RECORD: Chancellor, Gordon. 1990. Charles Darwin's St Helena Model Notebook. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Historical Series 18(2): 203-228.

REVISION HISTORY: Scanned by John van Wyhe 10.2005, OCRed by AEL Data 11.2005, corrections by Gordon Chancellor and van Wyhe 1.2006. RN2

NOTE: See record in the Freeman Bibliographical Database, enter its Identifier here. Reproduced with permission of Gordon Chancellor, English Heritage, the Natural History Museum and William Huxley Darwin. Copies of this BM(NH) Historical Bulletin are available from The Library of the Natural History Museum. e-mail: for availability and prices.

[page] 203

Bull. Brit. Mus. Nat. Hist. (hist. Ser.) 18(2): 203-228

Issued 29 November 1990

Charles Darwin's St Helena Model Notebook

City Museum and Art Gallery, Priestgate, Peterborough PE1 1LF


Introduction …………………… 203
The Notebook …………………… 205
Evidence for dating …………………… 206
The St Helena Model Notebook and Darwin's Crater of Elevation Theory ………………………………………… 207
Editorial conventions…………………… 210
Acknowledgements…………………… 211
Notes…………………… 219
Bibliography…………………… 225
References…………………… 226


Charles Darwin (1809-1882) is beyond question one of the most important figures in the history of science, and as each year passes our appreciation of his importance seems only to increase. At the present time students of Darwin's life and work are being treated to a definitive edition of his Correspondence (Burkhardt & Smith, 1985—) and there recently appeared a similarly definitive edition of his theoretical notebooks (hereinafter referred to as Notebooks (Barrett, Gautrey, Herbert, Kohn & Smith, 1987)).

It will take historians a long time fully to assimilate all this new material into their understanding of Darwin and the milieu in which he worked. Nevertheless, there is now a clear consensus that he became an evolutionist ('transmutationist' being the word he would have used) in the spring of 1837, within six months of his return from the voyage of the Beagle. It is also established that he constructed his theory of natural selection in the autumn of 1838, elaborating it and working out most of its radical implications during the winter and spring of 1839 (see Notebooks). Twenty years were to elapse, however, before Darwin published On the Origin of Species (1859), and in the intervening period few people were allowed to know the conclusion to which his work had led him. With the full publication of Darwin's Correspondence and Notebooks we can now, for the first time, trace his path to natural selection—and beyond—in as much detail as the documentary record will ever allow.

There is one small Darwin notebook, omitted for practical reasons from the Notebooks, which Darwin seems to have kept about his person for 'on the spot' jottings throughout the important last few months of 1838. This notebook has become known as the 'St Helena Model' notebook, because these words are written on its cover, and because it contains notes concerning a model of the island of St Helena. This notebook

[page] 204

Fig 1 The 'St Helena Model' notebook of Charles Darwin, open at pp. 26-7. Courtesy of the Royal College of Surgeons.

must, however, have had a greater meaning to Darwin, as it records many of his thoughts relating to variation, breeding and so on, albeit in telegraphic style. Most of these thoughts are much more fully expressed in the Notebooks, so that the St Helena Model notebook assumes an importance as the first medium available to a thinker who was eager not to forget the details of some observation or to lose the thread of a conversation before he could get home to his private study. Unfortunately twenty-one of the original fifty pages of the St Helena Model notebook have been excised—presumably by Darwin—and none of these excised pages has yet been found. This is all the more regretable because it was probably the theoretically most interesting pages which were excised.

In spite of its fragmentary nature the St Helena Model notebook is worthy of publication. Much remains in the notebook of interest to those studying Darwin's work as a geologist a the time when he was entering the élite of London scientists (Rudwick' 1982), but perhaps its greatest charm lies in the glimpse it gives us of the daily thoughts and activities of a young genius at the most creative period of his life. In the weeks leading up to his marriage and election to Fellowship of the Royal Society, even Charles Darwin had to think about laundry and the problems of moving into a new address: 'Two easy chairs—Blinds in Red Rooms washed —Muslin all to wasged' (p. 31x).

[page] 205

Fig 2 The 'St Helena Model' notebook of Charles Darwin. Note the writing on the front and the orientation of the brass clasp. Courtesy of the Royal College of Surgeons.


The St Helena Model notebook was briefly described and partially transcribed by Nora Barlow (Darwin's grand-daughter) in her Charles Darwin and the Voyage of the Beagle (1945: 255). Lady Barlow noted that Darwin had written 'Nothing ' and 'St Helena Model' in bold, thick ink on the red leather cover of the notebook (see Figs 1—2), which measures approximately 7cm x 11cm and is very similar to the smallest of the pocket notebooks (referred to as 'field notebooks' in Correspondence 1: 545) used by Darwin during the Beagle voyage, with which it is now kept on display at Down House.

The surviving pages of the notebook were written almost entirely in pencil, except in a few cases where I have indicated that ink was used. So far as I can tell, none of the ink used is of the grey variety which is to be found in some of Darwin's other notebooks from this period (Notebooks: 14). Darwin seems almost always to have written 'down' the page, that is to say holding it with the hinge (which is 7cm long) oriented horizontally. We may imagine therefore, that the notebook was carried at all times by Darwin, ready to be jotted in whenever occasion arose; in this sense the notebook is equivalent to one of the pocket notebooks used during the Beagle voyage, and differs from the Notebooks which are essentially of post-voyage date. Evidence for dating of passages in the notebook is discussed further below; the bulk of the entries date from September to

[page] 206

December 1838, although there is one reference (written in ink on the inside back cover) dated 1839.

The front end paper of the notebook has the number 1.5 written in the top right hand corner, in heavy pencil, in an unknown hand; this is the notebook's Down House catalogue number (see Correspondence 1: 545). The front end paper is also inscribed in the bottom left hand corner, in pencil, with a number 15 in which the 5 is written over a 6. This number 15 is uniform with a series to be found in each of the other Down House notebooks which reflect the approximate chronological order in which they were used. The 'Red Notebook' (Notebooks: 17-81) is numbered 16 in this series, but in fact entirely predates the St Helena Model notebook. I am informed by Sandra Herbert and Peter Gautrey that this second series of numbers is in Nora Barlow's handwriting. Since neither the 1.5 nor the 15 are in Darwin's hand they are omitted from the present edition.

The pages of the notebook were not numbered by Darwin and because he wrote in it from both ends inwards, I have numbered the pages in two sequences, pp. 1-64 and pp. 1x-32x. I refer to these two sequences as the front and back of the notebook respectively, although there is no real evidence that one was started before the other. As can be seen, however, from Figures 1-2, the notebook has a hinged brass clasp similar to ones on Darwin's other surviving notebooks, in almost all of which the hinge of the clasp is on the back cover (clearly the easiest arrangement for a right-handed person). I therefore refer to that end of the St Helena Model notebook which bears the hinge of its brass clasp as the back end.


There is only one reference in the notebook as it survives today which is actually dated, and this is the 1839 reference mentioned above. All other entries in the notebook must, therefore, be dated from internal evidence and by comparison with other Darwin manuscripts which can be dated. Broadly there are three more or less distinct sections of the notebook, each of which can be dated in this way.

Firstly, the text from p. 1 to p. 15 forms a discrete essay on the geology of the island of St Helena, based on examination of a large model of the island. The evidence for dating this essay is given in more detail below, but suffice it here to say that it seems to have been written at one sitting, on or about 15 September 1838 (which was a Saturday). Just possibly this essay was written a few months before this date, following a conjectural earlier examination of the model. Darwin himself seems to have treated these first fifteen pages of the notebook as a separate entity, to judge from the pinhole through them.

Secondly, the texts from p. 16 to p. 48 and from p. 5x to p. 29x are almost entirely concerned with the many geological and biological problems that Darwin was examining in the latter months of 1838. There are numerous entries on these pages which have close parallels in the Notebooks, the dating of entries in which can often be stated with certainty, not least because Darwin dated many of them himself. Whilst all such parallel references to the Notebooks which I have found are given in the notes which follow the text, I give here the most closely datable pages against the corresponding Notebooks pages (in parentheses) and dates:

p. 22(D40) between 19 and 22 August 1838
p. 41 (M142) between 13 and 15 September 1838
p. 46 (D105) 13 September 1838

[page] 207

p. 47 (D100) 13 September 1838
p. 48 (D108, 112) 14 to 16 September 1838
p. 29x (D163) 25 September 1838.

Clearly, most of the references support a dating for these pages to September 1838.

Thirdly, the texts from p. 59 to p. 64 and from p. 30x to p. 32x (i.e. the last entries in the notebook) are concerned with house hunting in London. In Darwin's pocket 'Journal' which (as Sandra Herbert first pointed out in 1977: 208) seems to have been first used in August 1838, there is the following entry for 1838 (see Correspondence 2: 432): 'To the end of year House hunting'. Darwin took possession of the keys to 12 Upper Gower Street on 29 December 1838, so that one can say with reasonable confidence that these entries date from late November to December 1838.


As noted above, the first fifteen pages of the notebook form an essay on the geology of St Helena, and the words 'St Helena Model' are written on the notebook's cover (see

Fig 3 Map of The Island & Forts of St Helena (c.1815), scale of 2 miles = 1.75 inches, 25cm x 19cm. Courtesy of the Syndics of Cambridge University Library. (CUL Maps 546.81.1).

[page] 208

Fig. 3. In order to date this essay and to establish its significance, it is necessary to review Darwin's manuscript record concerning St Helena.

When H.M.S. Beagle visited St Helena in July 1836, Darwin took the opportunity to make a detailed examination of its geology, recording his observations in Down House notebooks 1.3 and 1.6. Aboard ship Darwin wrote up his personal diary, which is also today preserved at Down House, and sorted out his geological specimens, which are listed as numbers 3700—28 in the third of four catalogue notebooks which are now on deposit at Cambridge University Library. He also wrote up his detailed geological notes on paper watermarked Wilmot 1834; these notes are now at Cambridge University Library, DAR 38ii, ff. 920—35. At some point before the Beagle reached England, Darwin made some notes on St Helena in his Red Notebook, the most extensive being those on pp. 38—40, which he subsequently excised and are now in DAR 42, f. 84 (see Notebooks: 31).

While Darwin's servant and amanuensis Syms Covington was making a fair copy of his master's personal diary, probably in the early months of 1837, for eventual publication as Journal of Researches (hereinafter referred to as JR), Darwin prepared an additional section on the geology and natural history of St Helena. This section appears on pp. 581—3 of JR, but as Nora Barlow pointed out in her edition of the personal-diary (Barlow, 1933: 439n58) the manuscript of this section appears to be lost, and cannot therefore be precisely dated.

In July 1837 Darwin opened the first two of his post-voyage Notebooks. Notebook A was devoted to geology, notebook B to species. Notebook A contains a reference to St Helena on p. 41: 'The fact of Galapagos Isld. steep side to windward in allusion to St. Helena discussion.' (Notebooks: 96). This note is on an excised fragment now in DAR 42, f. 25, which can be dated approximately to November—December 1837 (Notebooks: 83).

The next datable manuscript dealing with the geology of St Helena is a single sheet of Eyehorn 1837-watermarked paper, bound near the back of DAR 44. The recto of this document is dated 15 September 1838, and headed 'St Helena Model'; it is written in pencil with a few ink annotations and concerns the topography of the north-west and north-east coasts of St Helena. It is written in a similar style to, and clearly overlaps in subject matter with the first fifteen pages of the St Helena Model notebook. Both documents seem to have been written during or immediately after examination of the 'gigantic model' of St Helena, which we know Darwin saw at the East India Company's Military College at Addiscombe, which is now part of Croydon in Surrey (see Darwin 1844, hereinafter referred to as VI: 75 footnote; 1846, hereinafter referred to as GSA: 25). This dating for Darwin's work on the model is substantiated by a letter he wrote to an unknown recipient dated 12 September {1838}, in which he asks permission to examine the model, having apparently seen it 'some months since' (Correspondence 2: 103).

The model itself, which I have not been able to locate and which probably no longer exists, was constructed by Robert Seale, author of The Geognosy of the Island of St Helena (Seale, 1834).

The verso of the DAR 44 manuscript, reproduced here as Figure 4, is an inked-over pencil diagram showing cliff formation on the north-west coast of St Helena. It is clearly developed from the diagram on p. 38 of the Red Notebook, and via various intermediate states preserved in DAR 39ii was published in the section on cliff formation in GSA: 25-6; (see also Notebooks: 31n38-4).

The remaining manuscripts which deal with the geology of St Helena are a series of pencilled notes written, like the DAR 44 sheet discussed above, on Eyehorn 1837 paper and preserved as DAR 42, ff. 94-7. These too are mainly concerned with the subject of coastal erosion and they may well have been written at the same time as the DAR 44

[page] 209

Fig 4 The verso of an unnumbered folio in DAR 44, dated 15 September 1838, which shows a section through the coastline of St Helena. The diagram appears on p. 25 in GSA. Courtesy of the Syndics of Cambridge University Library.

[page] 210

note. The geological notes in DAR 38ii are in places heavily annotated in pencil which may also have been written at the same time as the DAR 44 sheet. There is a light pencil note in the margin of DAR 38ii, f. 931 to 'V[ide] Model'.

There is one other line of evidence to support the dating of the first fifteen pages of the St Helena Model notebook to 15 September 1838 or thereabouts. This is the evidence from Darwin's pocket 'Journal' (see above, p. 207) of his scientific activities at that time:

September 6th Finished paper on Glen Roy—one of the most difficult & instructive tasks I was ever employed on Sept. 14th Frittered these {foregoing days added} away in working on Transmutation theories & correcting Glen Roy Began craters of Elevation Theory
Burkhardt & Smith (1987, Correspondence 2: 436n24) were not able to locate any manuscript by Darwin dealing with his novel explanation for the form of islands such as St Jago, Mauritius and St Helena. Darwin published his 'Crater of Elevation theory' in a special section appended to the chapter on St Helena in VI: 93-6. Darwin's theory, in essence, was that certain types of volcanic islands which consisted of an outer ring of mountains, enclosing a more or less level inner plateau, were the result of differential uplift, with the inner area less elevated than the outer ring of mountains. Such islands—referred to by previous authors as craters of elevation —would otherwise have been explained as resulting from collapse of the inner area following blister-like elevation, or by postulating that the central part of the island had been destroyed by volcanic explosion.

In my opinion, knowing that Darwin began work on the theory on almost the same date that he made his notes on the model of St Helena, we may identify all the Eyehorn 1837-watermarked manuscripts itemized above, and possibly also the annotations to the Beagle notes on St Helena, together with the essay at the start of the St Helena Model notebook, as Darwin's surviving manuscripts on 'Craters of Elevation'.


In the following transcription of Darwin's 'St Helena Model' notebook the original spelling and punctuation have been retained, together with the horizontal lines Darwin drew across the page to mark off pieces of text. All other markings, such as vertical cancelling lines and marginal scoring have been ignored. Notes to the text are indicated by superscript numbers. All editorial matter is included in square brackets and is italicized. Page stubs have not been transcribed. It should be noted that there are no obvious annotations in this notebook, in the sense of text added much later than the main body of the text. This is in marked contrast to some of Darwin's other notebooks (see Notebooks: 12).

< > Darwin's deletion

« » Darwin's insertion

bold type written in ink

illeg illegible

/- -/ doubtful reading

Page numbers are given in square brackets. Excised pages are signified by the notation 'e'.

[page] 211


My thanks are due especially to the Royal College of Surgeons, for allowing me to publish the 'St Helena Model' notebook, and for agreeing most generously to depositing the notebook temporarily at Cambridge University Library so that I could work on it there. It is a pleasure also to acknowledge the help I received at Cambridge from Mr Peter Gautrey, whose ability to read Darwin's handwriting has aided my task a great deal, but who is in no way responsible for the accuracy of the present edition. I am grateful also to Dr Sandra Herbert of the University of Maryland, who has greatly improved my work at several stages and encouraged me to complete the project, as has my partner Allison Butt. Finally I thank the Syndics of Cambridge University Library for permission to quote from manuscripts in their care, and for providing the illustrations for this paper.


[1]       An Elevation inter=
            =mediate between
            Alarm house3
            will give
            mean inclination
            of stream before
            elevation at

[2]        /—Bluimans—/5 probably
            modern lava.

            Horse pasture6
            island slopes
            impossible to guess
            what it is

            High Hill7. I
            should think external
            «a <little> more elevated then rest
            of ring»
            /—Vide—/ basalt & V[ide] specimens

[3]       Hollow «on coast» near Man
            & Horses8 I should «certainly»
            think end of «?capped with
            /—Lava—/ & elevated?»
            external ring: to

            The S. [illeg] Is
            like inside of

            /—Evidently—/ great
            /—remnant—/ near
            Flat Rocks.9

[4]        ?«very doubtful»Whether any
            old rocks near
            Flat rocks?

            Asses ears10 so very
            near coast
            South Barn11
            I should think
            Basaltic, as well
            as Long Range
            point12 x x x

[5]       Cuckolds point13

            Hally's Mount14
            According to
            colouring, base of
            Man & Horse15
           <external> basaltic

            x x x x & I can
            scarcely doubt great

[6]       Stone top16 «is likewise basaltic»

            High Hill17 most

[page] 212


            Part of Barn18
            nearest to Flagstaff19
            higher than seaward
            point from

            The form of South

[7]       Barn20 would lead
            to supposition that
            it dipped to SE by

            If we complete the
            crater<s>/—by—/ Green Hill21
            /—to—/ Nest [Lodge written over
]22, the
            longer axis will be
            parallel to S. Coast
            as/—rise—/ of Green

[8]       Hill is nearly obliterated
           We need not be surprised
            at SW part of
            circle being entirely

            The /—state—/ of outer
            /—ring at—/ (/—true—/ SW)
            point, is quite
            doubtful... cause
            of dip of S Barn23

[9]        Excepting from
             disturbance at the
             /—?—/ Barn24 axis of
             Crater parallel to

            New crater placed
            rather at one
            end of ring of

           Lot. Lots Wife25 &
           & Flagstaff26 in line

[10]    connection true
           or false?

           The tops of
           basaltic masses
           stick up
           above the modern=
           strewn all round
           a little higher

[11]    The lava of Flagstaff27
           did not proceed
           <over> from so
           low a place as
           <Consons> Casons Gate28

           When I talk of
           dip from High
            /—Peak29have—/ I said
           SW for NW!!!??

[12]    The irregular
           position of the
           external /—knobs—/,
           /—would certainly—/
           appear more
           probably due to
           elevation, than
           «to» crater of subsidence

           Appears to have

[13]    less regularity,
           than true crater
           tho' having

           Prosperous Bay30
           Flagstaff ought31
           to have dipped
           due E.

[14]    Barn32 NE
           ought to have
           South «Barn»33 ought to
           have dipped
           S by E
           From black angular

[page] 213

[15]    projecting «mass» at base
           of Man &
           no doubt external
           basaltic, but
           top too smooth
           I must suspect
           structure like

[16]    Dr Lind/—stay—/36Curator

           Ask Gould37 about
           East Indian & Australian
           Birds. with respect
           to /—islets—/38

           think/—s grey—/ with black
           bars cat differ species
           from small tortoise=
           Do get shepherds tail


[21]    Sulivan42 get head of
           ox called "Nata'43

           History of cross breeds
           Gould drawing of
           D'Orbigny45 is giving
           figure shells from
           Ear Doctor47

[22]    Tell Lyell48 of Desnoyers

           Tell Mr Owen50
           of Caout chouk51
           to stop bottle

           There are some
           admirable tables
           of distribution of
           reptiles of <S. America>
           /—bound—/ in Suites
           de Buffon52, of


[25]     /—Wrappers—/??
           about sending to Subscribers53

           Stewart54 about payment
           of the 100 guineas
           for Gould55
           Curtis56 my bill
           Dr Smith57 sharks
           teeth Navedad
           /—will examine them

[26]    Major Mitchel158

           Height of Escarpment
           of Blue Mountains
           «do hybrid dogs <foxes> /—Austral—/
           dogs. breed.-59
           Depth of rivers near

           Any Fossils /—in the—/ Sandstone6l
           /—Pecten Terebratula—/

           Name of Mr Brown62 leaves63
           Do Australian dogs hunt in
           Woodcut of Bomb65

[27]    Pay Lonsdale66 Geolog

           ? May I quote your statement

[page] 214

           about steep shore deep beneath
           water.67 find out about cliffs
           on banks of rivers
           At Head of
           /—Grose—/ I are there
           cliffs & confine attention to this
           one valley
           Do the rivers continue deep
           a little way above tidal action
           cliffs« /—Look out for shells with
           bones not always cliffs—/

[28]    [two illeg words]
           Henrietta —St—/ Bath68
           would probably answer letter
           & give information
           about tailless breed of
           cats69 (origin?) near
           Walmesbury breed??

           Wiltshire sheep. With
           teeth pushing each
           other out
           Plants from Henslow70
           Sulivan71 about
           English Weeds
           Fennel, Sow Thistle


[35]    Council of
          Geolog Soc
           for map of

           Dunford field
           /—Church—/ St
           /—Last—/ number of Lancet, account
           of Owen & Magnetism72 73

[36]    Vol. VII Ed. T.
           p.15774 Sir J Hall
           states that ldquo;a «large« block
           of <rock> «stone» 4 or 5 ft
           in diam, lying within
           high water mark, &
           well known as «having» serving
           to denote the boundary
           of two estates was

           /—during—/ a stormy night
           in water transported
           90 yards, & the person
           on the /—spot was confused—/


[41]    all preserving their
           NE dip

           Miss Martineau p. 21375
           Charity everywhere
           «I doubted it at first» Byron & the
           Fuegian women Have any
           other associated animals
           charity—cows not
           wild cattle & [illeg]

[42]    Wouett on Cattle76
           Waterhouse, has it77

           Ask [Fox78 ink over pencil] to
           on Frogs spawn & to
           procure eggs of
           Land Snail, for me—

           Owen's Edition
           of «Hunters's«Animal


[45]    n.b.

           Pintail & Common
           Duck to get
           some half /—breed—/81
           Bring Picture

           Cross between Black
           Grouse Ptarmigan82

           Pheasant & Grouse in83
           wild—when species decreasing

[page] 215

[46]    Capercailzie84

           Black Grouse &

           Anthus S. American
           going further <South>«North»
           than S. American

[47]    Mr Yarrel87 3"6d

           for number of

           Mr Yarrell [1765 written over
           has book history of

           Treatise on Domestic
           curious, in comparison
           for time,—Mr Yarrell

[48]    Has rock Pidgeon
           <pouter's> specks on
           shoulder, Pouters
           have specks90

           Have any new
           varieties of Pidgeons
           been established?91

           There must be laws of
           variation chance would never
           produce feathers or make
           breed—92?cat without legs?93


[59]    /—modesty [«two illeg words»] & shame—/
           Mr Fuller 8 Albany

           Albany St. 70£. per annum
           no 161—100£ per annum

           Another further up
           this street 80£
           no 27

[60]     Clarges St.-

           Montague Place
           House. Parker
           Keppel St Agent

           Kemp & Son
           37 Judd St.
           House in Woburn
           Place—no 20

[61]     Pearsall & Jorden
           1. Bernard St
           Russell Square
           House in do

           12 Upper Gower95
           St. Furnished or
           unfurnished. «must be latter»
           at Valuation? Pearsall & Jordan: 100 year
           with stables: 4 years-

           [Will hear on Tuesday from France
           written up left margin]

[62]    Mr Stokes96 4
           North Place
           Gray Inn Lane

           Gordon Square

[page] 216

           <Upper> «20» Woburn Place
           bare, (with fixtures
           some) want some
           painting «Landlord probably will
           do no more» rather
           nice house—

[63]    offices rather bad.
           look out/—believing—/
           moderately good
           140 Kemp &
           Son [37 '3' written over '2'] Judd St
           with stables

           17. Woburn Place
           to Purchase Furniture
           rent 110 Lease 7 or

[64]    Tavistock Square97
           2 houses from-
           near Mr/—Crompton's—/
           145£: New
           House belonging to Cubitt98

           Regent Square.

           Geograph Journal
           1839 p. 288
           at Tyre100

           [Back end paper excised]


[5x]    by seeds or not? & what
           will it go back to?

           Give Miller101
           hint, about specimens

           [378 yellow encircled]102

           Von Hoff translated??103

           Take the passage
           & see about my mistake

[6x]    Lonsdale: S. American

           Correction for Lyell
           in little Book105

           Lyell Vol. II Poggendorf
           Annalen about Albite
           ask/—Lyell—/to lookl106


           Earle107 Tristan D'Acunha108

           Mr Whewell109 depths at
           which sea breaks110

[7x]    Cone of Tree from Chile111

           Mr Brown/—e—
           Bomb112 [«cannot find it»
           + Mark of Tree boxed]—
           Is Australian wood coniferous113
           [«yes all I brought» ink over pencil]
           «nearly all filled with agate/—Red
           Jasper—/does not»
           +Norfolk Isld
           Macquarie Is??

           where can I get account?

           Australia & S. America
           at all allied Flora.

           Wild dogs on West Coast
           See 1/—st—/Vol of Geograph

           Bog Iron ore

           Fern «of Australia» being found in

           Ask directions about good
           lens in Paris

[page] 217

[8x]    Lyell flint in Potteries116

          tooth in Sir
         Woodbine's117 possession118


[11x]     Vol III p. 30 Lyell119
              wrong about P. vulpine

              ?Type? size for Zoological

              Ask Baillierè120

              Roget, Bridgewater121

              Translation of Muller122
[12x]    Ice transport of storm
              in Frith of Forth
              p. 157 VII Vol
              «& 8th» Edinburgh Transact123

              Have they «a» Leucopterus
              from Falkland Isd
              at Brit Museum
              for comparison with
              those from T del
              Fuego brought by King124


[19x]      Ask Dr Smith
              thickness of sandstone
              at C. of Good Hope125

              How high is the capping of
              sandstone on Lions Head
              2100ft above sea

              Corvus do Mar
              for Henslow126

              [Whether litters of true hybrids
              are heterogenous or homogenous
              written upside down]127

[20x]      Dr Smith128
              /—Quartz—/ Rock. no
              formation of??
              with respect to origin of

              Granite large
              tab Formation????

              Ask Lonsdale130 about
              «stalagtite layer on» Chalk &
              tab look at
              [three illeg words]

              (with the exception
              of some quartz Hills
              on <near> the West Coast
              near the mouth of Orange
              River) Dr Smith.-131


[23x]    Tooth of Mastodon132
              for Merchant

              Sonnerat133 has
              given account
              of Seychelles
              Voyage aux Indes
              Orientales 1774
              Gould134 has seen
[24x]    /—Cheiroptamus—/135

              Exact Locality


              Sir P Egerton136
              says that Kaup137
              considers M. augusti=dens138
              as only found
              in India—
              European species <come
              from> are M.

[page] 218

[25x]    Jaw of Elephant in
           Geolog Soc

           Edin Transacts
           Vol. VI p 165139
           considers Somma
           is fragment of large
           volcano Sir J

           do p. 173140 Has seen
           clay stiff enough for
           potters use with
           /—great—/ crystals of ice
           /—found—/ in them, &
           fragments of rock, with
           angles <stay> sharp, yet with
           [character completely altered &
           two illeg words superinduced
           written up right margin]

[26x]    Edentate Head. one plate141

           Mastodont one plate

           4 Plates
           2 Plates for little

           1 Tessalated covering
           6 Scelidotherium
           1—Lower jaw
           1 Megatherium
           1 && [18 boxed] 2"18

[27x]    Theory of Volcanos
           «/—Count—/» Byelandt

           Rat from

           Shall I give Institute
           /—d'—/France Mammalia145

           Lyell Volcanic

[28x]    /—Macaio—/
           Is there any relation
           between boss of Indian
           cattle & structure
           Bison &c147

           Analyse this in
           all cases whether
           variation /—assumes—/
           character allied to
           specific ones
           same genus—

[29x]   Write to Sulivan148 to
           enquire about wild
           «Have they long ears & what
           colour?? »
           dogs on the Pampas

           Do male animals lose
           passion from breeding in &

           How many generations was
           this effected in case of
           Bantam & Polish Cochin150
           in Pidgeons how many generations
           old on an average 151

           [Vertebra of Indian Cattle
ink over
Eyton. dissect.—153

           Skeletons of Pidgeons
           1/2 one. 3. oclock
           1/4. 1. 1/2 past one

[30x]   Pay Lye11154for
           Pritchard155Chemical Co/—ncre—/
           Volcanic Dust156———
           Remnants of Carpets157 Mat for
           Windows cleaned
           Staircase cover washed
           Walls cleaned
           white curtains washed

[page] 219

[31x]    Two easy chairs

              Blinds in red
              Rooms washed

              Muslin all to be

              T. Carlyle159-Public

              Flint in Pottery
              ——written upside down]160

[32x]    Common table &
              2nd Washing stand

              Lyell161-Maclarens162 has written
              on Salisbury Craigs


Biographical notes are adaptations of those given in the Correspondence.

  1. There are five lines of illegible very feint words written on the inside front end paper.
  2. Longwood (elevation 1760') was Napoleon's residence on St Helena; it is located in the east-central part of the island (see Cross, 1980).
  3. Alarm House (elevation 1960'?) is approximately 1 mile west of Longwood.
  4. Flagstaff Hill (elevation 2275') is on the north-east coast, overlooking Flagstaff Bay.
  5. Not identified.
  6. Horse Pasture is a large sloping area about three miles south-west of Jamestown.
  7. High Hill (elevation 2314') is about two miles south of Horse Pasture.
  8. Man and Horse is a high cliff area at the south-west corner of St Helena.
  9. The Flat Rocks are two of the islets off the southern tip of St Helena.
  10. The Asses Ears (elevation about 1660') are two peaks at the the southern tip of the island.
  11. South Barn is presumably Sandy Bay Barn (elevation 1413') which is in the centre of the south coast, on the eastern side of Sandy Bay.
  12. Long Range (elevation 1936') and Long Range Point are on the south-eastern edge of Sandy Bay.
  13. Cuckholds Point (elevation 2672') is in the centre of the island, on the northern rim of Sandy Bay.
  14. Halley's Mount (elevation 2200') is halfway between Cuckhold's Point and Alarm House. It was from this point that Edmund Halley observed the transits of Mercury and Venus in 1676.
  15. See note 8.
  16. Great Stone Top (elevation 1620') is near the south-east corner of the island.
  17. See note 7.
  18. The Barn (elevation 2019') is at the north-west tip of the island.
  19. See note 4.
  20. See note 11.
  21. Green Hill (elevation 1650') is about 1 mile south of Cuckhold's Point.
  22. [page] 220

  23. West Lodge (elevation 2200') is about 1 mile east-south-cast of High Hill. Darwin both here and in VI refers to it as Nest Lodge.
  24. See note 11.
  25. See note 18.
  26. Lot (elevation 1489') and Lot's Wife (elevation 1516') are peaks in the interior of Sandy Bay.
  27. See note 4.
  28. See note 4.
  29. Casons Gate has not been located.
  30. High Peak (elevation 2616') is about 2 miles east of High Hill. Darwin's question to himself here almost certainly relates to his Beagle notes (DAR 38ii, f. 929).
  31. Prosperous Bay is on the north-east coast of St Helena.
  32. See note 4.
  33. See note 18.
  34. See note 11.
  35. See note 8.
  36. See note 4.
  37. Not identified.
  38. Gould, John (1804-81). Self-taught ornithologist and artist. Taxidermist to the Zoological Society of London, 1826-81. Described the birds collected on the Beagle expedition (Gould, 1838-41). FRS 1834.
  39. Related matter appears in B249.
  40. Eyton, Thomas Campbell (1809-80). Shropshire naturalist and collector of bird skins and skeletons. Friend and Cambridge contemporary of Darwin.
  41. Waterhouse, George Robert (1810-88). Naturalist. A founder of the Entomological Society, 1833. Curator, Zoological Society of London, 1836-43. On staff of the British Museum 1843-80. Described some of Darwin's entomological specimens from the Beagle voyage (see Smith, 1987) as well as the Beagle mammals (Waterhouse, 1838-9).
  42. 'Waterhouse thinks two main divisions of cats. Tortoise shell & grey-banded. ?species?' B250.
  43. Sulivan, Bartholomew James (1810-90). Naval officer and hydrographer. Lieutenant in the Beagle, 1831-6. Surveyed the Falkland Islands, 1836-46 (Moore & Scannell, 1986). Admiral 1877.
  44. Nata cattle are described in Variation 1: 89-91. They may also be the subject of a manuscript Darwin sent to George Robert Gray in December 1838 (see Correspondence 2: 136).
  45. Almost certainly a reference to Gould's illustration of Darwin's Rhea, Pterocnemia pennata d'Orbigny, which was published in Gould (1841).
  46. D'Orbigny, Alcide Charles Victor Dessalines (1802-57). French palaeontologist who travelled widely in South America, 1826-34.
  47. Probably a reference to the figures of South American fossils which appeared in the 'Atlas de la partie historique' of d'Orbigny (1846).
  48. Colp (1977) does not seem to have found any evidence that Darwin had any ear complaint.
  49. Lyell, Charles (1797-1875). Uniformitarian geologist. Professor of Geology, King's College, London, 1831-3. President of the Geological Society, 1834-6 and 1849-50. Scientific mentor and friend of Darwin. FRS 1826. Lyell was in Scotland from late August until mid-November 1838 (Wilson, 1972).
  50. [page] 221

  51. Possibly Desnoyers (1831-2), although Lyell already knew of this paper (Notebooks: 405n35-1).
  52. Owen, Richard (1804-92). Comparative anatomist. Assistant conservator at the Hunterian Museum, Royal College of Surgeons, 1827; Hunterian Professor, 1836-56. Superintendent of the Natural History Department of the British Museum, 1856-84. Described the Beagle fossil mammal specimens (Owen, 1838-40). FRS 1834.
  53. Caoutchouc, or India-rubber, could be used to seal a bottle.
  54. An almost identical reference occurs on D40 and the 'Suites' are also referred to on D179 and on the inside back cover of C (Notebooks: 327nIBC-4). The D40 note was made between the 19th and 22nd of August 1838.
  55. Presumably a reference to subscribers to the Zoology (Freeman, 1977; Correspondence 2).
  56. Mr Stewart of Stewart and Murray, printers of the Zoology.
  57. See note 37.
  58. C. M. Curtis, artist for the Zoology mammalia volume (Waterhouse, 1838-9), no.2 of which appeared in September 1838.
  59. Smith, Andrew (1797-1872). Army surgeon stationed in South Africa, 1821-37. Principal Medical Officer at Fort Pitt, Chatham, 1837; Deputy Inspector-General, 1845. Director-General, Army Medical Department, 1853-8. FRS 1857. Darwin collected sharks' teeth at Navedad in 1834 (see GSA), but I can trace no connection between Andrew Smith and South America or sharks' teeth.
  60. Mitchell, Thomas Livingstone (1792-1855). Surveyor-General, New South Wales, 1825-55.
  61. See C159,189 and D180 on the subject of breeding between native and european dogs.
  62. See VI: 135 for Mitchell's information on Australian river valleys, published in Mitchell (1838). Darwin records a communication with Mitchell, probably datable to April 1838, on the same subject (see Notebooks: 113n92—1).
  63. Probably a reference to fossils from Tasmania, judging from the proximity to the following reference (note 62). See Banks (1971) and DAR 40, if. 45-9.
  64. Brown, Robert (1773-1858). Botanist. Librarian to Joseph Banks, 1810-58. Keeper of the Botanical collections, British Museum, 1827-58. FRS 1811. Mabberley (1985).
  65. The text on pp.26-7 is drawn over heavily with doodles and sketches of plants. These may be fossil plants from Tasmania given to Robert Brown for description. See fig. 1, and VI: 140.
  66. 'Major Mitchell is not aware that Australian dogs ever hunt in company—'C213. Entry made in the early summer of 1838.
  67. May refer to the woodcuts of volcanic bombs in VI: 36, 38.
  68. Lonsdale, William (1794-1871). Geologist. Served the Geological Society from 1829 to 1842, first as curator and librarian, and after 1838 as assistant secretary and librarian. Lonsdale was a frequent source of information for Darwin.
  69. This question may be directed at Major Mitchell. See note 60.
  70. Henrietta Street is near the centre of Bath.
  71. 'There is a breed of tailless cats, near Bath. Lonsdale' C175. William Lonsdale (see note 66) provided Darwin with other examples of varieties of domesticated animals (Notebooks: 293-4).
  72. Henslow, John Stevens (1796-1861). Clergyman, botanist, and mineralogist, Cambridge University, 1822-7; Professor of Botany, 1825-61. Darwin's teacher and friend. The background to Henslow's involvement with plants collected by Darwin is given in Porter (1985).
  73. [page] 222

  74. See note 42.
  75. The last two lines are written horizontally as was the previous page of text, judging from words on the stub of 34e. The other lines on p.35 were written vertically in the remaining blank space.
  76. See note 50. The reference has not been traced, although there was correspondence on 'animal magnetism' in The Lancet at this time (e.g. issue of September 22, p. 34).
  77. Hall (1815) is also referred to in A36. See also note 123.
  78. 'Miss Martineau (How to Observe p. 213) says charity is found everywhere (is it not present with all associated animals?) I doubted it in Fuegians, till I remembered Bynoes story of the women.—' M142. This entry was made between 13 and 15 September 1838. Note that the name in the St Helena Model notebook is clearly Byron. The reference is to Martineau (1838). See also Correspondence 1: 520.
  79. 76. Youatt (1834).
  80. See note 40. 'Wowett on Cattle—(Waterhouse has it)' CIBC.
  81. Fox, William Darwin (1805-80). Darwin's second cousin. A close friend at Cambridge who shared Darwin's enthusiasm for entomology.
  82. 'Experimentise on land shells in salt water & lizards do.—' B248.
  83. Hunter (1837), listed on C270. See note 50.
  84. Hybrid pintail and common ducks are referred to on D25,26,33,89,IBC. See also Natural Selection: 433n1, and Variation 2: 45.
  85. Crossing between black grouse and ptarmigan is referred to on D72, dated 8 September 1838 and on D105-6, datable to 13 September 1838. The subject is dealt with in some detail in Natural Selection: 434-6, and Darwin's interest in it seems likely to have originated during his fieldwork at Glen Roy in late June 1838. See Notebooks: 345n43-1.
  86. Grouse-pheasant hybrids are mentioned on B189,D33,105-6 and E106. See note 82.
  87. The capercailzie is mentioned on D73 and 105.
  88. See note 82.
  89. 86. Probably a reference to Anthus corrender Viellot, mentioned in Gould (1839: 85) as having 'probably a further range southward than any other land-bird in the southern hemisphere.'
  90. Yarrell, William (1784-1856). Zoologist. Engaged in business as newspaper agent and bookseller in London. Wrote standard works on British birds and fishes.
  91. Possibly Hunter (1786) or (1792), listed on C267.
  92. Moore (1765). An almost identical entry occurs on D100. See Notebooks: 362n100-1. This cross-reference almost certainly dates to 13 September 1838.
  93. This is discussed on D100-1. See Notebooks: 362n100-2, and note 89.
  94. 'as in pidgeons no new races.—' D104.
  95. I agree with the reading of this page given in Notebooks: 362n100-2, although the phrase may be 'produce feathers and make bones'. Very similar wording occurs on D112.
  96. 'Yarrell told me of a cat & a dog, born without front legs—' D108. 'if armless cat can propogate' D112. These pages are datable to between 14 and 16 September 1838.
  97. Darwin started househunting on or about 25 November 1838 (See Correspondence 2: 120).
  98. Freeman (1982) gives an excellent account of the events leading up to the establishment of the newlywed Darwin household at 12 Upper Gower Street ('Macaw Cottage') in January 1839.
  99. This may be Charles Stokes (1783-1853). See Wilson (1972, chapter 10).
  100. [page] 223

  101. A prospective house in Tavistock Square is mentioned in a letter from Darwin to Emma Wedgwood dated 27 November 1838 (Correspondence 2: 129).
  102. Thomas Cubitt (1788-1855) is mentioned as the developer of Tavistock Square in Freeman (1982).
  103. '2/6' is written in the top left hand corner. It is presumably the price of the notebook (two shillings and six pence).
  104. This reference of 1839 is the latest date in the notebook. The reference is to De Berthou (1839). The only other reference to the 1839 volume of the Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London in Darwin's handwriting of which I am aware is the annotation on the letter from J. G. Malcolmson of 7 October 1839 (Correspondence2: 225).
  105. Miller, William Hallowes (1801-80). Mineralogist and crystallographer. Professor of Mineralogy, Cambridge University, 1832-80. FRS 1838.
  106. Geological specimen 3378, from Tahiti. There is a note in Darwin's specimen catalogue (on deposit at CUL) to 'V. app[endix] p. 19', which is a reference to DAR 39.1,f.88. The specimen is mentioned in a note from J. S. Henslow dated 5 November 1837-March 1838 (Correspondence 2: 55n2), in Darwin's letter to Henslow of 26 March 1838 (Correspondence 2: 79n4), and in Darwin's letter to W. H. Miller of 16 October-27 November 1842 (Correspondence 2: 339n2).
  107. Presumably Hoff (1822-24).
  108. See note 66. One explanation of this entry is that Darwin was entertaining the possibility of William Lonsdale describing at least some of his invertebrate fossils from South America. In the event Lonsdale described Darwin's fossils from Tasmania (Lonsdale 1844) while George Brettingham Sowerby (1788-1854) and Edward Forbes (1815-54) described Darwin's Cenozoic and Mesozoic fossils respectively (Sowerby 1846, Forbes 1846). Darwin enquired concerning Sowerby's credentials for the task in a letter to J. S. Henslow of October 1836 (Correspondence 1: 512n4). Sowerby also described Darwin's shells from the Cape Verdes and from St Helena and Tasmania (Sowerby 1844).
  109. Possibly a reference to Lyell (1840). Darwin was reading this work in manuscript in September 1838 (see Correspondence 2: 107n8).
  110. Lyell (1837,2: 175) 'According to Von Buch, the American volcanic rocks contain generally less albite instead of common felspar as a principal ingredient (Poggendorf's Annalen, 1836, p. 190).'
  111. Earle, Augustus (1793-1838). Artist and traveller. Artist in the Beagle, 1831-2. Hackforth-Jones (1980).
  112. Augustus Earle spent nine months on Tristan da Cunha in 1824 (see note 107). Darwin may have been interested in the action of waves on the island (see note 110).
  113. 109. Whewell, William (1794-1866). Mathematician and historian and philosopher of science. Tutor at Trinity College, Cambridge, 1823-38; Master 1841-66. Professor of Mineralogy, Cambridge University, 1828-32. FRS 1820.
  114. In a letter to Robert Mallet (1810-81) of 26 August 1846 Darwin says he consulted William Whewell (see note 109) on the subject of waves while preparing JR. See Correspondence 3: 335. In A59 the subject of breaking waves is mentioned with respect to Tristan da Cunha (see note 108).
  115. See note 62.
  116. See note 65.
  117. There is a general connection between these entries and those on B187 and C238-9.
  118. The wild dogs of King George's Sound are discussed by Nind (1832: 29).
  119. See Ehrenberg (1837), mentioned on A93 (Notebooks:114n93-1).
  120. [page] 224

  121. See notes 140 and 160.
  122. Parish, Woodbine (1796-1882). Diplomat. Charge d'affaires in Buenos Aires, 1825-32. FRS 1824.
  123. Possibly a reference to the 'single detached tooth' of a Megatherium, mentioned as having been in Parish's collection by Owen (1840: 102).
  124. 'Thus the Phalangista vulpina inhabits both Sumatra and New Holland' Lyell (1837, 3: 30). Lyell took his reference from Temminck (1827: 16, 19). Waterhouse told Darwin that he did not believe Temminck's statement to be true, in a letter sent to 12 Upper Gower Street (and therefore dating from the last few days of 1838 at the earliest; see Correspondence 2: 154). There is a very similar entry in B249e (Notebooks: 232-3).
  125. Baillière, Hippolyte (d.1867). Bookseller and publisher in London who specialised in French medical and scientific texts.
  126. Roget (1834).
  127. Muller (1838-42).
  128. Hall (1815: 157). This entry cross-refers to p. 36 (see note 74). It is not clear why Darwin has added a reference to the eighth volume of the Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh.
  129. See King (1828: 423-6).
  130. 125. See note 57. The sandstone, which is 2000 feet thick, is described in VI: 150-152.
  131. See note 70. A mistake for Cocos do mer, mentioned on E164 in relation to discussions with Henslow on 27 May 1839.
  132. 'Are the hybrids of those species. which cross & are fertile heterogenous' DIBC. See Notebooks: 345n43-1.
  133. See note 56.
  134. These two entries relate to information given by Smith on the geology of South Africa (see notes 125 and 131).
  135. See note 66.
  136. This is presumably Smith's reply to Darwin's enquiry at the top of the page.
  137. Darwin found Mastodon teeth at Gorodona (GSA: 87-8; Owen, 1840: 108). See notes 137-8.
  138. Sonnerat (1782).
  139. See note 37.
  140. Cheroptamus Cuvier is an Eocene mammal related to pigs (Buckland, 1836 1: 80).
  141. Egerton, Philip de Malpas Grey (1806-81). Of Oulton Park, Cheshire. Tory MP for South Cheshire, 1835-68. FRS 1831. Egerton was a vertebrate palaeontologist, specializing in fossil fish and footprints.
  142. Kaup (1832-5).
  143. Mastodon augustidens Cuvier is referred to on C46 and E32, the latter reference dated 26 October 1838. See note 132.
  144. Hall (1812).
  145. Hall (1812). An almost verbatim reference to the same observation occurs on A111, datable to before 11 August 1838. This may cross-refer to the subject touched on in notes 116 and 160.
  146. This is a list of the plates thought necessary to illustrate the fossil mammalia of the Beagle (Owen, 1838-40). The following are the most probable identifications of the plates listed:
  147. [page] 225

    'Edentate Head' Glossotherium in Owen (1839: pl. 16)
    'Mastodont'not illustrated
    'Tessalated covering' Hoplophorus Owen (1840: pl. 32, figs. 4-5)
    'Scelidotherium'Scelidotherium Owen (1839-40: pls. 20-8)
    'Lower jaw'Megalonyx in Owen (1840: pl. 29)
    'Megatherium'Megatherium Owen (1840: pl. 30)

  148. Not identified.
  149. Probably refers to a supposed fossil rat listed by Clift (1831), mentioned on C131 (see Notebooks: 278n131-1). See note 144.
  150. See note 50. Possibly Darwin was seeking Owen's opinion as to whether the rat (see note 143) was correctly identified.
  151. Darwin seems to be asking if he should donate a copy of Waterhouse (1838-9) to the Institute de France.
  152. See notes 48 and 156. Lyell gave Darwin a letter written to him in March 1838 which reported volcanic dust falling on a ship at sea (Correspondence 2: 77-8).
  153. A very similar passage occurs on D65, dated 7 September 1838. See also note 152.
  154. See note 42. There are several entries concerning wild dogs of the world in the Notebooks (e.g. D7-8).
  155. 'Breeding in & in Infertility & loss of passion?? in Male?' occurs in draft 'Questions for Mr Wynne', datable to February—July 1838 (Correspondence 2: 71).
  156. Closely related discussion occurs on D163, dated 25 September 1838.
  157. '(.. & not effect of breeding in & in like our pidgeons)' D88.
  158. See note 147.
  159. See notes 39 and 151.
  160. See note 48.
  161. Prichard (1836).
  162. See note 146.
  163. See note 94.
  164. See note 48.
  165. Carlyle, Thomas (1795-1881). Essayist and historian. Darwin met Carlyle for the first time in November 1838 (Correspondence 2:128).
  166. See notes 116 and 140.
  167. See note 48. Lyell mentioned Salisbury Craigs in his letter to Darwin dated 6 and 8 September 1838 (Correspondence 2:99).
  168. Maclaren, Charles (1782-1866). Established The Scotsman, 1817; editor, 1820-45. Wrote on geological subjects. Presumably Darwin knew of Maclaren (1839).


Short Titles of Darwin Works and Editions


The Correspondence of Charles Darwin. Vol. 1.Eds. Frederick Burkhardt, Sydney Smith; David

[page] 226

Kohn, William Montgomery and Stephen V. Pocock. Cambridge 1985; Vol. 2: Eds. Frederick Burkhardt, Sydney Smith; Janet Browne, David Kohn, William Montgomery, Stephen V. Pocock, Charlotte Bowman, Anne Secord. Cambridge 1986. Vol. 3. idem 1987.

Geological observations on South America. Being the third part of the geology of the voyage of the 'Beagle', under the command of Capt. FitzRoy, R. N. during the years 1832 to 1836. London 1846.

Journal of researches into the geology and natural history of the various countries visited by H.M.S. 'Beagle', under the command of Captain FitzRoy, R.N. from 1832 to 1836. London 1839.

Natural Selection
Charles Darwin's Natural Selection, being the second part of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Ed. Robert C. Stauffer. Cambridge 1975.

Charles Darwin's Notebooks, 1836-1844. Eds Paul H. Barrett, Peter J. Gautrey, Sandra Herbert, David Kohn & Sydney Smith. London and Cambridge 1987.

The variation of animals and plants under domestication. 2 vols. London 1868.

Geological observations on the volcanic islands, visited during the voyage of H.M.S. 'Beagle', together with some brief notices on the geology of Australia and the Cape of Good Hope. Being the second part of the geology of the voyage of the 'Beagle', under the command of Capt. FitzRoy, R. N. during the years 1832 to 1836. London 1844.

The zoology of the voyage of H.M.S. 'Beagle' under the command of Captain FitzRoy, R. N., during the years 1832 to 1836. Published with the approval of the Lords Commissioners of Her Majesty's Treasury. Ed. Charles Darwin. London 1839-43.


Banks, M. R. 1971. A Darwin manuscript on Hobart Town. Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania 105: 5-19.
Barlow, N. 1933 (Ed.). Charles Darwin's diary of the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle. Cambridge.
Barlow, N. 1945. Charles Darwin and the voyage of the 'Beagle'. London.
Buckland, W. 1836. Geology and mineralogy considered with reference to natural theology. 2 vols. London.
Clift, W. 1831. Report by Mr Clift, of the College of Surgeons, London, in regard to the fossil bones found in the caves and bone-breccias of New Holland. Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal 10: 394-5.
Colp, R. 1977. To be an invalid: the illness of Charles Darwin. 285pp. Chicago.
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De Berthou, J. 1939. Extract from a notice on the site of ancient Tyre. Journal of the Royal Geographical Society 9: 286-94.
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