RECORD: Darwin, C. R. 1838-1839. Notebook N: [Metaphysics and expression]. CUL-DAR126.- Edited by Paul Barrett and John van Wyhe (Darwin Online,

REVISION HISTORY: Text prepared by Kees Rookmaaker 3.2009 based on the transcription by Barrett 1974. Footnotes by Paul H. Barrett. Edited by John van Wyhe. RN3

NOTE: See record in the Darwin Online manuscript catalogue, enter its Identifier here. Reproduced with permission of Wilma M. Barrett, the Syndics of Cambridge University Library and William Huxley Darwin.

This 167 X 98 mm notebook is bound in reddish-brown leather and had a total of 184 numbered pages. A section at the end (pp. 123-187) is blank. Twenty pages were excised by Darwin, of which twelve pages (six leaves) have been found and restored in the transcription. The notebook appears to be identical in manufacture to Notebook E.

See the introduction and notes to the fully annotated transcription of this notebook by Paul H. Barrett in Notebooks.

[front cover] 



[inside front cover]

Charles Darwin

What are sexual difference in monkeys. —
(Metaphysics & Expression)
Selected for Species Theory Dec. 16 1856
Looked through & all other Books May 1873 —


October 2d . . 1838 Essays on Natural History
Waterton1 describes, pheasant springing from nest & leaving no tracks. — My Father says pea-hens do. Wood pidgeons building near houses, yet so shy at all other times. — Birth Hill2 shows it is evergreens they seek
Cock Pheasant claps his wings before? crowing & only in breeding season & on the ground. — Cock fowl, on the ground, at roost, in all seasons, & after? he has done g crowing.3— instances of expression. —
Octob. 3d. Dog obeying instinct of running hare is stopped by fleas, also by greater temptation as bitch: or dogs

1. Waterton, Charles, "The Habits of the Carrion Crow," Magazine of Natural History, and Journal of Zoology, Botany, Mineralogy, Geology, and Meteorology, Loudon, London: 6:208–214, 1833, p. 212.
2. Berth Hill, 8 1/2 miles northwest of Shrewsbury.
3. Waterton, Charles, Essays on Natural History, Chiefly Ornithology, etc., London, 1838, p. 292.


defending companion, (mem Cyanocephalus. Sphynx howling when I struck the Keeper) may be tempted to attack him from jealousy. (Pincher & Nina)1 — or to take away food &c &c
Now if dogs mind were so framed that he constantly compared his impressions, & wished he had done so & so for his interest, & found he disobeyed a wish which was part of his system, & constant, for a wish which was only short & might otherwise have been relieved, he would be sorry or have a troubled conscience. — Therefore I say grant reason to

1. Pincher and Nina, pet dogs.


any animal with social & sexual instinct & yet with passion he must have conscience — this is capital view. —
Dogs conscience would not have been same with mans because original instincts different. — # Mem. Bee how different instinct1 a solitary animal still different. — #
Different nations having different moral sense, if it were proved instead of militating against the existence of such an attribute would be rather favourable to it — !!
Man moreover who reasons much on his actions, makes his conscience far more sensitive, ulitmate effects of actions. ⇒

1. Double vertical lines at the beginning and end of this statement in the notebook.


till at last he face instinct of hunger, of death & for the satisfaction of following conscience, obeying habits, & dread of misery of future thinking of injured moral sense. —
Notion of deity effect of reason acting on (not social instinct ) but a causation. & perhaps an instinct of conscience, feeling in his heart those rules, which he wills to give his child. —
Octob 3d. Was told by W1 of Downing. Coll. that he had seen chicken only hatched few hours placed on table & when fly ran past it. cocked its head, & picked it — Here then, that faculty,

1. Probably Worsley, Rev. T., M.A., Master of Downing College, Cambridge University, Vice Chancellor of the University, F.G.S., and member of the Athenaeum.


whether for position of axe of eyes, state of surface, or other means by which eyes, aided by experience is supposed in man to guide to knowledge, was transmitted perfectly to chicken so as to seize small moving object like fly. —young partridge can run even with its shell on back. —
To study Metaphysic, as they have always been studied appears to me to be like puzzling at Astronomy without Mechanics. — Experience shows the problem of the mind cannot be solved by attacking the citadel itself. — the mind is function of body. — we must bring some stable foundation to argue from. —

Octob. 4th. Seeing some drawings in Lavater,1 P. cii Vol III of excessively cross - half furious faces which may be described as an exaggerated habitual sneer the manner in which whole skin or muscles are contracted between eyes & upper lip., is most clearly analogous to a panther I saw in garden uncovering its teeth to bite. — the senseless grin of passion, is like the grin of the Hyaena from fear, no actual intention to bite at moment, but mere symbol of readiness, & therefore done in extreme. —
Looking at ones face & whilst laughing in glass. & then as one ceases, or stops the noise, the face clearly passes into smile — laugh long prior to talking, hence one can help speaking, but laughing involuntary. —

1. Lavater, John Casper, Essays on Physiognomy; for the Promotion of the Knowledge and the Love of Mankind. Transl. by Thomas Holcroft, 2nd ed., To which are added, One Hundred Physiognomonical Rules. A Posthumous Work by Mr. Lavater, and Memoirs of the Life of the Author . . . by G. Gessner, 3 vols. (Vol. 3 in 2 parts), Symonds, Whittingham, London, 1804, Vol. 3, Part II, pp. 297–298.


When one fear any bad news, though in a letter why is person painted with mouth open. — why when person is listening is mouth open to hear well as one will perceive if in night trys to listen to growl of hounds. when as fear to man as animals, comes at distance, mouth is placed open. — Hence becomes instinctive to fear., as ears down to horse. — Horse snuffs & snorts, the air & raises its head, & pricks its ears when afraid, though not every time really wishing to smell its enemy. — Man & dogs show triumph (& pride) same way walk erect & stiff, with head up. —
Why does suspicion look obliquely. — who can analyse suspicion — yet who does not recognise look of suspicion, even child will do so. —
Contempt look obliquely so does dog. when a little one attacks him


Contempt, when there is some anger & respect to opponent is showed by same movement as sneering, — it is then more emblem manner of hurting opponent by insulting his pride & is therefore of the snarling order. — But contempt mingled with disgust, when ones opponent is considered as quite insignificant, & when pride makes person extremely self-sufficient, — the corner of lower lip are depressed & opposite muscles used to when angry sneering is in progress [symbol for right arrow] the hypothesis of opposite muscles will want much confirmation.
A grave person close those muscles, which wrinkle


when smile. — Hope is the expectant eye. looking to distant object, brightened & moistened by emotion, — why does emotion make tears fall??
Lavater1 says derision lies in wrinkles about the nose, & arrogance in upper lip. — The Children having peculiar expression is remarkable, the pouting, & blubbering — sulkiness is same as pouting, but lesser in degree, no smile, no frown showing thought, no compression of mouth showing action, — sulkiness all negative expression?
Expression of affection is accompanied by slight protrusion of lips, as if going to say "my dear," just what smile is to laugh. —

1. Lavater, John Casper, Essays on Physiognomy; for the Promotion of the Knowledge and the Love of Mankind. Transl. by Thomas Holcroft, 2nd ed., To which are added, One Hundred Physiognomonical Rules. A Posthumous Work by Mr. Lavater, and Memoirs of the Life of the Author . . . by G. Gessner, 3 vols. (Vol. 3 in 2 parts), Symonds, Whittingham, London, 1804, Vol. 3, Part I, p. 21: "The nose is the seat of derision, its wrinkles contemn. The upper lip when projecting speaks arrogance, threats, and want of shame: the pouting under lip ostentation and folly."


I must be very cautious. Remember how Lavater1 ran away with new Lavaters, — ' Ye Gods!: — says fleshy lips denote sensuality (p 192 Vol. III octav. Edit) — certainly neither a Minerva or Apollo would have them because not beautiful — is there — anything in these absurd ideas. — do they indicate mind & body retrograding to ancestral type of consciousness &c &c. — Lavater.2 (Holcroft Translat) Vol III. p.37, quotes from Burke, who says on mimicking expression of emotions, he has felt the passions of a face & mind sympathetic with internal organs, as action of heart #
Malthus3 on Pop. p. 32, origin of Chastity in women. — rationally explained. — on the wish to support a wife a ruling motive. — Book IV, Chapt I4 on passions of mankind, as being really useful to them: this must

1. Lavater, John Casper, Essays on Physiognomy; for the Promotion of the Knowledge and the Love of Mankind. Transl. by Thomas Holcroft, 2nd ed., To which are added, One Hundred Physiognomonical Rules. A Posthumous Work by Mr. Lavater, and Memoirs of the Life of the Author . . . by G. Gessner, 3 vols. (Vol. 3 in 2 parts), Symonds, Whittingham, London, 1804, Vol. 2, p. 256: "Natural and moral evil seem to be the instruments employed by the Deity in admonishing us to avoid any mode of conduct which is not suited to our being, and will consequently injure our happiness. If we are intemperate in eating and drinking, our health is disordered; if we indulge the transports of anger, we seldom fail to commit acts of which we afterwards repent; if we multiply too fast, we die miserably of poverty and contagious diseases." Pp. 263–264: "It may be further remarked . . . that the passion is stronger, and its general effects in producing gentleness, kindness, and suavity of manners, much more powerful, where obstacles are thrown in the way of very early and universal gratification . . . in European countries, where, though the women are not secluded, yet manners have imposed considerable restraints on this gratification, the passion not only rises in force, but in the universality and beneficial tendency of its effects; and has often the greatest influence in the formation and improvement of the character, where it is the least gratified." P. 264: ". . . much evil flows from the irregular gratification of it [i.e., the passion between sexes]. . . ."
2. Lavater, John Casper, Essays on Physiognomy; for the Promotion of the Knowledge and the Love of Mankind. Transl. by Thomas Holcroft, 2nd ed., To which are added, One Hundred Physiognomonical Rules. A Posthumous Work by Mr. Lavater, and Memoirs of the Life of the Author . . . by G. Gessner, 3 vols. (Vol. 3 in 2 parts), Symonds, Whittingham, London, 1804, Vol. 2, p. 256: "Natural and moral evil seem to be the instruments employed by the Deity in, Vol. 3, pp. 37–38: "Miscellaneous Quotations. 1. From Burke, on the Sublime and Beautiful. 'Campanella had not only made very accurate observations on human faces, but was very expert in mimicking such as were any way remarkable . . . he was able [thereby] to enter into the dispositions and thoughts of people as effectively as if he had been changed into the very men. . . . Our minds and bodies are so closely and intimately connected, that one is incapable of pain or pleasure without the other.'"
3. Malthus, T. R., An Essay on the Principle of Population; or, a View of its Past and Present Effects on Human Happiness; with an Inquiry into our Prospects Respecting the Future Removal or Mitigation of the Evils which it Occasions, 6th ed., 2 vols., Murray, London, 1826 Vol. 1, p. 31: "Women treated in this brutal manner must necessarily be subject to frequent miscarriages, and it is probable that the abuse of very young girls, mentioned above as common [in New Holland], and the too early union of the sexes in general, would tend to prevent the females from being prolific." P. 32: "Women obliged by their habits of living to a constant change of place, and compelled to an unremitting drudgery for their husbands, appear to be absolutely incapable of bringing up two or three children nearly of the same age."
4. Malthus, T. R., An Essay on the Principle of Population; or, a View of its Past and Present Effects on Human Happiness; with an Inquiry into our Prospects Respecting the Future Removal or Mitigation of the Evils which it Occasions, 6th ed., 2 vols., Murray, London, 1826, Vol. 2, p. 256: "Natural and moral evil seem to be the instruments employed by the Deity in admonishing us to avoid any mode of conduct which is not suited to our being, and will consequently injure our happiness. If we are intemperate in eating and drinking, our health is disordered; if we indulge the transports of anger, we seldom fail to commit acts of which we afterwards repent; if we multiply too fast, we die miserably of poverty and contagious diseases." Pp. 263–264: "It may be further remarked . . . that the passion is stronger, and its general effects in producing gentleness, kindness, and suavity of manners, much more powerful, where obstacles are thrown in the way of very early and universal gratification . . . in European countries, where, though the women are not secluded, yet manners have imposed considerable restraints on this gratification, the passion not only rises in force, but in the universality and beneficial tendency of its effects; and has often the greatest influence in the formation and improvement of the character, where it is the least gratified." P. 264: ". . . much evil flows from the irregular gratification of it [i.e., the passion between sexes]. . . ."


be studied, before my view of origin of evil passions. —
Man getting sight slowly, but when in grown years, thinking he instinctively knows distances., is good instance of obtaining that a faculty in the form of a true instinct, which is a real instinct in the chicken, just bursting from egg. —
Animals have necessary notions, which of them? & curiosity (strongly shewn in the numerous artifices to take birds & beasts). — very necessary to explain origin of idea of deity. — Animals do not know they have 'these necessary notions any more than a Savage


M. Le Comte's1 idea of theological state of science. grand idea: as before having analogy to guide one to conclusion that any one fact was connected with law. — as soon as any enquiry commenced, for instance probably such a thing as thunder, would be placed to the will of God. — Zoology itself is now purely theological.
Origin of cause & effect being a necessary notion is it connected with our the willing of the

1. Comte, Auguste, Cours de Philosophie Positive, 2 tom., 8vo. Paris: 1830–1835., p. 280.


simplelst animals, as hydra towards light being direct effect of some law. — have plants any notion of cause & effect, they have habitual action, which depends on such confidence when does such notion commence? —
Children understand before they can talk, so do many animals. — analogy probably false, may lead to something. —
October 8th. Jenny1 was amusing herself by getting out ears of corn with her teeth from the straw, & just like child not knowing what to do with them, came several times & opened my hand, & put them in — like child.
Tommy's face, now ill, has expression of languor & suffering

1. Jenny, an ourang-outang at the Zoological Society Zoo, London. Barlow, Nora, Charles Darwin and the Voyage of the Beagle, Pilot, London, 1945, pp. 147–148.


The Cyanocephalus1 when fondling the keeper clasping & rubbed his arm & show signs of affecting something like man.
Has an oyster necessary notion of space — plant though it moves doubtless has not. —
Turkey cock in passion & sends blood to its breast &c &c
All Science is reason acting systematizing on principles, which even animals practically know
art precedes science — art is experience & observation. —
in balancing a body & an ass knows one side of triangle shorter than two. V. Whewell.2 Induct. Sciences. Vol I p. 334

1. Baboon (Cynocephalus, Cuvier).
2. Whewell, William, History of the Inductive Sciences, from the Earliest to the Present Times, 3 vols., Parker, London, 1837, Vol. 1, p. 334.


does a negress blush. I am almost sure Fuegia Basket did. & Jemmy, when Chico plagued him1 — Animals I should think would not have any emotion like blush. — when extreme sensation of heat shows blood is pumped over whole body. — is it connected with surprise. — heart beginning to beat
children inherit it ins like instinct, preeminently so — who can analyse the sensation, when meeting a stranger, who one may like, dislike, or be indifferent about, yet feel shy. — not if quite stranger. — or less so. —

1. (Added in pencil.) Fuegia Basket and Jemmy Button were Fuegians returned to Tierra del Fuego by Capt. FitzRoy and the Beagle during Darwin's voyage.


When learning facts for induction, one is obliged carefully to separate its memory from all ordinary lines of association. — is totally distinct from learning it by heart.
Do not our necessary notions follow as consequences on habitual or instinctive assent to propositions, which are the result of our senses, or our experience. — two sides of a triangle shorter than third, is this necessary notion, ass has it. —


When one is simply habituated in life time to any line of action, or thought one feels pain, at not performing it, (either prevented, or overtempted.
animals have shyness with strangers
as in case of temperance, or real virtue, that is action which experience shows will be for general good, or in case of any fantastic custom
probably bashfulness is connected with some disturbed habit
(Thus shepherd dog has pleasure in following its instinct & pain if held. — if tempted not to follow it, by greater temptation, if memory of its own emotions. (which must be intimately united with reason) it would feel subsequent sorrow, whatever the cause had been) — also When one is prevented performing heredetary habit, (or moral sense, or instinct,) one feels pain, & vice versa pleasure in performing it. —


As soon as memory improved, direct effect of improving organization, comparison of sensations would first take place, whether to pursue immediate inclination or some future pleasure. — hence judgment, which is part of reason
Octob. 19th. Did our language commence with singing — is this origin of our pleasure in music — do monkeys howl in harmony — frogs chirp in do — union of birds voice & taste for singing with Mammalian structure. — American monkeys utter pleasant plaintive cry — The taste of recurring sounds in Harmony common to to whole kingdom of nature.


[excised, located in CUL-DAR87.84]

If I want some good passages against opposition of divines to progress of knowledge, see Lyell1 on Scrope, Quarterly Review. 1827?
Descent of Man
In Walter Scotts2 life. . Tom Purdie, (beginning of Vol V) finally says "he knew no more what was pretty & what ugly than a cow—" so it is with all uneducated. — — Old man at Cambridge observed the ignorant, merely looked at picture as works of imitation. — Hence pleasure in the beautiful, (distinct from sexual beauty) is acquired taste. — Whilst music extremely primitive. — almost like tastes of mouth & smell.3

1. Scrope, G. P., Memoir on the Geology of Central France; Including the Volcanic Formations of Auvergne, the Velay, and Vevarais, with a Volume of Maps and Plates, Murray, London, 1827; Quarterly Review, 36:437—483, 1827. Passages in this review of Scrope by Lyell to which Darwin must have had reference are: p. 440, footnote, "In short, Mr. Scrope's elastic vehicle is the counterpart of Lamarck's nervous fluid, that 'subtle and invisible agent,' to which he attributes not only muscular motion, but ideas, sentiment and intelligence. (Philosophie Zoologique, Part 3, Chap. 2.) If in attempting to trace back the phenomena of heat, as well as those of the vital functions, we ultimately reach a point which eludes the gross apprehension of our senses, why not unreservedly avow our utter inability to solve such problems?" P. 475, "But the discoveries of astronomy were most pre-eminently beneficial, not so much from their practical utility, although in this respect their services were of inestimable value, but because they gave the most violent shock to the prejudices and long-received opinions of men of all conditions. . . . [Galileo's] sufferings in the cause of truth did not extinguish the spirit of the Inquisition, but gave a death blow to its power, and set posterity free, at least from all open and avowed opposition, to enlarge the Boundaries of the experimental sciences."
2. Scott, Walter: this reference not traced.
3. The words "Descent of Man" are crayoned in above this paragraph.


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Understanding language seem simplits case of Association. — Elephant often given food & word open your mouth said, recognizes that sound as perfectly as a man. — Probably, language commenced in some necessary connexion between things & voice, as roaring for lion &c &c. (in same way alphabet, arose from letters, symbol of word beginning with the sound of letter) — crying yawning laughing being necessary sounds . . . not produced by will by but by corporeal structure. —
Devotional feelings, probably some distant power of the mind — superstition & charity & prayer, or eloquent request.


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Reason in simplets form probably is single comparison by senses of any two objects — they by vivid power of conception between one or two absent things. — reason probably mere consequence of vividness & multiplicity of things remembered & the associated pleasure &c accompanying such memory. —
a melody on flute & Epic poem, opposite ends of series or harmonious prose. —


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Lutké1 Voyage in Carolinas Vol II p. 132. offered to take a savage, said his wife would be grieved — "il leva les épaules et dit qu'il valait mieux rester a Farroïlap quelque mal qu'on y fût."
Expression common to Savage & Frenchman, unaccompanied by dignity — "no mon dieu," with a shrug — "all I can say, I am very sorry so it is" — does not accompany I will not. I am sorry I cannot.2
— Expression
leave this out not in Library no good

1. Lutké, Frédéric, Voyage autour du Monde, exécuté . . . sur la corvette le Séniavine, dans les années 1826, 1827, 1828, et 1829, etc., traduit du russe par F. Boyé, Didot, Paris, 4 vols., 2 atlases, 1835–36.
2. The word "Expression" is crayoned in at the top of the page. Also, the words "leave this out not in Library no good" are written across the page.


without, however, very sincere grief — "there is nothing more to be said." — "made no reply, but shrugged his shoulders & went away." — he implies negation, without violence, without assigning or understanding reason. — surprise with negation. — like shaking something off shoulder — or is it from inspiration, which accompanies surprise — & why does one inspire when surprise, can one resist blow better with body distended. — intolerable to be poked behind, without ones chest being distended. touch a person on the ribs & how he gulps in air.—


Again a master says I will see you damned first." the man shrugs his shoulders & replies nothing, if he did go to reply, he would throw back his shoulder. he wishes to show, he is determined not to say anything, he presses his lips together & shrugs his shoulders & walks off, —
Shrugging aroused acting
I think shrugging connected with many emotions. — (Explanation of sighing is probably correct, to relieve respiration when immensely immersed — mechanic apt to sigh. — & hence carried on as trick)


Octob 25.
Why is modesty, mixed with triumphant feeling so similar to shame after asinine. — both accompanied by depending head., & active vessels of skin. — What difference is there between Squib1 after having eaten meat on table; & criminal, who has stolen, neither, or both may be said to have fear, both both have shame — Animals have not modesty, analyse this. — Excellent — my theory of blushing solves this. —

1. Squib — pet dog at Maer, the Wedgwood home.


The similarity of men's reasons; shewn by similarity of the earliest arts. — Mem. Stokes1 — arrow heads &c &c
October 27th
Consult the VII discourse by Sir J. Reynolds.2 — Is our idea of beauty, that which we have been most generally accustomed to: — analogous case to my idea of conscience. — deduction from this would be that a mountaineer takes born out of country yet would love mountains, & a negro, similarly treated would think

1. Probably Stokes, John Lort (1812–1885), Mate and Assistant Surveyor on H.M.S. Beagle in 1831. See also references to Stokes's collection of sphaerulites and obsidians, Darwin, C., Geological Observations, 2nd ed., Smith, Elder, London, 1876, pp. 71, 79.
2. Reynolds, Joshua, The Literary Works of Sir Joshua Reynolds to Which Is Prefixed a Memoir of the Author by H. W. Beechy, 2 vols., Cadell, London, 1835, Vol. 2, pp. 131–132: "[A study of Italian Masters] will show how much their principles are founded on reason, and, at the same time, discover the origin of our ideas of beauty. . . . To distinguish beauty, then, implies the having seen many individuals of that species . . . a Naturalist, before he chose one as a sample [blade of grass] . . . selects as a Painter does, the most beautiful, that is, the most general form of nature."


negress beautiful, — (male glow worm doubtless admires female, showing, no connection with male figure) — As forms change, so must idea of beauty. — (Old Graecians living amongst naked figures, & observing powers common to savages???). The existence of taste in human mind, is to me clear evidence, of the general ideas of our ancestors being impressed on us. — Surely we have . taste naturally all has


not been acquired by education, else why do some children acquire it soon. & why do all men. agree ultimately? —
We acquire many notions unconsciously, without abstracting them & reasoning on them (as justice?? as ancients did high forehead sign of exalted character???) Why may not our heredetary nature thus acquire some general notions, which are taste?


Real taste in mouth, according to my theory must be acquired, by certain foods being habitual— & hence become heredetary; on same principle we know many tastes become acquired during life time:— the latter correspond to fashions in ideal taste & the former to true taste.1
Everything that is habitual, if heredetary, is pleasant. — Mental & Bodily2
Consider case of grazing animals knowing poisonous herbs: & man not. —
? no vegetable good for man to eat poisonous?— How did animals in Australia & America manage; — This shows doctrine of instinct has been carried too far

1. In his copy of Zoonomia, Vol. 1 (now in the Cambridge University Library), p. 253, Darwin wrote in pencil in the margin: "tastes hereditary do [ditto]." In the adjacent text Erasmus discusses the role of repetition and imitation in developing concepts of pleasure and beauty: "So universally does repetition contribute to our pleasure in the fine arts, that beauty itself has been defined by some writers to consist in a due combination of uniformity and variety. . . . The origin of this propensity to imitation has not, that I recollect, been deduced from any known principle. . . ." P. 254: ". . . our perceptions themselves are copies, that is, imitations of some properties of external matter; and the propensity to imitation . . . thus constitutes all the operations of our minds." See also Macculloch, John, Proofs and Illustrations of the Attributes of God, etc., 3 vols., Duncan, London, 1837, Vol. 3, Chapters: "On the Pleasures provided through the Senses of Odour and Taste; Sense of Seeing, Beauty; Sense of Hearing, Music, and on Pain."
2. From "Everything" to "Bodily" set off by double vertical lines in both the right and left margins.


In all the foregoing cases most difficult to distinguish, between prejudices of youth from here habits. & heredetary habits. & perhaps even latter may be vitiated, or rather altered.
The Reason why New Buildings look ugly is because there is some connection between them, & great masses of rock. — I was much struck with this, when viewing Windsor Castle which rises naturally & hence


sublimely from natural rise — I was also much struck in great avenue, resemblance to gloomy aisle of Church. — these are Mayo's ideas.1
In language, the possibility of poets describing gentle things in gentle language, & vice versa. — almost proves that at earliest times there must have been intimate connection between sound & language. — Chinese, simplest language. Much pantomimic gesture?? which would naturally happen. —

1. Mayo. Darwin probably has reference to Mayo's comparison of York Cathedral with Fingal's Cave.


Reynolds Works.1 Vol I. p. 226— "The general idea of showing respect is by making yourself less, but the manner, whether by bowing the body, kneeling, prostration uncovering body &c &c is matter of custom!! — this all applies to bodily weakness & inferiority, but now we carry it on to mental inferiority — when we do not expect any bodily harm — case of habitual action. —

1. Edition used by Darwin not traced, but see Reynolds, Joshua, The Works of Sir Joshua Reynolds, Knt. Late President of the Royal Academy: Containing his Discourses, Idlers, etc., by Edmond Malone, 2 vols., Cadell, London, 1797, pp. 150–151: "The general principles of urbanity, politeness, or civility, have been ever the same in all nations; but the mode in which they are dressed, is continually varying. The general idea of shewing respect is by making your self less; but the manner, whether by bowing the body, kneeling, prostration, pulling off the upper part of our dress, or taking away the lower,* is a matter of custom." Footnote: "*Put off thy shoes from off thy feet; for the place whereon thou standest is holy ground. Exodus, iii, 5."


L'Institut. 1838. p. 340. Mr Carlyle1 says that negro certainly has less reasoning powers than Europaean. — Ideots. defective brains. —
Erasmus does not liken term instinct to muscular movement. — say instinctive actions, senses, notions &c
Octob 30th— Dreamt somebody gave me a book in French I read the first page & pronounced each word distinctly, woke instantly but could not gather general sense of this page. — Now awake when awake I could not picture to myself reading French book quickly, & running running over imaginary words: it appears

1. Carlyle, H., "Tératologie: Difformités du cerveau," L'Institut, Journal Général des Sociétés et Travaux Scientifiques de la France et de L'Étranger, 5:340, 1838.


as if the mind had dwelt on each word separately, neglecting time, & general sense, anymore than connected with general tendency of the dream. —
It does not hurt the conscience of a Boy to swear, though reason may tell him not, but it does hurt his conscience, if he has been cowardly, or has injured another bad, vindictive. — or lied &c &c


Are the facts (about communication of ideas, &c) of expression lawless, whilst they are the only steady & universal means, recognized — no one can say expression was invented to conceal one's thought. —
Macculloch1 in his Chapter on the Existence of a Deity has an expression the very same as mine about our origin of a notion of a Deity

1. Macculloch, op. cit., Chapter IV, pp. 94–127, "On the Existence of the Deity. Nature of Proof. Sources of Belief." P. 95: "To proceed a further step, somewhat more rapidly than metaphysics do, the proof of the existence of a Supreme Creator depends therefore on our belief in a cause, or in what has been termed causation."


We can allow satellites, planets, suns, universe, nay whole systems of universe of man to be governed by laws, but the smallest insect, we wish to be created at once by special act, provided with its instincts its place in nature, its range, its — &c &c: — must be a special act, or result of laws, yet we placidly believe the Astronomer, when he tells us satellites &c &c
The Savage admires not a steam engine, but a piece of coloured glass & admires is lost in astonishment at the artificer. —
Our faculties are more fitted to recognize the wonderful structure of a beetle than a Universe.1

1. Darwin's reference to the savage and the steam engine may have had its origin in the following: Davy, Humphry, Consolations in Travel, or the Last Days of a Philosopher. With a Sketch of the Author's Life, and Notes, London: John Murray, 1830. "A savage who saw the operation of a number of power-looms weaving stockings, cease at once on the stopping of the motion of a wheel, might well imagine that the motive force was in the wheel; he could not divine that it more immediately depended upon the steam, and ultimately upon a fire below a concealed boiler."


November 20th
Saw the youngest child of H.W.1 constantly, when refusing food, turn his head first to one side & then to other. & hence rotatory movement negation. — he dropped his head when he meant to eat, hence assertion. — but nodding is less strongly marked than negation
Marianne.2 says, that she has constantly observed that very young children, express the greatest surprise at emotions in her countenance — before they can have learnt by experience, that movements of face are more expressive than movements of fingers. — like Kitten with mice. —

1. Hensleigh Wedgwood; the child would have been Ernest Hensleigh, Darwin's nephew, born 1838.
2. Marianne (1798–1858), Darwin's oldest sister; married Henry Parker in 1825, and had had 4 children by this time.


A person with St Vitus' dance badly, told should have shilling to walk to door without touching table. — cannot avoid it. — curious mixture of voluntary & involuntary movements. —
Person with sore-throat told not swallow spittle, will have involuntary flow & desire to swallow. — tells himself not to turn in bed. will turn in bed. — in case spittle, effect of thought is to make saliva flow, & therefore thinking of subject, even when


wishing not to flow— flow it will. —1
My father told Miss. C. of the bad conduct of Mrs C. (her brothers' wife) & she said nothing but shrugged her shoulders. — analyse this. — Miss C. quite aware & indignant with Mrs C. but had no influence over her. —
Hensleigh says. Douglas. & Spencer, an old Scotch Poet, has numerous lines, of poetry. — signs sounds singularly adapted to subject see A # I think this argument might be used to show language had a beginning, which my theory requires.

1. See Zoonomia, p. 419, for similar statements: "If any one is told not to swallow his saliva for a minute, he soon swallows it contrary to his will, in the common sense of that word. . . . In the same manner if a modest man wishes not to make water, when he is confined with ladies in a coach or an assembly-room; that very act of volition induces the circumstance, which he wishes to avoid, as above explained; insomuch that I once saw a partial insanity, which might be called voluntary diabetes, which was occasioned by fear (and consequent aversion) of not being able to make water at all."


There probably is some connection between very limited reasoning powers & the fixing of habits, — for instance the Birgos1 opening a Cocoa nut shell at one end. —
Children & old people get into habits. — we probably can hardly form an idea of a mind so limited as Birgos to become absorbed by one end of Cocoa nut. —

1. Darwin, Voyage of the Beagle, op. cit., 1839, p. 551: "I think this is as curious a case of instinct as I ever heard of, and likewise of adaptation in structure between two objects apparently so remote from each other in the scheme of nature as a crab and a cocoa-nut tree."


November 27th
Sexual desire makes saliva to flow yes, certainly— curious association: I have seen Nina licking her chops. — someone has described slovering gum teeth less — jaws. as picture of disgusting lewd old man. ones tendency to kiss, & almost bite, that which one sexually loves is probably connected with flow of saliva, & hence with action of mouth & jaws. — Lascivious women are described as biting: so do stallions always.. = No doubt man has great tendency, to exert all senses, when thus stimulated, smell, as Sir. Ch. Bell1 says, & hearing music, to certain degree sexual. — The association of saliva, is probably due to our distant ancestors having been like dogs to bitches.2 — How comes such an association in man. — it is bare fact, on my theory intelligible

1. Bell, Charles, The Anatomy and Philosophy of Expression as Connected with the Fine Arts, London: John Murray, 1844: "Nothing sensual is indicated by the form of the human nose; although by depressing it and joining it to the lip, the condition of the brute,—as in the satyr, the idea of something sensual is conveyed."
2. Later Darwin suggested that in dogs licking might have "become associated with the emotion of love" through "females carefully licking their puppies—the dearest object of their love—for the sake of cleansing them." Expression, p. 120.


An habitual action must some way affect the brain in a manner which can betransmitted. — this is analogous to a blacksmith having children with strong arms. — The other principle of those children, which chance? produced with strong arms, outliving the weaker ones, may be applicable to the formation of instincts, independently of habits. — the limits of these two actions either on


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form or brain very hard to define. — Consider the acquirement of instinct by dogs, would show habit. —
Take the case of Jenners Hyaena Jackall.1 — an animal not destined by nature to exist. & carrying like other hybrids with the it the provision for death. — can we deny that brain would be intermediate like rest of body? Can we deny relation of mind & brain. Do we deny the mind of a greyhound & spaniel, differs from their brains
then can we deny that the grand child dug for mice from some peculiarity of structure of brain.? — is this more wonderful than memory, affected by diseases. &c &c, double consciousness? What other explanation — can we suppose some essence.

1. Jenner, quoted in Hunter, John, The Works of John Hunter, F.R.S., with Notes, James F. Palmer, ed., 4 vols., Longman, London, 1885–1837, 1837, Vol. 4, pp. 329–330: "The following account from Mr. Jenner, of Berkeley, to whom I gave a second remove, viz., three parts dog, is very descriptive of this propensity [i.e., to fall back into original instinctive principles]: 'The little jackal-bitch you gave me is grown a fine handsome animal; but she certainly does not possess the understanding of common dogs. She is easily lost when I take her out, and is quite inattentive to a whistle. She is more shy than a dog, and starts frequently when a quick motion is made before her . . . her favourite amusement is hunting the field-mouse, which she catches in a particular manner."


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Habits import to Bowen
The facts about crossing races of dogs on their instincts, most important, because they obey the same laws, as the crossing of jackall & Fox & wolf & dog. — the only test this is most important: can there be stronger analogy that the tendency to hybrid greyhound to hunt hares. & leave the sheep & jackall to skulk about & hunt mice — Jenners Jackall Have we somewhat right to deny identity of instinct. — 1
no one doubts that a cross of bull dogs. increase the courage & staunchness of greyhounds. — bull-dogs being preferred from not having any smell.2

1. A circle, i.e., a large O, is drawn here. At the beginning of this page are four words penciled in—"Habits useful to B—" (last word illegible).
2. See "Questions for Mr. Wynne."


27th. November. — Think, whether there is any analogy between grief & pain — certain ideas hurting brain, like a wound hurts body — tears flow from both, as when one burns end of nose with a hot razor. — joy tp a mental pleasure, with pleasure of senses. The shudder of pleasure, from pleasure of music
Audubon1 IV Vol of Ornith. Biog. case of Newfoundland dogs. who will not enter water, till he sees, whether birds badly wounded, or only winged. — fetches two birds out at once. —

1. Audubon, John James, Ornithological Biography, or an Account of the Habits of the Birds of the United States of America, and Interspersed with Delineations of American Scenery and Manners, 5 vols., Adam and Black, Edinburgh, 1831–1849, Vol. 4, 1838, pp. 8–9.


Old People — (Antiquary Vol II. p. 77)1 remembering things of youth, when new ideas will not enter, is something analogous, to instinct, to the permanence of old heredetary ideas. — being lower faculty than the acquirement of new ideas. —
Walter Scott (Antiquary) Vol II p. 126 says seals knit their brows when incensed. —
A Dog may hesitate to jump in to save his masters life, — if he meditated on this, it would be conscience. A man, might not

1. This reference to Scott, and the next, have not been traced.


to do so even to save a friend, or wife. — yet he would even repent, & wished he had lost his life in doing so. — nor would he regret having acquired this sense of right (& Whether wholly instinctive as in the dog, or chiefly habitual as in man), for it added much to the happiness of his life, & the chance, of so dreadful a consequence to each man is small.
Man's intellect is not become superior to that of the Greeks. — (which seems opposed to progressive, developement) on account of dark ages. — effects of external circumstances — Look at Spain now. — man's intellect might well deteriorate. (in my theory there is no absolute tendency to progression, excepting from favourable circumstances!)1

1. This statement reflects Darwin's early rejection of Progressionism as presented by Erasmus Darwin, Zoonomia, p. 505: ". . . all warm-blooded animals have arisen from one living filament, which THE GREAT FIRST CAUSE endued with animality, with the power of acquiring new parts, attended with new propensities, directed by irritations, sensations, volitions, and associations; and thus possessing the faculty of continuing to improve by its own inherent activity, and of delivering down those improvements by generation to its posterity, world without end!" And on page 509, "This idea [viz., THE CAUSE OF CAUSES] is analogous to improving excellence observable in every part of the creation; such as the . . . progressive increase of the wisdom and happiness of its inhabitants. . . ." See also Darwin and Seward, More Letters, op. cit., Vol. 1, p. 41, where Darwin in a letter written January 11, 1844, to J. D. Hooker, said, "Heaven forfend me from Lamarck nonsense of a 'tendency to progression,' 'adaptations from the slow willing of animals,' etc."


We must believe, that it require a far higher & far more complicated organization to learn Greek, that to have it handed down as an instinct. — Instinct is a modification of bodily structure (connected with locomotion.) no, for plants have instincts
either to obtain a certain ends: & intellect is a modification of intellect instinct— an unfolding & generalizing of the means by which an instinct is transmitted. —


Arguing from man to animals is philosophical, viz. (man is not a cause like a deity, as M. Cousin says.)1 because if so ourang outang. — oyster & zoophyte:
it is (I presume — see p. 188 of Herschel's Treatise)2 a "travelling instance" a — "frontier instance". — for it can be shown that the life & will of a conferva3 is not an antagonist quality to life & mind of man. — & we do not suppose an hydatid to be a cause of itself. — (by my theory no animal, as now existing can be cause of itself) & hence there is great probability against free action. — on my view of free will, no one could discover he had not it. —

1. See Cousin, Victor, Elements of Psychology; Included in a Critical Examination of Locke's Essay on the Human Understanding, and in Additional Pieces, transl. from the French, with an Introduction and Notes, by Caleb S. Henry, Hartford: Cooke & Co., 1834, Chapter IV, "Of the Idea of Cause".
2. Herschel, J. F. W., A Preliminary Discourse on the Study of Natural Philosophy, Longman, London, 1831, p. 188: "Bacon's 'travelling instances' are those in which the nature or quality under investigation 'travels,' or varies in degree; and thus . . . afford an indication of a cause by a gradation of intensity in the effect. . . . The travelling instances, as well as what Bacon terms 'frontier instances,' are cases in which we are enabled to trace that general law which seems to pervade all nature—the law, as it is termed, of continuity. . . . 'Natura non agit per saltum.'"
3. See Zoonomia, p. 103 and p. 507.


The memory of Plants, must be association, — a certain round of actions take place every day, & closing of the leaves, comes on from want of stimulus, after certain other actions, & hence becomes associated with them. — The establishment of this principle of Association will help my theory of sensitive Plants1

1. Erasmus Darwin (Zoonomia, p. 104) also discusses sensitive plants: "The divisions of the leaves of the sensitive plant have been accustomed to contract at the same time from the absence of light. . . ." In the margin of page 105, in Charles Darwin's handwriting, is, "does habit imply having ideas?" In the adjacent text passage is the following: "And it has been already shewn, that these actions cannot be performed simply from irritation, because cold and darkness are negative quantities, and on that account sensation or volition are implied, and in consequence a sensorium or union of their nerves."


Habitual actions, (independent of mind) in the intestinal functions &c &c &c. — bears. the same relation to true memory, that the formation of a hinge in a bivalve shell does to reason.1 — an inflamed membrane from local irritation to passion. —
Blushing is intimately concerned with thinking of ones appearance, — does the thought drive blood to surface exposed, face of man, face, neck — upper bosom in woman: like erection

1. Lamarck, J. B., Zoological Philosophy; An Exposition With Regard to the Natural History of Animals, Transl., with an Introduction, by Hugh Elliot, Macmillan, London, 1914. [Original: Philosophie Zoologique, 2 vols., Dentu, Paris, 1809.] Also discussed the reasoning powers of a bivalve: "There is nothing more wonderful in the alleged skill of the ant-lion (Myrmeleon formica leo) which digs out a hole in loose sand and then waits until some victim falls into the bottom of a hole by the slipping of the sand, than there is in the operation of the oyster, which for the satisfaction of all its needs has only to open slightly and close its shell. So long as their organisation remains unchanged they will both continue to do just what they do now, without any intervention of will or reasoning."


shyness is certainly very much connected with thinking of oneself. — blushing is connected with sexual, because each sex thinks more of what another thinks of him, than of any one of his own sex. — Hence, animals, not being such thinking people, do not blush. — sensitive people apt to blush. — The power of vivid mental affection, on separate organs most curiously shown in the sudden cures of tooth ache before being drawn, —


My father even believes that the general talking about any disease tends to give it, as in cancer, showing, effect of mind on individual parts of body. = (if you think fear you shall not have. e—n, or wish extraordinarily to have one you wont. = ) = No surer way to blush, than particularly to wish not to do so. = How directly personal remark will make any one blush. — Is there not some saying about a person even blushing in the dark — so modest a person. A person who blushes in the dark is proverbially a most modest person


one carries on, by association, the question, "one will anyone, especially a women think of my face,"? to ones moral conduct. — either good or bad. either giving a beggar, & expecting admiration or an act of cowardice, or cheating. — one does not blush before utter stranger, — or habitual friends. — but half & half. Miss F.A. said to Mrs. B.A. how nice it would be if your son would marry Miss. O B — Mrs. B.A. blushed, analyse this: —


Let a person have committed any concealed action he should not, & let him be thinking over it with sorrow — let the possibility of this being discovered by anyone, especiall if it be a person, whose opinion he regards, & see how feel how the blood gushed out his face, — "as she the thought of his knowing it, suddenly came across her, the blood rushed to her face." — One blush if one thinks that any one suspects one of having done either good or bad action, it always bear some references to thoughts of other person


Decemb. 27th. — Fear loose the sphincter muscles, only on the principle like does an injury of the spine — that it paralyzes all muscular action in man & animals — Blubbering of a child (different in different ones?) in the most perfect fainting, sphincters are loosed is a convulsive action to remove disagreeable impression like true convulsion. (Hence pass into convulsions?) — squeeze out tears, replaced & squeezed out again — as power of mind by habit gets more perfect over voluntary muscles, these


convulsive actions — (except in weak people & hysterical people inclined to convulsive actions). — But the lachyrmal gland is not under voluntary power, (or only very little so) & hence by association, there pour out tears, & there is slight convulsive wrinkling of some of the muscles or twitching. — But why does joy & other emotion make grown up people cry. — What is emotion?
At end of Burke's1 essay on the sublime & Beautiful there are some notes. & likewise on Wordsworth's dissertation on Poetry. —

1. Burke, Edmund, Philosophical Inquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful: with an Introductory Discourse Concerning Taste (London, 1757); Part III, Section XXVII, "The Sublime and Beautiful Compared," and Part IV, Section I, "Of the Efficient Cause of the Sublime and Beautiful."


The expression of shame-facedness for shyness, having been invented, prove of the difference, which my theory believes in. —
From the manner short-sighted people frown, frowning must have some relation to shortsightedness. — do not short sighted people squinny, when they consider profoundly, — this will be curious if it is so. — frown with grief. ?bodily pain? frown shows the mind is intent on one object. —
With respect to my theory of smile, remember children smile before they laugh. — Has frowning anything to do with ancient movement of ears


A man shivers, from fear, sublimity, sexual ardour. — a man cries from grief, joy. & sublimity.
January 6th. —
What passes in a man's mind, when he says he loves a person — do not the features pass before him marked, with the habitual expression of those motions, which make us love him, or her. — it is blind feeling, something like sexual feelings — love being an emotion does it regard is it influenced by other emotions?
When a man keeps perfect time in walking, to chronometer, is seen to be muscular movement.


The Blushing of Camelion & Octopus; strong analogy with my view of blushing — in former irritation on a piece of skin cut off made the blush come. — it is an excitement of surface under the will? of the animal. ( —
Jan 21. 1839. Herchel's Discourse p. 35.1 On origin of idea of causation: succession of night & day does not give notion of cause, do p. 135.2 — on the importance of a name, with reference to origin of language
My father says old people first fail in ideas of time, & perhaps of space — in latter respect he thinks

1. Herschel, J. F. W., A Preliminary Discourse on the Study of Natural Philosophy, Longman, London, 1831,, p. 35: "The first thing impressed on us from our earliest infancy is, that events do not succeed one another at random, but with a certain degree of order, regularity, and connection;—some constantly, and, as we are apt to think, immutably,—as the alternation of day and night, summer and winter,—others contingently, as the motion of a body from its place, if pushed. . . ."
2. Herschel, J. F. W., A Preliminary Discourse on the Study of Natural Philosophy, Longman, London, 1831,, pp. 135–136: "The imposition of a name on any subject of contemplation, be it a material object, a phenomenon of nature, or a group of facts and relations, looked upon in a peculiar point of view, is an epoch in its history of great importance. It not only enables us readily to refer to it in conversation or in writing, without circumlocution, but, what is of more consequence, it gives it a recognized existence in our own minds, as a matter for separate and peculiar consideration . . . and . . . fits it to perform the office of a connecting link between all the subjects to which such information may refer."


he certainly has observed that some people of very weak intellect (As Miss Clive)1 have only possessed very loose ideas. — Have children loose ideas of time? — Characteristic of one kind of intellect is that when an idea once take hold of the mind, no subsequent ones modify it. — Weak people say I know it because I was always told so in childhood hence the belief in the many strange religions.
Emma W.2 says that when in playing by memory she does not think at all, whether she can or can not play the piece, she plays f better than when she tries is not this precisely the same, as the double-conscious kept playing so well. —

1. Probably related to the family of Lord Clive (1725–1774), of whom there is a large statue in the center of Shrewsbury. A Miss Clive is mentioned in a letter dated December 15, 1824, written by Mrs. Josiah Wedgwood to her sister Fanny Allen: "I went as chaperon to the Drayton Assembly With Miss Clive, Susan Darwin, Charlotte and Fanny, with Joe and William and Edward Clive, but it was a bad and very thin ball and double the number of ladies to the gentlemen." Litchfield, op. cit., Vol. 1, p. 163. Lord Clive was born near Market Drayton.
2. Darwin married Emma Wedgwood, January 29, 1839, i.e., about the time these pages were written.


Lr. Brougham1 Dissert. on subject of science connected with Nat.Theology. — says animals have abstraction because they understand signs. — very profound. — concludes that difference of intellect between animals & men only in Kind. — probably very important work. —
Feb. 12. 1839. Sir. H. Davy — Consolats: "the recollections of the infant likewise before two years are soon lost; yet many of the habits acquired in that age are retained through life" p. 200.2 — "The desire of glory, immortal fame, &c so common in the young are symptoms of the infinite & progressive nature of intellect indication of better life p. 2073

182. Brougham, Henry Lord, Dissertations on Subjects of Science Connected with Natural Theology: Being the Concluding Volume of the New Edition of Paley's Work, 2 vols., Knight London, 1839, Vol. 1, p. 196: "Now connecting the two together [i.e., a particular action with a sign], whatever be the manner in which the sign is made, is Abstraction; but it is more, it is the very kind of Abstraction in which all language has its origin—the connecting the sign with the thing signified; for the sign is purely arbitrary in this case as much as in human language." In Darwin's copy, now in the Cambridge University Library, there is a vertical pencil line in the margin beside the text, and in Darwin's handwriting are the words, "don't understand." P. 197: ". . . a rational mind cannot be denied to the animals, however inferior in degree their faculties may be to our own."
183. Davy, Humphry, Consolations in Travel, or the Last Days of a Philosopher. With a Sketch of the Author's Life, and Notes, London: John Murray, 1830
184.Davy, Humphry, Consolations in Travel, or the Last Days of a Philosopher. With a Sketch of the Author's Life, and Notes, London: John Murray, 1830 "The desire of glory, of honour, of immortal fame and of constant knowledge, so usual in young persons of well-constituted minds, cannot I think be other than symptoms of the infinite and progressive nature of intellect—hopes, which as they cannot be gratified here, belong to a frame of mind suited to a nobler state of existence."


March 16th. — Is not that kind of memory, which makes you do a thing properly, even when you cannot remember it, as my father trying to remember the man's Christian name,1 writing for the surname, analogous to instinctive memory, & consequently instinctive action. — Sir. J. Sebright,2 has given the phrase "heredetary habits". very clearly, all I must do is to generalize it, & see whether applicable to all cases. — & analogize it with ordinary habits that is my new part of the view. — let the proof of heredetariness in habits, be considered, as grand step if it can be generalized. —

1. This incident is written out in greater detail in a note dated January 13, 1839.
2. Sebright, John, Observations upon the Instinct of Animals, Gossling & Egley, London (pamphlet), 1836, 16 pp., pp. 15–16: "No one can suppose that nature has given to these several varieties of the same species such very different instinctive propensities, and that each of these breeds should possess those that are best fitted for the uses to which they are respectively applied. It seems more probable that these breeds having been long treated as they now are, and applied to the same uses, should have acquired habits by experience and instruction, which in course of time have become hereditary. . . . I am led to conclude, that by far the greater part of the propensities that are generally supposed to be instinctive, are not implanted in animals by nature, but that they are the result of long experience, acquired and accumulated through many generations, so as in the course of time to assume the character of instinct. How far these observations may apply to the human race I do not pretend to say; I cannot, however, but think that part of what is called national character may, in some degree, be influenced by what I have endeavoured to prove, namely that acquired habits become hereditary."


The tastes of man, same as in Allied Kingdoms — food, smell. (ourang-outang), music, colours we must suppose we Pea-hens admire peacock's tail, as much as we do. — touch apparently ourang outang very fond of soft, silk-handkerchief — cats & dogs fond of slight tickling sensation. — in savages other tastes few.
March 16th. Gardiner's Music of Nature,1 p. 31. remarks children have no difficulty in expressing their want, pleasure, or pains long before they can speak —

1. Gardiner, William, The Music of Nature, or, an Attempt to Prove that What is Passionate and Pleasing in the Art of Singing, Speaking, and Performing upon Musical Instruments, is Derived from the Sounds of the Animated World, etc., Longman, London, 1832, p. 31.


or understand — thinks so it must have been in the dawn of civilization — thinks many words, roar, scrape, crack, &c, imitative of the things. — (I may put the argument, that many learned men seem to consider there is good evidence in the structure of language, that it was progressively formed. (— names like sounds ). Horne Tookes1 tenses, &c &c — also g if so & seeing how simple an explanation it offers of radical diversity of tongues. —

1. Tooke, John Horne, Epea Pteroenta, or the Diversions of Purley, 2nd ed., Johnson's, London, Part I, 1798, Part II, 1805. (Copy in the Athenaeum Library.)


(Emotions are the heredetary effects on the mind, accompanying certain bodily actions) ?but what first caused this bodily action, if the emotion wasnot first felt? —
without slight flush, acceleration of pulse, or rigidity of muscles. — man cannot be said to be angry. —
He may have pain or pleasure these are sensations
Gardner in his work In the life of Hayd & Mozart, fine music is evidently considered as analogous to glowing conversation of several people.1
Children have an uncommon pleasure in hiding themselves & skulking about in shrubbery, when other people are about: this is analogous to young pigs hiding themselves; & heredetary remains of savages state. —

1. See Beyle, Marie Henri (1783–1842), The Lives of Haydn and Mozart, with Observations on Metastasia, and on the Present State of Music in France and Italy, transl. from the French of L.A.C. Bombet [pseud.] with notes, by the author of the Sacred Melodies [W. Gardiner], 2nd ed., Murray, London, 1818, p. 115.


N B. According to my view marrying late, will make average of life longer. — for short-lived constitutions will then be cut off. —
Horses Colts cantering in S. America capital instance of heredetary habit: — there must, however, be a mental impulse (though unconscious of it) to move its legs so, as much as in the young salmon to go towards the sea, or down the stream; which it does unconsciously of any end. — N B. There is wide difference between the means by which an animal performs an instinct, & its impulse to do it. — (the means must be present on any hypothesis whatever)
an animal may so far be said to will to perform an instinct that it is uncomfortable if it does not do it. —


My theory explains how it comes that the heart is the seat of the emotions. — but are not love & hate emotions; what are their characteristics; — they are more truly sensations??, a kind of mental pain & pleasure. —
The Revd. Algernon Wells1 Lecture on animal instinct, 1834: p. 15. "To act from instinct is to be guided to the performance of a number of prearranged actions, which will bring about a certain result, while the creature performing those actions neither knows nor intends the result they will effect." this not wholly true, for we must grant a bird knows what is about when building its nest; it knows its object but not result

1. Wells, Algernon, On Animal Instinct, Colchester, 1834, 40 pp. (copy in the Congregational Memorial Hall Trust Library, Cricklewood, London, N.W. 2).


(?first time of building?), but not the means of performing it. —
p. 14. There is scarcely a faculty in man not met with in the lower animals. — hence the general aim of fable, & expression as cunningness of fox, industry of bee &c &c 1
p. 15. "instincts act with unerring precision". — no2
p. 17. Contrast the invariability of instinctive powers in individuals of the same species with variability of reasoning power in one species man. — false instinctive pointing varies.3
p. 18. Animals possess strong imitative faculty: pure instinct is not imitative: imitations seems invariably associated with reason:4
(N B. insects which have never seen their parents offer best cases of instincts). all this may be true, but relation of imitation & reason must be thought of.5

1. Wells, Algernon, On Animal Instinct, Colchester, 1834, pp. 13–14: ". . . there is scarcely a faculty of mind or quality of character prevailing among men, but its type of resemblance may be found in some of the tribes of inferior creatures. Hence their actions and dispositions have ever furnished the moralist with those striking and instructive fables. . . . The industry of the bee and the ant—the cunning of the fox. . . ."
2. Wells, Algernon, On Animal Instinct, Colchester, 1834, p. 15: "Instinct acts its part with unerring precision, without intelligently knowing what or why it does so. . . ." N.B.: Darwin indicates his disagreement with the first part of this sentence by saying, "no."
3. Wells, Algernon, On Animal Instinct, Colchester, 1834, pp. 16–17: "Instinct is confined to narrow limits, but within them it never mistakes . . . it is observed, "That the processes of reason and contrivance in men are capable of almost endless degrees of imperfection or improvement. . . . But instinct reaches its full perfection at once: and never afterwards receives, or admits of, any improvement. . . . the texture and shape of a bird's-nest, or of the cells and masses of honey-combs, are now what they ever were; and ever will be, without variation of improvement, or degeneracy."
4. Wells, Algernon, On Animal Instinct, Colchester, 1834, pp. 18–19: "Besides which, many animals possess a strong imitative faculty . . . pure instinct is not an imitative faculty. . . . But imitation seems invariably associated with reason; is one of the most powerful laws by which it acts; and one of the most effective means of its acquisition and advancement."
5. Wells, Algernon, On Animal Instinct, Colchester, 1834, pp. 18–19: "In those processes of instinct which are most difficult and surprising, it is impossible any part of the skill . . . should have been gained by imitation; especially in the case of numerous insect tribes, which never knew their parents. . . ."


p. 19. animals capable of education; (this is again assumed as more allied to reason than instinct)1 Mr Wells I can see mentally refers by reason knowledge gained by reason: & then these qualities of imitation & education may be used as argument. — for instinctive knowledge is not gained by instruction, or imitation.2
p. 20. Animals may be called "creatures of instinct" with some slight dash of reason so mean are called "creatures of reason", more appropriately they would be "creatures of habit.'"— (as the bee makes its cells, by means of ordinary senses & muscles, we cannot look at him, as machine to make cell of certain form. (& especially as it adapt its cell to circumstances), it must have impulse to make

1. Wells, Algernon, On Animal Instinct, Colchester, 1834., p. 19: "Moreover, animals are capable of education: they may be, and often are, taught things that greatly surprise every beholder."
2.Wells, Algernon, On Animal Instinct, Colchester, 1834, p. 19: "Now, instinct is neither knowledge gained by instruction, nor a faculty of being improved by instruction."


a cell in certain way, which way its organs are sufficient for hence it must some way be able to measure the cell:1
p. 22. instincts & structure always go together:2 thus woodpecker:3 but this is not so, the instincts may vary before the structure does; & hence we get over an apparent anomaly, for if anyone has taken the Woodpecker as an example fitted for climbing, his arguments partly fall, when a species is found which does not climb
(instinct may be divided into migration, — subsidiary to food & temperature molting &c breeding instincts, sexual, social, subordinate to self preservation, (knowledge of enemies), use of muscles, progression. — use of senses. — knowledge of location ducks & turtles running to water, — young crocodile snapping —

1. Wells, Algernon, On Animal Instinct, Colchester, 1834, p. 20: ". . . the inferior creatures (inasmuch as they perform by far the greater number of their actions, especially in their wild, native state, by innate, blind instinct) may be properly denominated creatures of instinct; although . . . they are not bound down to instinct as their only means of knowledge and action. Just as, on the other hand, man is properly denominated the creature of reason . . . some of his actions are instinctive; performed especially in infancy. . . ." The expression "creatures of habit" does not appear on these pages in Well's text.
2 . Wells, Algernon, On Animal Instinct, Colchester, 1834, p. 22: "Distinct notice should be taken of the curiously perfect adaptation of the instincts of animals to their senses and bodily structure; and of both to those scenes or portion of the external world in which it is designed they should dwell. . . ."
3. Darwin has reference to the "Woodpecker of the plains," Colaptes campestris, which he observed on the northern bank of the Plata, in Banda Oriental, South America, and which rarely visited trees. See Darwin, Charles "Note on the Habits of the Pampas Woodpecker (Colaptes campetris)," Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 1870, pp. 705–706.


p. 28. how curious the means of guiding themselves through the air, — waterbirds, the bee to its nest,1 — cats when carried in confinement, — carrier pidgeons proverbially carried to long distance in dark "it is inspiration."2 — this is class of so called instincts to which my theory no way applies. — it is the acquirement of a new sense, — bats avoiding strings in the dark as well might be called instinct, — migrating to one spot, this is indeed instinct. — Australian man, may be called instinctive: the facts of memory of roads long after once visited by horse & dogs, (even blind horses & dogs) shows it is somewhat analogous

1. Wells, Algernon, On Animal Instinct, Colchester, 1834, pp. 28–29: "But to observe a bee, at the distance of a mile or more from its hive, busy among the flowers, without the least anxiety lest it should be lost amidst its mazy flights; and, when loaded, wing its direct way to the hive, without thought, and yet without error, is to us amazing."
2. Wells, Algernon, On Animal Instinct, Colchester, 1834, pp. 29–30: "No faculty we possess [as the carrier-pigeon] helps us to any analogy by which to enable us to form any notion of such a power. It is intuition—it is inspiration—it is something we do not possess, and cannot conceive of. . . . It is one of those wonders with which the works of God abound. . . ."


to memory.
Shrugging shoulders seems sign of helplessness
E.1 says she can perceive sigh, commences as soon as painful thought crosses mind, before it can have affected respiration
V. E2 p. 125 Wrong Entry3

1. Emma, Darwin's wife.
2. V. E., i.e., Vide Notebook E. Darwin inadvertently entered on p. 125 of Notebook E the following: "Uncovering the canine teeth or sneering, has no more relation to our present wants or structure, than the muscles of the ears to our hearing powers. E. frowns prodigiously when drinking very cold water, frowns connected with pain as well as intense thought." The E. in the quotation is probably Emma, but, as de Beer, Rowlands, and Skramovsky (1967, p. 173) indicate, it could also be Erasmus, his brother. (de Beer, Gavin, M. J. Rowlands, and B. M. Skramovsky, eds., "Darwin's Notebooks on Transmutation of Species, Part VI. Pages Excised by Darwin," Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Historical Series, 3 (5) :129–176, 1967.)
3. The lower half of the page has been excised, affecting pages 73 and 74. Because the cut was a curving line, a word or two is missing from the middle of the last remaining line on p. 74


Madagascar Lemur seemed to like Lavendar Water very much Henslow.1
M. Necker2 has remarks on the means, by which children learn (probably not only experience, but also by an instinctting which is only present in youth
(Mem. Mr Worsley's story of chicken) to know that which we touch & what is the same. —(this Hensleigh

1. Henslow, John Stevens, Professor of Botany, Cambridge.
2. Necker, Albertine Adrienne, Progressive Education; or, Considerations on the Course of Life, transl. from the French of Mme. Necker de Saussure, 3 vols., Longman, etc., London, 1839, Vol. 1, p. 4: "St. Paul tells us that we have two laws within us* (*Romans, vii, 23); and our inward feelings, our experience, our reason, all confirm this declaration. A blind instinct, necessary perhaps to the physical order of things, impels us to seek after pleasure, and thus favours the developement of our faculties. . . ." P. 40: ". . . amongst all these philosophers [astronomers, etc.,] there is not one father who has taken the trouble to note down the progress of his own child." Perhaps it was due to this suggestion of Mme. Necker that Darwin did observe and record the progress of his oldest child.

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therefore problem is how we know that thing is same, which touches two parts of our bodies, or touches one part, very quickly successively. — ( & we know from experiment of crossing fingers, that we only do know that it is one, when applied in peculiar manner. — )

75e [lower half]

April 3d 1839
The Giraffe kicks with front legs & knocks with back of Head, yet never puts down its ear. good to contrast with horses, asses, mi Zebras &c &c. — Here there is kicker but not bite.1

1. The lower half of p. 76, beginning with "April 3d, 183[9]," was excised.

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Henslow remarks that Chimpanze pouted & whined, when, man went out of room. —
all theories of magnetic powe in birds, seeing the sun &c are absolutely useless when applied to birds, which

76e [lower half]

have been carried in hampers, if they have not known the direction in which they started, they cannot return. — Hence I conclude, pidgeon taken little way, whirled, & then taken other way— would not find1

1. The lower half of p. 76 (verso 75), beginning with "have been carried," was excised.


its way back?? — this is not instinct, but a faculty, or sense — We know not how, stonge henge raised, yet not instinct, but if all men placed stones in same position, it would be instinct — instinct is heredetary knowledge of things which might be possibly acquired by habit, so bees in building cells, must have some means of measuring cells, which is a faculty, they use this faculty instinctively; watchmaker has faculty by his instruments to make toothed wheel, he might by instinct make watch, but he does it by


reason & experience, or habit. — so bird migrating to certain quarter is instinct, but his knowledge of that quarter, is faculty, whether by sun, & heavens, or magnetic virtue. — the most probable supposition, with respect to pidgeons, is that they do know from look of Heavens, points of compass, & they do know which way they go; & so return. — but does not apply to dogs. — they may do all this instinctively yes because power varies in breeds, something of kind oneself knows in walking (one feels inclined to stop at right number of house though one cannot remember it.)


back, without consciousness & by habit. such habit of knowledge of points of compass may be instinctive.
it is a test to know how much of the wonder consists in the action being performed or emotion felt in early childhood (before experience or habit) could beformed or afterwards. — child sucking whole wonder instinctive. — carrier pidgeon just as wonderful in old bird as new. — migration, only only more wonderful in young, because can not have been taught, where to go — the act of crossing the


sea in dark night & not loosing its direction, equally wonderful in young & old. — These facts point out some essential difference, which clearly ought to be separated— We apply instinct to one part, or another — but (as instinctus means stained in?). had better refer to to the heredetary part of it, — & faculty (faculty being always heredetary helps this confusion. —)


Hensleigh considers breathing instinctive, certainly heart beating may be considered also such. — heredetary habit, is a part never subject to volition, like plants going to sleep. —
"A bird has the faculty of finding its way, which in certain species is instinctivedly not least by experience directed to certain quarter" — "An animal has faculty of walking, which in man is learnt by experience is in other is acquired instinctively" So with sight sight — so a Bee has the faculty of


building regular cells — (but this faculty may possibly be probably is instinctive, namely the knowledge of size is merely judged by eye, & use of limbs &c, or it result from mere impulse to save wax.) which it instinctively exerts in concert with others in building comb — My faculty often will turn out to be instincts, & so in some senses, is sight — (The faculties bear so close a relation to the senses, that one feels no more surprise at it & feels no more inclined to ask

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If dislike, distaste. & disapproval, were not something more than the unfitness of the objects then viewed, to organs adapted to other objects. (as that senna is necessarily disagreeable to organs adapted to like sugar, acid, &c, which may be doubted for possibly even taste of senna, might be acquired, as the Turks1 have of Rhubarb: again on other hand, it is said people, who like sweet things dislike others. — dogs dislike perfume) I should think, great principle of liking, was simply heredetary habit. —

1. "Turks" difficult to decipher.


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A blind man might be born with the idea of scarlet, as well as remember it. —
Why do children pout & not men— orang-outang & chimpanzé, pout. — Former, whines just like a child.
Get a Dictionary & make a list of every word, expressing a mental desire quality &c &c


Mackintosh Ethics1
p. 97. on Devotional feeling
p. 103 — Abstraction
p. 152. Perception very different from emotion. — The former is used with regard to the senses. Reason does not lead to action. —
p. 248. Theory of Association, owing to time when entered brain, try contiguity of parts of Brain. — Mackintosh first clearly insisted on assoc of ideas & emotions, ? rather ideas & bodily actions make the emotions. —
p. 272. Some remarks applicable to my theory of happiness. —

Bell2 on the Hand
p. 191 Says childr babies have an instinctive fear of falling. — & p. 193. that they perceive the difference on being carried up or downstairs, or dangled up & down — in latter case they struggle their arms. —

1. Mackintosh, James, Dissertation on the Progress of Ethical Philosophy Chiefly During the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. Edinburgh, 1830, pp. 96–97.
2. Bell, Charles, The Hand, Its Mechanism and Vital Endowments as Evincing Design (Bridgewater Treatises on the Power, Wisdom, and Goodness of God, as manifested in the Creation. Treatise IV), Pickering, London, 1833, p. 191.


do. p. 306 "the eyes are rolled upwards during mental agony, & whilst strong emotions of reverence & piety are felt." it appears to me mere consequence of stooping, as sign of humility. —

I suspect very strong argument might be advanced, that animals have reason, because they have memory. — what use this faculty if not reason. — or does this reasoning apply chiefly to recollection, yet a dog hunting for a bone shows he has recollection. —
Lamarck.1 Phil. Zoolog. — Vol II p. 445. If we compare the judgments & actions of a young animal with an old. (dog, horse, sow) we perceive great difference. — (& is not this difference same, but less in degree, as between man & child. — ) what differs— not reason instinct, for its character is invariability. — if explained by habits, useful to itself, how gained, reason? or some unnamed faculty —

1. See Lamarck, J. B., Zoological Philosophy; An Exposition With Regard to the Natural History of Animals, Transl., with an Introduction, by Hugh Elliot, Macmillan, London, 1914. [Original: Philosophie Zoologique, 2 vols., Dentu, Paris, 1809.] , in section "Of Reason. And Its Comparison with Instinct,"


Lamarck.1 Philosop. Zoolog. p. 284. Vol. II — gives explanation & instance of starting identical with mine. —
Lamarck.2 Vol II p. 319. — Habits more prevalent in proportion to intelligence less. —
p. 325 to 29.3 — Habits becoming heredetary form the instincts of animals. — almost identical with my theory — no facts, & mingled with much hypothesis. — see M.S. notes, where strong argument in favour of brain forming the instincts, — could brain make a tune on the pianoforte, yes if every individual played a little, & something destroyed bad brain.4

1. See Lamarck, J. B., Zoological Philosophy; An Exposition With Regard to the Natural History of Animals, Transl., with an Introduction, by Hugh Elliot, Macmillan, London, 1914. [Original: Philosophie Zoologique, 2 vols., Dentu, Paris, 1809.] , in section, "Of the Emotions of the Inner Feeling"
2. See Lamarck, J. B., Zoological Philosophy; An Exposition With Regard to the Natural History of Animals, Transl., with an Introduction, by Hugh Elliot, Macmillan, London, 1914. [Original: Philosophie Zoologique, 2 vols., Dentu, Paris, 1809.] , in section "Of the Origin of the Propensity Towards Repeating the Same Actions, and Also of Instinct in Animals": "Who can now deny that the powers of habits over actions is inversely proportional to the intelligence of the individual, and to the development of his faculty of thinking, reflecting, combining his ideas, and varying his actions?"
3. See Lamarck, J. B., Zoological Philosophy; An Exposition With Regard to the Natural History of Animals, Transl., with an Introduction, by Hugh Elliot, Macmillan, London, 1914. [Original: Philosophie Zoologique, 2 vols., Dentu, Paris, 1809.], in section "Of Instinct in Animals": ". . . the habit of using any organ or any part of the body for the satisfaction of constantly recurring needs, gives the subtle fluid so great a readiness for moving towards that organ where it is so often required, that the habit becomes inherent in the nature of the individual.
"Now the needs of animals with a nervous system vary in proportion to their organisation, and are as follows:
1. The need for taking some sort of food;
2. The need for sexual fertilisation, which is prompted in them by certain sensations;
3. The need for avoiding pain;
4. The need for seeking pleasure or well-being.
"For the satisfaction of these needs they acquire various kinds of habits, which become transformed in them into so many propensities; these propensities they cannot resist nor change of their own accord. Hence the origin of their habitual actions and special inclinations, which have received the name of instinct.*" (Footnote: "*Just as all animals do not possess the faculty of will, so too instinct is not a property of all existing animals; for those which have no nervous system have no inner feeling, and cannot therefore have any instinct for their actions. These imperfect animals are entirely passive, do nothing of their own accord, feel no needs, and are provided for by nature in everything just as in the case of plants. Now since their parts are irritable, nature causes them to carry out movements, which we call action.")
"This propensity of animals to the preservation of habits, and to the repetition of the resulting actions when once it has been acquired, is propagated to succeeding individuals by reproduction so as to preserve the new type of organisation and arrangement of the parts; thus the same propensity exists in new individuals, before they have even begun to exert it."Hence it is that the same habits and instinct are handed on from generation to generation in the various species or races of animals, without any notable variation so long as no alteration occurs in their environment."
4. The "something" is "Natural Selection."


see p. 90. — The relation of reason to organs of locomotion — or that our faculties have been given us to exist, is clearly seen, in the absurdity of a tree having reason: or dog, having high powers without hand & voice. — there is some great puzzle in what Sir. J. M.218 says of pure reason not leading to action & yet our emotions being only bodily actions associated with ideas. —
A sigh, is an abortive groan. — more power over muscles of voice than respiration. — like sigh before false sneeze. —

1. Mackintosh, James, Dissertation on the Progress of Ethical Philosophy Chiefly During the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. Edinburgh, 1830, pp. 152–153: "Reason, as reason, can never be a motive to action. It is only when we superadd to such a being [viz., one capable of reason but incapable of pain or pleasure] sensibility, or the capacity of emotion or sentiment (or what in corporeal cases is called sensation), of desire and aversion, that we introduce him into the world of action."


"A Dissertation on the Influence of the Passion." —1
p. 37. The increase of Biliary secretion attends passion
p. 39. The sweat that accompanies fear is the same, as that which attends great weakness. — Diarrhaea & syncope
p. 42. Sighing from grief, is method of increasing languid circulation — no, for grief sighing comes on before circulation is affected.
p. 44. — Jealousy, causes spasm in bile duct, & throws bile in circulation
p. 75. Haller says tooth ache, even from carious tooth cured by sight of instrument.

1. Falconer, William, A dissertation on the influence of the passions upon disorders of the body. Being the essay to which the Fothergillian Medal was adjudged, London, 1788. (Note added by LCR)


Bennett's1 Wanderings, Australian Dog does not Bark — quotes Gardner's2 Music of nature to show barking not natural. (Vol I. p. 234)
Vol. II p 153. do,3 an account of a monkey in a passion like Jenny. — Dr. Abel4 has given an account of an Ourang. — see his Travels. —
When one sees in Cowper,5 whole sentences spoken & believed to be audible, one has good ground to call imagination a faculty, a power, quite distinct from self, or will

1. Bennett, George, Wanderings in New South Wales, Batavia, Pedir Coast, Singapore, and China; being the Journal of a Naturalist in those Countries, during 1832, 1833, and 1834, 2 vols., Bentley, London, 1834, Vol. 1, p. 234.
2. Gardiner, op. cit., p. 199: "Dogs in a state of nature never bark; they simply whine, howl, and growl. . . ." See also Zoonomia, pp. 154–155, for a discussion of dogs of Juan Fernandes and Guinea that do not bark.
3. Bennett, George, Wanderings in New South Wales, Batavia, Pedir Coast, Singapore, and China; being the Journal of a Naturalist in those Countries, during 1832, 1833, and 1834, 2 vols., Bentley, London, 1834, Vol. 2, p. 153: "He [a male Ungka gibbon (Hylobates syndactyla) taken on board ship] could not endure disappointment, and, like the human species, was always better pleased when he had his own way; when refused or disappointed at anything, he would display the freaks of temper of a spoiled child; lie on the deck, roll about, throw his arms and legs . . . dash everything aside that might be within his reach . . . he reminded me of that pest to society, a spoiled child. . . ." P. 154 (footnote): "The account of the orang-utan, given by Dr. Abel, in the Narrative of a Journey in the Interior of China, accords with the habits of this animal, and the comparison is very interesting."
4. Abel, Clarke, Narrative of a Journey in the Interior of China, and of a Voyage to and from that Country, in the Years 1816 and 1817, etc., Longman, London, 1818, p. 326: "If defeated again by my suddenly jerking the rope, he [the orang] would at first seem quite in dispair, relinquish his effort, and run about the rigging screaming violently." P. 328: "If repeatedly refused an orange when he attempted to take it, he would shriek violently and swing furiously about the ropes; then return and endeavor to obtain it; if again refused he would roll for some time like an angry child upon the deck uttering the most piercing scream; and then suddenly starting up, rushing furiously over the side of the ship and disappear."
5. Cowper, William (1731–1800) see Works, Comprising His Poems, Correspondence and Translations, Robert Southey, ed., 15 vols., Baldwin & Cradock, London, 1835–1837.

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& other cows —
Mr. Hamilton1 on vital laws (in the Athenaeum Library) describes effects of emotions — fear giving goose skin — & hair standing on end. —
July 20th
Intelligent Keeper. Zoolog. Garden told me. he has often watche tame young wolf & it never dropped its ears like dog— wagged its tail a little when attending to anything or excited. — so do young dingos, as I saw, wag tail when watching anything — Keeper does not think

1. The reference to Mr. Hamilton on vital laws could not be traced in the Athenaeum Library, Pall Mall, London.


they drop their ears. —
George the lion is extraordinarily cowardly. — the other one nothing will frighten — hence variation in character in different animals of same species. —  


The general (as I believe) contempt at suicide, (even when no relatives left to lament) is owing to the feeling that the instinct of self-preservation is disobeyed — I often have as a boy wondered why all abnormal sexual actions or even impulses, (where sensations of individual are same as in normal cases) are held in abhorrence it is because instincts to woman is not followed; good case of instinctive1

1. Upper portion of pp. 99 and 100 excised.


conscience. — Why does not man eating cause disgust, because he does not go against instinctive feeling, only does not fullfil, like continent man. — a man eating what others by habit (not instinct) think not fit, as cannabalism, is held in abhorrence. — all this makes analogy of actions with & against benevolent & parental instincts very clear. — even to the cold or benevelo-continent man


Hume1 has section (IX) on the Reason of animals
Essays Vol 2. — also on origin of religion or polytheism, at p. 424 Vol. II Sect XV. Dialogue on Natural Religion.2 however, he seems to allow it is an instinct.
I suspect the endless round of doubts & scepticisms might be solved by considering the origin of reason, as gradually developed, see Hume3 on Sceptical Philosophy.
Hume4 has written "Natural Hist, of Religion" on its origin in Human mind. —
Andrew Smith5 says hen doves & the female chamaeleon court the males by odd gestures.

1. Hume, The Philosophical Works of David Hume, 4 vols., Constable, Edinburgh, 1825, Vol. 1, Part III, p. 232, "Of the Reason of Animals," and Vol. 4, Section 9, p. 121, "Of the Reason of Animals." The edition Darwin used has not been traced.
2. Hume, The Philosophical Works of David Hume, 4 vols., Constable, Edinburgh, 1825, Vol. 2, p. 419, "Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion."
3. Hume, The Philosophical Works of David Hume, 4 vols., Constable, Edinburgh, 1825, Vol. 4, Section 4, p. 32, "Sceptical Doubts Concerning the Operations of the Understanding," and Section 5, p. 49, "Sceptical Solution of those Doubts."
4. Hume, The Philosophical Works of David Hume, 4 vols., Constable, Edinburgh, 1825, Vol. 4, pp. 435–510, "The Natural History of Religion."
5. Undoubtedly a personal communication.


In one of the six (?) first Vol of Silliman's Journal1 paper showing that the signs invented for Deaf & dumb school & used between Indian tribes are Many the same. —

1. Akerly, Samuel, "Observations on the Language of Signs, Read Before the New York Lyceum of Natural History, on the 23d June, 1823," American Journal of Science and Arts, 8 (2):348–358, 1824, p. 351.


Philosoph. Transactions Vol 44. 1746-47. Paper, like. Sir Ch. Bell on Expression First Croonian Lectures by Parsons.1 — following pages contain remarks worthy of attention p. 15, 25. 40. 61. (a person is here said to open mouth in fright because nature intends to lay open all senses: do Horse prick his ears & snort clears nostrils when frightened, does not hair & rabbit depress, them from squatting. — p. 64 closing both eyelids express contempt. p. 76. children have been tickled into excessive laughter & so into convulsions. — Paper must be referred to, if I follow up this subject & a reference to Brun's2 work. —
Shutting eyes in contempt opposite action to opening eyes in fear

1. Parsons, James, "Human Physiognomy Explain'd: in the Crounian Lectures on Muscular Motion," Lecture 1, pp. 1–31; Lecture 2, pp. 32–82, plus Index, 4 pp., Philosophical Transactions, 44 (Part 1) :1–82, 1746.
2. Brun. See Lavater, Gaspard, L'Art de Connaître les Hommes par la Physionomie, 10 vols., Paris, 1820, Vol. 9, p. 268, "Conférence sur l'Expression." Ref.: Darwin, Charles, The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, Murray, London, 1872, n. 6, p. 3. See also ibid., pp. 4, 247, and 287, for discussions of Le Brun's description of the expression of fright, of anger, and of astonishment.


The effect of habitual movements in muscles of face, is well seen in shortsighted people. — hence origin of expression —


There are some instincts unintelligible, both in the end gained & therefore the cause, and origin being so is not odd; for instance wild cattle & deer pursuing a wounded one. — porpoises a ditto— it is probably some secondary one — blood being disagreeable & anything disagreeable being pursued. —
A dog turning round & round is some old instinct perverted handed down & down. — mem. Nina used to get into hay & make a nest for herself. — the object is to make saucer-shaped depression. —

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Does music bear any relation to the period when men communicated before language was invented, — were musical notes the language of passion & hence does music now excite our feelings.
How does Social animal recognize & take pleasure in other animal, (especiall as in some instinct insects which become in imago state social) by smell or looks. but it does not know its own smell or look, & therefore there must be some instinctive feeling which is pleased by other animals smell & looks. — no doubt it may be attempted to be said that young animal learns parent smell & look so by association receives pleasure. This

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will not do for insects, if this view holds good — then man, a socialist, does not know other men by smell, but by looks, hence, some obscure picture of other men. & hence idea of beauty. — the social affections of animal taking man in place of other animals is hostile is subversive of to this view, & fowls hatching stones, in some degree is so. idea of beauty of music are great distinguishing character between man & animals. —

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Double consciousness, only extreme step of an ideal argument held in one's own mind, & Dr. Hollands story of man in Delirium tremens hearing other man speaks. shows, that consciousness of personnal identity is by no means a necessary part of man's mind. —
At Maer. Pool. I saw many coots & waterhens feeding on grassy bank some way from water, suddenly, as if by word of command, they all took flight & flappered across pool to bed of flags I was astonished & having looked round saw at considerable distance a very large


hawk, which are so rare s. here, that probably few had ever before seen one, yet all — flew to bed of flags,
hernes are common, not unlike in size in the air at a distance. — How can such an instinct arise??
Emma says, her tame rabbits were not frightened at a dog. —
it would appear that an instinct long remains, if no steps are taken to eradicate it. —

The instinct against man is perhaps, as strong as against hawk, but the birds at Maer have learned that he is not dangerous — wild-ducks would have fled equally if man had appeared — though instinct so firmly implanted, birds soon dis learn to disobey it — I have seen hawk & sparrow in Shrewsbury garden picking from same bone


A child born on the 1st March was frightened on the 24th of May at Cresselly1 by the boys making faces at it, so much so that the nurse had to carry it out of the room, nearly 3 months old.
What is absurdity, why does one laugh at it—
sensation of disgust with nausea, (when stomach a little disordered) at thought of almost anything ugly, baby — association — pouting child same as anger, lips not compressed sullen, protruded, determined to do nothing. & so manifesting sullenness.

1. Cresselly, Pembrokeshire, home of John Bartlett Allen (1733–1803), father of Elizabeth (1764–1846), the wife of Josiah Wedgwood (of Maer) and mother of Emma, whom Darwin married.

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Circumstances having given to the Bee its instinct is not more less wonderful than man his intellect
Lyell has seen a little dog go to the assistance & bite a big dog. which was fast struggling with another large dog his companion. Descent — Affection &c
Monkeys Ogleby1 seen Zool. Soc. 1838 remember with distress their companions — a blue Gibbon, whose companion had :been dead about two months, saw a black spider monkey brought it at opposite end of house. & commenced a most lamentable howls & & was not comforted until the Keeper took it her in his arms & carried to see. —2

1. This reference has not been traced, but probably W. Ogilby, author of various papers on gibbons, lemurs, and monkeys reported in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London in 1837 and 1838. Perhaps the reference is to a remark made by Ogilby at a meeting attended by Darwin.
2. "Descent 1838" and seven or eight illegible words written in faint pencil across the page.

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A Dog whilst dreaming, growling. & yelpings & twitching paws which they only do when great considerably excited, shows their power of imagination — for it will not be allowed they can dream, & not have daydreams — think well over this; it shows similarity in mind. — think of Eyton's1 horses becoming white with lather foame & sweat, when hearing merely hunting horn— association or imagination

1. Probably Eyton, Thomas Campbell (1809–1880), companion of Darwin during his youth.

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Ernest W.1 playing with Snow.2 when 2 1/2 years old. was frightened when Snow put a gauze over her head. & came near him, although knowing it was Snow. — Is this part of same feeling which make us think anything ugly — a beau-ideal feeling. Same effect as acting on us —
The Baby Effie Wedgwood3 3 April 28th 1840 was frightened at wild beasts in Zoolog. Garden

1. Ernest Wedgwood (1838–1898), son of Hensleigh and Frances Wedgwood.
2. Frances Julia (Snow) Wedgwood (1833–1915), sister of Ernest.
3. Katherine Euphemia (Effie) Wedgwood (1839–?), another sister.

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A child crying, frowning, pouting, smiling, just as much instinctive as a bull tr calf, just born butting, or young crocodile snapping. — these I think are better instances of instincts (highly useful as only means of communication) in man, than sucking. — (I assume a child pouts who has never seen others pout)

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Goldsmiths1 Essays No XV, on sounds of words being expressive, (Vol. 4 of Works)

1. Goldsmith, Oliver, The Miscellaneous Works of Oliver Goldsmith, M.B., 4 vols., Murray, London, 1837, Vol. 4, No. XV, "Spenser's Faerie Queene."

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"Adam Smith1 Moral Sentiments" much on life & character
'Humes2 Dissertation on the Passions."
"Hartley"3 I should think well worth studying —
"Thomas Brown" on Association4 worthy of close study. — full of practical observations. —

1. Smith, Adam, The Theory of Moral Sentiments; or, An Essay Towards an Analysis of the Principles by which Men Naturally judge concerning the Conduct and Character, first of their Neighbours, and afterwards of themselves, to which is added, a Dissertation on the Origin of Languages. 10th ed., 2 vols., Cadell & Davies, London, 1804. (Copy in The Athenaeum Library.)
2. Hume, David, Essays and Treatises on Several Subjects, 2 vols., Bell, etc., Edinburgh, 1817, Vol. 2, pp. 170–207. "A Dissertation on the Passions."
3. Hartley, David, Observations on Man, His Frame, His Duty, and His Expectations: In Two Parts: To which are now first added, Prayers, and Religious Meditations. To the First Part are Prefixed, A Sketch of the Life and Character, and a Portrait, of the Author, 5th ed., 3 vols., Crattwell, Bath, 1810. (Copy in The Athenaeum Library.)
4. Probably Thomas Brown, M.D. (1778–1820), Professor of Moral Philosophy at the University of Edinburgh, author of Observations on the Zoonomia of Erasmus Darwin, M.D., Mundell, Edinburgh, 1798; Lectures on the Philosophy of the Human Mind, 4 vols., Tait, Edinburgh, 1820; Sketch of a System of the Philosophy of the Human Mind, Part first, Comprehending the Physiology of the Mind, Bell & Bradfute, Edinburgh, 1820.


Ourang do not move eyebrows. — or skin of head, — scarcely able St. —
Cyanocephalus, macacus. Cercopithecus? very much —
Keeper says some of the monkeys move its the ears but not Chimpaze. does not gradation towards man.
Macacus especially pulls back skin of whole forehead & 2 ears. —
emotions of every kind. — (Are monkeys are right-handed??)
Cyanocephalus, Macacus, Niger. Cercopithecus make labial st st.
S. American monkeys, pull back skin from head very little


Does blood go in body face in pashion? — cry?

[inside back cover]

Do people of weak intellects easily fall into habits
Get facts about instincts of mongrel dogs
Do blubbering children, if of convulsive tendency easily fall into convulsions
A carrier pidgeon carried & turned round & round in fainting state would it then know its direction. —
In slight convulsions, are the muscles of the face first affected? — Can shivering & trembling be considered convulsive. — if so what is
is convulsion, are involuntary movement of voluntary muscles-trembling palsy?

[back cover]



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Citation: John van Wyhe, ed. 2002-. The Complete Work of Charles Darwin Online. (

File last updated 7 September, 2023