RECORD: Darwin, C. R. [1871]. Draft leaf of Expression. CUL-DAR185.144. Edited by John van Wyhe (Darwin Online,

REVISION HISTORY: Transcribed by Christine Chua and John van Wyhe 7.2020. RN2

NOTE: See record in the Darwin Online manuscript catalogue, enter its Identifier here. Reproduced with permission of a private collection, USA, and William Huxley Darwin.

From the 2018 Sotheby's description: "unnumbered fragment, torn at top from a larger leaf, 44 words on 6 lines, with unrelated mathematical calculations in black ink and pencil by George Darwin on the verso, blue wove paper, 1 page, oblong slip (c.102 x 202mm), torn at the head and cut at the foot, 1872, paper discoloured in spots Provenance Charles Darwin; his daughter Henrietta ("Etty") Litchfield (1843-1927); her niece Margaret Keynes, née Darwin (1890-1974); thence by descent". This manuscript sold for £110,000 in 2018 to an anonymous collection, USA. The same private collection holds:
[c. 1858]. Notes on Huber, Recherches sur les Moeurs des Fourmis Indigènes (1810). Text & image PC-USA-OriginAnts
1858. Draft leaf of OriginText & image PC-USA-OriginMS270
1858-59. Draft leaf of OriginText & image PC-USA-OriginMS324

1859.11.11. Letter to Adam Sedgwick on sending OriginText & image PC-USA-SedgwickOrigin
[1859].12.24. Letter to T. H. Huxley on a manuscript on the evolution of pigeons. Text & image PC-USA-HuxleyPigeons
[1861-62]. Draft of Orchids, folio 192. Text & image Sanders-3.2017Lot96.
1870. Draft leaf of DescentText & image PC-USA-DescentMS10
1871. Receipt for Murray's payment for DescentText & image PC-USA-DescentReceipt
1871. Draft leaf of ExpressionText & image CUL-DAR185.143
1871. Draft leaf of ExpressionText & image CUL-DAR185.144
1868.02.09. Letter to Asa Gray on VariationText & image PC-USA-GrayVariation

The text of the draft corresponds to Expression, p. 48.


during a long series of generations to any voluntary or instinctive course of action, then that the same sensations &c, although very weak or any analogous or associated sensation & will almost inevitably give some tendency to the performance of similar movements, although in

[Section of Expression, p. 48, with the corresponding text:]


[mathematical notes by George Howard Darwin not transcribed]

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Citation: John van Wyhe, ed. 2002-. The Complete Work of Charles Darwin Online. (

File last updated 22 November, 2023