RECORD: Darwin, C. R. 7-10.1838. Notebook D: [Transmutation of species]. CUL-DAR123.- Edited by John van Wyhe (Darwin Online,

REVISION HISTORY: Text prepared by Kees Rookmaaker based on the transcriptions of de Beer et al. de Beer's footnotes are retained. 11.2008. RN1

de Beer, Gavin ed. 1960. Darwin's notebooks on transmutation of species. Part II. Second notebook [C] (February to July 1838). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Historical Series 2, No. 3 (May): 75-118 Text F1574

de Beer, G., Rowlands, M. J. and Skramovsky, B. M. eds. 1967. Darwin's notebooks on transmutation of species. Part VI. Pages excised by Darwin. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Historical Series 3 (5) (21 March): 129-176 Text F1574f

Four pages (95-96 and 105-106) were found after the publication of de Beer et al. 1967, and the transcription has here been added without footnotes.

NOTE: See record in the Darwin Online manuscript catalogue, enter its Identifier here.

This notebook is bound in red leather with the border blind embossed with a metal clasp and had a total of 180 numbered pages. Out of these, 84 were excised by Darwin, of which 52 pages (27 leaves) have been found and restored in the transcription. 32 pages (16 leaves) have not been found, i.e. pages 27, 28, 45, 46, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 97, 98, 109, 110, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 149, 150. In appearance it resembles Notebook M, the two notebooks being apparently manufactured twins. Both covers bear cream-coloured paper labels with clipped corners.

See the fully annotated transcription of this notebook in Barrett et al eds. 1987. Charles Darwin's notebooks, 1836-1844: Geology, transmutation of species, metaphysical enquiries. British Museum (Natural History); Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Reproduced with permission of The Natural History Museum, the Syndics of Cambridge University Library and William Huxley Darwin.

[front cover]


[inside front cover]

Charles Darwin
36 Great Marlborough St


Did1 Eyton's2 intermediate hybrids when interbred show any tendency to return to either parent? Is the first cross which makes hybrids productive like geese? — Are the number of kittens between Lion & Tiger at litter as numerous as in common lion? Are the number of nipples in domesticated very fertile animals increased? Where offspring heterogeneous in plants are the number of seeds greater? — Mem. for Eyton. — Sir R. Heron's3 case of breed of pigs with solid feet. —

(In this Book some curious note on monkeys recognizing sexes of animals.4)

(All selected Dec. 14 — 1856)

Towards close I first thought of selection owing to struggle

1 The remaining words on this cover inserted at a later date.
2 Thomas Campbell Eyton.
3 Sir Robert Heron, cf. Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication, London 1868 2: 92. Footnote: "Extract of a letter from Sir R. Heron, 1838 given me by Mr. Yarrell".
4 This and the following two sentences, inserted in pencil at a later date.


July 15th 1838 Finished October 2d.

As a proof what trifling unknown causes act upon people my father1 mention that for ten years, he never saw one case of malignant erysipelas spreading over the head, not caused by a wound, when suddenly during one time he had three patients at very distant quarters of the county, who had had no sort of communication, were seized with it, & for ten years afterwards, he then did not see other cases. — He thinks Apoplexy affects people all over England at same periods.

1 Robert Waring Darwin.


When he began practice, he remember during a year or two he saw many cases of virulent cancer in women, & since that time it has been rare disease, but now (July 1838) he has seen more cases in a month, than in several previous years, two having consulted him on one day. —


Mark1 at Shrewsbury thinks the half bred Alderney cows take more after Alderney than the Durham, with which they have been crossed — is Alderney oldest breed — He believes all pretty much alike. — My Fathers Water in the brain2 a century since used to be called Worm Fever, as used much more lately diseased mesatine glands. — My Father has seen case of pleurisy, broken limb in children & other such disorders accompanied with some fever, be attended by the transmission of large number of worms

1 Mark, Dr Darwin's coachman at Shrewsbury, cf. Emma Darwin, Cambridge 1904 2: 13.
2 "Water in the brain" appears to have been Dr. Darwin's term for this disorder.


the child not having passed them before. Hence disordered intestines are not healthy to worms, (like parasites of Tropical countries cannot endure this climate). —
July 23d. Eyton,1 a stone blind horse, seemed to perceive turn on road where no houses to Caton Muscote, where he had been accustomed to turn down, — applicable to birds migrations & mistakes in Savages.

1 Thomas Campbell Eyton. Probably personal communication.


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W. D. Fox1 has a cat which he bought in Portsmouth, said to come from coast of Guinea, — ears bare, skin black & wrinkled — fur short (tail cut off in progeny peculiar) limbs very long, eyes very large, very fierce to dogs. — otherwise habits not different; tone of voice perhaps rather different. Crossed with common cat, exact variety unknown, three kittens alike each other, partaking more very closely of form of mother: more than of the common cat. —
([in pencil:] Ch IX Mongrels Hybrids)
Fox has half Persian cat which bred with unknown common house cat. — had four kittens. two appeared

1 William Darwin Fox, personal communication.


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so very like common cat, that they were killed & other two very closely resembled in form of tail, fur &c. to the half bred Persian. — Here then we have clear case of heterogenous offspring from one impregnation. ?is this one impregnation, or two impregnations one giving half character & other more of English, but the effect is the same. —
Fox thinks that when a wild animal is crossed with a


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tame, offspring always takes most after wild. — i.e. that no domesticated ones have been so long as wild one under present form. — Fox has seen several cases of foxes and dogs crossed. offspring always more resembled foxes than dogs (mem Jackal in Zoolog. Gardens) He has seen in a show half wolf & half Esquimaux dog which appeared to be intermediate between two parents. — this is very interesting as Esquimaux dog approaches to species. Again he has seen several crosses between Esquimaux dog & common dogs & Fox thinks they decidedly take


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much more after Esquimaux. — this agrees perfectly with Yarrell1 & no leading question was put. —
Fox thinks half Lion & Tigers are exactly intermediate in character & kittens alike each other. —
Even in children of parents some one sometimes resembles one parent & one another & are not exactly intermediate. —

1 William Yarrell ; this and the following pages read like notes taken at a discussion meeting of the Zoological Society.

8 [sic,= 9]

When two dogs line the same bitch & perfect spaniels & setters are produced one would argue the whole effect of race was determined by male: &c
How completely is Lord Moreton's1 case opposed to this fact & views.
Fox2 says a cousin, one of Mr Strutt of his used to breed to common & Muscovy Ducks. — English, Common China & Canada Geese, & that they this first cross were equally fertile with pure bred animals. — Mem. number of mules. — He recollects one hatch of hybrid geese very fine. — How is it

1 Lord Morton. "A Communication of a singular fact in Natural History", (read November 1820) Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc., 1821, vol. cxi, p. 20.
2 William Darwin Fox. Darwin's second cousin.


with plants? This indicates a remarkable law, that first cross not so plentiful, second absolutely sterile. —
My case of stallion, according to Erasmus1 preferring young mare to old, explained by stallion (according to Fox) being guided entirely by their smell.
Fox2 says he knew a carter well who placed his stallion as second horse between whi shaft mares

1 Presumably Erasmus Alvey Darwin, Darwin's elder brother.
2 William Darwin Fox. Personal communication.


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& another leader mare. — this stallion though eager to all other mares had been entirely broken from these mares, (though horsing every month) & worked in the same cart in loose chains, by being at first beaten from her, & always accustomed to her. — even parallel to brothers & sisters in mankind. —
The case of all blue eyed cats (Fox has seen repeated cases) being deaf curious case of corelation of imperfect structure. —


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Fox says in Lord Exeter's Park or in the Duke of Marlborough there is a breed of white-tailed squirrels, which form a marked wild variety, doubtful whether all are white.
Fox says the Half Muscovy.
Fox says a settler near Swan river lost his two cows entirely, changed his residence a great many miles — yet one day a cow walked in, then disappeared, & three days afterwards came again, bringing with her the other & younger cow. —


Fox1 says where common & China geese are crossed the neck is not intermediate in its peculiar long neck, but much nearer to common goose. —
What has long been in blood, will remain in blood, — converse, what has not been, will not remain, — yet offspring must be somewhat like parents, — therefore offspring will tend to go back, or have none, — this argument does not apply to first parents, because they are not new breed. — the first hybrids may be

1 William Darwin Fox. Personal communication.


compared to animal with amputated limb. — Hereditary thr six-fingered people, Hill Lord Berwick family with defective palates, hereditary & therefore exceptions to above law. — Study what these monsters are: — are they abortive twins. — The fertility of first cross, as stated by Fox, is very important, as showing above facts as first cross being new species. — Are not dreadful monsters abortive, just like mules.


Fox's1 half bred Persian cats favour the Persian side. —
Theory of abortive hybrids. — If mules did breed the offspring would as in all other animals be like either parent or intermediate within certain small limits (within which limits they might return to either parent). Then according [to] law, that in proportion as things are long in blood so will they remain, a mule being new species will have every tendency to have offspring like parent, but as they must [be] like or there will be none, therefore a mule can have no offspring. — But as badly deformed people & as mutilations (produced very quickly) sometimes have similar offsprings, so will the worst mules (as real mule) have offspring. — Slight deformities as supernumerary fingers (that is slight alteration of primitive stocks related to changes which every species undergoes) & hybrids between very near species (that is slight alterations of primitive stock) are hereditary: Hybrids & Varieties is different because not long in blood. = The case of union of perfect animals is

1 William Darwin Fox. Personal communication.


distinct case, — gradation from physical impossibility to (perhaps increased) fertility — (but many animals are fertile, — when offspring infertile, — two considerations are here combined.). In last page, we have seen mules could have no offspring, & this being case, owing to the corelations of system, the organ of generation would necessarily fail. —
In last page, I should have said, "an animal acquires the any new is only able to transmit only those peculiarities to its offspring, which have been gained slowly, now all the mules


have their whole body form of body gained in one generation, so it is impossible to transmit them, & as offspring must be like parent, therefore mule has no offspring & therefore no generative organ.
Same Prop. better enunciated. — An animal in either parent cannot transmit to its offspring any peculiarity change from the form which it inherits from its parents stock without it be small & slowly attained.
N.B. The longer a thing is in the blood the more persistent any amount of change & shorter time less so. The result of this is that animal would endeavour to return to parent stock, but if both parents are alike, offspring must be like.


Hence mutilations not hereditary, but size of particular muscles. — When two animals cross, each sends his own likeness & the union makes hybrid, in fact the parents beget child like themselves, expression of countenances, organic diseases, mental disposition, stature, are slowly obtained & hereditary; but if the change be congenital (that is most slowly obtained with respect to that individual) it is more easily inherited, — but if change be in blood long, it becomes part of animal, — by a succession of such changes generations, these small changes become multiplied, & great change be effected, but


in a mule these conditions are not fullfilled. My grandfathers1 theory of mules not hereditary, because generation highest point of organization, false. — The creator would thus contradict his own law.
So far is there any appearance of animals being created, it is probable if created at once, wd according to ordinary laws, the character of offspring would vary, or rather they would not have offspring. —
On the idea of generation being a slip bud from parent, if whole parent not entirely imbued with the change, a bud could not be taken, without it either went back, or not being perfect would perish. —

1 Erasmus Darwin. Zoonomia, London 1794 1: 513: "mules which evidently partake of both parents, but principally of the male parent".


The varieties of the domesticated animals must be most complicated, because they are partly local & then the local ones are taken to fresh country & breed confined to certain best individuals. — scarcely any breed but what some individuals are picked out, — in a really natural breed, not one is picked out, & few even of local varieties approaches quite to wild local variety, our European varieties must be very unnatural. — Italian Greyhound is probably the effect of sev local variety many times changed


together with some training in the earlier branches as in common greyhound & much intermarriage.
In my speculations, must not go back to first stock of all animals, but merely to classes where types exist, for if so, it will be necessary to show how the first eye is formed, — how one nerve becomes sensitive to light, (Mem. whole plant may be considered as one large eye — have they smell, do plants emit odour solely for other parts of creation) & another nerve to finest vibration of sound, which is impossible. —


Mr Spence1 remarks that the Fringilla domestica of North Europe is replaced by the F. cisalpina in Italy which is so like that difference would not be discovered by an unscientific observer. — Transactions of the Entomological Soc.
A capital passage might be made from comparison of man, with expression of monkey when offended, who loves who fears who is curious &c. &c. &c. who imitates. — who will say there is distinct creation required if he believe Hyaena & squirrel seal & mouse elephant, come from one stock. —

1 William B. Spence. "Observations on a mode practised in Italy of excluding the Common House-fly from Apartments", Trans. Entom. Soc. Lond., 1836 1: 1. On p. 6: "it would also be desirable to have similar experiments made as to the house-flies of America and other hot countries, in which it is probable that in the same way as our common sparrow (Fringilla domestica, Linn.) is replaced in Italy by another species (F. cisalpina, Temm.), which to an ordinary observer seems identical with ours, but is really distinct, …"


Theory of Geograph. Distrib.: of ani organic beings. —
Animals of same classes differ in different countries in exact proportion to the time they have been separated; together with physical differences of country: the time of separation depends on facility of transport in the species itself, & in the local circumstances of the two countries in times present & past. The effect of physical conditions of country is not perhaps so great, as separation or interbreeding, for otherwise we could not understand the vast number


of domesticated races. —
Athenaeum,1 p. 505, some (very poor account) of plants of Nova Zemblia in review of Baers work.
Edinburgh Royal Transact.2 — p. 297, vol. 9, Dr Ferguson seems most clear that the ideosyncrasy of the Negro (& partly mulatto) prevents his taking any form of Malaria — Adaptation & species-like. — Says Negro thick skinned.
My hairdresser (Willis)3 says that strength of hair goes with colour, black being strongest.

1 Karl Ernst von Baer. Review of "Expedition to Novaia Zemlia and Lapland" (St. Petersbourgh Bull Sci., III, 1838), Athenaeum, 1838, July 21, p. 505.
2 William Ferguson. "On the Nature and History of the Marsh Poison", Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinb., (read Jan. 3, 1820) 1823, vol. 9, p. 273. On p. 297 there is a note "On the Negro Skin": "… From peculiarity of idiosyncrasy, he appears to be proof against endemic fevers; … One of the most obvious peculiarities of the Negro, compared with the European, is the texture of his skin, which is thick, oily …" cf. recent research on the immunity against malaria conferred by sickle trait, A. C. Allison: "Human Haemoglobin types", New Biology, 21, 1956, p. 43. (Penguin Books).
3 Mr. Willis. Hairdresser, cf. below MS. p. 163.


V p. 63. Note Book M1 for case of change in food in insects entered by mistake.1
Surely the fossil Mammalogy of Britain & Europe is African, & the only difference is by the extinction of certain forms from northern part & not by fresh creation of new forms. — What is range of Hyaena? Hippopotamus? Indio-African, or Pure Africa? — Fossil Elephant of Africa most important under this view, & Hippo[po]tamus of Madagascar: because contemporaries.
In introduction to Eytons2 Anatidae — recurs to idea of only animals from distant countries breeding! mem. 3 species of goose Has not goldfinch & greenfinch bred, & surely wild duck & pintail & widgeon! — Divides world into zoological Provinces, animals according to varieties of man.? Will it hold good. — Thinks Temminck3 doubtful when he says no genera. — In Australia plants E & W very different, — man not so but N. & S. New Zealand, New Caledonia two races of man but not plants, thinks

1 The reference is to Darwin's First Notebook on Metaphysics, Morals & Speculations on Expression (Cambridge University Library, Darwin MS. 125) begun 15th July 1838, finished 2nd October 1838, from which p. 63 was excised by Darwin on 16th December 1856.
2 Thomas Campbell Eyton. A Monograph on the Anatidae, London, 1838, p. 1: "… that those animals upon which this experiment has been tried have invariably been brought from countries far apart, …"
3 Coenraad Jacob Temminck. Presumably Observations sur la classification méthodique des oiseaux, Amsterdam & Paris 1817.


there are some small divisions. — does not seem to think any improbability to animals being distributed after flood (!) according to affinities! confounds, like Whewell,1 affinity with analogy. — Good table at end of distrib.: of Anatidae. — Consult this book again. —
Mine is a bold theory, which attemps to explain, or asserts to be explicable every instinct in animals.
Heard at Zoolog. Soc. that Pintail & Common Ducks, breed one with another — & hybrids fertile inter se (No) directly against Eyton's rule.2 ?Are the hybrids similar inter se —

1 William Whewell, author of History of the Inductive Sciences, London 1837.
2 Thomas Campbell Eyton. "Some remarks upon the theory of Hybridity", Mag. Nat. Hist., 1837 1: 357.

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Mr. Blyth1 remarked that greater difference in the 4 Struthionidae, than in many large orders of birds. The Emu & Cassowary closest. — Ostrich & Rhea closest. — (& 2 Rheas still closer). — Mr Blyth asked whether structure of pelvis &c was not adaptive structure, like little wings of Auk which does not make that bird a Penguin. — (i.e. whether relation in one point or many) Owen2 answered that all characters might be considered as adaptative and that he did not see where the line could be drawn. — thus the most remarkable character in Apteryx, small respiratory system;
even much smaller

1 Edward Blyth.
2 Richard Owen.


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than in other Struthios was adaption to little movement. — nocturnal crawling bird. — Wings reduced to rudiment. — clavicle scapula &c. strongly developed to aid in breathing. —
Animals from Hobart Town mentioned, it seems most of species from there now found in Australia. —
New species of Moschus characterized by Ogilby.1 who observed that the young of this animal which is so anomalous among true deer yet is spotted like so many deer. — very curious like some facts of Mr Blyth on birds. —

1 William Ogilby.


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Dr Bachman1 tells me line of Rocky Mountains separates almost all Mammals of N. America & many birds, which however are most closely represented. — Thus the red breasted thrush is separated by one not differing except by black line. — A Bunting by one only differing by some permanent white streaks. — &c. &c.
Dr Bachman has crossed cock Guinea Fowl with Pea Hen. — offspring female, yet so infertile never even in seven years produced even an egg. —

1 Rev. John Bachman.


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a most curious bird, did not seem to know itself, at last associated with the ducks. — most strange voice often in the night, like peacock. — tail as long as Pea hen. — about intermediate. — (In Zoolog. Garden there is hybrid of Penguin duck a variety of Muscovy with goose!!)
Dr Bachman regularly breeds in Carolina for his table Muscovy & common ducks — they are produced in full equal numbers with pure bred (just like common mules) & lay many eggs but never produce inter se or with


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parent species. — The hybrids do not vary (i.e. the hens all alike & cocks all alike) more than parent species. — Mr Blyth remarked only near species or varieties produce heterogenous offsprings. — are not the hybrid pheasant & grouse different — (if so Chinese pigs & common must be considered as distant species?? or is time the varying element). Then do those species which breed most freely & produce somewhat fertile offspring produce heterogenous offspring.
It appears certain that hybrid Muscovy & common duck have been shot wild (escaped from Carolina)? off New York, therefore instincts not imperfect. Are Pheasant & Grouse homogenous?


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I observe Bachman calls these Hybrids new species.
Yarrell says the bird fanciers say the throw of any two species crossed is uncertain.
Yarrell remarks he has somewhere met conjecture that all salt-water fish were once salt water (as they almost must have been on elevation of continents) but Ogilby well answers that nearly all F.W. Fish are Abdominals ' that order first converted. — is it an old order geologically?


Owen1 says relation of Osteology of birds to Reptiles shown in osteology of young Ostrich.
16th D Israeli2 (Cur. of Literat. vol. II, p. 11) accidentally says " — is distinctly marked as whole dynasties have been featured by the Austrian lip & the Bourbon nose", if this be not imagination, then old peculiarity overbears the crossing with females not thus characterized. —

1 Richard Owen. "On the anatomy of the Southern Apteryx (Apteryx australis, Shaw)." Communicated 10th April 1838. Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond., vol. 2, 1836-1841, p. 257. On page 189: "The close resemblance of the Bird to the Reptile in its skeleton is well exemplified in the young Ostrich, … "
2 Isaac Disraeli. Curiosities of Literature.


16th Aug. What a magnificent view one can take of the world Astronomical & unknown causes modified by unknown ones, cause changes in geography & changes of climate suspended to change of climate from physical causes, — then suspended changes of form in the organic world, as adaptation, & these changing affect each other, & their bodies by certain laws of harmony keep perfect in these themselves. — instincts alter, reason is formed & the world peopled with myriads of distinct forms from a period short of eternity to the present time, to the future. — How far grander than idea from cramped


imagination that God created (warring against those very laws he established in all organic nature) the Rhinoceros of Java & Sumatra,1 that since the time of the Silurian he has made a long succession of vile molluscous animals. How beneath the dignity of him, who is supposed to have said let there be light & there was light. — whom it has been declared "he said let there be light & there was light" — bad taste.
August 19th Two regions may be Zool.-geographically divided either by developement of new forms in one, or apparently so by the extinction of prominent ones in one: The latter will take place when conditions are unfavourable to numbers of animals as in changing from warm to

1 cf. Darwin's Sketch of 1842 and his Essay of 1844; in Evolution by Natural Selection with a Foreword by Sir Gavin de Beer, Cambridge 1958, pp. 83 and 249.


cold, damp to dry. — Thus Tierra del Fuego has not only one Guanaco of this characteristic form of S. America.
With respect to future destinies of mankind, some of species or varieties are becoming extinct, others though the negro of Africa is not loosing ground, yet, as the tribes of the interior are pushing into each other from slave trade & colonization of S. Africa, so must the tribes become blended & prevent the strong separation which


otherwise would have taken place otherwise in 10,000 years. Negro probably a distinct species — We know how long a mammal may go on as one species from Egyptian mummies & from the existing animals found fossil when Europe must have worn a quite different figure.
19th [August] With respect to the Deluge, it may be worth adding in note that amongst the Mammalia of Europe the shells of do — shells of N. America — shells of S. America, — there is no appearance of sudden termination of existence, — nor is there in the Tertiary geological epochs. —


There are some admirable tables on geograph distribution of reptiles in Suites de Buffon.1
Vigors2 has given list in Linnean Transactions of birds of Java
Caterpillars not being fertile is same as children not being so. — consider this with reference to "new species & hybrid doctrine". — I have read there are exceptions to this in some larvae of insects. (?glowworm) breeding — beet imago state fertile at once. — Consider this with reference to those insects which have fertile offspring. Entomostraca & Aphides.

1 F. M. Daudin. Histoire naturelle, générale et particulière des reptiles; ouvrage faisant suite aux Oeuvres de Leclerc de Buffon. Paris an XII [1805].
2 Nicolas Aylward Vigors [& Thomas Horsfield.] "A description of the Australian birds in the collection of the Linnean Society; with an Attempt at arranging them according to their natural Affinities." Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. vol. 15 Part 2, 1837, p. 170. This paper contains no list of Javanese birds, but on p. 331 there is a statement that "These two species very closely accord with the Javanese species of Pomatorhinus, P. montanus, described in these Transactions."


The extreme difference of sexes is probably arrived at wing case of insects as glowworm.
The case of one impregnation sufficing to several births analogous to superfoetation, & the successive fertile offspring in Entomostraca & Aphides. Developement of sexes in caterpillars, very valuable facts — they are eating foetuses, as young of Marsup. is sucking foetus. —
August 23d The Rev. R. Jones1 gave an admirable harrier from Ireland to Brighton Pack — first rate bitch — tried to breed from her, but

1 Rev. R. Jones. Unidentified.


her offspring came out one big & one small. Now Jones, before this happened from her looks thought she was half bred Beagle & Staghound. the grandchildren went back to either parent & breed not fixed, though she resembled a harrier & her husband was pure harrier.
Three gentlemen of parts all thought with pigs &c, that hybrids were uncertain.
The peculiarities of our breeds must have been acquired, & hence this is true case of avitism.
Mr Drinkwater1 thought that a pure blooded "first blood" animal must have gone on for many years, before deserves name to be so called, — the short horned cattle have gone on for 50 or 70? years, — now well fixed breed: Jones2 says Sussex cattle

1 Drinkwater. Unidentified.
2 Rev. R. Jones. Idem.


were all white headed, but this was bred out & now all are pure red, yet calf every now & then born with white head (or short-horned with black lip) & then calf in both cases is killed.
Notes from Glen Roy Note Book.1
Why is not Tetrao Scoticus an American form (if so)?. —
A Shepherd of Glen Tunet said he learnt to know lambs, because in their faces they were most like their mothers, believe this resemblance general. ?depend upon mother being oldest breed? —
Quarterly Journal of Agriculture2 p. 367, Dec. 1837. Generally received.

1Darwin visited Glen Roy at the end of June and beginning of July 1838. ("Darwin s Journal", edited by Sir Gavin de Beer, Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Historical Series, vol. 2, London 1959, p. 8.)
2 Quarterly Journal of Agriculture, Edinburgh 1837, vol. 8, p. 367: "… According to the generally received opinion, that the male imprints his characters more indelibly than the female on the progeny, there may be a risk of breeding from too large a horse for the usual purposes of the farm; but, on the other hand, it is frequently seen that small stallions and bulls produce large stock. … " Probably by one of the editors.


opinion that male impresses offspring more than female, yet instances given on opposite side. —
The theory of males impressing most is in harmony with their wars & rivalry — .
The very many breeds of animals in Britain shows, with the aid of seclusion in breeding how easy races or varieties are made. —
The Highland Shepherd dogs coloured like Magellanic Fox, — peculiar hair & appearance — good case of Provincial Breed — Highland Sheep jet black legs, & face & tail, just like species — high active breeding

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half breed liable to vary. I asked this in many ways, but received same answer. — Thought lambs were more like father than Mother. — The cross not so hardy as Black faced, but more tendency to fatten — This man confirmed my account of the Shepherd dogs. —'
Aug. 24th. Was struck with pink shade on plumage of the Pelican.— Mem pink spots on Albatross, on some Gulls. Flamingo — (Spoonbill Wader. Ibis)— laws of plumage might possibly be made out. —


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August 25th Athenaeum (1838) p. 611. Ld. Tankerville account of wild cattle of Chillingham, — habits peculiar, — young one 203 days old butted violently. & fell. — gore to death the old & wounded, — see Annals, vol. 2. 1839. — are bad breeders & subject to the rush as all animals which breed, in & in are — colour white, uniform.—crafty, go in file, hide their young., bold. —
a Mr W: Hall remarked that it was against all rules their preserving character & breeding in & in — Nonsense a flock of more than 100. —
Agrees, nearly with, the account, given by Boethius of ancient Caledonian Cattle.


L'Institut1 p. 249 (1838). Eggs discovered to Taenia, — hard so as to resist external influence.
27th August. There must be some law that whatever organization an animal has, it tends to multiply & improve on it. — Articulate animals must articulate, & in vertebrate tendency to improve in intellect, — if generation is condensation of change, then animals must tend to improve. — Yet fish same as, or lower than in old days: for a very old variety will be harder to vary & therefore more apt to be extinguished. — ???
Mayo2 (Philosoph. of Living) quotes Whewell3 as profound because he says length of days adapted to duration of sleep of man!!! whole universe so adapted!!! & not man to Planets. — instance of arrogance!!

1 Félix Dujardin. L'Institut, 1838, 2 août, p. 249: " … les oeufs de Taenia protégés par une coque très résistante peuvent résister aux causes extérieures de destruction … "
2 Herbert Mayo. The Philosophy of Living, London 1838, p. 136, Chapter III, "Of Sleep".
3 William Whewell. "The Length of the Day", The Bridgewater Treatises on the Power Wisdom and Goodness of God as manifested in the Creation, Treatise III, On Astronomy and General Physics, p. 38. On p. 39: " … Man, in like manner, in all nations and ages, takes his principal rest once in twentyfour hours; and the regularity of this practice seems most suitable to his health, though the duration of the time allotted to repose is extremely different in different cases. So far as we can judge, this period is of a length beneficial to the human frame, independent of the effect of external agents. In the voyages recently made into the high northern latitudes, where the sun did not rise for three months, the crews of ships were made to adhere, with the utmost punctuality to the habit of retiring to rest at nine, and rising a quarter before six; and they enjoyed, under circumstances apparently the most trying, a state of salubrity quite remarkable. This shows, that according to the common constitution of such men, the cycle of twenty-four hours is very commodious, though not imposed on them by external circumstances. "The hours of food and repose are capable of such wide modifications in animals, and above all in man, by the influence of external stimulants and internal emotions, that it is not easy to distinguish what portion of the tendency to such alterations depends on original constitution. …"


August 29th. — Macleay1 in A. Smith Zoolog. — of Africa. —
p. 4. sticks2 to genus or group of any kind not being perfect till circular.
p. 5 Most clearly shows3 that genus expresses as now used almost any group. — all groups natural (p. 6) as expressing natural affinities. Macleays plan of arrangement depends on the organs judged to be of importance in inverse ratio to their variability. — (Now ceteris paribus these will be the oldest.) "The most important characters break down in certain species & become worthless"4 — Mammalia Edentata. We do (p. 6) say5 such is group because it has such characters of importance, "but we say such happens to be the character, of no matter of what importance, which prevails throughout the group & serves to insulate these it". — i.e. what characters

1 William Sharp Macleay. "Annulosa" in Andrew Smith: Illustrations of the Zoology of South Africa; … London, 1838.
2 Ibid. p. 4: "Omnis sectio naturalis circulum, per se ciausum exhibet."
3 Ibid. p. 5: " … has the word genus any signification which is universally deemed definite? "
4 Ibid. p. 6: " … the most important characters break down in certain species, and become at times perfectly worthless … "
5 Ibid., pp. 6-7: " … We do not argue that such must be the groupe, because such and such are in our opinion, good and distinct characters; but we say, such happens to be the character, of no matter what importance, which prevails throughout the groupe, and which serves in some degree to insulate it from other groupes. … "


chance to be hereditary whether important or not.
p. 7. "The natural arrangement of animals themselves is the question in point".1 Now what is natural arrangement, affinities, what is that, amount of resemblance, — how can we estimate this amount, when value no scale of value of difference is or can be settled. — I believe affinity may be taken literally, though how far we can ever discover the real relationship is doubtful, — not till much knowledge is elicited. — It will rest upon the discovery what characters vary most easily, — those which do not vary being foundation for chief divisions. —
p. 7. In some cases the circular arrangement from fewness of forms, cannot be discovered untill we descend to subgenera & families,2 even in Cetoniadae in the Cetoniadae, — when will Ornithorhynchus come in circle?!!!

1 Ibid. p. 7: "… we ought not to forget that the true question under consideration is, the natural arrangement of the animals themselves; … "
2 Ibid. p. 7: "… for owing to the rarity of its species, the first circular grouping of the species Cryptodinus, for instance, is into sub-genera; … "


p. 8 — Anomalous structures, as in Hippo[po]tamus, solely owing to number of lost links of, if all species know they would be innumerable1 — does not know any difference between permanent variety & species !!2 (given in note) — Macleay met uses term genus when it is so many steps from a head as subkingdom — evidently artificial, as interlopement of marsupials will change all, — & so on no one will settle number of primary divisions. — Complains3 (p. 53) of M. Edwardes4 thinking any group good, though not circular, if characters can be established — clearly so. — N.B. This paper worth referring to again. —
According to my theory, every species in any subgenus will be descended from one stock, & that stock with other subgenera

1 Ibid. p. 8: "Thus, when the naturalist talks of any anomalous structure, I understand merely that so many links, that is so many groupes, of the great plan of creation are wanting, … If I say that the Hippopotamus forms a stirps by itself, I only mean that it is the sole species of its stirps known; and that, speaking theoretically, four families are wanting, … or rather twenty-four genera to connect it well with other tribes of Pachyderms … "
2 Ibid. p. 8 footnote: "Some persons have imagined that I only assign five species to the lowest groupe in nature; but the above theory evidently proceeds on the assumption that if we knew all the species of the creation, their number would be infinite, or in other words, that they would pass into each other by infinitely small differences. This actually takes place sometimes in nature; and as yet I do not know any good distinction between a species and what is called ' a permanent variety'." cf. William Herbert: Amaryllidaceae, London 1837, p. 29: "That in some genera intermediate diversities from different localities so confound the limits of species that it is waste of words to argue whether a plant is a species or a permanent local variety; … "
3 Ibid. p. 53: "M. Milne Edwards … produced a classification, of which I can only say, that it makes an approach to be a rare exception to the well-known fact, that professed comparative anatomists are the persons, of all others, who in general are most incapable of using their own observations for purposes of natural arrangement. And indeed this very arrangement of Edwards is not natural, since he unfortunately conceives that every groupe he can invent, provided he can furnish it with a character, must therefore be a good one."
4 Henri Milne Edwards. Histoire naturelle des Crustacés, Paris 1834-40, vols. 3 & Atlas (forming one of Roret's "Collection des Suites à Buffon").


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will come from common stock. — all genera common stock — so that values can only be judged if in each separate line of descent. — & here limits of varieties being constant it would be exceedingly wrong to call one group genus & other subgenus. — Propagation best rule for genera, & so mount upwards, judged by analogy. — Consider all this.
N.B. How can local species as in Galapagos, be distinguished from temporal species as in two formations? by no way.? —


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"Natura nihil agit frustra" as Sir Thomas Browne1 says "is the only indisputable axiom in Philosophy Religio Medici Vol. II Sir T. Browne's works p. 20.
"There are no grotesques in nature; not anything framed to fill up empty contours, & unnecessary spaces" p. 23 "for Nature is the act of God" —
after Decandolles idea
Septemb 1. It has been argued man first civilized add this in note. ?mere conjecture? — Australians. — Americans &c.

1 Sir Thomas Browne, Works, edited by S. Wilkin, London, 1835–6.


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Septemb. 1. Macleay1 & Broderip2 when talking of some Crustacean, like Trilobite (Polirus??) female blind & quite different form from male with eyes! — (are not these differences in sex confined to annulosa?) remarked that young of Cirrhipedes can move & see, parents fixed, — young of sponges move. — young of Cochineal insects move about & see, parent female fixed & blind: — Macleay observed all these facts proves that perfection of organs have nothing to do with perfection of individual, though such relation seems common, but the perfection consists in being able to reproduce.

1 William Sharp MacLeay.
2 William John Broderip (cf. Life & Letters of Darwin, 1887 1: 274).


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Here there is some error — Observed, nature does nothing in vain, therefore organs fitted to animals place in creation. — thus senses, especially sight connected with locomotion. (Mem. Dr. Blackwell (Abercrombie)1 comparison of sight to threads.) — Hence the Pecten which moves imperfectly has eye-point, but Brodrip added it has been stated that stationary Spondylus has eye-points — Macleay then answered, because nature leaves vestiges of what she does — does not move per saltum — yet does nothing in vain!!

1 ? John Abercrombie, Inquiries concerning the intellectual powers and the Investigation of Truth, London, 1838.


Foetus of man undergoes metamorphosis, heart altered & umbilical cord. — Broderip1 alluded to Hunter's views2 on this subject. — Monstrosities kind of determined by age of foetus. —
As Larva may be more perfect (as we use the word) than parent, so may species retrograde, but these facts are rare. —
2d Sept. Those animals which have many abortive organs might be expected to have larva more perfect — this is applicable to young of Cochineal ??

1 William John Broderip. Presumably personal communication.
2 John Hunter in Richard Owen: Descriptive and Illustrated Catalogue of the physiological series o, Comparative Anatomy contained in the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons in London, London 1833 1: iv, footnote: "I should imagine that monsters were formed monsters at the very first formation, for this reason, that all supernumerary parts are joined by their similar parts, viz. a head to a head &c. &c.' Hunterian MSS."


Is there some law in nature an animal may acquire organs, but lose them with more difficulty — contradicted by abortive organs but number of species with abortive organs of any kind few, — hence become extinct, & hence the improvements of every type of organization. Such law would explain every thing. — Pure hypothesis be careful. —
Argument for circularity of groups. When species a group of species is made, father probably will be dead — hence there is no central radiating point, all united, (like an uncle must be granted unequal, because fossil) now what is group without centre but circle, two or three


lines deep — with respect to Macleay's1 theory of analogies — be when it is considered the tree of life must be erect not pressed on paper, to study the corresponding points.
The present geographical distribution of animals countenances the belief of their extreme antiquity (i.e. much intervening physical change) — distribution especially of Mammalia.
As every organ is modified by use, every abortive organ must have been once changed. — What is abortive? when it does not perform that function which experience shows us it was for. — Most important law. — Penguins wing perhaps not abortive ??? Apteryx certainly. —

1 William Sharp Macleay. Horae Entomologicae, London 1819-21, p. 391.


Lyell's1 excellent view of geology of each formation being merely a page torn out of a history & the geologist being obliged to fill up the gaps, — is possibly the same with the philospher who has traced the structure of animals & plants. — He get merely a few pages.
Hence (p. 59) looking at animal, if there be many others somewhat allied whether like parent stock, or not, now wings for flight — therefore ostrich not.
The peculiar malacca Malacca bears are belong to same section with those of India.

1 Charles Lyell. Elements of Geology, London 1838, p. 272: " … of a series of sedimentary formations, they are like volumes of history, in which each writer has recorded the annals of his own times, and then laid down the book, with the last written page uppermost … "


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Waterhouse knows three species of Paradoxurus1 common to Van Diemen's land & Australia.
Well developed tits mammae in male ourang-outang other point of resemblance with man.
September 3d Magazine of Natural History2 1838 II p. 492. Mr Gould3 on Australian birds, all Eagles of Australia characterized by wedge tails, many of the hawks are analogous to European birds. also do. p. 403 & 404.
Vol. II do. (p. 71) allusion to Eyton's discovery of different number of vertebrae in Irish4 & English hare. good case these hares compared to South American hares, many species separated by mountains &c &c &c

1 By "Paradoxurus" Darwin meant Ornithorhynchus paradoxus; personal communication from George Robert Waterhouse.
2 Under the abbreviation "Magazine of Natural History", Darwin has confused two different publications which, unfortunately, both published a volume 2 in 1838: they were, Annals of Natural History or Magazine of Zoology, Botany and Geology, and, Magazine of Natural History.
3 John Gould, Birds of Australia and the adjacent islands, London, 1827–8. Neither journal mentioned in the previous footnote in vol. 2, p. 402 has a paper by Gould, but Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. 2, 1838, has, beginning on p. 399, a paper by Brehm, "Observations on some of the domestic instincts of Birds"; on pp. 402–4 there are references to birds of prey.
4 William Thompson, "On the Irish hare", Ann. Nat. Hist. or Mag. Zool. Bot. & Geol., vol. 2, 1838, p. 70; on p. 71 there is an allusion to Thomas Campbell Eyton's discovery that the tail of the Irish hare is shorter and has 3 less vertebrae than the tail of the English hare.


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do. p. 69, a Dr Macdonald1 believes the Quaternary arrangement & not the Quinary. anyone may believe anything in such rigmarole about analogies & numbers.
L'Institut p. 275 (1838) Mr Blainville2 has written paper to show Stonesfield Didelphis not Didelphis. answered satisfactorily by Valenciennes.
The change from caterpillar to butterfly is not more wonderful than the body of a man undergoing a constant round, each particle is placed in place of last by the ordering of the nerves, but in different parts according to age of individuals (see mammae of women) in different parts when age

1 Ann. Nat. Hist. or Mag. Zool. Bot. & Geol., vol. 2, 1838, p. 69 reports a verbal communication to the Royal Society of Edinburgh on 9 April 1838 by Dr Macdonald.
2 Henri-Marie de Blainville, "Doutes sur le prétendu Didelphe fossile de Stonefield [sic]", L'Institut, tome 6, 1838, p. 275.


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changes caterpillars into Butterfly.
When two varieties of dog cross, Erasmus says it looks like


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Institut 1837 P. 351 Paradoxurus Philippensis. Philypines…1

1 l'Institut 1837. p. 351 "…Zoologie: Mammifères nouveaux. — M. Jourdan présente un mémoire dans lequel il décrit cinq Mammifères … 5° Paradoxure des Philippines (Paradoxurus Philippinensis J.)…"


man have carries the range — Argue the case of probability, has Creator made rat for Ascension — The Galapagos mouse probably transported like the New Zealand one — It should be observed with what facility mice attach themselves to man.
Sept 7th. I was struck looking at the Indian cattle with Bump, together with Bison of some resemblance as if the "variation in one was analogous to specific character of other species in genus". — Is there any law of this. Do any varieties of sheep evidently artificial approach


in character to goats, — or dogs to foxes1 (yes Australian dog) or donkeys to zebras. — Mr. Herberts variety of horse, dun coloured with stripe approaches to ass, or fowls to the several aboriginal species or ducks (here argue if it be said domestic fowls are descended from several stock then species are fertile; as long as opponents are not able to tie themselves down will not tie themselves down, they can find loopholes) "It is well worthy of examination whether variations are produced only in those characters which are seen to say where be different in species of same genus". Law of monstrosity not prospective, but retrospective in showing

1 William Herbert. Amaryllidaceae, London 1837. On p. 339: " … I have lately had under my observation a dog, whose father was a fox in an innyard at Ripon, and it has singularly the manner as well as the voice of a fox, but it is the parent of many families of puppies: and I feel satisfied that the fox and the dog are of one origin, and suspect the wolf and jackall to be of the same; nor could I ever contemplate the black line down the back of a dun pony without entertaining a suspicion that the horse, unknown in a wild state except where it has escaped from domesticity, may be a magnificent improvement of the wild ass in the very earliest age of the world: …"


what organs are little fixed — (also Hunters1 law of monstrosity with regard to age of foetus distinct consideration). Now in different species of genus Sus, see Cuvier2 Ossemens fossiles, do vertebrae vary ? Although no new fact be elicited by these speculations even if partly true they are of the greatest service towards the end of science, namely prediction, till facts are grouped & called there can be no prediction. — The only advantage of discovering laws is to foretell what will happen & to see bearing of scattered facts. —

1 John Hunter in Richard Owen: Descriptive and Illustrated Catalogue of the physiological series of Comparative Anatomy contained in the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons in London, London 1833 1: iv, footnote. See above, footnote to MS. p. 57.
2 Georges Cuvier. Recherches sur les Ossemens Fossiles des Quadrupèdes. Paris 1812.


What takes place in the formation of a bud — the very same must take place in copulation — (man & woman separate parts of same plant) — now in some Polypi we see young bud changing into ovules. —
Captain Grants1 Himalaya shells (see Paper in Geolog Transact) same appearance with secondary species distinct but close. — Mem. Von Buch2 on Cordillera fossils same remark. ?Was then formerly one great sea, & two Polar Continents. Marsupial, Edentata, Pachydermata &c. &c. —

1 Captain C. W. Grant. Presumably "Memoirs to illustrate a geological map of Cutch", read 22nd February 1837, Trans. Geol. Soc. Lond., 1840, vol. 4, p. 289.
2 Leopold von Buch. "Ueber den zoologischen Charakter der Secundär-Formationen in Süd Amerika", Monatssch. K. pr. Akad. Wissensch., Berlin, 1838, p. 54. (Gesammelte Schriften, Berlin 1885, Band 4, p. 497.


It is important with respect to extinction of species, the capability of only small amount of change at any one time.
Seeing what Von Buch1 (Humboldt)2 G. St. Hilaire,3 & Lamarck4 have written I pretend to no originality of idea — (though I arrived at them quite independently & have used them since) the line of proof & reducing facts to law only merit if merit there be in following work. —
The history of medicine, the extraordinary effects of different medium on organs leads one to suspect any amount of change from eating different kinds of food. Grazing animals which eat every species new. —

1 Leopold von Buch. Description physique des ties Canaries, Paris, 1836, p. 144. (cf. Darwin's First Notebook MS. p. 156); Ibid. p. 148, (cf. Darwin's First Notebook MS. p. 158).
2 Friedrich Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt. Personal Narrative of Travels to the Equinoctial Regions of the New Continent, during the years 1799-1804, London 1821, vol. 5, p. 565. (cf. Darwin's First Notebook MS. p. 142).
Ejusdem. De Distributione geographica plantarum secundum coeli temperiem et altitudinem montium, prolegomena. Lutetiae Parisiorum 1817 (cf. Darwin's First Notebook MS. p. 156).
3 Etienne Geoffroy-Saint-Hilaire. Principes de philosophie zoologique, Paris 1830. (cf. Darwin's First Notebook MS. passim.)
4 Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck. Philosophie Zoologique, Paris 1809. Histoire naturelle des animaux sans vertèbres, 1815, Paris (cf. Darwin's First Notebook passim.). Ejusdem. Hydrogéologie, ou recherches sur l'influence générate des eaux sur la surface du globe terrestre, sur les causes de l'existence du bassin des mers, de son déplacement, de son transport successif sur les différenis points de ce globe, enfin sur les changements que les corps organisés vivants exercent sur la nature et l'état de cetie surface, Paris 1802. (cf. Darwin's Second Notebook MS. p. 119.)


Sept. 8th A Golden Pippin or Ribstone do producing occasionally (as Fox1 says) same fruit trees is analogous to some hybrids breeding — there is tendency to reproduce in each case, but something prevents the completion. —
Say my grandfathers2 expression of generat[ion] being highest end of organization good expression but does not include so many facts as mine.

1 William Darwin Fox. Probably personal communication.
2 Erasmus Darwin. Zoonomia, vol. 1, London 1794, Section XXXIX.


The facts about half bred animals being wilder than parents is very curious as pointing out difference between acquired & hereditary tameness. —
In comparing my theory with any other, it should be observed not what comparative difficulties (as long as not overwhelming) [but] what comparative solutions & linking of facts.
Savages over whole world (Major Mitchell1 p. 244, vol. I) spit & throw dust.
According to my theory of generation (p. 175) of 2

1 Thomas Livingstone Mitchell. Three Expeditions into the Interior of Eastern Australia, … London 1838 1: 244, 245.
2 These words were crossed out in MS.; they refer to MS. p. 175 below.


Yarrell1 told me he had just heard of Black game & Ptarmigan having crossed in wild state — & the English & some African Dove. —
The extinction of the S. American quadrupeds is difficulty on any theory — without God is supposed to create & destroy without rule. But what does he in this world without rule? The destruction of the great Mammals over whole world shows there is rule. — S. America & Australia appear to have suffered most with respect to extinction of larger forms. —
From observing way the Marsupials of Australia have branched out into orders one is strongly tempted to believe one or two were landed

1 William Yarrell. Personal communication.


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as at present in new Ireland & continent since grown. — This will explain S. American case of Didelphis being mundine form., & the less development of Marsupials in S. America. from presence of Edentata — Edentata & Marsupials have been almost destroyed wherever other animals existed. —
Athenaeum 1838. p. 654 Reason given for supposing Tetrao Rakkelhan a hybrid produced commonly in Nature both in Sweden & anciently in Britain) between hen Capercailkie & cock Black-cock.18 — (Curious the readiness with which this genus becomes crossed. ?is red game an hybrid? —


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When I show that islands would have no plants were it not for seeds being floated about, — I must state that the mechanism by which seeds are adapted for long transportation, seems to imply knowledge of whole world — if so doubtless part of system of great harmony.
The peculiar character of St. Helena. — contrast with Otaheiti in relation (See Gaudichauds19 Volume on the Botany of the Pacific.) to nearest continent. — with respect to ancient geography of Atlantic Tristan D'Acunha ditto. Juan Fernandez do


Mitchell1 Australia vol. I, p. 306 "The crows were amazingly bold, always accompanying us from camp to camp; it was absolutely necessary to watch our meat, while in kettles on the fire, & on one occasion, not withstanding our vigilance a piece of pork 3 lb was taken from a boiling pot, & carried off by one of these birds". Case of birds of different family having very same habits in some respects as the Cara cara.

1 Thomas Livingstone Mitchell, op. cit. 1: 306.


Sept. 9th It is worthy of observation that in insects where one of the sexes is little developed, it is always female which approaches in character to the larva, or less developed state. —
The female & young of all birds resemble each other in plumage. — (That is where the female differs from the male?) children & women — "women recognized inferior intellectually". Opposed to these facts are effects of castration on males & of age or castration in females. —

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hen freely. — here we have beautiful proof of the breeding in & in (like courage in dogs effeminate men),— if carried much further, if by the process this were possible, the organs doubtless would shrivel up. — Yet odd they should have so much sexual character as they have
This character of not having sexual plumage is very common by hybrids, that are infertile. — thus the common, pheasant & fowl when crossed never even lay eggs. & the men cannot hardly tell any sex by appearance.— The silver & common pheasant crossed, has a cock (infertile) with the breast of


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which is like common pheasant & back like silver. — But the hen hybrid of this bird, has long tail figure, & some degree of whiteness like a Male. — Thus castration, hybridity, & breeding in & in tend to produce same effects. — (May it be said, that breeding in & in tends to produce unhealthiness, — or to perpetuate some organic difference. — it may be so, but this assumption as long as animals are healthy


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which is often the case, & why should organic affections always influence the sexual organs alone. —
It is singular pheasant & fowl being so totally infertile whereas animals further apart have bred inter se. —
These hybrids are very wild & take in disposition after their pheasant parents. —
There are some ¾ birds of which I think there must be some mistake in their origin) Saw cross between Penguin Duck from Bombay & Canada Goose. — Former strange mishaped bird & looks very artificial bred but Mr Muller says that breeds larger numbers, & rears an


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unusual number out of any one nest, even more than common duck — Male Penguin was crossed with hen Canadian offspring, I should say in every respect most like Penguin duck. — which is strange anomaly in Yarrells Law.1 — it probably is explained by the vigour of their propagating powers. (as if they were a good species or local variety & not effect of breeding in & in, like our pidgeons).
The male of every animal certainly seems chiefly to impress the young most with its form & disposition

1 See "Darwin's Fourth Notebook on Transmutation of Species", Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Historical Series, vol. 2, 1960, p. 173, footnote 1.


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Saw there young duck, like each other, — (& not very like either either … or Pintail ducks) from which they were descended they … from ½ pintail drake into pintail. — of them there were four two like each other & two dark coloured & different. — the former were the parents of the little ones
Keeper said in two crosses twice made between terrier & hairless dogs of Africa, — some puppies hairless, some in patches, & some hairy — the former preponderated which seems owing determined by the sex
Individual instances trouble Yarrels law. chief trust must be in general knowledge of breeders, where their interest is concerned.


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Same man crossed Jackal & dog (offspring did not go to teat but parts swelled, though no fluid came from them. — showing how gradually every change is effected) — the one in the garden is from father dog & hence general appearance of face & tail somewhat like dog — though it has full share of Jackal shape of body — disposition wild, & fearful, though not so much as in Jackall. — In case where Jackall was father resemblance much nearer to Jackall. —


This keeper has seen when sickly tigers have first come over, insects somewhat like between lice & fleas, sticking on them, — but never in an animal, that had long been in confinement — is this effect of climate, or state in which they are kept ? —
Is there any mistake about Yarrell's law,1 is it local (not artificial variation) which impresses offspring most & not time thinking of the Penguin duck & Herbert's law of ideosyncracy.2

1 William Yarrell. cf. Darwin's Second Notebook on Transmutation of Species, MS. pp. 1 & 121 (The supposition that the oldest variety has the greatest effect on offspring when crossed).
2 William Herbert. Amaryllidaceae, London 1837. On p. 343: "In further confirmation of the fact that the sterility depends on constitutional discrepancy, or difference of what medical men call idiosyncrasy, … "


I have hitherto thought that a small difference of any kind, if very firmly fixed from long time, made no difference what its kind was, — but if it were opposed to the difference in other sex, it would be much more difficult to propagate — now as if one bird had very bright red breast & other very bright blue, it might be harder to be for


both parents to transmit their peculiarities, that if one had a both had mottled breasts, where of a sort that would allow the offspring to have some different kind of mottle, each feather partaking of character of other, — so the most aquatic & most terrestrial species, might be harder to cross than two less opposed in habits, though externally similar. — this however is a sophism for


their brain or stomach would be different. — Or if one species left its type in having very long legs, & another in having very long tail, & other in having very short tail. — I can readily see that two first might cross easier than two last.


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Sept. 11.  Mr Blyth, at Zoolog. Meeting stated, that Green-finch, all linnets red-pole, goldfinch, hawfinch — in nursling plumage resembled that of Cross-Beak — In lark if I understand right, all species have same character which is mottled,& not like any existing species —
(In two herons, both plumage of both (nursling) quite similar.— one species retained this character in adult stage, other alters entirely)
In common sparrow young & female similar plumage. — in tree sparrow, (if I understand rightly) young cock &


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hen, all nearly similar. — in blackbird group young like some of the species — (?do these facts indicate that the change is effected through the male??) — Yarrell observed that female of some water birds, (as Phalarope) assume for breeding a more brilliant plumage than male .— My case of Caracara. N. Zelandiae. —
Mr Blyth stated that there are two ducks, which have pretty close repesentative species in England & N. America.— the teal which some authors

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September 13th. The passion of the doe to the victorious stag, who rubs the skin of [f] horns to fight, is analogous to the love of women (as Mitchell remarks1 seen in savages) to brave men. —
Effect of castration horns drop off, replaced by hairy ones, which never dry up & peal off their skin (not being wanted for war) & hence never fall off. Curious the rapidity of the change in 5 or 6 weeks after castration, fresh horns begin to grow. — Mr Yarrell2 says the male Axis of India, breeds at times when horns not perfect — (is not this so in S. America with C. campestris, refer to my notes) & Mr Yarrell supposes this a consequence of that female breeding all the year round. Ask Colonel Sykes.3

1 Thomas Livingstone Mitchell, op. cit. 1: 304: "… the gins have it in their power on such occasions to evince that universal characteristic of the fair, a partiality for the brave."
2 William Yarrell. Personal communication.
3 Col. William Henry Sykes, author of the "Catalogue of Mammalia of Dukhan", Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1831 1: 95: cf. Variation of Plants and Animals under Domestication, 1868 1: 62.


Even our domesticated cattle have tendency to breed at particular times.
Mr Yarrell has old book 1765 ? Treatise on Domestic Pidgeon,1 in which it appears that all the varieties now known were then existing. — he has also some very fine recent drawing of prize pidgeons in 1834. — now this would be most curious to show that in sixty years (how many generations) the strangest peculiarities have been kept perfect — also to trace the laws of change in this time. — The impossibility of discovering their origin. — I see only some, but very strange races of them have the forked black mark of the Rock Pidgeon, — several have a group

1 The book referred to is probably A Treatise on Domestic Pigeons, comprehending all the different species known in England … to which is added a … description of that celebrated … pigeon called the Almond Tumbler, London 1765.


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of white speckles on elbow joint — in Bewick drawing1 the the rock Pidgeon has not: now how many wild pidgeon have spangles on this part: this will be well worth working out. —
Study Temmincks2 work on Pidgeons, & see whether feathered legs, — carruncles on beak as in Muscovy duck, crested feather, pouters, fan tails, are found in any colours of plumage &c &c. Pouting pidgeon exaggeration of cooing. — & compare them with all the varieties. — Habits of rock pidgeon. — (I suspect Pennant3 has described them) — (Study horns of wild cattle. — & plumage of fowls — long ears of rabbits. — & long fur. — feathers on legs of Ptarmigan & in Bantam. — ) In the Pidgeons trace the washing out of the forked band, like in plumage of ducks. —

1 Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. 2, 1838, p. 174.
2 Coenraad Jacob Temminck, Histoire naturelle générale des pigeons.
3 Thomas Pennant, Genera of Birds, Edinburgh, 1773.


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Mr Yarrell says in very close species of birds, habits when well watched always very different. — the two redpoles can hardly be told apart, so that after differences were pointed out Selby confounded them, yet can readily be told by incubation & other peculiarities. — (Mem. Goulds Willow Wren.) — (Goulds story of Water-Wagtails mistaken both species scattered over Europe) — The habits of some same North American & European birds slightly different — Barn Owl in the former place breeds in flags thick vegetation in swamps — owing to barn, perhaps not being left open to them. — In singing birds, part instinctive & part acquired — thus Yarrell has Lark & Nightingale which both sing their own songs though imperfectly. — Male birds always record their songs, it


Cervus Campestris spotted white when a fawn compare with fallow? deer. & Moschus &c & — like young blackbirds
Dr Bachman told me that 1/2 Muscovy & common duck were often caught wild off coast of America.— showing hybrids can fare for themselves.
+ + first year. — The bird fanciers match their birds to see which will sing longest, & they in evident rivalry sing against each other, till it has been known one has killed itself. —
Sir. J. Sebright — has almost lost his Owl-Pidgeons from infertility, — Yarrell says in such case they exchange birds with some other fancier, thus getting fresh blood, without fresh feather, & consequent trouble in obliterating the fresh feather, by crossing —


It seems from Lib. of Useful. Knowledge that sheep originally, black. & Yarrell thinks the occasional production of black lambs is owing to old story return. — The Revd R. Jones told me precisely same story about some Southern breed see p. 43 supra of cattle with white heads; which years afterwards occasionally went back — (Effect of imagination on mother, white peeled rods mentioned in old Testament placed before sheep — it has been thought that silver Pheasants about a house made other pheasants have white feathers). —
It certainly appears in domesticated animals, that the amount of variation is soon reached— as in pidgeons no new races.—


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In Scandinavia besides the Rakkehan before mentioned between Capercailzie & Black Cock. — the latter has crossed with the Ptarmigan subalpina in wild state. — Neilson1 has given figure of it. — In England no doubt the cross between Pheasant & Black game is owing to their rarity, as single female in wood with Pheasants would sure to be trod & in many parts of Scandinavia these birds are very far from common. — Under this predicament, probably, alone would species cross in wild state. — Is English red Grouse a cross between Black game & the subalpina of Sweden, (which in summer dress somewhat resembles Red Grouse) it may be so — but very improbably, for it can hardly be

1 Sven Nielson, Ornithologia Svecica, Hafniae, 1817-21.


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thought that the cross would have adapted it to changing circumstances. — More probably during known changes climate became unfit for subalpina, or some northern species, & being restricted species has been made. —
In the hybrid grouse between Black Cock & Ptarmigan (probably subalpina) former has blue breast, latter reddish, hybrid purple — be careful. See to hybrids between Pheasant & Black Cock & other hybrids.
The fact of Egyptian animals not having changed is good — I scarcely hesitate to say that if there had been considerable change, it would have been greater puzzle, than none, for the enormous time


which it must have taken to separate Van Diemens Land from Australia &c. &c.
September 14th. When Macleay1 says there is no difference between b "permanent varieties" & species, he overlooks restric those restr restricted in their range by man & by art — the former only giving average of effects of country (& no monstrosity or adaptations to unhealthy state of womb). —
One can perceive that natural varieties or species, all the structure of which is adaptation to habits (& habit second nature) may be more in constitutional, — more conformable to the structure which has been adapted to former changes than a mere monstrosity propagated by art.

1 William Sharp Macleay. "Annulosa" in A. Smith: Illustrations of the Zoology of South Africa, London 1838, p. 8, footnote, (cf. footnote to MS. p. 52 above.)


Yarrell1 told me of a cat & of a dog born without front legs — the former of which had kittens with imperfect ones. — now Sir J. Sebright2 thought if he had had a pair he could have produced from them — this instance of monstrous variety which could not have been persistent in nature. —
According to my view, the domesticated animals would cease being fertile inter se, or at least show repugnance to breeding if instincts unchanged, & if their characteristic qualities were all deeply imbued in them from long permanence, so that all their peculiarities must be transmitted if their

1 William Yarrell. Personal communication.
2 Sir John Sebright. Probably personal communication.

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The every case common to many good species, therefore to genera (& the uncles & aunts) & therefore does not tell against transmutation of species — will it against genera. — How long will the wretched inhabitants of N.W. Australia go on blinking their eyes without extermination, & change of structure. — When will the mosquitoes of S. America take an effect — would perfect impunity from moskitoes bite influence propagation of species. —
Case of association very disagreeable hearing maid servant cleaning door outside as often as she touched handle, though really fully aware she was not coming in, — could not help being perfectly disturbed, referred to other Book M.1

1 The reference is to Darwin's First Notebook on Metaphysics, Morals and Expression.


Is there any law of variation (as Hunter1 supposes with monsters) — if armless cat can propagate, i.e. with the chance of two being born at same time, & make breed, one would doubt any law. — yet seeing the feathers along one toe of the Pouter one thinks there is a law, — that there must have been a tendency for feathers to grow there. That mutilations will not alter form may be inferred from Australian knocking out teeth. — The account of the people on the N.W. Coast blinking to keep out flies might be used.
The wild ass has no cross, how comes it that the tame donkey has. Old Buffon2 should be read on mare.
My view why hybrids are infertile, supposes that when foetus is forming the ovum within it is forming & this must be so else avitism could hardly ever occur. — and if that cannot be formed, generat. organ by that co-relation of parts will not be produced. —

1 John Hunter in Richard Owen: Descriptive and Illustrated Catalogue of the physiological series of Comparative Anatomy contained in the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons in London, London 1833 1: iv.
2 Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon. Histoire naturelle. Quadrupèdes, Paris.


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Sept. 17th. Saw mule, apparently fathered by a donkey, with all four legs ringed with brown.— animal like large, heavily made cream coloured ass.— stripe on back also.— legs reminded me strongly of Zebra.— Mem. Quagga & Ld Moreton Mare ringed1
Owen says that Bell in Encyclop of Anat & Phys. describes, a high-flying bat, which has the power of inflating its body like balloon — by air cells connected with cheek pouches .—
Hunter's Animal Oeconomy p. 45 "One of the most general marks is the superior strength of of make in the males; & another circumstance, perhaps, equally so, is this strength being directed to one part more than another, which part is that most immediately employed in fighting" instances thighs of cock & Neck of Bull.— is most common in vegetable feeders, because males always armed in Carnivora. Where females, are peacable— (Mem Lucanus & Copris &c).— In birds singing


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of cocks settle point.— (do the females then fight for male) & are merely most attracted). — singing best sign of most vigorous males.— (NB. most strange cocks & hens, being either alike or very different in recently altered genera. Guinea Fowl & Peaccocks.!! other birds display beauty of plumage.— (The females (as Owen observes) in Raptorial birds largest.— p. 47.l ("is evidently the male which recedes from the species all females being most like offspring, Q (how is this with those females which put on (like some waders) the bright plumage.— thinks Hence specific character most perfect in male hermaphrodite. —
(Fishes have no secondary characters. — ) p. 49. (wonderful case of Pea hen. taking feathers of Peacock & spurs — no final cause here. — & therefore different from Hunter I should say females recede in organization from specific character.—
Chapt I. Also Latent Character


p. 482 (same book, Hunter Animal Economy) Owen says1 "the necessity of combining observation of the living habits of animals, with anatomical & zoological research, in order to establish entirely their place in nature, as well as fully to understand their oeconomy, is now universally admitted". — p. 483 Owen2 thinks from climate of Australia & from Ornithorhynchus & Hydromys not being Marsupial (but also mice) & these being water animals that this these structures connected with animals being compelled to travers "may have reference to the great distances which the mammalia of N.S. Wales are generally compelled to traverse in order to quench their thirst" — But New Guinea!! S. America. — Such difficulties will always occur if animals are thought to have been created. — it might as well be attempted to be shown from peculiarities of climate cause of N. Zealand not having any Mammalia. — Type of geographical organization. No more can be said

1 Richard Owen in John Hunter:Observations on certain parts of the Animal Oeconomy with Notes by Richard Owen, London 1837, p. 482, n1.
2 Richard Owen in John Hunter. Ibid, p. 483, footnote.


In paper on bees in same work it is said1 that some kinds lay up honey even for single rainy day — & from case of wasps is supposed cells properly are made for larvae. — (p. 451) — Wasps breed many females, but almost all die — bees breed but few, because they are kept in security. — Hunter doubts about production of Queens. — Neuters are bred first, then males — how has this been arranged — Neuters are true female, but with parts little developed. —
Sept. 19th There is no scale according to importance of divisions in arrangement, of the perfection of

1 John Hunter. Ibid, p. 451, "On the number of Queens in a hive".


their separation. — Thus Vertebrata blend with Annelida by some fish. — But birds quite distinct. —
Collect cases of difficulty of growing plants in all parts of world, thus tea trees in Brazil must have degenerated, as must spices &c &c.
The line of argument often pursued throughout my theory is to establish a point as a probability by induction, & to apply it as hypotheses to other points, & see whether it will solve them. —


It is less wonderful that childs nervous system should build up its body like its parent than that it should be provided with many contingencies how to act. — So with the mind the simplest transmission is direct instinct & afterwards enlarged powers to meet with contingency. —
Sept. 23d. Saw in Loddiges1 garden 1279 varieties of roses!!! proof of capability of variation. — Saw his collection of Humming birds, saw several greatly developed tails & one with beak turned up like Avocette. here is what

1 Conrad Loddiges. Catalogue of Plants in the Collection of Conrad Loddiges & Sons, Nurserymen at Hackney near London. 13th edit. London 1823, p. 33 gives Rosa fl. simpl. 1205; 15th edit. London 1830, p. 57 gives Rosa fl. simpl. 1470. Presumably Darwin worked from the 14th edition.

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that it shall beget young different in colour, form, & so altered in disposition as to be more easily trained up to the required offices" &c. &c.
Owen illustrates1 case of Dingo (he alludes to the Dholes or wild dogs of India) in Zoolog. Garden having coloured offspring — but surely in all these cases an unseen change is produced in parent — colour is a doubtful subject, but what other instances are there of such changes, not acquired by parent, being handed down?

1 Richard Owen in John Hunter. Op. cit., p. 330, footnote: "The existence of wild dogs which are not wolves, as the Dingo of Australia and the Dhole of India, which have either lost or have never acquired the common character of domestication, variety of colour, it is itself a strong argument against the original of the domestic dog ever having been a wolf."


Are not Loddiges1 1279 roses kept in same soil, same atmosphere ? — may they not be transplanted?, & yet year after year, successive roses & bud are produced, like parent stock or if different deteriorating very slowly. — I presume most of these roses, without circumstances very unfavourable, will deteriorate continue of same variety as long as life lasts, yet they cannot transmit through seeds these characters though transmitting them with such facility to bud. — This must be owing to their unity in one stem. —

1 Conrad Loddiges. op. cit.


A bud may be transplanted & carry all these peculiarities — not so a seed. — Bud probably is like cutting off tail of Planaria, claw added to crab, tail to lizard, healing of wound. — reproductive faculty + The whole grown to that part — in the separated part every element of the living body is present, in generation something is added from one part of the body, (or of other similar, body) to another part of body. — (in plants does not whole individual change into generative organs?) it is of no consequence if it does —
I do not doubt, the Do plants loose any qualities by being buds — more than if whole branch transplanted ?
+ simplest forms of budding.
Why does Gecko produce always different tail?


An individual bud may be thus produced from the growth of one part, (not strictly new individual) or he may produced by having undergone the endless changes which its parents have, — not this is effected by short method in generation. —
Ehrenberg1 considers artificial division of animals as gemmation. I consider gemmation as artificial division. — On this view each particle of animal must have structure of whole comprehended in itself. — it must have the knowledge how to grow & therefore to repair wounds — but this has nothing to do with generation.
Why crab can produce claw but man not arm, hard to say. —

1 Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg. Athenaeum, 1838, 8th Sept. p. 653. (8th Meeting of the Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci., Section Zool.) "… believes that process of multiplication by division to be merely the development of a gemma or bud … "


if it were possible to support the arm of man,1 when cut off, it would produce another man. — That the embryo the thousandth of inch should produce a Newton is often thought wonderful, it is part of same class of facts, that the skin grows over a wound. —
Does likeness of twin bear on the subject ?
A mans arm would produce arm if supported, & in making true bud some such process is effected, — a child might be so born, but it would be very different from true generation, — there is no caterpillar state: the vast difference of two kinds of generation shown by their happening in same plant. —

1 Darwin is using the expression "to support the arm of a man" in the sense of keeping it supplied with its physiological requirements. An anticipation of tissue culture by 70 years.


The Marsupial structure shows that they became Mammalia, through a different series of changes from the placentalia. Having hair like true Mammalia, no more wonderful than Echidna & hedgehog having spines. —
Does not male pidgeon (yes surely) secrete milk? from stomach, analogous to other males feeding young, & to abortive organs mammae in male Mammalia — ?is not this argument for mammalia recent creation. — why what tendency can there be for abortive organ ever disappearing?? — Have Marsupiata abortive mammae ? —
My view would make every individual a spontaneous generation: what is animalcular semen but this — the nerve living nerve massed in mould. —


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Lyells Elements.1 p. 290 Dr Beck on numerical proportion in shells in Arctic Ocean, p. 350 Grallae in Wealden oldest birds, p. 411 Decapod Crust in Muschel-kalk & 5 genera of reptiles. — Me p. 417 Magnesian limestone & Zechstein oldest rocks in which reptiles have been found. p. 426. Sauroid fish in coal, true fish & not intermediate between fish & reptile — yet osteology closely resembles reptiles. p. 432 some plants in coal supposed to be intermediate between coniferous trees & Lycopodium. — p. 437 Many existing genera of shells in the mountain limestone (how different from plants!) But the Cephalopoda depart more widely from living forms. — p. 458 Upper Silurian fishes oldest formation highly organized. —

1 Sir Charles Lyell, Elements of Geology, London, 1838.


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do. p. 461 Lower Silurian — several existing genera — Nautilus, Turbo, buccinum, turritella, terebratula, orbicula, with many extinct forms & Trilobites.
Sept. 25th In considering infertility of hybrids inter se. the first cross generally brothers & sisters & therefore somewhat unfavourable. —
28th We ought to be far from wondering of changes in numbers of species, from small changes in nature of locality. Even the energetic language of Malthus Decandolle does not convey the warring of the species as inference from Malthus. — increase of brutes must be prevented solely by positive checks, excepting that famine may stop desire. — in nature production does not increase, whilst no check prevail, but the positive check of famine & consequently death.


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Population is increase at geometrical ratio in far shorter time than 25 years — yet until the one sentence1 of Malthus no one clearly perceived the great check amongst men. — there is spring, like food used for other purposes as wheat for making brandy. — Even a few years plenty, makes population in Men increase & an ordinary crop causes a dearth. take Europe on an average every species must have same number killed year with year by hawks, by cold &c. — even one species of hawk decreasing in number must affect instantaneously all the rest. — The final cause of all this wedging, must be to sort out proper structure, & adapt it to changes. — to do that for form, which Malthus shows is the final effect (by means however of volition) of this populousness on the energy of man. One may say there is a force like a hundred thousand wedges trying force into every kind of adapted structure into the gaps of in the oeconomy of nature, or rather forming gaps by thrusting out weaker ones. —

1 This note, written on 28 September 1838, makes it possible to identify the sentence in T. R. Malthus's Essay on the Principle of Population which enabled Darwin to see how the pressure of natural selection is inevitably brought to bear. It was in the 6th edition, London 1826 1: 6: "It may safely be pronounced, therefore, that the population, when unchecked, goes on doubling itself every twenty five years, or increases in a geometrical ratio."


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D'Orbigny1 Comtes Rendus p. 569. 1838 says the cross between the Guaranis & Spaniards are almost white from first generation, that with Quichuas the American character is more tenacious & does not disappear for many generations.
Sept 29th Dr Andrew Smith. Remarks on extraordinary curiosity of Monkeys. The Baboon of which anecdotes have been told is Cynocephalus Porcarius. — This monkey did not like a great coat made for it at first, but in two or three days learn its comfort & though could not put it on, yet threw it over

1 Alcide Dessalines D'Orbigny, "L'Homme américain (de l'Amérique méridionale),eonsidéré sous ses rapports physiologiques et moraux ", Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci. Paris tome 7, 1838, p. 569.


it, & made it meet in front. — Dr Smith1 every baboon & monkey, big & little that ever he saw knew women. — he has repeatedly seen them try to pull up petticoats, & if women not afraid, clasp them round waist & look into their faces & make the st. st noise. — The Cercopithecus chinensis? (or bonnet faced) monkey he has seen do this. — These monkey had no curiosity to pull up trousers of men. Evidently knew men women, thinks perhaps by smell, — but monkeys examine sexes of every

1 Dr. Andrew Smith. Personal communication.


Has repeatedly seen one he kept pull up feathers of tail of Hen, which lived with it, — also of dogs but did not seem to evince more lewdness for bitch than dog: monkeys thus examine each other sexes by taking up tail. — Mem.: Ourang Jerry with Tommy. — Good evidence of knowledge of woman. —
The noise st st which the C sphynx makes is also made by the C. porcarius, together with a grunting noise, the former signifies recognition with pleasure, as when food is offered, as much as to


say give me — the other when Dr Smith more distant. — But he thinks other monkeys make st. noise. In case of woman instinctive desire may be said more definite than with bitch, for some feeling must urge them to these actions. These facts may be turned to ridicule, or may be thought disgusting, but to philosophic naturalist pregnant with interest.
Hyaena, thinks, when pleased cocks his ears, when frightened depresses them.
England was united to Continent when elephants lived, & when present animals lived — we know the great time necessary to form channel & (& Basses St.) yet no change in English species — time no element in making change, only in fixing it: only circumstances a contingency of time.


When we multiply the effects of earthquakes, elevating forces in raising continents, & forming mountain-chains, when we estimate the matter removed by the waves of the sea, on beaches, we really measure the rapidity of change of forms, & instincts in the animal kingdom. — It is the unit of our calendar — epochs & creations reduce themselves to the revolutions of one system in the Heavens. —
Is not puma same colour as lion because inhabitant of plain & Jaguar of woods &c like ground birds.

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Sexual Selection

:Hence, also structure not really fitted for water, only habits & instincts — The young of the p Kingfisher (.p. 169) has the colour on its back bright blue. — thus young of Many of the pies assume the metallic tints, such as Magpie, Jay, & perhaps all the rollers — He says whenever metallic brilliancy is present in Young birds, one may be sure cock & hen will be alike — I presume converse is not true for he says Hen & cock Starling alike, yet young ones brown.—
If masculine character, added to species,, we can see why young & Female alike
Good Ch 6   Keep
Is it Male that assumes change, & is the offspring brought back to earlier type by Mother? — do these differences indicate, species changing forms, & loosing do if so domestic animals ought to show them. — Anyhow not connected with habits

Sexual Selection] later pencil insertion.


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According as child is like parent, so is species old: Hence young Kingfisher & pies, have long had their present plumage.— How is this in Pidgeons & fowls.— ???
Wate[r]ton p. 197 put 12 wild duck's eggs under common ducks, the young crossed amongst themselves, & I presume with common ducks, so often, that it was impossible to say which was origin of any identical bird — for they were of all colours. — they were "half wild-half tame, they came to the windows to be fed, but still they have a wariness about them quite remarkable" instance of old Species transmitting so much longer its Mental peculiarities.
Wildness Reversion 

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The present age is the one for large Cetacea, as the past for other Mammalia, & still further back reptilia & Cephalopoda.
Old Jones1 remarked to me that one of the children of Sir J.H. was so like Sir W. whilst Sir J. himself is not like — now this is a clear case of avitism. but then ?was not the expression of father Sir W. itself received from his father so that case ceases to be true avitism
Annals of Natural History2 p. 135 Natural History of the Caspian Fresh water Fish !! ?adapted to Salt Water? — peculiar species, crabs & molluscs few. — ?are not some same — what is the alliance with the Black Sea. — it would be ocean. what is land to continent — Original Paper worth studying. Archiv fur Naturgeschichte.3

1 Unidentified.
2 Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. 2, 1838, Bibliographical Notices, p. 135, refers to subject of following footnote.
3 E. Eichwald, Einige Bemerkungen über das kaspische Meer ", Archiv. für Naturgeschichte, 4ter Jahrgung, Bd. 1, pp. 97-112; on p. 97: "Wenn gleich die grosste Zahl der Fische des Meeres Flussfische sind, die jedoch als solche nicht an den Mündungen der grösseren Flüsse, also da, wo das See-wasser süss ist, leben, so finden sich dennoch mehrere Arten, und zwar aus Gattungen, die bisher nur im salzigen Seewasser beobachtet wurden."


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September 11
Mr Yarrell says it is well known that in breeding very pure South Down that the ewe must never be put to any other breed else all the lambs will deteriorate. — Lord Moreton's1 case —
When cows have twins, though capable of producing both pair of male & female. — if there be one female, she will be free Martin.2 Owen See Hunter's Owen —
In the Athenaeum Numbers 406, 407, 409, Quetelet papers are given, 8c I think facts there mentioned about proportion of sexes, at birth & causes.3

1 cf. "Darwin's First Notebook on Transmutation of Species ", Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Historical Series, vol. 2, 1960, p. 63, footnote 7.
2 John Hunter, Observations on certain parts of the Animal Oeconomy, with notes by Richard Owen, London, 1837, p. 34, "Account of the Free-Martin ".
3 Adolphe Quételet, "On Man and the Development of his Faculties, &c. "Athenaeum, nos. 406 407, 409, 1835 ; pp. 593-5, 611-3, 658-61; on p. 611 : "an examination of births registered in France during a lapse of fourteen years, that the average number of male births to female was 106.38 to 100 … he proceeds to inquire into the external circumstances by which these proportions may be partially affected ; … that the number of male births is relatively less predominant in cities than in agricultural districts ".


If an animal breeds young her growth is immediately checked — the vis formativa goes entirely to the offspring — This is clearly the converse of animal being rendered inessential, the hardness of life in female moth &c.
Mr Y.1 says that Macleay considers the house bug, as a female which has larvae which have bred before the vis formativa had completed them — (but the argument is very weak without knowing whether if kept they would have wings. — ). — Says p. 84. Hens like Cocks from effect of heredity in & in. — Mr Yarrell does not know of any case of old male becoming like female, though many

1 William Yarrell. Personal communication.


of old female becoming like cocks. — It is very singular so many Gallinaceous birds have cock & hen plumage so different, yet the Cassowary & Guinea fowl cannot be distinguished. —
A capon will sit upon eggs as well as & often better than a female. — this is full of interest, for it shows latent instincts even in brain of male. — Every animal surely is hermaphrodite — (as is seen in plumage of hybrid birds)


After animal has copulated, though no offspring, milk sometimes comes in mammae, & even when bitch is in heat. —
Yarrell believes Gestation is always some multiple of seven — if woman does not menstruate in the month, she will in 5 weeks. —
A Bull is never taken from his own field to bull a cow. — A dog if led in string will not. — Some of the tigers — cat, though caterwhalling & put into female when muzzled, he is disabled. — so elephant in confinement, & so imagination in man, has strange effect. —


Directly a capon is cut, it increases in size prodigiously —
Animal Oeconomy by Hunter (edited by Owen) p. 34, — Owen1 classifies Hermaphrodites Cryptandrous (only female organs visible) Oyster, Cystic Entozoa, Echinoderms, Acalephes, Polyps, Sponges.
Heautandrous, male organs formed to fecundate females (as in plants) Cirrhipeds, rotifers, trematode and cestoid Entozoa.
Allotriandrous or m Mollusca, with2 pectinibranchiate order — The Annelida, all other animals are Dioecious as Cephalopods, pectinibranciate molluscs, insects, spiders crabs — (all these however do not require coition every generation) Epizoa, the nematoid Entozoa —
Therefore highness in scale has no constant relation to separation of sexes, as may be

1 Richard Owen, in John Hunter. Observations on certain parts of the Animal Oeconomy with Notes by Richard Owen, London 1837, non p. 35 (not p. 34).
2 recte: without


seen in Monoecious & Dioecious plants. — NB. in Heautandrous animals are is there gradation of structure leading to supposition, that the Cryptandrous are really Heautandrous. — How is fecundation effected in latter; are it organs open to water ? Would not ferns according to this doctrine be considered as really cryptandrous, & they have hybrids — This is most important support to my views — Seeing sexes separate in some of the lowest tribes, leads one to suppose still more that they must in effect be so in all. — 2 NB. In Pectinibranch mollusca or Cephalopoda are there abortive traces of other sexual organs; for if so, separation of sexes very simple — as in plants. Even in same genus some dioecious & some monoecious — (& cultivation might make one set of organs barren in one plant & not in other). Hunter asks p. 36 is thought by Owen1 to ask whether a Heautandrous animal is actually split in two — keeping sexes separate. Owen says such view worthy of a Lamarckian. — Mine is much simpler. —

1 Richard Owen, in John Hunter. Ibid, p. 36 nc.


Hunter1 shows almost all animals subject to Hermaphroditism, — those organs which perform nearly same function in both sexes, are never double, only modified, those which perform very different, are both present in every shade of perfection. — How comes it nipples are though abortive, are so plain in man, yet no trace of abortive womb, or ovarium, — or testicles in female. — the add presence of both testes & ovaries in Hermaphrodite — but not of penis & clitoris, shows to my mind, that both are present in every animal, but unequally developed. — surely analogy of Molluscs & neuter bee would shew this. (Do any male animals give milk) — But this not distinctly stated by Hunter,2 — Do testes, & ovaria when

1 John Hunter. Ibid, "An account of the Free-Martin", p. 36.
2 John Hunter. Ibid, "An account of the Free-Martin", p. 36.


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they first appear occupy their proper positions, — this would be argument for development of either. — (Mammae or sheath of Horses penis reduced to extreme degree of abortion). — Insecta. — hermaphrodite, being not only dimidiate, but quarter grown seems to show whole body imbued with possibility of becoming either sex. — In my theory I must allude to separation of sexes as very great difficulty, then give speculation to show that it is not overwhelming. —
Seeing in Gardens of Hybrids between common & Silver Pheasant, one like cock & other like hen — one doubts whether they are not Hermaphrodites, like J. Hunters Free Martin. N.B. the common mule must often have been dissected.


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Zoolog. Garden. Sept. 16. Hybrid between Silver & common Pheasant. Mule bird, said to be infertile. — spurs rather smaller than in silver male — Head like silver except in not having tuft. — back like do. — but the black lines on each feather instead of coming to point are more rounded. & much broader, & three I believe, instead of two lines, faintly edged with reddish brown — black marks on tail much broader. — Breast red like common pheasant — lower part of breast each feather is fine metallic green with tip & part of shaft metallic green. — This green doubtless is effect of metallic hue of silver pheasant, yet why green? & not purple? — leg pale coloured. — In the back feathers, we have character different from either parent bird —


Hunters Animal Oeconomy (by Owen)1 p. 44 Classification of Monsters (1) from praeternatural situation of parts, (2) addition of parts, (3) deficiency of parts, (4) combined addition and deficiency of parts, as in Hermaphrodites, (shows my doctrine of Hermaphrodite differs from Hunter) — Hunter2 (p. 45) observes "every species has a disposition to deviate from Nature in a manner peculiar to itself". Each part of each species not similarly subject. —
Divides sexual marks into primary & secondary, the latter only being developed when the first become of use. Great characteristic of male greater strength — (p. 45) and that strength
In speaking of generation always put female first.
Will not even a fruit tree or rose degenerate during its life so that successive buds do differ — any variety is not handed down but is handed down for some generations.

1 Richard Owen in John Hunter. Ibid, p. 44 footnote.
2 John Hunter. Ibid, p. 45 "An account of an extraordinary pheasant".


Theory of sexes (woman makes bud, man puts primordial vivifying principle) one individual secretes two substances, although organs for the double purpose are not distinguished, (yet may be presumed from hybridity of ferns) afterwards they can be seen distinct (in dioecious plants in their abortive sexual organs?): they then become so relates to each other as never to be able to impregnate themselves (this never happens in plants, only in subordinate manner in the plants which have male & female flowers on same stem. — ) so that Molluscous hermaphroditism takes place. — thus one organ in each becomes obliterated, & sexes as in Vertebrates take place. — ∴ every man & woman is hermaphrodite: — ∴ developed instincts of capon & power of assuming male plumage in females, & female plúmage in castrated male. — Men giving milk —


Sept. 25th Young man at Willis1 Gt Marlborough St Hair dresser assures me he has known many cases of bitch going to mongrel, & all subsequent litters having a throw of this mongrel. — I did not ask the question. — His bitch will not take, & if she did take, probably would not be fertile, without she knows & likes him & then is actually obliged to be held, — like she wolf of Hunter2 — there is great difference between hybrids & inter se offspring in latter being unhealthy. — young take distemper very readily & are subject to fits. — Males bred in & in never lose passion. (mem. so it was said little cock yet very bad losing virile powers in Zoolog Gardens & Kings at Otaheite) Last litters are considered the most valuable because smallest sized dogs, — one litter big & then second small & so. — Says there is breed of Fowls called everlasting layers — or Polish breed (He thinks

1 Mr. Willis. Hairdresser cf. above MS. p. 24.
2 John Hunter. Ibid, "Observations tending to show that the wolf, jackal, and dog, are all of the same species", p. 319. On p. 324: "I communicated to Mr. Symmons my wish that we should endeavour to prove the fact of the wolf and dog being of the same species, by having either his female or mine lined by a dog."


half pheasant, half fowls) — eggs fertile but parent bird will never sit on them. —
May be just worth remembering that ovarium of women (Paper in Vol. I of Irish Royal Academy)1 have contained perfect teeth & hair, showing foetus has gone on growing, I believe same has happened in boys bodies.
Lavaters Essays on Phy2 transl by Holcroft vol. I, p. 195 says children resemble parents in their bodies "It is a fact equally well known, that we observe in the temper, especially of the youngest children, a striking resemblance similarity to the temper of the

1 James Cleghorn. "The History of an Ovarium, wherein were found Teeth, Hair and Bones," Trans. Irish Royal Acad., 1787 1: 73.
2 John Caspar Lavater, Essays on Physiognomy. The Catalogue of the Library of Charles Darwin, Cambridge 1908, lists this book as the French edition Paris 1820. In the translation by Holcroft (London 1840) on p. 369 the following words appear: " … From all observations, on the resemblance between parents and children, which I have been able to make, it appears to me evident that neither the theory of Bonnet nor Buffon give any systematic explanation of the phenomena, the existence of which cannot be denied … sometimes, [they] resemble the mother, sometimes the father, often both, and often neither …" The edition which Darwin used has not been traced.


father, or of the mother, or sometimes of both". If L. can be trusted this is Lord Moretons1 law. — "How often do we find in the sons the character, constitution, & most of the moral qualities of the father!. In how many daughters does the character of the mother revive! Or the character of the mother in the son, & of the father in the daughters! This last remark good because showing probably not education. —
Cannot I find some animal with definite life & split it, & see whether it retains same length of life — like Golden Pippin trees? How is this with buds of plants, does annual give buds. — Life may be thus prolonged, bud being formed & one part dying for great length of time. —

1 Lord Morton. "A Communication of a singular fact in Natural History", (read November 1820), Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc, 1821, vol. cxi, p. 20.


There is probably law of nature that any organ which is not used is absorbed. — this law acting against hereditary tendency causes abortive organs. — The origin of this law is part of the reproductive system, — of that knowledge of the part of what is good for the whole — if cut off nerves in snail1 (Encyclop of Anat & Phys) can make a head: the other parts may surely absorb a useless member, — in fact they do it in disease & injury. —
The sympathy of parts is possibly part of same general law, which makes two animals out of one

1 T. Rymer Jones, "Gastropoda", Encycl. Anat. & Phys., London 1839 2: 396. Regeneration of the tentacles in snails was first demonstrated by Spallanzani and published in 1768. His results were confirmed by Voltaire in the same year. (Sir Gavin de Beer. Science and the Humanities, London, 1956).


& heals piece of skin, — if the tail knows how to make a head, & Head a tail, & the half both head & tail — no wonder there should be sympathy in human frame.
One of the final causes of sexes to obliterate differences, final cause of this because the great changes of nature are slow, if animals became adapted to every minute change, they would not be fitted to the slow great changes really in progress. —
Annals of Natural History, 1838, p. 123. Ehrenberg1 makes gemmation in animals very different from that of plants (though latter does sometimes occur in animals). latter the division taking place from outside inwards & in animals from inside to the outside. is this not owing simply to more importance of internal regions in animals. One invisible animalcule in four days could form 2 cubic stone, like that of Billin

1 Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg. "Communication respecting Fossil and Recent Infusoria made to the British Association at Newcastle", Ann. Hist. Nat., 1838 (1839) 2: 121. On p. 123: "… or as many individual animalcules as contained in 2 cubic feet of the stone from the polishing slate of Bilin. This increase takes place by voluntary division; and this is the character which separates animals from plants. It is true that the gemmation in plants, especially in very simple cells, is at times very similar to the division in animals, but this relates to the form not to the formation. A vegetable cell apparently capable of self division always becomes one, or contemporaneously many exterior warts (gems) without any change in its interior. An animal which is capable of division first doubles the inner organs, and subsequently decreases exteriorly in size. Self division proceeds from the interior towards the exterior, from the centre to the periphery; gemmation, which also occurs in animals, proceeds from the exterior towards the interior."


v, p. 152
It1 is very singular the same difference from parental stock having been repeated several times, that it becomes fixed in blood. — Looking at ovum of mother & ovum in offspring, as similar to the several ova in mother (with only difference of time) is the above law anyways connected with the case of successive copulation impresses offspring more & more with the added difference, like Lord Moretons1 case & Dr Andrew Smith2
If A.B.C.D.E. be animals: if (X) male impresses ovum in A with some peculiarity that is (B) to some degree, & likewise ovum in (B) that in (C) in lesser degree — Then when (C) unites with male (X)3 assume that every peculiarity has a tendency to descend to several generations

1 Lord Morton' op. cit., p. 20.
2 Dr. Andrew Smith. Reference untraced.
3 From the words "If A.B.C.D.E" to here crossed in MS.


If A & B be two animals which have some peculiarity for first time, & if their D & E all their offspring inherit the same peculiarity in lesser degree by & theirs again in lesser degree — now if the second race both have this peculiarity strongly; they transmit with same force as first pair, but to this tendency is added the 3d tendency from first pair. — Now if two of third pair of same peculiarity breed they will have the same influence as first pair + tendency they inherited from second pair, + the influence they themselves inherit.
Annals of Natural History1 p. 96, vol. I. Notice the Syngnathus or Pipe fish the male of which receives eggs in belly. — Analogpus to men having mammae. —

1 CD incorrectly writes vol I over II. B. F. Fries. "On the genus Syngnathus", Ann. Nat. Hist., 1838 (1839) 2: 96.


There is an analogy between caterpillars with respect to moths, & monkeys & men, — each man passes through its caterpillar state. The monkey represents this state. —
When it is said, that difference between bud & seed, that latter carries with stock of food, — the generalization begins low — it goes through transformation nearly independently of its parent therefore wants independent supply of food, — is real difference — but this does not apply to potato.


With respect to offspring being determined by impregnation of mother — we see in a litter every possible variation from being very near mother, & some very near father. — Now if one of these staid in the womb, when it came out, it might partake of shade of fathers character. — according to this view more semen to one child, more like father. — Stuff! —


How much opposed the Quagga case appears to that of 2 dog[s] begetting different puppies out of same mother. —
The following views show the transmission of mutilation impossible it should be observed that transmission bears no relation to utility of change, hence hare-lips hereditary, disease, extinction.
The view that man or cock pheasant &c is abortive hermaphrodite is supported by change which takes place in old age of female assuming plumage of cock, & beards growing in old women = Stags horns & testes curious instance of corelation in structure — Neuter bee having both sexes abortive fact of same tendency. — Mammae in men having given milk, testes & ovaria. — Animals in domestication (mem. elephant) not breeding — remarkable.
Athenaeum 1838, p. 653. Ehrenberg1 thinks multiplication by division in developement of gemma

1 Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg. Athenaeum, 1838, 8th Sept., p. 653.


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the manner in which frogs copulate & fish show how simply instinctive the feeling of other sex being present is — it also shows that semen must actually reach the ovum. — (Why in making a bud, which is to pass through all transformations should there need two organs; whilst in common bud there is no such need. — one would suppose that the vital portion ?nerves? passed through transformation & was received into bud matured by female: such view no way explains Lord Moreton's case: without the nervous matter consists of infinite numbers of globules: generally sufficient for one birth or other)
II. It should be observed that the constant necessity for change in process of generation applies only [to] the more complicated animals.
p. 310 She wolf took dog1 but had such aversion to it, that she was held. Hunters Oeconomy. So with inter-breeding as told by Willis2

1 John Hunter, op. cit., p. 323 : "she would not allow any dog to come near her … She was held, however, while a greyhound dog lined her ".
2 cf. "Darwin's Second Notebook on Transmutation of Species ", Bull, Brit, Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Historical Series, vol. 2, 1960, p. 110, n4.


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v. infra p. 179 continued from
Is a flower bud produced by union of two common buds??? Amongst buds each one exactly like its parents, all alike in one parent or tree, but not in other trees. — Why should there be a necessity that there should be something each time added to that kind of generation, which typifies the whole course of change from simplest form. — (Because by the process it separates those differences which are in harmony with all its previous changes, which mutilations are not). but why should it demand some further change? Man properly is hermaphrodite (hence monstrosities tend that way from frequency of this tendency all mammals must long have so existed with double union.[)] — At present I can only say the whole object being to acquire differences, indifferently of what kind, either progressive improvement or deter[ioration] .. that object failing, generation fails. — How completely circumstances alone make changes or species!! The view of each man or mammalia being abortive hermaphrodite simplifies case much ; & originally each hermaphrodite being simple (are not coniferous trees generally dioecious oldest forms)


Why are twin in man more like each other, than twins or triplets &c or in litter. Why is there some law about sexes of twins in former case. — (many monsters are really twins.) —
It is absolutely necessary that some but not great difference (for every brother & sister are somewhat different) should be added to each individual before he can procreate. then change may be effect of differences of parents, or external circumstances during life. — if the circumstances which must be external which induce change are always of one nature species is formed, if not — the changes oscillate backwards & forwards & are individual differences, (hence every individual is different). (All this agrees well with my view of those forms slightly favoured getting the upper hand & forming species.) — (Aphides having fertile offspring without coition or addition of differences, shows that difference need not be added each time, but after some time.)
What kinds of plants are monoecious or dioecious. Very curious how this was superinduced ? (Surely all are really dioecious) only simple forms of life are monoecious.


Proved facts relating to Generation.
One copulation may impregnate one or many offspring, it affects the subsequent offspring, when though other male may have copulated. — two animals may unite & each have offspring by same mother. — one animal will fecundate female for several births, & even produce fertile offspring. — Desire lost when male & female too closely related: this most important with regard to theory, showing generation connected with whole system, as if there was a superabundance of life like tendency to budding, which wishes to throw itself off, — as may be inferred from annual plant being prolonged till it has bred. — Offspring like both father & mother, or very close to either. — Male & female as foetus one sex; & therefore both capable of propagating, but one is rendered abortive


as far as parturition is concerned. — Generation being means to propagate & perpetuate differences, (of body, mind & constitution) in the end frustrated, when near relations & therefore those very close are bred into each other. —
this is somehow connected. (This seems case, for by careful observing cattle can be bred in & in.) —
( The life of passion in hybrids perhaps connected with this same case (& not merely as I have stated it) it is certainly very remarkable that too much difference should produce same effect as too little, — in (latter case female often takes males but does not produce) tendency to deformity this does not happen with hybrids?) Plants must stand much breeding in & in (those which have solitary flowers) exotics brought from foreign country & so must those forms which are produced by budding only as cryptogams & hydras — (this repugnance to breeding in & in seems connected with more developed forms). Study buds — gemmae & monocotyledonous, do those which are monocotyledons have many flowers in same spath, as they have only one bud. —


Every individual foetus would reproduce its kind was it not for the necessity of some change. Without some small change in form, ideosyncrasy or disposition were added or substracted at each or in several generations, the process would be similar to budding which is not object of generation. — therefore passions fail. — In fruit trees no doubt there is tendency to propagate the whole difference of parent tree, but it fails. Therefore crab seedlings of one apple ought to differ from those of other. — The upshot of all this is that effect of male is to impress some difference to make the bud of the woman not a bud in every respect. — Is this connected with the physical differences in almost all male animals ? If the male in the case of some generations has gained some difference from what it received (for it is probable that breeding more in would not be deleterious if the relation had come from different quarters) then it causes a secretion of something someways different from himself, for it should be observed that from


Books to read
Buff on Suites1 &c.
Horse & cattle Library of useful Knowledge.2
Bell's Quadrupeds.3
the effects of breeding in, it is not merely the too close animals which will not breed, but the female at least (?male?) looses all appetite. — It is the comparison of each animal with its ancestors, and not its comparison of difference with other sex.
The highest bred Blood hound would be infertile with highest bred of other ? breed. Therefore it is not really breeding in & in but breeding animals that have neither varied from their stock, for to breed (as Sir J. Sebright4 urges?) one with opposed characters is by impliance to breed two which have each varied from parent stock. — The very theory of generation being the passing through whole series of forms to acquire differences, if none are added, object failed, & then by that corelation of structure, desire fails. Every individual except by incestuous marriage has acquired from father some differences v. Sykes.5

1 Collection des Suites à Buff on, formant avec les oeuvres de cet auteur un cours complêt d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris 1834 (or other edition).
2 William Youatt. "The Horse, with Treatise on Draught", Library of Useful Knowledge, Farm Series, 53, 1831; "Treatise on British Cattle, their Breeding, Management and Diseases", Library of Useful Knowledge, Farm Series, 51, 1834.
3 Thomas Bell. A history of British quadrupeds, including the Cetacca, London 1837. This list of books is at the top of the page and crossed out in MS
4 Sir John Sebright. Reference untraced.
5 Col. William Henry Sykes. Reference untraced.


Will ova of fishes & Mollusca & Frogs pass through birds stomachs & live ?
In Muscovy ducks do young take most after father or mother, according as they are crossed ? & how is it with China & Common geese. How are their instincts ? Chinensis & Common pigs. —
Experimentize on crossing of the several species of wild fowl of India, with our common ones in Zoolog. Gardens:
Buffalo, common cattle, Esquimaux (& Australian) dogs with common dogs
Ask my father to look out for instances of avitism.
Examine English breeds in hot houses, will they flower.
Make Hybrids with moths, where fecundation can be made artificially. —

[inside back cover]

Are hybrids pintail & common duck similar inter se? Zoolog. Gardens.
Are the hybrids of those species which cross & are fertile heterogenous?
When bird fanciers say the throw of two varieties is uncertain do they mean they cannot tell first result, or that hybrid breed is uncertain.
Is there any peculiarity or variation common to any zoophyte both in succession which is not transmitted by generation??
Is it chiefly in high bred dogs i.e. (bred in & in) that one copulation with other dogs renders subsequent progeny faulty. Does male fail in passion. —
Disposition of half bred cattle at Combermere? How is jackall & dog of Z. Gardens.

[back cover]


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