no improbabilities in a dream, effect of doubting nor believing, effect of not reasoning, effect of not having all other trains of thought, or memory from innumerable late events.— the fatigue of thinking is keeping up these trains, — especially if they are invented as in imagination,& in rigidly comparing each step as in reasoning — hence delirium & sleep mental rest, though, most vivid & rapid thought.— There may be some two or three trains of thought, therefore one may be imperfectly reason — In a Abercrombie's89 case of in Botanical Student somnabulism, did reason about himself — but not about, facts gained or gaining by senses.— As sleep is only one idea is awake,

88. Mayo, 1838, op. cit., p. 140: "In dreams, that which most strikes us are their monstrous and capricious combinations, and our want of surprise at their improbability."

89. Abercrombie, op. cit., pp. 296–298.


when one is awake many necessarily are, when one is deeply reasoning besides these (which must be present, though one is not conscious of them, else one would not stand) a crowd of other trains of thought are in progress — In castle of air the trouble I well recollect is in making things somewhat probable, in comparing every step, & inventing new means, — therefore works of imagination hard work, — Keeping one idea present is, perhaps, hard work — though dreams do that

One Reflective Consciousness is curious problem., one does not care for the pains of ones infancy.— one cannot bring it to one self.— nor of a bad dream, when that is not recollected, nor of the Botanical Somnambulist. (if he had been unhappy) — it is because in this


state, the consciousness does not go back to former periods so as to make give one individuality in this case.— But now in Mayo's p. 140 case of double consciousness, one would pity suffering in one state almost as much as in the other, — though she when well did not recollect it anything.— if one was subject to this disease oneself, one would only feel sympathy, as for for the heard suffering of a dear friend — this gives one strong idea of what individuality is.— Insanity is much somewhat the same as double consciousness, as shown in the tendency to forget the insane idea; & ones expression of


double self, though as in Dr Ashe's case, one here was conscious of the two states.

August 30th.— It is singular when looking at a table one has vague idea something is not there, & then when one begins eating one perceives butter or salt is not there.— the reality does not resemble the picture in one mind, but does not stop to reason what there should be & discover loss.

Definition of happiness the number of pleasant ideas passing through mind in given time.— intensity to degree of happi pleasure of such thoughts


We give no credit to instinctive feelings. for man losing his children, any more than to dog losing his puppies— This looks like free will.— V. last page. A healthy child is more entirely happy (contentmt is different it refers to wishes for future) than perhaps well regulated philosopher — yet the philosopher has a much more intense happiness — so is it with an when same man is compared to peasant.— To make greatest number of pleasant thoughts, he must have contingency of good food, no pain, — but the & the sensual


enjoyment of the minute add to the happiness.— but as they are not recollected whether from frequency, or inherent structure of mind, they make, either in themselves, or if recollected, such part of thoughts innumerable, which past through mind.— These thoughts are most pleasant, when the conscience tells our good has been done — & conscience free from offence — pleasure of intellect affection excited, pleasure of imagination — therefore do these & be happy— & these pleasures are so very great, that every one who has tasted them, will think


the sum total of happiness greater, even if mixed with some pain.— than the happiness of a peasant, with whom sensual enjoyments of the minute make large parts portion of daily happiness pleasure. A wise man will try to obtain this happiness, though he sees some intellectual good men, from insanity &c unhappy — perhaps not so much as they appear & perhaps partly their fault.— Whether this rule of


happiness agrees with that of New Testament is other question.— little is there said of intellectual pleasu hope cultivation, main source of the intense happiness.— it is again another question, whether this happiness is the object of living.— or whether if we obey literally New Testament future life is almost the sole object —.— I doubt whether the last be right. The two rules come very near each other. ⇒


The rules to mortify yourself do not tend to this — though believing it to be true, & then acting on it, will add to happiness.— Men having some instincts as revenge & anger, which experience shows it must for his happiness to check — that is external circumstances are so conditioned as they are effecting a change in his instincts — like what is happening with other animals— is far from odd


nor is it odd he should have had them.— with lesser intellect they might be necessary & no doubt were preservative, & are now, like all other structures slowly vanishing— the mind of man is no more perfect, than instincts of animals to all & changing contingencies, or bodies of either.— Our descent, then, is the origin of our evil passions!! — The Devil under form of Baboon is our grandfather! —


A man, who perfectly obeys his conscience or instinct, would probably feel but little that of anger or revenge.— they are incompatible & the former, the more pleasant.— Simple happiness as of child is large proportion of pleasant to unpleasant mental sensations in any given time — compared to what other people experience.— But then sensation may be more or less pleasant & unpleasant, in same time, — therefore degrees of happiness — Entire happiness, not being so desirable as broken intense


happiness even with some pain, compared to what others experience in same time.— Pleasure more usually refers to the sensations it when excited by impressions, & not mental or ideal ones, which & these must occupy greater proportion of each every man's time.— Begin discussion — by saying what is Happiness? — When we look back to happy days, are they not those of which all our recollections are pleasant. —


Browne Religio Medici, p. 21-24.90 Curious passages showing how easily chance & will of Deity are confounded.— well applicable to free will.

Mayo. Philosop. of Living p. 293.91 Animals "have notion of property" — their own property. (— regarding food & in birds of place for nest.) — with dogs "have notion of masters property" — is not this rather more friendship.—

Scott's Life. Vol I, p. 127.92 Talks of difficulty of his own drawing compared to a friend, whose who family can draw — says friend viewed him as Newfoundland dog would Greyhound about dread of water — innate

90. Browne, Thomas, The Works of Sir Thomas Browne, 6 vols., Geoffrey Keynes, ed., Faber and Gwyer, London, 1928. Vol. 1, Religio Medici, The First Part, Section 17, p. 23: "Surely there are in every man's life certain rubs, doublings, and wrenches, which pass a while under the effects of chance, but of the last, well examined, prove the meer hand of God."

91. Mayo, Herbert, The Philosophy of Living, Parker, London, 1837, p. 293: "Honesty is the recognition of the principle of property. It is remarkable that animals have this idea in its simplest form . . ."

92. Scott, Walter, Memoirs of the Life of Sir Walter Scott, Bart., J., G. Lockart, ed., 1838, Vol. 1, p. 127: "He [Will Clerk] to whom, as to all his family, art is a familiar attribute, wondered at me as a Newfoundland dog would at a greyhound which showed fear of the water."


Septemb 1— If one performs some actions, which are pleasant, every concomitant circumstance calls up pleasure, or pleasure or pain of association.— now if one has these feelings, without being aware of their association ie heredetary, does one not call them instinctive emotions? —

Dr Holland93 remarked that insanity like sleep does not doubt the reality of the impression on its senses.— insane people believe they hear as well see things which have no existence.— He compared spectral illusion94 & insanity, the connexion appears to me vague —

Delirium of every degree of intensity — in old man, he had just seen mind went on rambling till excited by question.

93. Holland, Dr. Henry, afterward Sir Henry, second cousin to the Wedgwoods and Darwins, and physician to Queen Victoria.

94. See Darwin, R. W., op. cit.


Sept. 4th.95 Lyell96 in his Principles talks of it as wonderful that Elephants understand contracts.— but W. Fox's dog that shut the door evidently did, for it did with far more alacrity than when something good was shown him, than when merely ordered to do it.— Plato Erasmus says in Phaedo that our "necessary ideas" arise from the preexistence of the soul, are not derivable from experience.— read monkeys for preexistence"

95. N.B., page 128 in the notebook is dated September 4 and page 130 is dated September 3. Darwin apparently skipped a full page when he made the September 3 entry, then came back the next day to fill in the blank pages.

96. Lyell, Charles, Principles of Geology, Being an Inquiry How Far the Former Changes of the Earth's Surface Are Referable to Causes Now in Operation, 5th ed., 4 vols., Murray, London, 1837, Vol. 2, p. 418: "Some favourite dainty is shown to them, in the hope of acquiring which the work is done; and so perfectly does the nature of the contract appear to be understood, that the breach of it, on the part of the master, is often attended with danger."


The young Ourang in Zoolog Gardens pouts, partly out displeasure (& partly out of I do not know what when it looked at the glass) when pouting protrudes its lips into point — man, though he does not pout, pushes out both lips in contempt & disgust & defiance.— different from sneer —

How easily, horses associate sounds may be seen by omnibuss Horses starting, when door shut or cad cries out "right." or Drinkwater's97 horse jumping when word jump said —
I saw the ourang take up a stone & pound the earth.

Lockarts life of W. Scott Vol VII p. 3598 "as ideas come & the pulse rises, or as they flag & something like a snow-haze, covers my whole imagination."

97. Probably Richard Drinkwater, woolstapler of Frankwell, Shrewsbury, and Mayor of Shrewsbury, 1834–1835. Ref.: Shropshire Archeological Society Transactions, 4th. ser., vol. 9, 1923/4. (Thomas, A. L., Reference Librarian, Shrewsbury Public Library, Shrewsbury, England. Personal communication.)

98. Scott, op. Cit., Vol. 7, pp. 35—36: "May 28 [From diary]—Another day of uninterrupted study; two such would finish the work with a murrain. What shall I have to think of when I lie down at night and awake in the morning? What will be my plague and my pastime—my curse and my blessing—as ideas come and the pulse rises, or as they flag and something like a snow-haze covers my whole imagination? I have my Highland Tales—and then—never mind—sufficient for the day is the evil thereof."


Septembe. 3d Why when one thinks of any object, (or having looked at any object ) one Shuts ones eyes) is the image not vivid as in sleep— (one can dream of intense scarlet??) is it because one then has no immediate comparison with perceptions, & that one fancies the image more vivid? Surely the image in a dream cannot truly be more as vivid, as reality as in Spectral images —


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Mem Chiloe pi Sow, who carried from all parts straw to make its nest. Pigs & Elephants, (both Pachyderms) much intellect.— mem: Yarrell's story of wheel horse in drays, scraping against cornice stone to cause friction

Athenaeum 1838. p. 652. Dr Daubeny99 on the direction of mountain chains in N. America

Fear probably is connected with habitual stopping of breath to hear any sound.— attitude of attention

So intimately connected is passion with sending force to muscles, that in my grandfather remark, a tired man. involuntarily feels angry, when brain is pumping force to legs & body, & especially, when to whole body, being failed, & not to any particular muscle

99. Daubeny, Dr. [Charles G.], "On the Geology and Thermal Springs of North America," The Athenaeum, 1838, p. 652.


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Sept. 8th. I am tempted to say that those actions which have been found necessary for long generation, (as friendship to fellow animals in social animals) are those which are good & consequently give pleasure, & not as Paleys100 rule is those that on long run will do good.— alter will in all cases to have & origin as well as rule will be given.—
Descent of Man
Moral Sense
Mitchell Australia Vol I, p 292101 "Dogs learn sooner to take kangaroos than emu, although young dogs get sadly torn in conflicts with the former. But it is one thing for a swift dog to overtake an emu, &

100. See Mackintosh, James, Dissertation on the Progress of Ethical Philosophy. Chiefly during the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. With a Preface by W. Whewell, 2nd ed., Black, Edinburgh, 1837, p. 280: "[Paley's] chapter [in Moral and Political Philosophy] on what he calls the Law of Honour is unjust . . . because it supposes honour to allow what it does not forbid. . . . He considers it 'a system of rules constructed by people of fashion. . . .'" In The Descent of Man, Murray, London, 1871, Vol. 1, p. 99, Darwin discusses at some length the Law of Honour. In general, it is conformance to expectations of one's peers.

101. Mitchell, Thomas Livingstone, Three Expeditions into the Interior of Eastern Australia; with Descriptions of the Recently Explored Region of Australia Felix, and of the Present Colony of New South Wales, 2nd. ed., 2 vols., Boone, London, 1839, Vol. 1, p. 295.

133e [not found]

134e [not found]


notion, are not effects of impressions long repeated, without the powers of the mind being equal to the smallest casuistical doubts.— The history of Metaphysicks shows that such a view cannot be, anyhow, easily overturned.— so ready is change from our idea of causation, to give a cause (& no one being apparent, one fixes on imaginary beings, many vicarious, like ourselves) that savages (mem York Minster)102 consider the thunder & lightning the direct will of the God (thus & hence arises the theological age of science in every nation according to M. le Comte).—103 Those savages who thus

102. York Minster was one of three Fuegians brought back to Tierra del Fuego by Capt. FitzRoy and the Beagle.

103. Comte, Auguste, Cours de Philosophie Positive, 2 tom., 8vo. Paris: 1830–1835. [Review] Edinburgh Review, or Critical Journal, 67:271–308, 1838, p. 280: "'. . . each branch of knowledge, passes successively through three different theoretical states—the theological or fictitious state, the metaphysical or abstract state, and the scientific or positive state. . . .'"


argue, make the same mistake, more apparent however to us, as does that philosopher who says the innate knowledge of creator is has been implanted in us (by ? individually or in race?) by a separate act of God, & not as a necessary integrant part of his most magnificent laws, which we profane [degrade] in thinking not capable to do produce every effect, of every kind which surrounds us. Moreover it would be difficult to prove that this innate idea of God in civilized nations has not been improved by culture was who feel the most implicit faith that through the goodness of God knowledge has been communicate to us.— & that it does exist in different degrees in races.— whether in Ancient Greeks,


with their mystical but sublime views, or the wretched fears & strange superstitions of an Australian savage or one of Tierra del Fuego.— Mr Miller (superintendent of the Zoological Gardens) remarked that exp the expression & noises of monkeys go in groups, thus the pig-tailed baboon, shoved out its lip, looking absurdly sulky as often as keeper spoke to it,— but he thinks not sulkiness — this expression he believes is common to that group.— this is very important as showing connection that expression mean something. —


Hunt (the intelligent Keeper) remarked that he had never seen any of the American Monkey show any desire for women — very curious, as they depart in structure The monkeys understand the affinities of man, better than the boasted philosopher himself
it is chiefly shown in old male.— A very green monkey (from Senegal he thinks Callitrix Seba ??) he has seen place its head downwards to look up womens petticoats — just like Jenny with Tommy ourang.— Very curious.— Mr Yarrell has seen Jenny, when Keeper was away, take her chair & bang against the door to force it open, when she could not succeed of herself. —


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The male I saw Jenny untying a very difficult knot — the sailor on board the ship could not puzzle her — with aid of teeth & hands.— Descent 1838 104

It was very curious to see her take bread from a visitor, & before eating every time, look up to keeper see whether, this was permitted & eat it.— good case of association.— Listened with great attention to Harmonicon & readily put it when guided to her own mouth.— seemed to relish the smell of Verbena & Pocket Handerchief & liked the taste of Peppermint.—

Perfect understand voice.— will do anything.— will take & give food to Tommy, or anything of any sort.— I saw Tommy picking his

104. Added in blue crayon between the lines.


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nose with a straw.— Jenny will often do a thing, which she had been told not to do.— when she thinks keeper will not see her.— but is then knows she has done wrong & will hide herself.— I do not know whether fear or shame.— When she thinks she is going to be whipped, will cover herself with straw, or with a blanket.— these cases of commonly using, foreign bodies, for end. most important step in progression. —


The male Black Swan is very fierce when female is sitting, the Keeper is obliged to go in with a stick, if he drops it, the bird will fly at him — Knowledge.—

Sept. 13th It will be good to give Abercrombie's105 definition of "reason" & "reasoning," & take instance of Dray Horse going down hill.— (argue sophism of association. Kenyon)106 & then go on to show, that if Cart horse argued from this into a theory of friction & gravity, it would be discoverer "reasoning" or "reasoning" — only rather more steps.— dispute about words. —

105. Abercrombie, op. cit., pp. 178–179: "The process of mind which we call reason or judgment, therefore, seems to be essentially the same, whether it be applied to the investigation of truth or the affairs of common life. In both cases, it consists in comparing and weighing facts, considerations, and motives, and deducing from them conclusions, both as principles of belief, and rules of conduct." Darwin's marginal notation: "Perhaps mathematical reasoning does not.—each step then does not require the memory and knowledge of all contingencies,—it is merely to find the step, & then to pursue this deep train." Abercrombie continued: "In doing so, a man of sound judgment proceeds with caution, and with due consideration of all the facts which he ought to take into the inquiry." Darwin's notation: "requires properly arranged memory."

106. Possibly Kenyon, John, Poems: For the Most Part Occasional, Moxon, London, 1838, p. 61: "Due honour to the stout-built Man of Prose!/Reasoner on facts! Who scorns to feel, but knows!/ Yet it be mine, who love not less the true,/ To lead, well feigning bards! my hours with you;/ And sick, long since, of facts that falsify,/ And reasonings, that logically lie,/With you live o'er my wisely-credulous youth,/ and in your fictions find life's only truth."


Miss Martineau (How to Observe p. 213)107 says charity is found everywhere (is it not present with all associated animals?) I doubted it in Fuegians, till I remembered Bynoes108 story of the women.— The Chillingham cattle109 (& Torpoises) have not charity — is it in former case instinct to destroy contagious disease.— (Useful to use term instinct, when origin of heredetary habit cannot be traced)

V.D. p. 116,110 case of Association.

Sept. 16th Zoological Gardens — Endeavoured to classify expressions of monkeys — I could only perceive that the American ones, often put on a peevish expression, but not nearly so often that hardly ever the expression

107. Martineau, op. cit., p. 213.

108. Bynoe, op. cit., n. 55. Perhaps Darwin has reference to the story of Fuegians eating their old women during famines. See Charles Darwin's Diary of the Voyage of the Beagle, edited by Nora Barlow, Cambridge University Press, 1933.

109. Hindmarsh, L., "On the Wild Cattle of Chillingham Park, Annals of Natural History; or Magazine of Zoology, Botany, and Geology, Jardine, Selby, etc., London, 2:274–284, 1839, p. 280: ". . . when any one [of the cattle] happens to be wounded or has become weak and feeble through age or sickness, the rest of the herd set upon it and gore it to death. This characteristic is an additional and strong proof of their native wildness." See also Darwin, Charles, The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication, London: John Murray, 1868; and Whitehead, G. Kenneth, The Ancient White Cattle of Britain and Their Descendants, Faber, Faber, London, 1953, Chapter IV, "The Wild Cattle of Chillingham Park."

110. Darwin means, "Vide Notebook D, p. 111." ("Case of association very disagreeable hearing maid servant cleaning door outside, as often as she touched handle, though really fully aware she was not coming in,—could not help being perfectly disturbed, referred to Book M.")


of passion with open mouths like the old world ones.— Though they move whole skin of head they do not move eyebrows.— (I see some of the old world ones move skin of head & ears, — ∴ some men have this power abortive muscles) The black Spider Monkey, very different disposition from others, slow cautious, angry cross look, followed by protrusion of lips, in which respect resembles some of the old ones. S. American group sneer.—

Sept 21st Was witty in a dream in a confused manner, thought that a person was hung & came to life, & then made many jokes, about not having run away &c having faced death like a hero, & then I had some confused idea of showing scar behind (instead of front) (having changed hanging into his head cut off) as kind of wit, showing he had


honourable wounds. all this was kind of wit. I changed I believe from hanging to head cut off. there was the feeling of banter & joking because the whole train of Dr Monro111 experiment about hanging came before me showing impossibility of person recovering from hanging on account of blood. but all these idea came one after other, without ever comparing them, I neither doubted them or believed them.— Believing consists in the comparison of ideas, connected with judgment.

(What is the Philosophy of Shame & Blushing)112

Does Elephant know shame — dog knows triumph.—

Sept. 23d. Horses in Omnibus instantly start when they hear ready, but if they see anything ahead, which cad cannot see, they do not move muscle.— reason

111. Alexander Monro, Darwin's lecturer in anatomy, University of Edinburgh.

112. See Zoonomia, p. 39.


(The laughing noise which C. Sphynx made at Z. Gardens may be described as partaking of st. made by ret inspiration & quickly retracting tongue from behind upper & little between incisors.— like wor wha> person says "what a pity" —

Lavater's Essays on Physiognomy translated by Holcroft Vol I .p. 86113 "We ought never to forget - - - ; that every man is born with a portion of phsiognominical sensation, as certainly as every man who is not deformed, is born with two eyes. ." I think this cannot be disputed anymore in men. than in animals.— In the drawings of Voltaire why is under lip curled over upper with mouth shut, expressing cool irony, not biting?114

113. Lavater, John Casper, Essays on Physiognomy; for the Promotion of the Knowledge and the Love of Mankind. Transl. by Thomas Holcroft, 2d ed., To which are added, One Hundred Physiognomonical Rules. A Posthumous Work by Mr. Lavater, and Memoirs of the Life of the Author . . . by G. Gessner, 3 vols. (Vol. 3 in 2 parts), Symonds, Whittingham, London, 1804, Vol. 1, p. 86. "We ought never to forget that the very purport of outward expression is to teach what passes in the mind, and that to deprive man of this source of knowledge were to reduce him to utter ignorance; that every man is born with a certain portion of physiognomonical sensation, as certainly as that every man, who is not deformed, is born with two eyes; that all men, in their intercourse with each other, form physiognomonical decisions, according as their judgment is more or less clear . . ."

114. A single vertical line in blue crayon drawn down the margin of the page.


What is Emotion analysis of expression of desire — is there not protrusion of chin, like bulls & horses.— 1838 115 good instance of useless muscular tricks accompanying emotion.— when horses fighting, they put down ears, when turning round to kick116 kicking they do the same. although it is then quite useless — Cats kneeding when old, like kittens at the breast now if horns were to grow on horses, they must yet continue to put down ears, when kicking.—

good case of expression showing real affinity in face of donkey, horse & zebra, when going to kick.— Why does dog put down ears, when pleased.— is it opposite movement to drawing them close on head, when going to fight, in which case expression resembles a

115. Added in blue crayon.

116. Zoonomia, p. 152: ". . . the horse, as he fights by striking with his hinder feet, turns his heels to his foe, and bends back his ears, to listen out the place of his adversary, that the threatened blow may not be ineffectual." In his personal copy beside this statement, Darwin wrote, "Sir C. Bell says because he looks back."


fox — I can conceive the opposite muscles117 would act, to when in a passion.— dog tail curled when angry & very stiff, back arched, just contrary, when pleased tail loose & wagging — if as (I believe) Hunter says, neither fox. nor wolf wag their tails, &c. it is very curious, recurrence of pleasure so teaching expression as constant smiles, cheerful face.— Man when at ease has smooth brow contrary to wrinkled: (a horse when winnowing & pleased pricks his ears? —).— How is expression of anger in species of swans, in parrots &c &c peacock & turkey cock in passion.— Cat when pleased, erect its tail & make it very stiff & back when savage no & ready to dash at prey streched out & flaccid, when furious with fright back absurdly arched. & tail stiff. —

117. See Zoonomia, p. 430, for a discussion of antagonistic muscles.


is shame, jealousy, envy all primitive feelings, no more to be analysed than fear or anger? I should think shame would be more easily analysed than jealousy, because less discoverable in animals than latter.— Yet I think one can remonstrate with a dog, & make him ashamed of himself, in manner quite different from fear; there is no inclination to jump away,— it is, ill-defined fear.— Yet one knows oneself it is quite different from that.— like slight passion from blood rushing in face, with less action of the heart. —


tendency to muscular movement, hence shy people (shame of ridicule) are singularly apt to catch tricks.— so are people in passion my F. rubbing hands.— stamping, grinding teeth.— in shame frowning, & anguish.— shyness not so.— affected laughter.— A dog who goes home from shooting, runs away, is not afraid the whole way. but ashamed of himself.— Jealousy probably originally entirely sexual; first try to attract female, (or object of attachment) & then failing to drive away rival.— Fear is open mouthed to hear. though in individual case, nothing can be heard.—118

118. See Zoonomia, p. 153: ". . . when we hear the smallest sound, that we cannot immediately account for, our fears are alarmed, we suspend our steps, hold every muscle still, open our mouths a little, erect our ears, and listen to gain further information. . . ."


Shame would never make person tremble, like fear.— Why does any great mental affection make body tremble? Why much laughter tears.— & shaking body.— Are those parts of body, as heart, & chest (sobbing) which are most under great sympathetic nerve, most subject to habit, as being less so will.—

May not moral sense arise from our enlarged capacity acting yet being obscurely guided or strong instinctive sexual, parental & social instincts, giving rise "do unto others as yourself", "love thy neighbour as thyself". Analyse this out.— bearing


in mind many new relations from language.— the social instinct more than mere love.— fear for others acting in unison.— active assistance. &c &c. it comes to Miss Martineaus119 one principle of charity.— ?May not idea of God arise from our confused idea of "ought." joined with necessary notion of "causation", in reference to this "ought," as well as the works of the whole world.— Read Mackintosh120 on Moral sense & emotions.— The whole argument of expression more than any other point of structure takes its value, from its connexion with mind, (to show hiatus in mind not saltus between man & Brutes) no one can doubt this connexion.— look at faces of people in different trades &c &c &c

119. Martineau, op. cit., n. 50 and n. 107.

120. This reference not positively traced, but see Mackintosh, 1830, op. cit., "Dr. Paley* (*Principle of Moral and Political Philosophy) represents the principle of a moral sense as being opposed to that of utility. . . . Man may be so constituted as instantaneously to approve certain actions without any reference to their consequences; and yet reason may nevertheless discover that a tendency to produce general happiness is the essential characteristic of such actions." Darwin had met Sir J. Mackintosh in 1827 at Maer and each on that occasion developed great mutual admiration for the other. See Autobiography, p. 55. See also Mackintosh, 1837, op. Cit., p. 262: "The words Duty and Virtue, and the word Ought, which most perfectly denotes Duty, but is also connected with Virtue . . . become the fit language of the acquired, perhaps but universally and necessarily acquired faculty of conscience."


I observed the Asiatic Leopard, quarrelling, mouth wide open, each drawn back & driving air out of mouth hairs erect on back wide open with prodigious force.— making growling, guggling noise.

Puma did same & & some others— Thus sudden forcible prolonged expulsion of air dogs snarl much the same way generic manifestation of great passion.— I do not think they arch their backs —

engal tiger, when slightly angry, curls tip of tail.— do two cats arch their back when fighting, & not with dog. when fear might enter? —

I believe common Swan, arch raises neck & depresses chin — strikes with


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wing arches wings — as does black Swan.— Goose do

all species put their necks straight out & hiss.— (Hyaena pisses from fear so does man.— & so dog):121 Man grins & stamps with passion, can expression be used more correctly than this for C. Sphynx.— In the wild ass there is a curious drawing out of the side part of nostril, when passion commences.— All Nearly all will exclaim, your arguments are good but look at the immense difference, between man, — forget the use of language, & judge only by what you see. compare, the Fuegian & Ourang & outang, & dare to say difference so great . . . "Ay Sir there is much in analogy, we never find out."

121. See Zoonomia, p. 148: ". . . the passion of fear produces a pale and cold skin, with tremblings, quick respiration, and an evacuation of the bladder. . . ."


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This unwillingness to consider Creator as governing by laws is probably that as long as we consider each object an act of separate creation, we admire it more, because we can compare it to the standard of our own minds, which ceases to be the case when we consider the formation of laws invoking laws. & giving rise at last even to the perception of a final cause. —


Paper on consciousness in Brutes & Animals, in Blackwood's Magazine June. 1838.122 Copied

Mr H. C. Watson123 on Geographical distribution of British Plants

A Volume published by Colonel124 in army on "Wheat" in Jersey.— very curious facts about early production of foreign seeds.— many varieties.— Rev R. Jones125 has it.— very curious book.— Hume's126 essay on the Human Understanding well worth reading. Copied

Smith D. Stewart127 lives of Adam Smith Reid, &c worth reading, as giving abstract of Smith's views

122. "Consciousness," op. cit., n. 15 and n. 53.

123. Watson, Hewitt Cottrell, published several papers on the geographical distribution of plants. See Royal Society of London, Catalogue of Scientific Papers (1800–1863), Eyre and Spottiswoode, London, Vol. 6, 1872, p. 280.

124. Couteur, Col. J. le (Sir John), On the Varieties, Properties and Classification of Wheat, Payn, Jersey, 1837 (Wright, London, reissue, 1838).

125. Jones, R., op. cit., n. 73.

126. Hume, op. cit., Vol. 4, "An Inquiry Concerning the Human Understanding."

127. Smith, Adam, op. cit., n. 84.


Take & pound up inflorescent parts of mosses & see if Hybrid can be made & ferns.—

Would a sensitive plant if irritated very regularly at one time every day.— naturally close at that time after long period.— My Father about double consciousness.— & somnambulism.

Do people when inhaling Nitrous oxide, forget what they did when in this state, or remember what they did in former one.

about heredetary tricks & gestures, other cases like D. Corbet; do ideots form habits readily??

Do the Ourang Outang like smells peppermint & music.— Have monkeys lice? — picture.— Do female monkeys not show signs of impatience when woman present?

Do they pout, or spit, or cry.— fe Shame, independent of fear: colour of bare nails —, & of eyes.—

Do female monkeys care for men.— Have we any ferns in the hothouse at home

[inside back cover]

Natural History of Babies —

Do babies start, (ie useless sudden movement of muscle) very early in life

Do they wink, when anything placed before their eyes, very young, before experience can have taught them to avoid danger

Do they know frown, when they first see it?

Has my Father ever known intemperance disease in grandchild, when father has not had it. but where grandfather was the cause by his intemperance. No Cannot say.—


Charles Darwin 36 Great Marlborough St

[back cover]


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Citation: John van Wyhe, ed. 2002-. The Complete Work of Charles Darwin Online. (

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