RECORD: Darwin, C. R. Notebook C: [Transmutation of species (1838.02-1838.07)]. CUL-DAR122.- Transcribed by Kees Rookmaaker. (Darwin Online,

REVISION HISTORY: Text prepared by Kees Rookmaaker based on the transcriptions of de Beer et al. de Beer's footnotes are retained. RN2

de Beer, Gavin ed. 1960. Darwin's notebooks on transmutation of species. Part II. Second notebook [C] (February to July 1838). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Historical Series 2, No. 3 (May): 75-118 Text F1574

de Beer, G., Rowlands, M. J. and Skramovsky, B. M. eds. 1967. Darwin's notebooks on transmutation of species. Part VI. Pages excised by Darwin. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Historical Series 3 (5) (21 March): 129-176 Text F1574f

Four pages (95-96 and 105-106) were found after the publication of de Beer et al. 1967, and the transcription has here been added without footnotes.

NOTE: See the fully annotated transcription of this notebook by David Kohn in Barrett, Paul H., Gautrey, Peter J., Herbert, Sandra, Kohn, David, Smith, Sydney eds. 1987. Charles Darwin's notebooks, 1836-1844 : Geology, transmutation of species, metaphysical enquiries. British Museum (Natural History); Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

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Reproduced with permission of The Natural History Museum, the Syndics of Cambridge University Library and William Huxley Darwin.

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Charles Darwin
written between (beginning of February & July 1838)

<section cut off> of his pidgeons which cross & keep colour on wing
Effects of colour on parent. white room.
How are varieties produced, by picking offspring?

Books about amount of difference when hybrids produced have any close species ever yet failed.
About trades affecting form of man.

Could you get racehorse from Carthorse by picking without change of habits

All good References selected Dec 13 1856

Also worked through April 23. 1873.

vol 122


Mr Yarrell1 give it as his theory tells me he has no doubt that oldest variety takes greatest effect on offspring. Thus presuming those varieties to be oldest which have long been known in any country, he states that Esquimaux dog when crossed with pointer produces offspring much nearer Esquimaux than Pointer. — He has no doubt that same thing would happen with Australian dog & any of our common varieties. He has do doubt that

1 William Yarrell (1784-1856).


chestnut for many generations back, was crossed with Bay mare, only by a few generations, that offspring would be chestnut. — On this principle I may add, that fact of half cross with parents, going back to either parent is lucidly explained. — Mr Yarrell states that if any odd pidgeon crossed with common pidgeon, offspring most like latter, because oldest variety. — He says of two varieties of


pidgeon, although having skulls so different, that they would be called genera, yet retain marking of wings like the wild rock pidgeon. — fact analogous to Owen's1 Phil. remark of Apteryx having feathers. It is possible time being an element in the transmission of form may explain mule & pig being half way. Yet dogs sometimes like father, sometimes like mother. The fact of

1 Richard Owen. "On the anatomy of the Southern Apteryx." Communicated April 10, 1838, Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond., vol. 2, 1841, p. 257. On p. 258: "The Apteryx presents such a singular and seemingly anomalous compound of characters belonging to different orders of Birds,… It seems, as it were, to have borrowed its head from the Longirostral Grallae, its legs from the Gallinae, and its wings from the Struthious order. It is clothed with a plumage having the characteristic looseness of that of the terrestrial birds deprived of the power of flight …" Presumably Darwin heard Owen deliver this paper or discuss it beforehand.


great monstrosities being produced, & handed down with ease, is analogous to what occurs in plants. — All these facts clearly point out two kinds of varieties. — One approaching to nature of monster, hereditary, other adaptation. — [marginal inverted ?] Mr Yarrell says, that after breeding in pidgeons with very much care that, it requires the greatest difficulty to rear them, eggs hatched under other birds & brought up by hand. — These facts all account for

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Falkner1 Patagonia no description of wild animals, nor in Dobritzhoffer2 Abipones. —
Voyage de l'Astrolabe Zoologie3 p. 60 Vol. I Cynocephalus niger comes from the Moluccas Matchian & Celebes. # Amboina, Viverra Zibetha.4 # — All the Moluccas, Waggiou, New Guinea, New Ireland, have phalangista5 which differ in form & head & colour from those of New Holland. — The New Holland species are not found in the Archipelago.— Former statements to such effects false. In New Guinea a Kangaroo D'Aroe (Didelphus Brunii)6 which as yet had only been found in isle of Aroe & Solor.

1 Thomas Falkner. A Description of Patagonia and the adjoining parts of South America, Hereford, 1774.
2 Martinus Dobritzhofer, Account of the Abipones, London, 1822.
3 Jean René Quoy et Joseph Paul Gaimard, Voyage de découvertes de l'Astrolabe, Zoologie, Paris, 1830, tome 1, p. 60.
4 ibid., p. 61
5 ibid., p. 62
6 ibid., P. 62


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Vol. I
likewise new species of Parameles,1 which joined to Casoars, perroquets, establishes its Zoolog alliance with New Holland. The Barbaroussas2 (when young very like the Siam race with Long nozzle & few hairs) inhabits Celebes & few of the larger islands.— Antelope in Celebes. Bourou3 new species of Axis Cervus moluccensis different from that of the Mariana islands & at Amboina. — I fancy there is marked wild breed of oxen at Java. p. 140 calls it Bos leucoprymnus.4 does not say whether wild or not.
p. 156 — Parroket with stiff tail like woodpecker.5

1 ibid., P. 61 : "petit kanguroo à queue courte".
2 ibid., P. 63 : "on les confond avec les petits cochons … de Siam".
3 ibid., P. 64 : "à Java un boeuf remarquable par sa grande taille".
4 ibid., P. 140.
5 ibid., P. 156 :" queue à plumes fortes et usée comme celles des Pics".


Birds of Australia. Many in common? species? with New Guinea. — Many genera kinds common to New Guinea & rest of isle in E. Indi: Arch: In New Zealand. a Sturnus of American form, a Synallaxis.? American? p. 159. & 160 162 list of some birds of Tingetabou. & New Ireland.1 — Gould2 will hereafter know about birds of N. Zealand
L'Institut, 1838.3 A Dipus & other rongeur in Australia. — p. 67 ? American forms?
An Infusorian. not extinct species. good Resumé do / p. 624

1 Jean-René-Constantin Quoy, et Joseph-Paul Gaimard. Voyage de découvertes de l'Astrolabe. Zoologie. Paris 1830, p. 159: "La Nouvelle-Irlande a plusieurs genres d'oiseaux qui lui sont communs avec la Nouvelle-Guinée dont elle est si voisine."
2 John Gould (1804-1881).

3 William Ogilby. L'Institut, tome 6, Paris 1838, p. 67. Zoologie: Rongeurs australasiens. "L'autre animal décrit par M.Ogilby, quoique n'appartenant pas à un nouveau genre,est également intéressant en ce qu'il jette quelque lumière sur les lois de la distribution géographique des animaux. C'est une vraie Gerboise (Dipus) des plaines centrales de la Nouvelle-Hollande."
4 Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg. L'Institut, tome 6, 1838, p. 62. Paléontologie: Infusoires. "M.Ehrenberg lit une note sur les masses que forment les infusoires siliceuses."


Age of Deinotherium.1 p. 23. Bull: Soc. Geolog. 1836 1837-8 Tom. IX.
M. D'Urville on the Distrib of Ferns in South Sea2 (Indio Polynes: vegetation far East) Ann: des Sciences Semplémt. 1825.
Get Henslow3 to read over the pages from about 8 to 20. of Zoologie of Coquilles Voyage to see if Lesson's remarks4 on the Flora can be trusted.

1 Heinrich Georg Bronn. "Sur l'age géologique des terrains tertiaires du bassin de Mayence," Bull. Soc. Géol. France, tome 9, 1838, p. 23: "MM.Klipstein et Kaup ont rapporté les couches contenant leur Dinotherium au calcaire grossier des environs de Paris."
2 J. D'Urville. "De la distribution des fougères sur la surface du globe terrestre." Annales des Sciences naturelles, tome 6, Paris 1825, p. 51.
3 John Stevens Henslow.

4 René-Primevère Lesson, et Prosper Garnot. Voyage autour du Monde exécuté sur la Corvette La Coquille. Zoologie. Paris 1826, tome 1, pp. 12-19 are concerned with the floras of Oceania.


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The changes in species must be very slow owing to physical changes. slow & offspring not picked.— as man do. when making varieties.—
Voyage of Coquille.1 Zoolog. p. 19 Tapir de Courrucous et rupicole vert instances of American forms in East. Ind. Archipelago.# Raffles,2 Horsfield,3 Diard,4 Duvaucel,5 Leschenault,6 Kuhl,7 Van-Hasselt,8 Reinwardt,9 , Forrest10 authors on E. Indian Arch.#
Borneo & Sumatra both seem to have elephant & has orangs.11 Tapir common to Sumatra & Molucca. # Borneo & Molucca & Cochin China are said to have orang-otang & Pongo in common.12 # Galiopithecus common to Moluccas & Pelew Isds. p. 22 New Caledonia New Ireland p. 123 & Britain same kind of dog with those of New S. Wales.

1 René Primevère Lesson et Prosper Garnot,Voyage autour du Monde … sur … La Coquille.… Zoologie, Paris, 1826, p. 19.
2 Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, History of Java, London, 1817.
3 Thomas Horsfield,Zoological Researches in Java and the neighbouring islands, London, 1824.
4 Diard is mentioned in the Dictionnaire Larousse, under "Duvaucel" as a French naturalist whom the latter met on his expedition, in 1818.
5 Alfred Duvaucel (1792-1824).
6 Jean Leschenault de la Tour (1773-1826).
7 Heinrich Kuhl, in K. H. Blume, Enumeratio plantarum Javae et insularum adjacentium, Lugd. Batav. 1827-8.
8 van Hasselt, collaborator with Heinrich Kuhl.
9 Caspar Georg Carl Reinwardt.
10 Thomas Forrest, A Voyage to New Guinea and the Mollucas …, London, 1779.
11 Lesson et Garnot, op. cit., p. 20 : "Sumatra et Bornéo paraissent renfermer quelques espèces de quadrupèdes identiques, tels que l'èlèphant des Indes, Elephas indicus Cuv. et les orangs".
12 ibid., "Bornéo récèle sans doute beaucoup d'animaux inconnus ; mais ceux qu'on y indique plus particulièrement, tels que l'orang-outan et le pongo, existent aussi, à ce qu'on assure, et dans la cochin-chine et sur la presqu'île de malacca". Pongo is the name of the orang-utan, but it is found only in Borneo and Sumatra.


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Crocodile at New Guinea. All the isles of Oceania have the Scincus with golden streaks. — the lacerta vitteli extends to from Amboina to New Ireland, p. 23
— Voyage of Coquille Lesson
no (p. 24) batrachian in isles of great Ocean says in conformity with Bory's1 Views.
says D'Orbigny2 is said to have brought a tortoise & toad from S. America & identical with those from S. Africa. M. Brisson3 doubts fact. — My toad is same species.

1 Jean-Baptiste Bory de St Vincent, Voyage dans les quatre principales îles des Mers d'Afrique, Paris, 1804.
2 Alcide Dessalines D'Orbigny.
3 Mathurin Jacques Brisson, author of Regnum animale, Parisiis, 1756.


Coquille Voyage
p. 25. Mais il n'y a pas jusqu'aux iles Macquarie et Campbell (52°S) qui n'aient également leurs espèces; et certainement on eût été bien éloigné, il y a peu d'années, d'admettre que ces oiseaux eussent leurs représentants dans de si hautes latitudes".1— ? translate?
All Australian forms have representative (& instances given) in East Ind. Arch: — Birds of New Zealand absolutely different. — Philedon cincinnatus not found in Australia only New Zealand — Norfolk Isd & New Caledonia

1 René-Primevère Lesson, et Prosper Garnot. Ibid., tome 1, p. 25.


peculiar species of cassicans (? cassicans Australian form ?)
p. 27. many fish of Taiti found at New Isle of France:1
instance of wide range. when means of wide range xx
work this out. L. Jenyns2 about my fish
New Zealand and New Holland fish very similar. —
NB. Lesson method of generalizing without tables or references highly unphilosophical.
xx Says same remark with regard to shells. —
But he says shells towards extremities of the continents peculiar to the different points. —

1 René-Primevère Lesson, et Prosper Garnot. Ibid., tome 1, p. 27: "nous avons retrouvé à l'lsle de France un grand nombre des poissons de Taiti."
2 Leonard Jenyns, afterwards Blomefield, author of the Section on Fish in Zoology of H.M.S. Beagle London 1842.


Consult Voyage aux terres Australes1 Chap XXXIX tom IV p. 223, 2d edit.
Consult Latreille Géographie des insectes2 in 8° p. 181 who says insects Indian like Plants.
It would be very important to show wide range of fish & shells in tropical seas. it. would demonstrate: not distance, makes species but barrier. it would make strong contrast with southern regions. — It would now represent what actually is taking has taken place with quadrupeds.
p. 118 wild pigs of Falklands generally "red of brick" hair.3 very stiff. —
p. 120 Coati roux common near Concepcion.4 Some tatous!!!
p. 120 Most of the dogs of Payta belong to the hairless kind said to come originally from Africa.5

1 Francois Péron. Voyage de découvertes aux terres australes, seconde édition revue corrigée et augmentée par M. Louis de Freycinet, tome 4, Paris 1824, p. 223: "Une observation très remarquable tend à confirmer l'origine que j'attribue ici aux incrustations de la Nouvelle-Hollande; c'est que de l'immense étendue de côtes dont je viens de parler, le seul point sur lequel nous n'ayons pu voir aucune de ces incrustations, le port du Roi-George, se distingue aussi de tous les autres par la nature presque exclusivement quartzeuse de ses rivages."
2 Pierre-André Latreille. Mémoires sur divers sujets de l'histoire naturelle des insectes, de géographie ancienne et de chronologie, Paris 1819, tome 4, p. 180: "Quoique l'entomologie de la Nouvelle-Hollande forme un type spécial, elle se compose néanmoins, en grand partie, d'espéces analogues à celles des Moluques et du sud-est des Indes."
3 René-Primevére Lesson, et Prosper Garnot. Voyage autour du Monde…Zoologie, Paris 1826, tome 1, p. 118: "Les cochons se sont également propagés sur les iles Malouines, et principalement sur un ilot, qui est a l'entrée de la baie Française. Leur nourriture n'est ni succulente, ni même abondante: aussi leur chair maigre, quoique possédant un fumet agréable, n'a aucun rapport avec celle de nos cochons domestiques, et encore moins avec celle des sangliers. Leur poils d'une rudesse extrême sont généralement d'une couleur rouge de brique…"
4 René-Primevère Lesson, et Prosper Garnot. Ibid., tome 1, p. 120: "Nous ne vîmes guère que le coati roux, qu'on dit être commun aux alentours de Penco, quelques tatous et une sorte de chat…"
5 René-Primevère Lesson, et Prosper Garnot. Ibid., tome 1, p. 120: "Nous observâmes que la plupart des chiens de Payta appartenaient à la race des chiens sans poil (Canis aegyptius), le chien turc de Buffon, qui est originaire d'Afrique, suivant les auteurs."


p. 122 Mus decumanus at Caroline Isds & a Roussette.1
p. 136 Isle of France. — the Tennecs2 from Madagascar.
monkey from Java.3 — Hairs4 & deer. —
Procured two makis alive from there. —
Mem. Waterhouse knows of some species which escaped there. —
p. 139. Vespertilio bonariensis (from Buenos Ayres) replaces Vesp holds same relation with equator. that Vesp. lasiurus does in North. Hemisphere.5

1 René-Primevère Lesson, et Prosper Garnot. Ibid., tome 1, p. 122: "Notre séjour sur l'île d'Oualan nous a permis d'y remarquer que deux espèces qui y soient vraiment indigènes. L'une est la roussette Kéraudren.…Le surmulot commun (Mus decumanus, Mamm. Desm., 773)."
2 Tenrecs

3 René-Primevère Lesson, et Prosper Garnot. Ibid., tome 1, p. 136: "les tenrecs. Ces derniers, venus de Madagascar,…tandisque le singe (Macacus sinicus, Des. 32), originaire de Java, occupe les sommets escarpéd de la montagne du Pouce."
4 Hares

5 René-Primevère Lesson, et Prosper Garnot. Ibid., tome 1, p. 139: "Ces vespertilions vivent à une égale distance de l'équateur, dans les zones tempérées des deux hémisphères du continent americain."


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p. 158 Cuscus albus.1 New Ireland,
— [Cuscus] maculatus — Waigiou.
Speaking of Lepus Magellanicus says, after "après un examen attentif, et forts surtout de l'opinion du baron Cuvier, nous ne balançons pas à le regarder comme une espèce distincte".2
p 171 Sus papuensis partly domesticated like in general appearance the Siamese kind. — but considered good species from dental characters, wild pig said by Forrest to swim from one isld to another.3 — It is a good species, with different numbers of teats.1 Coquille Voyage

1 Lesson et Garnot, op. cit.
2 ibid., p. 169.
3 Thomas Forrest, op. cit., p. 97.
4 Lesson et Garnot, op. cit., p. 175.


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Durville1 has written Flora of Falkland Islds. where is it?
All the Society isles have the same productions2 p. 293. is very strong about this Lesson insists much. —
The (p. 296) Columba Kurukuru found in all Malaisia & Oceania, offers many varieties in each place to puzzle naturalists. —
p. 372 Bourous the Babyroussa ; a Cervus near Marianus new ; & some rats & mice. In Amboina only Cuscus & Babiroussa

1 Jules-Sébastien-César Dumont d'Urville, "Flore des îles Malouines ", Mémoires de la Société Lin-néenne de Paris, tome 4, 1825.
2 Lesson et Garnot, op. cit.


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N.B. (Islds springing up more likely to have different species than those sinking, because arrival of any one plant might make condition in any one isld different). —
p. 414. dogs of New Zealand of large size, resemble chien-loup. — cross, black & white, ears short & straight — do not bark.
p. 433 birds & bats have certainly travelled from East Indies. Isld as far as Oualan. — wide space of sea. The East of America would account for this. — Coquille Voyage
Says no reptiles p. 460 & very doubtful whether any birds Except Dodo !! — in Mauritius


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Lesson & p. 620 Centropus (Coucal) of Java & Philippines has variety at Madagascar, Calcutta & Sumatra, but I do not see how it is known that they are varieties & not species. —
Vol. I. 694. Kingfisher of Europe (Alcedo ispida) from Moluccas scarcely differs at all from those of Europe, but beak rather sharper & rather longer in proportion, colour slightly different. Who can say whether species or varieties.
p. 708. Columba Oceanica (Less.) inhabits Caroline


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NB. The isld (perhaps Philippines & perhaps Friendly Isles & Hebrids) is very closely allied to C. muscadivora, which lives in the Eastern Moluccas. New Guinea. — (Case of replacement). Coquille Voyage.
The Casuary inhabits Ceram, Borneo & especially New Guinea (replaces Emeu) in North of New Holland. —
New Guinea scarcely differs more from Van Diemen's Land Australia more than Van Diemen's land —
Vol. II p. 8 no snakes on isles of central Pacific, yet there appears to be one at Botouma from account of natives, & probably on Oualan. Mitchell1 says snakes on Friendly isles, p. 50 LX Journal of Silliman. Study Silliman

1 American Journal of Science and Arts, vol. 10, no. I, 1825, Zoology, Art. VI, letter from Dr. Samuel L. Mitchell, of New York, to Dr. Godman of Philadelphia, p. 50 : "circumstantial description of a two-headed serpent I received from one of the Fejee islands".


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Vol. II p. 10 it seems that crocodile was washed on shore at one of the Pellew islds — killed a woman.1 Chamisso2 p. 189 Tome III Kotzebue. — p. 22 a Gecko on St. Helena.3in 1813 a enormous snake was one Gecko on Isle of France Scincus multilineatus (p. 45) Moluccas & New S. Wales.
Scincus cyanurus p. 8 & p. 49 on all the Moluccas New Guinea & New Ireland & even Java & very common on Otaheite according to Quoy & Gaimard4 stated in note to p. 21 in Sandwich isld & according to Chamisso on Radack isld. —
p. 69 Shark very generally distributed: Mem. of great geological age. — Gastrobranchus only two species, one in Northern Hemisphere 2nd in southern,
— p. 71 Chimera antarctica caught Chile, Van Diemen's land & Cape of Good Hope.
p. 44 of this Note Book.5 also the Taeniatole austral

1 Lesson et Garnot, op. cit., tome 2, p. 10.
2 Adelbert von Chamisso, in Otto von Kotzebue, Voyage into the South Sea, London 1821. From the volume and page numbers that he cited, Darwin appears to have used a French edition of this work.
3 Lesson et Garnot, op. cit., tome 2, p. 22.
4 ibid., tome 2, p. 21, where Quoy and Gaimard, and Chamisso, are quoted.
5 This page is still missing.


Rabbits introduced in 64. of very many colours, like the cattle which I say "are as variously coloured as a herd in England." — Black & grey varieties of rabbits thus handed down for nearly 70 years.
Galapagos mouse not the same section with house mice. It is wonderful how it could have been transported ?What section does the New Zealand Rat belong to.
There is this great advantage in studying geograph. range of quadrupeds.; that either created in each point, or migrated from those quarters where we know quadrupeds have existed for ages. —


The most hypoth: part of my theory, that two varieties of many ages standing, will not readily breed together. The argument must thus be taken, as in wild state (where instinct not interfered with, or generative organs affected as with plants) no animals very different will breed together, so when two great (which can be shown probable) varieties may be made in wild state, there will be presumption that they would not breed together. — We see even in domesticated varieties a tendency to go back to oldest race, which evidently is tendency to same end as the law of hybridity, namely the

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32 excised


animals unite, all the change that has been accumulated cannot be transmitted; hence the tendency to revert to parent forms, & greater fertility of hybrid & parent stock, than between two hybrids. —
As we see external influences first affect external [for]m, so will the internal parts be of longest [illeg]nt & therefore most permanent.
Owe[n re]markable laws of Brains & manner of generation & primary divisions of insects.1
2. Relation of external conditions, & of succession: the latter is most intimately connected with important structure, which are less obviously affected by external circumstances. These therefore will be chiefly hereditary. —

1 Richard Owen. The reference appears to be to Owen's Lectures. In the Syllabus of an elementary course of lectures on comparative anatomy by Richard Owen to be delivered at St.Bartholomew's Hospital during April and May 1835, in the analysis of Lectures IV and V, on page 5, appear the words: "Changes effected in the nervous and other systems during the metamorphoses of insects."


If varieties produced by slow causes, without picking become more & more impressed in blood with time, then generation will only produce an offspring capable of producing such as itself. — therefore two different varieties will produce hybrids but not varieties which are not deeply impressed on blood, will cross & produce fertile offspring.
In first case it will either produce no offspring or such as not capable of producing again.


The varieties of Cardoon are cases like those of Primrose & Cowslip run wild.
The two species of Clenonga case of replacing species.
Dr Smith1 will give me some capital information.
? Carnivora of New and Old wor[l]d do not form two sections, is this not connected with wide range of animals. Follow this out where species of same genera in [illeg] word have not species generally wide range?
mice. —

1 Andrew Smith, whom Darwin met in South Africa.


Waterhouse's remarkable fact1 of no forms peculiar to (to special districts ????) land north of 30°, may be connected with Mr Blyth's statement2 of birds of Europe & America which are of different forms being migratory, also with Temmincks fact3 of forms being within Tropics. — Europaean birds at Japan. connected with Europaean forms4 on Himalaya??—This is very remarkable, when we consider number of quadrupeds in Eocene period. Have the Edentata & Marsupials forms been chiefly preserved, where shut up by themselves without other animals? but they were not shut up!!

1 George Robert Waterhouse. The Zoology of the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle, Part II. Mammalia by George Robert Waterhouse. London 1839, p. 19, on Felis pajeros: "it extends northwards as far as latitude 30°." P. 88: "Lagostomus trichodactylus is not found north of 30°." Darwin's obscure note would appear to mean "no forms peculiar to South America."
2 Edward Blyth. The reference is presumably to "Further remarks on the affinities of the feathered race," Mag. Nat. Hist Lond. vol. 9, 1836, p. 509: "Many years have now elapsed since the genius of Buffon suggested the capital proposition that there is no absolute specific identity between any organism of the Eastern and Western continents, with the exception of those which inhabit very far to the north."
3 Coenraad Jacob Temminck. Perhaps Histoire naturelle générale des pigeons et des Gallinacés, Paris 1813, tome 1, p. 6: " II paroit que les Pigeons et les Gallinacés habitent de préférence les parages de la zone torride."
4 This question is prompted by Edward Blyth: "Further remarks on the Affinities of the feathered Race", Mag. Nat. Hist. Lond. 9, 1836, p. 510: "we have every grade of diversity, from the obviously distinct Japanese peafowl (Pavo muticus), to the mealy linnet, which, apparently, differs in no respect from that of Europe."


Extreme southern points of S.Hemisphere fully characterized of each continent. Try amongst Europaean quadrupeds if Africa destroyed would not then some forms be peculiar to it, so on & so on. —
Whatever destroyed great quadrupeds Pachyderms in S.America destroyed great Edentata or American form. —
Is the Australian Dipus an American form? —
The climates having grown more extreme both in N. & S.America, is only common cause I can conceive of destruction of great animals in Europe & America.


Some portion of the world (Africa) being left more equable, yet America preeminently equable, might have allowed fresh species to have been formed & spread to other Africa & East India Arch. — but where these great animals had not spread then such tribes as Marsupial & Edentates increased most. Certainly Africa approaches nearest to what is supposed to have been condition of former whole world. America must have been string of islands. —


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? Europe has many species but not genera distinct from rest of world ???
Lyells Principles must be abstracted & answered.
Much might be argued what is not cause of destruction of large quadrupeds. — common to these types of animals.
What reptiles coexisted with Palaeotherium in Paris quarries & at Binstead. Mem. recent crocodile with Palaeotherium in India — : connection with Latitudes ! ?


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Zoological Journal. —
Vol. I p. 81 Capromys.1 West Indian isld
p. 120 ref. Philosoph. Transacts 1823 (Read June 5th) important paper by Dillwyn,2 on replacement of Cephalopoda & Trachilidous Molluscs by each other in secondary & Tertiary periods. —
p. 125 ref. to Phil. Transacts, (read November 20th) Paper by Jenner3 on birds seen far at sea, migrations of species, greese [geese] killed in Newfoundland with crops full of maize, (get limits of latter from Barton. — swifts return after years to nests.
Vol. II p. 49 on the localities of certain parrots habitations India & Africa.4 — N.B. Any monograph like Gould5 on Trogons worth studying. —

1 Anselm Gaëtan Desmarest, "Abstract of a Memoir on a new genus of the order Rodentia, named Capromys ", originally published in Mémoires de la Société d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, tome I, 1823.
2 L. W. Dillwyn, "On fossil shells ", originally published in Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc, London vol. 113, 1823, p. 393.
3 Edward Jenner, "Some observations on the migration of birds ", originally published in Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc, London, vol. 114, 1824, p. 11,
4 N. A. Vigors, "Sketches in ornithology : or observat ions on the leading affinities of some of the more exclusive groups of birds".
5 John Gould, Monograph of the Trogonidae, London, 1835-8.


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Zoolog. Journal Vol. 2.
p 221 Horsfield1 on two bears very close species inhabiting Borneo & Sumatra, differ only in form of white mark on breast: p. 234. — good case
p. 526. (ref.) to Temminck2 Monograph Mammal 4to , good facts about distribution of Cats.
Vol. III p. 233. stated that the "Asseel Gayal. (Bos Gayaeus) does not mix with the Gobbich or village Ga[y]al.3 — ? is latter same species domesticated, strangely contradictory to Azaras fact of conduct of wild & tame horses. —
p. 246 — Gymnura new genus of Mam. found in Sumatra.4
p. 452 Append, to Denham Clapperton &c. on Mammalia5 no doubt will all be included in Smiths Work6

1 Thomas Horsfield, "Description of the Helarctos euryspilus; exhibiting the Bear from the Island of Borneo, the type of a sub-genus of Ursus", Zoological Journal, vol. 2, p. 221.
2 Coenraad Jacob Temminck, Monographies de mammalogie, ou descriptions de quelques genres de mammifères dont les espèces ont été observées dans les differens musées de I'Europe, Paris & Leiden, 1827.
3 Zoological Journal, vol. 3, p. 233, Thomas Hardwick, "On the Bos gour of India".
4 Thomas Horsfield, "Notice of a new genus of Mammalia, found in Sumatra by Sir Thomas Raffles", Zoological Journal, vol. 3, p. 246.
5 Major N. Denham, Captain Clapperton & the late Dr Oudney. Narrative of Travels and Discoveries, in Northern and Central Africa in the years 1822, 1823 and 1824, London, 1826. Appendix XXI "Zoology" by J. G. Children.
6 Andrew Smith, Illustrations of the Zoology of South Africa, London, 1838-49.


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Vol. IV p. 273 Macleay1 on Capromys. 4 species probably in Cuba (p. 271 Viedo2 says American dogs silent. Mem. contrary assertion of Molina) (p. 277) probably another in Jamaica & perhaps one extant at Leeward Isles.
p. 388 Reference to Rüppels Travels3 (what language?)
Hyaena venatica of Cape found in Desert of Korti & Steppes of Kordofan
p. 401. Admirable letter from Macleay to Bicheno much excellent detail & firm views about species.4must be studied: genera founded in nature

1 William Sharp MacLeay, "Notes on the genus Capromys of Desmarest … ", Zoological Journal, vol. 4, p. 273.
2 Viedo referred to by MacLeay, op. cit.
3 Wilhelm Peter Eduard Simon Rüppell, Atlas zu der Reise in nordlichen Africa, …… ibid., p. 388.
4 "A Letter to J. E. Bicheno Esq. F.R.S., in examination of his Paper 'On Systems and Methods', in the Linnean Transactions. By W. S. MacLeay Esq ", ibid., p. 401.

43 excisede

44 excised


The systematic naturalists get clear indication of circumstances in Geography to help in distinguishing empirically what is species. — The Collector is directed to study localities of islds. — Immense importance of local faunas foundation of all our knowledge especially great continents.

Give specimen of arrangement.




3 species


Cape town good species



Indian species so distinct that all [analogy ]

from each other




— do from India



I do not know how different.




Some doubt from want of knowledge of times
analogy from three first will give one almost certain guide ∴ time required to separate isld very long.
increase of knowledge would probably tell more certainly.
Get closer species. Foxes good case on account of varieties in N.America.
mice of America.


America & India deer. = Africa not. — Africa camels?? Africa Bears?? Plantigrade carnivora?? — Compare rodents of two countries & monkeys.
Fact of Elephant same species in Borneo. Sumatra India Ceylon — perhaps show great persistency of character. Hence Elephas primigenius over so wide a range & Mastodon angustidens. —
Ogleby1 has facts to show that Australian dog introduced by savages into Australia. — What are they?
Colonel Montagu2 probably contains some facts about close species of Birds.

1 William Ogilby. "Notice of certain Australian Quadrupeds, belonging to the Order Rodentia", read December, 1837; Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., vol. 18, 1841, 121. On page 121: "…I think, that there are strong grounds for believing that the Dingo, or native dog,…is not an aboriginal inhabitant of the continent, but a subsequent importation, in all probability contemporary with the primitive settlement of the natives.…"
2 George Montagu. "Observations on some species of British Quadrupeds, Birds, and Fishes. Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., vol. 7, 1804, p. 274. On page 282: "were it not for the strong chestnut colour the Kentish Plover is said to possess on the crown of the head, as described by Lewin, and since by Dr Latham in the Second Synopsis to the General Synopsis, we should not have hesitated in pronouncing these three birds to be only one species." Page 287: "It is indeed remarkable that a bird bearing such strong marks as the Black-headed Gull, in all the changes, from the nestling to the adult plumage, should have ever been multiplied into so many species [i.e. "brown gull", and "brown turn".]…of the several, remarkable changes incident to the black-headed Gull…one of those mutations is the identical bird in question, the Brown Gull."


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Zoolog. Transact. Vol. I, p. 165. — a "an account of the maneless lion of Guzerat by Capt. W. Shee [Smee].1 considered merely variety. — yet form of skull very slightly different. —
Zoolog. J. V. I. p 389 Owen2 remarks on Entozoa. the organs of generation, afford the least certain indications of the perfection of species — ! How does this agree with grand fact of Marsupial low cerebral structure ?? —

1 Walter Smee.
2 Richard Owen, "Remarks on the Entozoa, and on the structural difference existing among them: including suppositions for their distribution into other Classes", Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. 1, 1835, p. 387; on p. 389:"With respect to generation, the organs of which function afford in their varieties the least certain indications of the relative perfection of the species".


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p. 390. All classes of Acrita exhibit lowest stages of animal organization, "& are analogous to the earliest conditions of the higher classes during which the changes of the ovum or embryo succeeded each other with the greatest rapidity"1 — so we find species each class successively present modifications typical of succeeding classes & likewise those much higher in scale.
So Owen actually believes in this view !!!
p. 392. — except generation & digestion in Acrite Kingdom

1 Richard Owen, ibid., p. 390; it is indeed remarkable to find Owen supporting the theory of parallelism in embryology and the scale of beings.


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all organs blended together & same organ when eliminated is often repeated, as mouths in Polypi, surely not correct view of Flustra or Ascidia. spicule in sponge, stomachs in infusoria, generation in each joint of taenia worm.1 — formative energies easily expended & no one system developed — not surprising to find many forms in Acrita. — typical of other (surely rather parents). (NB These views must lead to spontaneous generation ??) This whole Paper must be studied. —

1 Richard Owen, ibid., p. 392.


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[Hence] p.70 Am D'Orbigny.1 Birds of prey. are distributed in S. America like other forms, but those inhabiting 3d zone of height & 3d of latitude more commonly are the same species, instead of analogues. as in other classes this evidently relates to greater range of such forms. —
p. 562 Ornithological Part of Voyage of ???3 A Urubu (with one leg) attended the distribution of food at the Mission of Mojos (over 20 leagues apart from each other. — this bird was well-known for its impudence. This excellent case of memory without association.

1 Alcide D'Orbigny, "Observations on the Raptores of South America, Translated from 'Voyage dans l'Amérique Méridionale'," Magazine of Zoology and Botany, vol. 1, 1836-7, pp. 347-359. Darwin's reference is to p. 352.
2 This page reference should read 36.
3 Voyage dans l'Amérique Méridionale,…,….; p. 36 : "Ea familiarité des urubus est extrême. Nous en avons vus, dans la province de Mojos, lors de distributions de viande faites aux Indiens, leur en enlever des morceaux, au moment même où ils venaient de la recevoir".


Instinct goes before structure (habits of ducklings and chickens young water ouzels) hence aversion to generation, before great difficulty in propagation. —
Feathers on Apteryx because we may suppose longest part of structure. — shape of wings have altered many times, but all have had feathers, — if wing totally obliterated. —
This may account for permanence in many trifling marks, — such as two bands on pidgeons back. — According to this description of class is description


of ancestor of all birds, & so for birds, we thus obtain an abstract idea of a bird.
an animal with skeleton of such general forms. —
The hybridity of ferns bears on my doctrine of cross-generation.
The infertility of crosse & cross is method of nature to prevent the picking of
monstrosities as man does. — One is tempted to exclaim


that nature conscious of the principle of incessant change in her offspring has invented all kinds of plan to insure sterility, but isolate your species her plans are frustrated or rather a new principle is brought to bear.
If man created as now languages would surely have been homogeneous. —
There must be some sophism in Lyell's statement1 that some species vary more than what makes species in other animals. —

1 Charles Lyell. Principles of Geology, vol. 2, London 1832, p. 25: "we have only to suppose that what is true of size, may also hold in regard to colour and many other attributes, and it will at once follow that the degree of possible discordance between varieties of the same species, may in certain cases exceed the utmost disparity which can even arise between two individuals of many distinct species."


Forster on South Sea1 will probably contain description of domesticated animals in those regions.
Species so far are not natural that they are either A.B.C.D.E or A.C.D.E.H.
Very striking to see M.Bibron2 looking over reptiles he often had difficulty in distinguishing which were species (theory admirably) yet a glance would tell from which country. — I often disputed for a moment. — Galapagos, S.American genera. The circumstances of having

1 John Reinhold Forster. Observations made during a Voyage round the World, on Physical Geography &c. London 1778, refers only to hog, dog, and cock among the domestic animals.
2 Gabriel Bibron, author of "Reptiles"; Voyage autour du Monde exécuté pendant 1836, et 1837 sur la Bonite; Zoologie, tome 1, Paris 1841.


two sexes is the check to distribution of birds & animals.
Mrs Strickland & Hamilton1 found tertiary formation amongst Greecian isles ?see if type continued?
See to Babbage2 & Virlet3
Whewell4 thinks (p. 642) anniversary speech Feb. 1838 thinks gradation between man & animals small point in tracing history of man. granted. — but if all other animals have been so formed, then man may be a miracle, but induction leads to other view. —

1 Hugh E.Strickland, & William John Hamilton. "An account of a Tertiary deposit near Lixouri, in the island of Cephalonia ", Proc. Geol. Soc. Lond., vol. 2, 1834, p. 545.
2 Charles Babbage. "Observations on the temple of Serapis at Pozzuoli, near Naples; with remarks on certain causes which may produce Geological Cycles of great Extent", Proc. Geol. Soc. Lond., vol. 2, 1833, p. 72.
3 Pierre-Théodore Virlet d'Aoust. Expédition scientifique de Morée, Paris 1833-5.

4 William Whewell. "Address to the Geological Society, delivered at the Anniversary, on the 16th of February 1838, by the Rev. William Whewell, President of the Society." Proc. Geol. Soc. Lond., vol. 2, 1838, p. 642. On page 642: "The gradation in form between man and other animals, a gradation which we all recognise, and which, therefore, need not startle us because it is presented under a new aspect, is but a slight and, as appears to me, unimportant feature, in looking at the great subject of man's origin."


Till we know uses of organs clearly, we cannot guess causes of change. — hump on back of cow!! &c. &c.
D'Orbigny (p. 108) says1 having observed B. Tricolor in Patagonia then in Chile & lastly 12.000 feet above sea in Bolivia, he examined all species & found "beaucoup des mêmes oiseaux que nous avions déja observés en Patagonie ou au moins des espèces très-analogues, quand ce n'étaient

1 Alcide Dessalines d'Orbigny. Voyage dans l'Améréque méridionale … 1826-33, tome 4, Paris 1835, p. 108; observations on Buteo tricolor.


pas tout à fait les mêmes". This good case of replacement under peculiar conditions — of nearly same kind country distant.
The circumstances of ground woodpeckers. birds that cannot fly &c. &c. seem clearly to indicate those very changes which at first it might be doubted were possible, — it has been asked how did the otter live before it had its web-feet. All nature answers to the possibility. —
My views will explain no mammalia in secondary epochs & developement of lizards.


As we have birds impressions in Red Sandstone great lizards in do. — Wood died wood Coniferous wood in Coal measure. — highest fish in old Red Sandstone. — Nautili in [blank] it is useless to speculate not only about beginning of animal life generally, but even about great division. Our only question is not how there come to be fishes & quadrupeds but how there come to be many genera of fish &c. &c. at present day. —


[in margin: ?] It is assumption to say generation produces young ones capable of producing young ones like itself, but ? whether great assumption? not solely producing like itself, not applicable to monster. — Are monstrosity hereditary ??? Does not atavism relate to this law? —
Local varieties formed with extreme slowness even when isolation from general circumstances effecting the area equably. —


Animals having wide range, by preventing adaptation owing to crossing with unseasoned people would cause destruction. — Simile man living in hot countries, if continually crossed with people from cold, children would not become adapted to climate. —
Descent, or true relationship, tends to keep the species to one form (but is modified). the relationship of analogy is a divellent power & tends to make forms remote antagonist powers. — Every animal in cold country has some analogy in hot gaudy colours so all changes may be considered in this light. — xx


Zoolog. Journal.1 Parrots in Macquarie isld vol. III p. 430 alluded to by Capt. King.
do p. 434 Table of birds from Cuba. Vigors,2 nothing of much interest.
xx. Hence relation of analogy may chiefly be looked for in the aberrant groups. — It is having walking fly catcher, woodpecker &c &c which causes the confusion in this system of nature. — Whether species may not be made by a little more vigour being given to the chance offspring who have any slight peculiarity of structure, hence seals take victorious seals, hence deer victorious deer, hence males armed & pugnacious all order; cocks all war-like;
this wars against the resemblances relationship, the dissemblances analogy, in any class those points which are different from each other, & resemble some other class, analogy.
See Abercrombie3 p. 172 for definition of analogy.

1 Phillip Parker King. "On the Animals of the Straits of Magellan", Zool. Journ. vol. 3, London 1828, p. 430: "Parrots as you are well aware are brought from Macquarrie Island…"
2 Nicholas Aylward Vigors. "Sketches in Ornithology etc.," Zool. Journ., vol. 3, London 1828, p. 434: "the following 45 species occur among the birds from Cuba…"
3 John Abercrombie. Inquiries concerning the Intellectual Powers and the Investigation of Truth, Edinburgh 1830, p. 171: "2. Relations of resemblance and analogy…When there is a close agreement between two events or classes of events, it constitutes resemblance; where there are points of difference, it is analogy. In the latter case, we then trace the degrees of analogy, depending upon the number of points in which the resemblance holds, and the number of points in which there is a difference."


All the discussion after about affinity & how one order first becomes developed & then another — (according as parent types are present) must follow after there is proof of the non creation of animals. — then argument may be, — subterranean lakes, hot spring &c &c inhabited therefore mud wood [would] be inhabited, then how is this effected by — for instance, fish being excessively abundant


& tempting the Jaguar to use its feet much in swimming, & every developement giving greater vigour to the parent to tending to produce effect on offspring — but whole race of that species must take to that particular habit. — All structures either direct effect of habit, or hereditary & combined effect of habit, — perhaps in process of change.
Are any men born with any peculiarity, or any race of plants. — Lamarck's willing absurd,1 ∵ not applicable to plants.

1 Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck. See Introduction to First Notebook, p. 32.


Epidemics of South Sea wonderful case of extermination of species. — Epidemic amonst trees. Plane trees all died certain year.
Extreme difficulty of tracing change of species to species although we see it effected tempts one to bring one back to distinct creations. — It is only be [by] recollecting that the ground woodpecker &c fresh water animals of great Lakes are American form that one is brought to admit the possibility


(any great change in species is reduced by atavism).
Even a deformity may be looked at as the best attempt of nature under certain very unfavoured conditions, — as an adaptation, but adaptation during earliest existence; if whole life then real adaptation.
The case of hereditary disease is on the same principle that cut a sheeps tail off plenty of times & you will have no tail (example probably not true) — or again healthy parents have healthy children.
The other case is change during life of parent & therefore being always necessary may be called adaptation.


With respect to my theory of generation. fact of armless parent not having armless child, shows that there is reference to more than offspring (like atavism & shows my view of generation right? —
If puppy born with thick coat monstrosity, if brought into cold country & then acquired then adaptation. —


No Common Vultures in Australia1!! Wilsons ornithology, vol. III p. 226
Wilsons Ornithology, D'Orbigny2, Spix,3 &c might compare birds of N. America & South, —any how temperate regions, — crows in N.America. Study Bonapartes4 list.
In the Zoological Journal5 I read a curious account to show that very many birds of different kinds have been known to assist in feeding young cuckoos; as if there was storge [strong urge], which could not be resisted, when hearing cry of hunger oflittle bird. In same way Wilson6

1 Alexander Wilson. American Ornithology, vol. 3, London 1832, p. 226: "The Vultures are comparatively a limited race, and exist in every quarter of the world, New Holland excepted…"
2 Alcide Dessalines d'Orbigny. Voyage dans l'Amérique méridionale… tome 4, 3e partie, Paris 1839.
3 Johann Baptiste von Spix. Travels in Brazil in 1817-20, London 1824.

4 Charles-Lucien Bonaparte. A Geographical and Comparative List of the Birds of Europe and North America, London 1838.
5 John Blackwell. "Facts relating to the natural history of the Cuckoo", Zoological Journal, vol. 4, 1829, p. 294: "In the Gentleman's Magazine for April 1806 two instances are recorded of young cuckoo having been occasionally fed by large numbers of birds of the same species as their foster parents …"
6 Alexander Wilson. American Ornithology, London 1832, vol. 1, p. 5: "The cries of the distressed parent soon bring together a number of interested spectators, (for birds in such circumstances seem truly to sympathize with each other) and he [blue jay] is sometimes attacked with such spirit as to be under the necessity of making a speedy retreat."


(p. 5) describes many kinds of birds uniting together in pursuit of Blue. Jay, when one birds hears dis cry of distress of other parents. — Shows community of language.
Desert country is as effectual as a cold one in checking beautiful colours of species. — Mem. St. Jago; solitary Halcyon bird of passage. — M. coronata of Latham, wrong. Mr Yarrell says that some birds or animals are placed in white rooms to give tinge to offspring. Darkness effect on human offspring. —


white, snow, — the fine green of vegetation,
? account for colour of bird in district which they frequent!!?
Wilsons' American ornithology1 a mine of valuable facts, regarding habits range & all kinds of information. instinct.
Swainson's remarks in Fauna Borealis2 must be studied. There is capital talk of extent of all species.
Accumulate instances of one family sending out structures into many genera, — like Synallaxis or Marsupial animals of N. America.

1 Alexander Wilson. Ibid.
2 William Swainson. Fauna Boreali-Americana; or the Zoology of the Northern parts of British America. Part II, the Birds, London 1831.


Hence it is universally allowed that the discrimination of species is empirical. Show this by instances.
Once grant my theory & the examination of species from distant countries may give thread to conduct to laws of change of organization!
The little turtle without its parent running to the water is a good instance of innate instinct, better than child sucking or even duckling & fowls.
When talking of races of man, — black men.
black bull finches from linseed, — notably effects of climate on some antecedent race perhaps not one now existing.


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Mr Gould1 says wherever any mark like red patch on wing of Furnarius, Synallaxis &c. sure to unite the birds into group. — it is same as Yarrell's2 remark about rock Pidgeons. — & the latter most important in obviating a great apparent difficulty — preservation of colouring, when form has changed.
Can be said that animals no notion of beauty. When does prefer most powerful buck

1 John Gould; he described Furnarius and Synallaxis in the Zoology of the Voyage of the Beagle, vol. 2, 1841.
2 William Yarrell, probably personal communication.


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Owen1 talking of Plesiosaurus alludes to some structure in head. which he says (evidently as an exception) can only be explained by direct adaptation to animals wants & not as change in typical structure ?!!
Whewell,2 in comment few will dispute, says civilisation hereditary, i.e. instincts of wisdom like senses of savages virtue? (How come its some convictions patriotic?) — but more especially the power of reasoning &c. &c. —

1 Richard Owen, "A description of a specimen of the Plesiosaurus macrocephalus, Conybeare, in the collection of Viscount Cole", [read 4 April 1838], Trans. Roy. Geograph. Soc., vol. 5, 1840, p. 534.
2 William Whewell, The Bridgewater Treatises on the Power Wisdom and Goodness of God as manifested in the Creation, Treatise III, London, 1836.


Study the wars of organic being. the fact of guavas having overrun Tahiti, thistle Pampas show how nicely things adapted. — The abberrant varieties will be formed in any kingdom of nature where scheme not filled up (most false to say no passages; nature is full of them. — wading birds partially webbed &c &c) — & in round of chances every family will have some aberrant groups, — but as for number five in each group absurd. — The mere fact of division of lesser & more power (2. typical 3. subtypical)


where power arbitrary. leaves door open for Quinarians to deceive himself. —
Give the case of Apterix split, depress & elevate & enlarge New Zealand, a division of nature of Apterix, many genera & species.
The believing that monkey would breed (if mankind destroyed) some intellectual being though not man, —is as difficult to understand as Lyells doctrine of slow movements1 &c &c.

1 Charles Lyell. The reference is to the production of great effects as a result of slow action over great periods of time, which is the basis of the Principles of Geology.


This multiplication of little means & bringing the mind to grapple with great effect produced is a most laborious & painful effort of the mind (although this may appear an absurd saying) & will never be conquered by anyone (if has any kind of prejudices) without who just takes up & lays down the subject without long meditation. — His best chance is to have [pondered] profoundly over the enormous difficulty of reproduction of species & certainly of destruction; then he will choose & firmly believe in his new faith of the lesser of the difficulties.


Once grant that species one genus may pass into each other, — grant that one instinct to be acquired (if the medullary point in ovum has such organization as to force in one man the developement of a brain capable of producing more glowing imagining or more profound reasoning than other, if this be granted!!) & whole fabric totters & falls. — Look abroad, study gradation, study unity of type, study geographical distribution,


study relation of fossil with recent. the fabric falls! But man — wonderful man "divino ore versum coelum attentior" is an exception. — He is mammalian, — his origin has not been indefinite. — he is not a deity, his end under present form will come, (or how dreadfully we are deceived) then he is no exception. — he possesses some of the same general instincts, all & feelings as animals. they on other hand can reason — but man has reasoning powers in excess, instead of


definite instincts — this is a replacement in mental machinery so analogous to what we see in bodily, that it does not stagger me. —
What circumstances may have been necessary to have made man! Seclusion want &c & perhaps a train of animals of hundred generations of species to produce contingents proper. — Present monkeys might not, — but probably would, — the world


now being fit, for such an animal — man, (rude uncivilized man) might not have lived when certain other animals were alive, which have perished.
Let man visit Ourang-outang in domestication, hear expressive whine, see its intelligence when spoken [to], as if it understood every word said — see its affection to those it knows, — see its passion & rage, sulkiness & very extreme of despair; let him look at savage, roasting his parent, naked, artless, not improving, yet improvable, and then let him dare to boast of his proud preeminence. — Not understanding language of Fuegian puts on par with monkeys.


Gould seems to think that many species when close come from different localities as my Funaire — some genus of yellow & brown breasted bird in Australia &c &c — but of course they might be blended, if archipelago turned into continent &c &c.
There is beautiful gradation of forms in Australia leading on one side into shrikes & at the other into crows. Yet all forming, according to Gould,1 good genus.

1 John Gould. "Characters of two new species of birds constituting a new genus, Aplonis." Proc. Zool.Soc.Lond., Part IV, 1836, p. 73: "He stated them to approximate, in his opinion, in nearly an equal degree to the genera Lanius, Turdus, and Lamprotornis."


Gould seems to doubt how far structure & habits go together. This must be profoundly considered. — Structure may be obliterating, whilst habits are changing, or structure may be obtaining, whilst habits slightly preceed them —
From this view habits must form most important element in considering to which tribes — structure without corresponding habits clearly showing true affinity, for instance


tail of ground woodpecker, — but tail of some ducks aberrant from habit. —
Gould1 I see quite recognizes habits in making out classification of birds.
Birds vary much (more than shells) owing to variety of station inhabited by them.
Timor. Australian forms amongst birds

1 John Gould. The reference is to Gould's treatment of species in The Birds of Europe, London 1837.


Java, not so much. —
Peculiarities of structure. as six-fingered people are sometimes hereditary — yet these not adaptations — they are counteracted by nature by crossing with other varieties, but accidental changes after birth do not effect progeny many dogs in England must have been lopped off & sheeps tails cut yet there is no record of any effect. — New Hollanders have gone on boring their noses &c &c. This congenital changes show that grandson is determined, when child is. —


shows that generation implies more than mere child, but that child should produce like children. # Lyell has story from Beck1 about six fingered children hereditary.#
With respect to question which is adaptation, — examine ptarmigan, hare becoming white in winter of Arctic countries few will say it is direct effect, according to Physical laws, as sulphuric acid disorganizes

1 Charles Lyell. The 5th edition of the Principles of Geology has three references to Dr J. Beck of Copenhagen, quoted for geological observations. The present reference appears to be to a personal communication to Lyell.


wood, but adaptation. — albino however is monster, yet albino may so far be considered as adaptation, as best attempt of nature colouring matter being absent. — again dwarf plant on alpine district & dwarf plant from seed, one adaptation other monster. —
The only way of judging whether structure is owing to habits or hereditary is to see whether a large family has it, & one member of that


family, having it with very different habits. — Thus bill & nostril of Puffinuria I think we may clearly attribute to hereditary origin & not adaptation to its habits. — Few will dispute that it is possible to have structure without habits —after seeing beetle with wings beneath
soldered wing-cases — yet these wings may be of some use. — Nature


is never extravagant though clearly not of the use to which wings are generally applied. — Therefore argument not destroyed even if their shrivelled wings could be shown to be of some use.
If we only had Puffinuria Garnottii & no other species — as we have only Ornithorhync[h]us, then we should never know how much structure was connected with habits, & how much hereditary. The circumstance of aberrant groups being small it is truism, for if not so not aberrant. —


Taenioptera rufiventris is instance of bird belonging to family with peculiar coloured plumage, where colours have changed in accordance to habits, — one is tempted to suppose from beholding the ground — why do beetles & birds become dull coloured in sterile countries. —
Gould insist much upon knowing to what type a bird belongs. — I conceive without knowing from which country many birds come it would be impossible to classify them. — I would

89-90 excised


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Musalmans of the Peninsula, are, generally speaking a much fairer race than the Hindus, in the same tracts & that in their appearance & manners they are as opposite as day & night: yet we know how remote the periods at which both left the land of their forefathers; — the first to escape the doctrine of Muhammad, the last to extend their dominion, armed alike with the Koran & the sword " # quote Whewells Bridgewater Treatise. (p. 26) about plants from Cape of Good Hope continuing for some time to flower at their own periods. —


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Arcana of Science & Art 1831. p. 160 account of Bulbous root from Mummy after 2000 years, germinating1 !! — Henslow doubts?
Geographical Journal Vol. V p. 201 Wellsted Memoir on isld of Socotra.2 Cattle generally marked like those of the Alderney breed, but size not larger than those of Black cattle, not have hump like those from India & Arabia
p. 202 sheep have not the enormous tails, which disfigure those of Arabia & Egypt. — Civets cats only wild animals on isld . — Neither Hyaenas; jackals, monkeys common to either coast found here3 not even antelopes, though common on coast of Arabia

1 Arcana of Science & Art: or an Annual Register of useful Inventions and Improvements. London 1831. On p. 160 "Protraction of Vegetable Life in the dry State". "Mr. Houlton produced a bulbous root which was discovered in the hands of an Egyptian mummy, in which it probably had remained for two thousand years. It germinated on exposure to the atmosphere ; when placed in earth it grew with great rapidity".
2 Lieut. R. Wellsted, "Memoir on the Island of Socotra", Journ. Roy. Geograph. Soc. vol. 5, 1835, pp. 129-229.
3 From here to the end of the page added by Darwin in pencil after he had excised the page, to complete the sentence ; hence the repetition on the next page.


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not even antelopes though common on islets off Arabian coast. — # Vol. VI. p. 89. — Lieut. Wellsted1 "on coast of Arabia between Ras Mohammed & Jeddah". sheep numerous" of the kinds one white with a black face, & similar to those brought from Abyssinia ; the others dark brown with long clotted hair resembling that of goats".
Geograph. Journal Vol. VII. p. 216. Mr Bennett2 Voyage round world. 20 years have scarcely elapsed since the Guava introduced from Norfolk Isld " & it now claims all the moist & fertile land of Tahiti, in spite

1 Lieut. R. Wellsted, "Observations on the coast of Arabia between Ras Mohammed and Jiddah ", Journ. Roy. Geograph. Soc, vol. 6, 1836, pp. 51-96.
2 F. D. Bennett, "Extracts from the Journal of a Voyage round the Globe in the years 1833-36 ", Journ. Roy. Geograph. Soc., vol. 7, 1837, pp. 210-29.


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of every attempt to check its increase. The woodlands for miles in extent are composed solely of this shrub". — p. 229 carcases of birds drifting out to sea —
Vol. VII p. 325 Wild dogs1 of Guayana always hunt in packs go all together of colour reddish brown ears long. — like bull terrier. — Indian secured one. as they always like to cross this breed p. 333. alludes to the Macusie breed no description given —

1 R. H. Schuckburgh, "Diary of an Ascent of the River Berbice in British Guayana in 1836-7 ", Journ. Roy. Geogr. Soc., vol. 7, 1837, pp. 302-50.


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L'Institut. 1838. p. 67. Australian rodents
Abstract of Infusoria. p do p. 62. Ehrenberg
Annals of Nat. Hist, precursor of magazine??? p. 75. roe of Asterias in stomach, of Sammon remain after rest of animal digested. — Important
do p. 98. on a quaternary arrangement of Cryptogamic plants. — Owing to Plants not being adapted to Air!!
p. 101 — &c. valuable paper on quadrupeds of Van Diemen's land, which appear diff. from Australia (Waterhouse disputes this) says differently)


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do. do. on the genus Procyon.— by Wiegman
Classified catalogue of animals of Nepal read before Linnaean Soc. Feb. 1838. —
Annals of Natural History, vol I p. 159 curious account of Titmouse feeding young of redstart & actually driving away parent birds. — showing how blind a storge
From what I see of S. American birds, genera blend into each other in very same district. — The same Mem Tennioptera &Tyrannula (NB work out how many forms Tyrannula can we worked out into. Milvulus

97-98 excised


element geographical distribution is. —
? Pelagic forms similar — birds?? —
We must always bear in mind proofs of most equable climate both in S. & N. Hemisphere just anterior to present ?cause of destruction of great animals?
Show independency of shells to external features of land by seeing how many species common to Patagonia deser & Tierra del Fuego & forest.
Parrots in Macquarrie Isd.1
Coast very good. Study D'Orbigny2, & range in West Guyaquil & Peru.

1 Phillip Parker King. "On the Animals of the Straits of Magellan ", Zoological Journal, vol. 3, London 1828, p. 430: "Parrots as you are well aware are brought from the Macquarrie Island…"
2 Alcide Dessalines d'Orbigny. Voyage dans l'Amérique méridionale, Paris 1835.


Henslow1 in talking of so many families on Keeling seemed to consider it owing to one of each being fitter for transport. ?may it not be explained by mere chance? — or [is] it like each great class of animals having its aquatic aerial &c type? — This of consequence because applicable to N.Hemisphere.
N.B. Examine Abrolhos Flora with this view. Tristan D'acunha. St.Helena &c &c Juan Fernandez.

1 John Stevens Henslow. Personal communication.


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A communication1 to Geograph. Soc. in February or March 1838 on soil in Siberia being frozen to 400 ft in depth (& Erman's2 suspicion that it is not 700) is applicable to metamorphosis theory suppose when rhinoceros lived. mean temp 60° mean then temp at depth of four hundred feet would be 60° + 6° (??) therefore 34° degrees of change have travelled that thickness in that period & no ways assisted by fluid currents which may take place in metamorphic action. —

1 K. E. von Baer, "On the ground ice or frozen soil of Siberia", Journ. Roy. Geograph. Soc., vol. 8, 1838, p. 212; "Recent intelligence upon the frozen ground in Siberia ", ibid., p. 401.
2 Adolph Erman, letter from, Journ. Roy. Geograph. Soc., vol. 8, 1838, p. 214.


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Geograph Journal vol. I p. 17 &c excellent sketch of plants of New Holland. supplementary to Appendix to Flinders Voyage by Brown.1 — Great space seems to act per se as barrier — Mem. Tartary & China, both coasts of New Holland. — Compare birds of Australia with plants, with this object in view.
The intimate relation of Life with laws of chemical combination, & the universality of latter render spontaneous generation not improbable. —

1 Robert Brown, "General view of the Botany of the vicinity of the Swan River ", Journ. Roy. Geograph. Soc., vol. 1, 1832, p. 17.


After reading "Carus on the Kingdoms of Nature, their life & affinity",1 in Scientific Memoirs I can see that perfection may be talked of with respect to life generally. — When unity constantly develops multiplicity (his definition "constant manifestation of unity through multiplicity") this unity, — this distinctness of laws from rest of universe (which Carus considers big animal) become more developed in higher animals than in vegetables.
p. 243 radiate animals plants turned inside out,2 have portion of organ of generation!!! Mem. Agasziz (1 No. Annals of Nat.Hist.) spiral structure in Echinodermata.3

1 Karl Gustav Carus. "On the Kingdoms of Nature, their Life and Affinities", Scientific Memoirs selected from the Transactions of foreign Academies of Science and Learned Societies and from foreign Journals, edited by Richard Taylor, vol. 1, 1837, P. 223.
2 Karl Gustav Carus. Ibid., vol. 1, 1837, P. 243: "We may now see why in the Medusa, the Sea-Star, the Echinus, and other inferior kinds of animals, the aperture of the mouth is turned downwards and the alimentary duct upwards…"
3 Louis Agassiz. "Prodromus of a Monograph of the Radiata and Echinodermata", Ann. Nat. Hist. vol. 1, 1838, p. 30.


Agassiz says Infusoria are insecta1
G. R. Treviranus Biologie2 referred to as compilation of action of organic nature on inorganic.
It is very remarkable as shown by Carus3 how intermediate plants are between animal life & "inorganic life". animals only live on matter already organized. —
This paper might be worth consulting if any metaphysical speculations are entered on upon life, namely Carus.

1 Louis Agassiz. Reference untraced.
2 Gottfried Reinhold Treviranus. Biologie oder Philosophie der lebenden Natur für Naturforscher und Aerzte, Göttingen, 1802-1822.
3 Karl Gustav Carus. "On the Kingdoms of Nature…" Scientific Memoirs edited by Richard Taylor, vol. 1, 1837, P. 234: "The animal stands in the same relation to the vegetable kingdom as organized bodies in general do to the unorganized.…"


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 How remarkable that Turdus Magellanicus. in the. S. Hemisphere, (replaced to the North by other species. —) should build a nest lined with mud, in forest where not a tree in which it builds, a berry on which it feeds, or insects it devours is same species, yet that it should so strictly f agree in habits with the Turdus Musicus not found in N. America whose Southern range is? One The black & white thrush of Azara builds its nest in same country something same manner, much mud. — These facts show, habits heredetary whilst species have changed


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Argumentum ad absurdum. The creative American halo has extended to Juan Fernandez in birds, but ?whether to same island in plants? — What is this halo.— Continents are not stationary unerring proofs not always continents.— it is a plastic virtue.— it is expression for ignorance
Two grand classes of varieties.; one where offspring picked, one where not.— the latter made by man & Nature; but cannot be counteracted by Man. — effect of external contingencies & long bred in— Mem, an a statement in Mr Wynne's book, about not altering breed of animals in certain countries. —


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Fraser1 remarked to me at Zoological Society, that you never find two similar groups of birds in two countries, without intermediate ones occurring in intermediate country — i.e. mundine groups. —
Waterhouse2 tells me in insects there are many plenty of instances of insects of one tribe taking on structure (probably accompanied by habits) of other, thus in Chalcididous insects, which I brought from Australia, probably live in flower & have Elytra formed from development of some other part of body. — there are hemipterous insects having spiny legs & running quick & general appearance of blattae —

1 unidentified.
2 George Robert Waterhouse.


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other Hemiptera strikingly resemble Coleoptera. —
Donacia. some orthopterous insects & some third [?], have got thighs with same peculiar structure & habits of clinging to rushes similar. — The question which I more immediately want are there Heteromera, which have habits & part structure like Cuculionidae. — Are there any Crysomelidae, with similar habits. But the Horae Entomologicae will tell this. —
What peculiar conditions the Staphylinidae on St. Pauls Rock must be placed under.


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Gould1 says most subgenera confined to continent, though we have seen species of subgenera scattered over it. —
We have abundant instances of remarkable structures which as far as species is concerned superabundant. The tail in cock peacock, widow bird. Birds of Paradise, Trogons. — the one feather in wing the curious feathers in tail of Edolius. —
Remarkable how small detail in structure prevail amongst the same species & subgenera in families. — thus the banded tarsi is common to all the Laniadae & Muscicapidae of new World, but not found in Old World. —

1 John Gould ; cf. Proc. Zool. Soc, 1834, Part II, p. 14.


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If in any well developed family (Gould says)1 there is any marked ++ colouring of plumage (as black & white bars on wings of Trogons or lengthened rump feathers) & then & one species has small band & others large, then he says from long experience you may be almost sure, that there exist intermediate species. — This is remarkable & would lead one to suppose that species in same group generally contemporary.
++ This would lead one to expect that fossil forms would generally fill up genera & not species, which is not true with shells ??? It looks as if animals perished by [error].

1 cf. ibid., p. 25.


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It is most wonderful how in every family of birds, even the most strongly marked, there is a preeminently aerial, formed for flight & great movement in the air, & likewise rasorial species & likewise perching (Gould),1 but the latter is obvious because all are so. —
Thus in Hawks there is a swallow, both in structure & habits (it cannot be doubted that if swallow perished hawks & milvulus &c would instantly fill up their place.) — Humming bird there is strongly marked variety: in the Tyrannidae. — Milvulus. — Even flying woodpeckers, with powerful wings, but

1 General statements to this effect are to be found in Gould's Introduction to The Birds of Europe, London, 1837, and in his Monograph of the Trogonidae, London, 1835-8.


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tail stiff. — swallow & goat-sucker likewise exaggerated. — There is one most remarkable connection between these aerial representatives of the different families. — that sexes have same plumage. — this is applicable to swallow-hawk, (this not the case in swallow ??? which is most wonderful of all? whether in most aerial of swallow) Milvulus. & still more wonderfully to the Humming bird, which is one instance of its whole family where female is not dull. — I must observe that this pre-eminent structure is not always applicable to same habits, though swallow hawk, milvulus, may catch insects on the wing & pratancola (?connected


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with Chionis), yet the Tropic bird, has very different habits, though pre-eminently belonging to this type.
?Humming bird? the woodpecker Gould says he believes does but also on fruit. —
The Rasorial type is wonderfully shown in the long legged cuckoos with claw like lark (one in Australia is called swamp pheasant) goatsucker, parrots with claw like lark (N.B. The 'La jeune veuve parrot though so much on the ground has not this structure, instance of habit going before structure). —


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even one Kingfisher Gould has seen with long tarsi. — ground woodpecker Secretary bird. — & Mellisuga Kingii very rasorial for type. — Now here I must observe these characters vary in degree in last instance hardly at all developed. not confined to one species, but generally small genus ?are there not many ground parrots? are there not many ground wood-peckers? —
In each division Gould thinks he can trace structure for insects & structure for vegetation. —


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In conservation in Museum I could not discover any other clear relations besides aerial, & terrestrial — How is it in water birds. there are walking forms in water birds. — but no web forms in water land birds. — Groups of very different value have their representatives, the rasorial may be observed even in Lessonia &c. &c.
In relations of affinity all organs change together, in analogy certain parts perfect of typical structure certain imper parts changed


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Has not S. Africa & Australia, & S. America very few forms in common, but each several with Europe & northern Asia, & Northern America. — may we not look at these Northern regions as the receptacles of the wanderers out of the rest of the world? — Will this not agree with Waterhouse1 & birds mammalia. — We have clear indication

1 George Robert Waterhouse contributed the section on Mammalia in the Zoology of the Voyage of the Beagle, London, 1839, i.e., published after this note was written by Darwin.

117 excised

118 excised


alone, but on all the general arguments —
Lamarck was the Hutton of Geology, he had few clear facts, but so bold & many such profound judgement that he foreseeing consequence was endowed with what may be called the prophetic spirit in science. the highest endowment of lofty genius.1
Using geographic distribution of animals, I use (new step in induction) as keystone of ancient geography species tell of Physical relations in time, form & distribution tells of horizontal barriers —

1 This remarkable sentence lacks a word, for as it stands it makes no sense since no man but Hutton was the "Hutton of Geology". It seems that the sentence should read: Lamarck was the French Hutton of Geology, referring to Lamarck's Hydrogéologie, ou recherches sur l'influence générale des eaux sur la surface du globe terrestre, sur les causes de l'existence du bassin des mers, de son déplacement, de son transport successif sur les différents points de ce globe, enfin sur les changemens que les corps organisés vivant exercent sur la nature et l'état de cette surface. Paris 1802. In this work Lamarck put forward the view that Nature had unlimited time at her disposal.


Mr Yarrel — says1 my view of varieties is exactly what I state, — or picking varieties unnatural circumstance.
Ld Orfords had breed of greyhounds fleetest in England lost courage at end of chase would not run up hill.2 (Bull-dogs are used because they have no scent. J. M. Wynne.3) he took thorough bred greyhound bull-dog & crossed & recrossed till there was a dash of blood with whole form of greyhound, — picking out finest of each litter & crossing them with finest greyhounds. —
Sir. J. Sebright4 first got5 point on hackles on Bantams by crossing with common Polish cock is not that old variety & then recrossing offspring till size diminished, but feathers continued by picking chicken of each brood. — These bantam feathers

1 William Yarrell.
2 cf. Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication, vol. 1, London 1868, p. 68.
3 Wynne. Unidentified.
4 Sir John Sebright, cf. Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication, vol. 2, London 1868, p. 197.
5 A small drawing at this place in MS.


at last got dusky, then took white Chinese Bantam crossed & got some yellow & others yellower & white varieties by picking the yellow ones & crossing with dark bantam produced old variety. —
The pidgeons which have such different skulls, but same marks on wings are Blue Pouter & small Bald Heads
Mr Yarrell will mention in his work.1
I am sorry to find Mr Yarrell's evidence about old varieties is reduced to scarcely anything, — almost all imagination — He says he recollects all half Bred cattle of Ld Darnleys were most like parent Brahmin bulls — Mr Y. is inclined to think that the male communicates the external resemblances [more] than the female.

1 William Yarrell. A History of British Birds, London 1837-43.


The expression hybrid & fertile Hybrids may be used to varieties as well as species.
as formation of species gradual so may we suppose that something intermediate, between no offspring & ordinary offspring. — this gradation is infertile offspring without organs of generation?!
By profound study of local variation laws of change whether beak (as it appears to me) colour of plumage & laws which might probably be reduced.


What the Frenchman did for species between England and France I will do with forms. —
Mention persecution of early astronomers, then add chief good of individual scientific men is to push their science a few years in advance only of their age, (differently from literary men,) must remember that if they believe & do not openly avow their belief they do as much to retard as those whose opinion they believe have endeavoured to advance cause of truth.


It is of the utmost importance to show that habits sometimes go before structure. — the only argument can be. a bird practising imperfectly some habit, which the whole rest of other family practise with a peculiar structure, thus Milvulus forficulus Tyrannus sulphureus if compelled solely to fish, structure would alter. —
It is a difficulty how a different number of vertebrae are produced, when (& in all such structures) there cannot be gradation. See what Eytons young pigs1 —if vertebra much lengthened or there may be tendency to divide which often enough

1 Thomas Campbell Eyton. "Notice of some osteological peculiarities in different skeletons of the Genus Sus," Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., vol. 5, 1837, p. 23.


repeated would cause an unequal number of vertebrae —
? When two very close species inhabit same country are not habits different. (Mem. Gould's willow wren)1 but when close species inhabit different countries habits similar ?law? probable— ∵ if habits & structure similar would have blended together.
Mem. Mr Herbert's2 law, habits determining fertility.

1 John Gould. The Birds of Europe, vol. 2, London 1837, pl. & p. 131. (unnumbered). Description of Willow-wren, Chiff-chaff, and Wood-wren, including the differences in their songs and habits.
2 The Rev. The Hon. William Herbert.


Scheme for abolishing specific names & giving subgenera true value — as in

Opetiorhync[h]us fuliginosus (a) Falklands
  (b) T.del Fuego differ from
  (c) Chiloe
  (d) Chile
rupestris — good species.

? O. modulator + O. patagonicus. till neutral ground ascertained call them varieties but two ostriches good species because interlock.
It is reverting to old plan but reason now assigned for doing so.
There should be mark to every species only known by analogy
genera of course distant analogy from every country & class tells us that.


analogy to be guide in islands. species, — each describer giving his test namely differ as much as those (naming them) which are found together. —
If two species come over to this country without range or habits ascertained, put them as (a) (b) until data be given. — This will aid in preventing the chaos, — will point out what to observe, — will aid us in physiology, tell traveller what to observe, — if he knows he has done least part, — that he will not have brought home new species, until, he can show range & habits. —
Take instances of most disputed shells such as Cyrena.


This is reform which probably will be slow but must take place. — such a classification would answer every purpose & would present many ideas of causes of change. — The mark of analogy would be empirical because as soon as two species were placed in different subgenera, then it would be useless, but the formation of subgenera is empirical & is judged solely by comparison with other genera in other families. — it will however be much surer, when false species banished by this test. —


Excepting where as Andrew Smith1, Richardson2 & Vaillant,3 & D'Orbigny4 has travelled this will be most difficult.
Sub genera so far may be eliminated where every species of a section is confined to one continent & every species [of another section] to another, then those sections & subgenera are analogical, because we do not know whether nearest species of each might not breed.5
Genus must be a true cleft putting out of case the analogys. — If genus does not mean this it means nothing. — There should be some term used, when there is series.

1 Andrew Smith. Report of the Expedition for exploring central Africa from the Cape of Good Hope… 1834, under the superintendence of… A.Smith, Cape Town, 1836.
2 Sir John Richardson. Fauna Boreali-Americana; or the Zoology of the northern parts of British America, London 1829-37.
3 François Levaillant. Voyage…dans l'intérieur de l'Afrique, par le Cap de Bonne Esperance dans les années 1780-85, Paris 1790.
4 Alcide Dessalines d'Orbigny. Voyage dans l'Amérique méridionale, Paris 1835-47.
5 This paragraph up to here is marked by a query in the margin.


could I not give Catalogue of Mammalia arranged according to my own methods
Dasyurus being found fossil in Australia, & only one tree species (Mitchell's1 authority) in Australia & several in Van Diemen's land is most important as showing former connection of two continents and death of form in one. The caves are at a height of more than 1000 ft. & many hundred miles

1 Sir Thomas Livingstone Mitchell. Three expeditions into the interior of eastern Australia, with descriptions of the recently explored region of Australia Felix, and of the present colony of New South Wales, London 1838, vol. 2, p. 363 (Owen's identification of fossil specimens of Dasyurus laniarius.) The caves and their contents were first reported by Major T.L.Mitchell: "An account of the limestone caves at Wellington Valley, and of the situation, near one of them, where fossil bones have been found." Proc. Geol. Soc. Lond., vol. 1, 1831, p. 321.


from the sea, associated with teeth of seals and dugong, therefore immense age since breccia accumulated. — surely ask Owen to see whether species same, excessive improbability. mem in Clift's1 list a rat said to have been found!! rodents old inhabitants most important!! like Dipus of present day??! Major Mitchell does not think that dog was found in Van Diemens land. —
V. 1st Number of Geographical Journal to discover whether dog found at Swan River.

1 William Clift. "On the succession of types of fossil mammals from Australian caves closely allied to living marsupials". Edinb. New Phil. Journ., vol. 10, 1831, p. 394. The source where Darwin found this reference was no doubt Charles Lyell's Principles of Geology, vol. 3, London 1833, p. 144.


The change in England from Rhinoceros elephants &c in the most modern period, compared to Faunas of these countries, greater than Toxodon, Macrauchenia &c compared to America — the wonder is that the European forms were able to escape to some more fitting country. if Toxodon had been found in Africa the wonder [would] have been same for S.America & Europe. — the difficulty is how came it animals not preserved in Central S. America & yet in Africa & India??? — & Indian Islds.1

1 The words "& Indian Islds" added in pencil.


Sir J. Sebright — pamphlet1 most important showing effects of peculiarities being long in blood.++ thinks difficulty in crossing race — bad effects of incestuous intercourse. — excellent observations of sickly offspring being cut off so that not propagated by nature. — Whole art of making varieties may be inferred from facts stated. —
++ Fully supported by Mr Wilkinson2, = milking hereditary, developement of important organ (see mark on pages), — crosses of diff: breeds succeed. yet seems to grant that difficult & other go back to either parent. —

1 Sir John Sebright. Observations upon the instinct of Animals, London 1836. [According to D. Kohn this is actually a reference to Sebright. 1809. The Art of Improving the Breeds of Domestic Animals. London]
2 J. Wilkinson. "Remarks addressed to Sir J. Sebright", London 1820.


Shows instinct (Sir J.Sebright admirable essay) hereditary journey wild ducks. — lose as well as gain instincts. Wild & tame rabbit good instance—instincts of many kinds in dogs as clearly applicable to formation of instincts in wild animals many species in one genus external circumstances in both cases effect it. — Sir J.Sebright excellent authority because written on dog. Barking—applies it to national character. —


N.B. If two species were excessively old they would not make hybrids, whereas two newer ones even if more different might do so, — is this true??
My views which would even lead to anticipate mules is very important for Lyell said to me the fact of existence of mules appeared to him most strange. This even might be said — my theory thus explains a grand apparent anomaly in nature. —
Many animals not breeding at all in domestication throws great difficulty in way of ascertaining about hybrids, — & is a very remarkable fact, show influence of mind.


It is not difficult to see that it is less repugnant to nature to produce one offspring unlike itself, than to produce that capable of producing itself alike. — in one case it changes one, in other it changes thousands in futurity. — This is right way of viewing it. —
Variety when long in blood gets stronger & stronger, so that though by great effort one unlike can be produced, yet to produce whole generation unlike would go against the tendency it tries to go back to grandfather, but if too unlike its own parent this impossible (Hence we might expect even if two mules bred or two certain varieties, they would go back to grandfather which is


true) & infertility is consequence. —
The simple expression of such a naturalist "splitting up his species & genera very finely" show how arbitrary & optional operation it is, — show how finely the series is graduated. —
Dr Beck1 doubt of local varieties should be remembered. Therefore do not consider it as proved that they are varieties (though that would be best).
Argue the case theoretically if animals did change excessively slowly whether geologists would not find fossils such as they are. —

1 Presumably Dr Henrich Henrichsen Beck of Copenhagen who is referred to three times in Lyell's Principles of Geology, 5th edition, London 1837, as an authority on shells.


My theory explains that family likeness, which as in absolute human family is undescribable yet holds good, so does it in real classification. The relation of all cock birds in Gallinaceous having tendency to [..?] or peculiar tails, strange.
?? Genus only natural from death or slow propagation of forms—just same way as all men not all equally related to each other. I cannot help thinking good analogy might be traced between relationship of all men now living & the classification of animals. — talking of men as related in the third & fourth degree. —


a species must be compared to family entirely separated from any degree; the tailor [tailer] in each branch would be analogous to each other &c &c. — v. p. 140.
I should think meaning of circular arrangement was only so far true as avoided linear arrangement the central twigs dying, affinities would be in broken circles — which in each group is quite fatal. — Relations of analogy being those last obtained less firmly fixed & therefore most subject to change, — may account for certain organs not being fixed in some genera which are most fixed in others.


In analogy it is not the relation to bear to each other but to some external contingency. — affinity is the sum of all the relations, analogy is the close relationship in some one. — imagine the men to have greater powers of change yet, as external conditions over whole world similar & constitution of men originally similar, limits of change would be same yet each family might have its own character. — we here suppose these changes of use adaptation greater than those hereditary ones which would elapse, during time such changes


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have elapsed. — let these families take domestic animals with them they might be supposed to change & make genera of birds analogous, animals would be possessed by the different races of man, yet altogether different. — To make this case perfect, we must suppose men instead of mere colour & trifling form & lead on to become greatly changed in structure & even to certain degree in habits, yet we may have there analogies. — We must [try] races of such men living in same country but separated, now


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if one or the other race had become eminently aquatic, (N.B. aquatic i.e. relation to element & not minding particular trades.) — then the second race would not obtain a cast of washing men, but might have the preexisting race, thus the analogy would not in all cases be produced. but would depend on exclusion. —

The same characters which are analogical in a genus with respect to rest of its family as in ground cuckoos, is affinity with respect to species of each other, because we suppose all descended from same. — but if two original species, each became ground, then the relation of all the ground cuckoos would not be affinity, but the truth would never be discovered.

When one reads in Ehrenbergs Paper on Infusoria1
on the enormous production — millions in few days — one doubt that one animal can really produce so great an effect. the spirit of life must be every where ambient & in merely determined to such points by the vital laws. —
so that all characters originally may must have had the character of analogical. —
Gould says it is only in large groups where you have representations. —
The aerial type in each family in relation to elements & not habits as shown by frigate Bird & flying eagle Hawk.

1 Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg. "Recherches sur les Infusoires", Annales des Sciences Naturelles, seconde série, tome 1 Zoologie, Paris 1834, p. 207: "La force réproductrice des animaux infusoires est plus développée que dans aucune autre classe d'êtres."


Gould1 seemed to think, that widow birds replaced Birds of Paradise — if such fantastic sexual ornaments have so intimate a relation to two continents as to be explored called into existence in two continents our ignorance is indeed profound & such it appears. —
Is there not some statement about diversity of form in aberrant circles — explained by such not having been long in blood? —

1 John Gould. The widow bird, which is a weaver, inhabits South Africa while the Birds of Paradise inhabit Australia. Gould's opinion was probably a personal communication to Darwin.


My theory agrees with unequal distances between species some fine & some wide which is strange if creator had so created them. —
People will argue & fortify their minds with such sentences as "oh turn a Buccinum into a Tiger" — but perhaps I feel the impossibility of this more than any one. — we turn the Zebra into the Quagga, let them be wild in same country with their own instinct (even though fertile hybrids produced when compelled to breed) & then all that I want is granted. —
For at Galapagos make ten species of Orpheus, one of which has very short legs & long tail, short much curved beak. Other very long beak with short [tail]; let them only have progeny with species & there will be two genera, — let short billed one be exaggerated & all rest destroyed, far remote genera will be produced.


As we know from Ehrenberg1 there are fossil (see scientific Memoirs & L'Institut) that there are Tertiary fossil Infusoria of same forms with recent & we have nothing to do with creation. —
On The end of formation of species & genera is probably to add to quantum of life possible with certain preexisting laws. — If only one kind of plants not so many. —

1 Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg. "Paléontologie: infusoires fossiles du tripoli d'Oran", L'Institut, tome 5, 1937, p. 3303. "Remarks on the real occurrence of fossil Infusoria, and their extensive diffusion" Scientific Memoirs, vol. 1, 1837, p. 400.


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The quantity of life on planet at different periods depends on relations of desert, open ocean, &c. This probably on long average equal quantity, 2° on relation of heat & cold, therefore probably fewer now than formerly. The number of forms depends on the external relations (a fixed quantity) & on subdivision of stations & diversity, this perhaps on long average equal.


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The Cocos & Mar on the Mahé islands, on the higher parts & only on those & the islets separated at high water, not other islands, nor on any other part of world, no other plants peculiar to these islds. Can not bear the least salt water. — Nuts prodigiously heavy (when trees of such nature far apart, must have travelled by each tree dying & mountain torrents, but to crawl up an hill, thereby deaths !!) looks like subsidence — on the islets


Mr Blyth1 remark that a resemblance between some forms in birds is visible when young but not when old. thus speckled form of young blackbird good remark if general. —
Where any structure is general in all species in group we may suppose it is oldest, & therefore least subject to variation, — & good for generic divisions
Ought genus to be founded on such characters as do not vary in the species of it: where does such occur?
now some such characters rule are used by naturalists in their test of value of character. Therefore value of organ vary in different group & not known in single ones — viz. Macleay letter2 to Fleming3 p. 32 "where it (mode of generation) varies according to the species, it is manifestly of less importance as affording natural characters than among those groups, where it remains less subject to Variation."
Macleay's Rule is converse: value of character depends on non-variation & not on extension? these go together?

1 Edward Blyth. "Further remarks on the affinities of the feathered race; and upon the nature of specific distinctions", Mag. Nat. Hist. Lond., vol. 9, 1836, p. 505. On p. 507: "The black bird has when young, a spotted breast; and, in fact, the characters of its nestling plumage alone forbid its alienation from the spotted thrushes. Where, indeed, can we trace the line of separation between Merula and Philomela even?…"
2William Sharp Macleay. "A letter on the dying struggle of the Dichotomous system", London 1830, p. 32.
3 John Fleming, author of the Philosophy of Zoology, Edinburgh 1822.


Dr A.Smith1 know lots of instances of replacement of one species by another. supply place in each others economy.
Dr S. showed that savages are not born with any capacity for observation of tracks &c &c.
Dr S. has some remarkable crochets about instincts whenever instinct is mentioned some definition must be given
It would not be difficult to arrange children of same parents in a circle, — hermaphrodite & father & grandfather must be introduced & made young, father must be left out of case, that difference occurring. —

1 Andrew Smith, author of: Report of the Expedition for exploring central Africa, from the Cape of Good Hope…1834, under the superintendence of…A. Smith. Cape Town 1836.


It will be necessary to show hybridity from few forms, parents of all species not possible in some detail. the relation to islands close species on these isld &c will probably upset it. —
The space which one branch of the tree of life occupied after its decay, will be occupied by the vigorous shoots from each branch
no: because decay in that space is effect of unfavourable conditions
(hence rise & depression of importance in each group & connection of even distant ones) the characters will be first those of analogy but will grow into affinity, but whether ever arrive at true affinity doubtful.


A species is only fixed thing with reference to other living being. — one species may have passed through a thousand changes, keeping distinct from other, & if a first & last individual were put together, they would not according to all analogy breed together.
The bottom of the tree of life is utterly rotten & obliterated in the course of ages. —
As species is certain real thing with regard to contemporaries — fertility must settle it. —


Changes in structure being necessarily excessively slow they become firmly embedded in the constitution, which other marked difference in the varieties made by of nature & man. —
The constitution being hereditary & fixed, certain physical changes at last become unfit, the animal cannot change quick enough & perishes. — Lyell has shown1 such Physical changes will be unequally rapid with respect to their effects.
The Ægyptian animals domesticated ?? & therefore most especially under care of man, & external circumstances not variable. —

1 Charles Lyell. Principles of Geology, vol. 2, London 1832, p. 158: "Rate of the change of species cannot be uniform, however regular the action of the inorganic causes."


Animals have voice so has man. Not saltus but hiatus hence if sickness death, unequal life — stimulated by same passions, brought into the world same way, animals expression of countenance. They may convey much thus. Man has expression. — animals signals, (rabbit stamping ground), man signals. — animals understand the language. They know the cry of pain as well as we. —
It is our arrogance, to raise on the same shelf to (look at common ancestor scarcely conceivable in savages. precludes any but [instinct] feeling)
Has not the white man, who has debased his nature by making slave of his fellow Black, often wished to consider him as other animal. — it is the way of mankind & I believe those who soar above such prejudices yet have


justly exalted nature of man. like to think his origin godlike, at least every nation has done so as yet. —
We now know what is the natural arrangement. it is the classification of arrangement relationship, latter word meaning descent. —
a tree is taken by Fleming1 as emblem of dichotomous arrangement which is false.
There is same difficulty in arranging animals in paper as drying plant, all brought in one plane.

1 John Fleming. The Philosophy of Zoology, vol. 2, Part III, p. 136 contains Fleming's views on classification. The reference to a tree is probably taken from William Sharp Macleay: "A letter on the dying struggle of the Dichotomous System, (London 1830), p. 8: "Man in this system may be compared to the trunk of a tree, Dominies and D.D.s to the branches, and John Fleming to the bud or leaf on the spray".


Fleming Quarterly review says1 nat: fam: of Willows contains many Linnaean genera. — how are the character which unite these of older standing that constant number of stamens in order, or in next family ?
In considering fossil animals, what relation in classification in books, ought they to hold. —
Birds having web-feet when we see scarcely any traces of passage a difficulty but after all a slight one.
It will be necessary from manner Fleming treats subject to put in alternative of man created by distinct miracle.

1 John Fleming. Reference untraced.


Macleay letter1 to Dr Fleming Philosophical Magazine & Annals 1830 (?) "if she has put man on the throne (of reason), she has also placed a series of animals on the steps that lead up to it" p. 20,
xxx hiatus & saltus not syn[onymous]. — Linn: Transact.2 vol. XIV. — p. 24. Lamarck bears to Cuvier that relation of theoretical astronomer to plain observer.3
xxx between mammalia & fishes, one penguin, one tortoise, shows hiatus but not saltus. When Linnaeus4 put whale between cow & hauk a frolicsome saltus p. 29.

1 William Sharp Macleay. A Letter on the dying struggle of the Dichotomous System, London 1830, p. 20.
2 William Sharp Macleay. "Remarks on the identity of certain general laws which have been lately observed to regulate the natural Distribution of Insects and Fungi", Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., vol. 14, 1825, p. 46.
3 William Sharp Macleay. A Letter on the dying struggle of the Dichotomous System, London 1830, p. 24.
4 William Sharp Macleay. Ibid., p. 29. The reference is to: Carolus Linnaeus: Systema Naturae, Holmiae 1758. The last entry among the mammals on page 77 is Delphinus in the group Cete, after which immediately come the birds the first of which on page 86 are the Accipitres, beginning with Vultur.


Macleay1 seems to limit Lamarck definition of relations to settling the relative importance of the organs in same state in different animals. x
& the value of those organs when changed in different animals, — whether variation in eye of vertebrate afford better character than variations in eye of mollusc.
= Macleay rests his whole groundwork of analogy on its concurrence in parallel parts of his series, i.e. cannot be discovered till circles completed.2
x These questions may be all disputable, but the one end of classification to express relationship & by so doing discover the laws of change in organization. But the classification must chiefly rest on these same organs — habits, range &c &c

1 William Sharp Macleay. Ibid.
2 William Sharp Macleay. "Remarks on the identity of certain general laws which have been lately observed to regulat the natural Distribution of Insect and Fungi", Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond., vol. 14 Part III, 1838, p. 46.

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examine structure of this bird & get account of habits.
My definition in wild of species has nothing to do with hybridity, is simply, an instinctive impulse to keep separate. which no doubt be overcome, but until it is these animals are distinct species.
If any one is staggered at feathers & scales passing into each other let him look at wings & orbits of Penguin & then he will cease to doubt: Scales into Teeth in Bony Pike (Waterhouse)


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It would be curious to know whether variety could be transmitted more easily in those born without coitus, than with.
Magazine of Zool. & Bot. Vol. II p. — Dr Johnston1 on Entomostraca Daphnia produce young, capable of producing young many times & lay two sorts of eggs. one remaining through winter. # Might be given as a hopeless difficulty, except as distinct creation. —
Generation may be viewed as condensor. Must (on my theory) = supported by foetal lower developed forms. — (N.B. Waterhouse says of affinity of many insects may be told by their larvae) but the acts of condensing must alter method of generation. — Heaven knows how. — This reaction takes place in every organ. Hence method of generation is very good general character in those animals where much change has been added, as it speaks to amount of change only & not kind : insects, vertebrata — plants. at first classification on generation might appear convention

1 W. Baird, "The natural history of the British Entomostraca", Magazine of Zoology and Botany, vol. 2, 1837-8; on p. 406: "it is ascertained that one single copulation is sufficient not only to fecundate the mother for her life, but all the female descendants for several successive generations". The reference to Johnston is obscure.


N.B. Pyrrhoalauda (bird of St. Jago) of brown colour lives on ground, colour of habitation must have some effect. — Maldonado as good forests for beautiful birds. —
Hereditary ambling horses (if not looked at as instinctive) then must be owing to hereditary power of muscles. — Then we see structure gained by habit.
Talent &c in man not hereditary because crossed with women with pretty faces.
When horse goes a round the minute gets into the road at right angles how pleased it is just like man, emotions very similar. —
Geolog. Transact, vol. V Birds bones in strata of Tilgate forest.1

1 Gideon Mantell. "On the Bones of Birds discovered in the Strata of Tilgate Forest in Sussex", (read 10 June 1835) Trans. Geol. Soc. Lond., vol. 5, 1840, p. 175.


Seeing common gull in garden at Zoolog. Soc. its pale ash grey back like a black bird washed, whilst tips of primaries black, by examining series I cannot doubt laws of change will be known. —
It appeared to me that half [breed] between fowls & pheasants is most like pheasant. I think so because viz. 3/4 bred (hence hybrids in this case have bred). White & common pheasants have crossed. —


The attachment of dogs to man not altogether explained by F. Cuvier,1 Mem. Hensleigh's2 objection. — it is more, he cuts the matter short by saying man cannot be companion but master. — hereditary tameness as well as wildness — cf Sir J. Sebright.3 — Love of man gained & hereditary, problem solved.
habits become important element in classification because structure has tendency to follow it, or it may be hereditary & strictly point out affinities, conduct of Gould,4 remark of D'Orbigny5 point out importance of habits in classification. —

1 Frédéric Cuvier. "Essay on the domestication of mammiferous animals …" Edinb. New Phil. Journ., vol. 4, April 1828, p. 297.
2 Hensleigh Wedgwood (1803-1891). Brother of Darwin's wife.
3 Sir John Sebright. Observations upon the instincts of Animals, London 1836.
4 John Gould. The Birds of Europe, London 1837.
5 Alcide Dessalines d'Orbigny. Voyage dans l'Amérique méridionale, tome 4, 3e partie, Paris 1835.


Thought (or desires more properly) being hereditary it is difficult to imagine it anything but structure of brain hereditary, analogy points out to this. — love of the deity effect of organization, oh you materialist! Read Barclay1 on organization!! Avitism2 in mental structure a disposition & avitism in corporeal structure are facts full of meaning. — Why is thought being a secretion of brain, more wonderful than gravity a property of matter? It is our arrogance, it our admiration of ourselves. —

1 John Barclay. An Inquiry into the opinions, ancient and modern, concerning life and organization, Edinburgh 1822.
2 Avitism means relating to ancestors.


The idea of foetus being of one both sexes is strongly supported by wonderful fact of bees changing the sex by feeding. — no it is developing a hybrid female
it is a wonderful relation going through all nature. — makes hermaphroditism one step in series — in plants we have a step between monoecious & dioecious plants in animals it may be difficult to imagine how sexes were separated. — in plants we have some flower monoecious and other dioecious. Some flower hermaphrodites and others not???
The death of some forms & succession of others (which is almost proved, elephant has left no descendant in Europe, Toxodon in S.America) is absolutely necessary to explain genera & classes, if extinct forms were all fathers of present, then there would be


perfect series or gradation. — It is easy to see if South America grew very much hotter, then Brazilian species would migrate southward being ready made, — and so destroy individuals, whereas in Falkland Isd they would change & make new species: — alpine species being destroyed at Falkland Isds xxx1 — Mem. Lyell hypothesis of change in Sicily.2 — Splendid Harmony these views — did Lamarck connect extermination of some forms with his views.3 — as genera are large probably only few of extinct

1 Eleven words on p. 169 of the MS. are marked to appear here: — even at Falklands some probably would stand change better than others.
2 Charles Lyell. Principles of Geology. vol. 1, London 1830, Chapter VI in which Lyell proved by means of the fossil Mollusca of Sicily that the climate of the Northern Hemisphere had deteriorated.
3 Jean-Baptiste-Pierre-Antoine de Monet de Lamarck. Philosophie Zoologique, tome 1, Paris 1809, p. 77: "Or, si quantité de ces coquilles fossiles se montrent avec des différences qui ne nous permettent pas, d'après les opinions admises, de les regarder comme des analogues des espèces avoisinantes que nous connaissons, s'ensuit-il nécessairement que ces coquilles appartiennent à des espèces réellement perdues? Pourquoi, d'ailleurs, seraient-elles perdues, dès que l'homme n'a pu opérer leurs destruction? Ne serait-il pas possible au contraire, que les individus fossiles dont il s'agit appartinssent à des espèces encore existantes, mais qui ont changé depuis et ont donné lieu aux espèces actuellement vivantes que nous en trouvons voisines. Les considérations qui suivent et nos observations dans le cours de cet ouvrage rendront cette conclusion très-probable" (p. 93 of 1873 reprint). Lamarck therefore did not connect his views with "extermination of some forms."


forms have generated species & of 100 extinct species the greater number probably have no descendants on earth. —
xxx [p.168] — even at Falklands some probably would stand change better than others.1
The more complicated the animal the more subject to variation, therefore sexes in two animals: — When sexes are united (which probably is first stage) the tendency to change cannot be great, otherwise it would be unlimited.
We absolutely know the tendency is greater in Mammalia than in shells ?univalves or bivalves. —

1 These words to be inserted on p. 168 as indicated by the 'xxx'.


Anyman No VI. Magazine of Zoology & Botany p. 566 wants to see absurdity of Quinary arrangement let him look at abstract of Swainson1 on classification "Let anyone even with a very superficial knowledge like myself of classi real affinities i.e. structure of the whole animal let him read Mr Swainson's on the Classification of animals & observe the character of the demonstrations offered of the singular views there offered, & he must be a zealous man in the cause if his faith not staggered." I confess no dissertation against these views could possibly have had to so convince brought so much conviction to my mind. —

1 William Swainson. Review and Critical Analysis. "1. On the Geography and Classification of Animals. By William Swainson. 2. Classification of Quadrupeds. By William Swainson". Mag. Zool. Bot., vol. 1, 1837, p. 545. On p. 566:"We have no hesitation, however, in stating our conviction, that Mr.Swainson's theory, in regard to the analogies of this order, is the true one,…"


Reflect much over my view of particular instinct being memory transmitted without consciousness, a most possible thing see man walking in sleep. an action becomes habitual is probably first stage, & an habitual action implies want of consciousness & will & therefore may be called instinctive. — But why do some actions become hereditary & instinctive & not others. We even see they must be done often to be habitual or of great importance to cause long memory. structure is only gained slowly. therefore it can only be those actions which many successive generations are impelled to do in same way. — The improvement of reason implies diversity & therefore would banish individual but general ones might yet be transmitted. —


Memory springing up after long intervals of forgetfulness, after sleep strong analogies with memory in offspring. or simply structure in brain people & senses recollecting things utterly forgotten — Some association in such cases recall the idea it is scarcely more wonderful that it should be remembered in next generation. (N.B. What are those marvellous cases where you feel sure you have heard conversation before, in strong association recalling up image which had been past — so great an anomaly in structure of brain not probable), put note Sir W.Scott has written about it).1 If we saw a child do some action which its father had done habitually we should exclaim it was instinct, even if savage taken & was given a great coat & this he put on & we afterwards could understand (language better instance) he had done this without reflection or consciousness of reasoning to tell back from front &c or use of button holes it would

1 This sentence in square brackets in MS.


be instinctive. — My view of instinct explains its loss? if it explains its acquirement. — analogy a bird can swim without being web footed yet with much practice & led on by circumstance it becomes web footed. Now man by effort of memory can remember how to swim after having once learnt, & if that was a regular contingency the brain would become web-footed & there would be no act of memory. —
There is no correlation between individual objects as Ichneumon & caterpillar though our ignorance may make us think so, but only between laws.1

1 This sentence in square brackets in MS.


Many diseases in common between man & animals. Hydrophobia &c cowpox, proof of common origin of man. — different contagious diseases, where habits of people nearly similar. Curious instance of differences in races of men. —
Wax of Ear, bitter perhaps to prevent insects lodging there, now these exquisite adaptations can hardly be accounted for by my method of breeding there must be some cor[r]elation, but the whole mechanism is so beautiful. The cor[r]elations are not, however, perfect, else one animal would not cause misery to other, — else smell of man would be disagreeable to mosquitoes


We never may be able to trace the steps by which the organization of the eye passed from simpler stages to more perfect preserving its relations. the wonderful power of adaptation given to organization. — This really perhaps greatest difficulty to whole theory. —
There is breed of tailless cats, near Bath Lonsdale1
do says sheep could not live for some time at New York instance of the fine relation of adaptation of animals & the country they inhabit, — & the first one that bred one was diseased in its loins & all were so afterwards (forgets authority). —

1 William Lonsdale was Curator of the Geological Society's collections. The information about tailless cats was probably a personal communication.


Lonsdale is ready to admit permanent small alterations in wild animals & thinks Lyell has overlooked argument that domesticated animals change a little with external influence, & if those changes permanent so would the change in animal be permanent. — It will be easy to prove persistent varieties in wild animals, but how to show species. — I fear argument must rest upon analogy & absence of varieties in a wild state — it may be said argument will explain very close species in isld near continent, must we resort to quite different origin when species rather further. — Once grant good species as


carrion crow & rook formed by descent or two of the willow wrens &c &c & analogy will necessarily explain the rest. —
Lonsdale says1 he has seen in old Book last Bear in England killed in year 1000, reference to succession of types
?different species; Horses &c.
Lonsdale says that first shee
State broadly scarcely any novelty in my theory, only slight differences, the opinion of many people in conversation. The whole object of the book is its proof, its limiting the allowing at same time true species & its adaption to classification & affinities its extension. —

1 William Lonsdale. Personal communication. There is a tradition that the last British bear was killed in Scotland in 1057.


Von Buch Travels p. 302 account of trees1 ceasing to grow far N. become stunted, altered & low fertility — more sickness? ?because offspring too unlike.??
Memoir of Charles D'Orbigny on Plastic Clay of Paris2 contains many genera of Pachydermata &c other mammals, otter, civet cat, rodents. — (Pachyderm in Portland stone of Alps!!!? No) p. 15 (Lyell's pamphlet).3
Is man more hairy than woman because ancestors so, or has he assumed that character, — female & young seem most like mean character the others assumed. — Daines Barrington4 says cock birds attract females by song do they by beauty, analogy of man if so war not

1 Leopold von Buch. Reise durch Norwegen und Lappland, Zweiter Theil, 1810. The account of trees is on pages 295-302.
2 Charles d'Orbigny. "Existence d'un étage de calcaire marin particulier au-dessous du terrain tertiaire du bassin de Paris, et d'une assise, également nouvelle, dépendant de l'argile plastique; découverte d'ossements fossiles dans ce dernier étage." Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci., Paris, tome 3, 1836, p. 228.
3 Charles Lyell; presumably the reference is to a reprint of "On the strata of the plastic clay formation exhibited in the cliffs between Christchurch Head, Hampshire, and Studland Bay, Dorsetshire." Trans. Geol. Soc. Land., vol. 2, 1829, p. 279.
4 The Hon. Daines Barrington. "Experiments and Observations on the singing of birds", Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc., vol. 63, 1773, p. 243.

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Erasmus1 says he has seen old stallion tempted to cover old mare by being shown young one. —
Many African monkeys in Fernando Po — no new forms only species!
No salamanders (D'Orbigny Rapport p. 11) in S. America so highly developed in North.2 — Icht[h]iology of S. America more peculiar than its ornithology p. 12 do. excepting salmons.
L'Institut Sorex from Mauritius3 p. 112 ; & paper on genus.

1 Erasmus Alvey Darwin, Darwin's elder brother.
2 Alcide D'Orbigny, Voyage dans l' Amérique méridionale, …,…
3 L'Institut, avril 1838, p. 112, "Le Sorex sonneratii … deux exemplaires recueillis par les frères Verreaux dont l'un provient de Java et l'autre de l'île Maurice".


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Magazine of Zool. & Bot. Vol. I, p. 456 4 instances of hybrids between pheasant & Black fowl. — use as argument possibly some few hybrids in nature. —
p. 473 Webb & Berthelot1 must be studied on Canary islands.2 Endeavour to find out whether African forms (anyhow not Australian) on Peak. Did Creator make all new, yet forms like neighbouring continent.
Chapter ten translated by Hooker. — my theory explains this but no other will. St Helena (& flora of Galapagos ?) same condition Keeling Isld. shows when proper dampness seeds arise quick enough. Vegetation of Peak altogether original3 owing to being oldest & having undergone change ? ? no near lofty country p. 475.
NB. This bears on fossils of Europe, those species which can migrate remaining constant in form, others altered much. these others will be plants & land animals & land shells — all in short. Extreme North = to peak of Tejde in relation to surrounding countries & present tropical count[ries]

1 P. Barker Webb & S. Berthelot, Magazine of Zoology and Botany, vol. 1, 1837, p. 473 : "'Aspect général de la végétation des îies Canaries ' has been already well translated in Dr Hooker's Botanical Miscellany".
2 P. Barker-Webb & S. Berthelot, Histoire naturelle des iles Canaries, Paris 1836.
3 Magazine of Zoology and Botany, vol. 1, 1837, "Reviews and critical analysis (Histoire naturelle des iles Canaries) ", p. 475 : "The Peak itself, the "Teyda ", the vegetation of these wild regions is found to be altogether original".


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p. 564 an abstract of Mr Swainsons1 views which if abstract true are wonderfully absurd. —
p. 565 breed Scotch wild Cattle breed freely with the tame.2
Vol. II Magazine of Zoology
p. 56 Peregrine Falcon holds birds for some time alive ?therefore other species mice & only kills them when urged by hunger.3
p. 65. Aberrant groups4 few in numbers & vary much in character, divided into many small genera ∴ circumstances not favourable to many species, same circumstances which by causing death makes the group aberrant

1 Magazine of Zoology and Botany, vol. 1, 1837, pp. 545-66, "Dr Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopaedia. Natural History, 1. On the Geography and Classification of Animals. By W. S. Swainson".
2 ibid., p. 565, "We know, beside, that they breed freely with the common ox, and that the progeny produced from the cows is also productive".
3 William Thompson, "Contributions to the Natural History of Ireland ", Magazine of Zoology and Botany, vol. 2, 1837-8, pp. 42-57 ; on p. 53 : "still retaining its first victim, secured the second with its other foot, and bore both off together".
4 G. Johnston, "Miscellanea Zoologica ", Magazine of Zoology and Botany, vol. 2, 1837-8, pp. 63-73.


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when species rare we infer extermination when group few in number of kind. extermination. — New forms made through probably an infinite number of forms. — therefore an isolated form probably a remnant. — Pachydermata & Horses few forms & they are remnants. — Cephalopoda ditto. —
Mag. of Zool. & Bot. Vol. II p. 125. Allusion to abortive spiracles in Hemiptera.1
do. p. 160. soft plumage of night jar like owls.2 analogy in habits adaptation to nocturnal habits — to cats &c. — must be acquired by my theory else my theory not applicable

1 John Obadiah Westwood, "Notes upon Sub-aquatic Insects, with the description of a new Genus of British Staphylinidae ", Magazine of Zoology and Botany, vol. 2, 1837-8, pp. 124-132,
2 W. B. Clarke, "Observations on Caprimulgus europaeus (night-jar)", Magazine of Zoology and Botany, vol. 2, 1837-8, pp. 158-63.

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p. 428 ouzel sometimes builds nest without dome1 vol. 9 Mag. Z. & B.
p. 431 Missel thrush lately increased in numbers over whole of England & Ireland.2— curious in so wild bird. —
Annals of Natural History Vol. I p. 185 case of titlark placing withered grass over nest when often looked at.3 — This most puzzling whether instinct or reason??
Gould says4 he believes that he has seen half fox & dog & that it was most like fox. — He felt sure the half breed of Australian dogs would be most like Australian. — Curious this ready answer without any leading question. — This might be mentioned in note. —

1 William Thompson. "Contributions to the natural history of Ireland. No. 4 On the Birds of the order Insessores. The Water Ouzel". Mag. Zool. Bot., vol. 2, 1838, p. 427. On page 429: "The first nest of this bird I remarked was placed in a hole in the clayey bank of a pond, where, owing to the shelter afforded, there was no occasion for the display of its domed architecture, and this was consequently dispensed with."
2 William Thompson. "Contributions to the natural history of Ireland, No. 4 On the Birds of the order Insessores. The Mistle-Thrush." Mag. Zool. Bot., vol. 2, 1838, p. 427. On p. 431: "Has of late years extended its locality in Ireland, as in other parts of the British Islands, and is now found throughout the country."
3 William Thompson. "Contributions to the natural history of Ireland. No. 6 On the Birds of the order Insessores." Ann. Nat. Hist., vol. 1, 1838, p. 181. On p. 185: "…he observed a quantity of withered grass laid regularly across the nest.…" This remark is however made in respect of the meadow pipit.
4 John Gould. Probably personal communication.


Try to trace from simplest reasoning in lower animals many times produced, a general tendency produced, such as man getting habitually into passion, becomes habitually passionate. — The key to the affections might perhaps thus be found — a person who is habitually kind to children get increases general instinctive feeling.


There is great difficulty in making an alpine species from one in lower country during gradual elevation of isld. We must imagine a considerable range of one species on a mountain side of which the central parts become occupied by a third best adapted kind. Lower species would then revert to pristine form (which must have been altered by crossing with alpine form). Lower species afterwards would probably often be destroyed, or regrafted with fresh arrivals — &c &c. Climate altering as island increases, — upper parts attracting all the moisture.


Henslow thinks1 if leaf of plant varies, all organs vary in plant.
The variation in character of leaf of plant is remarkable what is analogous to it in animals? —
Babington says2 in most plants, even those on Guernsey & on West Coast of Ireland, are absolutely (& who better authority) similar with those over whole of country. — Some species are larger &c in different countries. These facts show how very permanent plants

1 John Stevens Henslow. Probably personal communication.
2 Charles Cardale Babington. "A notice, with the results, of a Botanical Expedition to Guernsey and Jersey in July and August 1837", Mag. Zool. Bot., vol. 2, 1838, p. 397.


are, & this conclusion must be arrived at, when one sees a plant like Paris quadrifolium growing in one wood far from any other plants of same species.
Channel Isl. (& probably Isle of Man) no plants peculiar to themselves, this remarkable compare it with Canary Isld, Galapagos. — Iceland has same uniformity.


Primrose & Cowslip quite wild but they affect different localities. — latter on banks & in damp parts, both propagated by seeds. — There are two Dandelions which just lately have been shown to be same — one grows in marsh & other dry; yet if T.palustris be sown in dry station it will for some generation come up so. — there are not many intermediate shades in these case, — but absolute species formed. The Anagallis perhaps offers another case of permanent varieties in wild state. — The two


former produced by difference of station.
Varieties chiefly produced by cultivating parent in rich soils & then seeds produce offspring variety.
wild carrot made into biennial domesticated kind with large root by sowing it at wrong time of year & manuring it.
Epigonous & perigonous are very important in classification. Here we have generative organs first character.
In dioecious plants many of the female flowers unimpregnated Babington.1

1 Charles Cardale Babington. Reference untraced.


We see gradation to mans mind in Vertebrate Kindgdom in more instincts in rodents than in other animals & again in mans mind, in different races. being unequally developed.
? is not Elephant intellectually developed amongst Pachydermata like man amongst Monkeys or dogs in Carnivora. —
Man in his arrogance thinks himself a great work worthy the interposition of a deity, more humble & I believe truer to


consider him created from animals.
Insects shamming death. most difficult case to imagine how art acquired. — Only reason however on this to a degree. Mem. spider only dropping where ground thick. — Shamming death it is but being motionless. How is instinctive dread it is exceedingly doubtful whether animals have any fear of death or of pain of death acquired? The S.American dung beetles will each become the father of many species, a few eggs transported to the St. of Magellan. — Change of habits in Van Diemens Land.


Study Mr Blyth's papers on Instinct.1 — His distinction between reason & instinct very just, but these faculties being viewed as replacing each other it is hiatus & not saltus. —
The greater individuality of mind in man is analogous to greater individuality of bodies of some animals over those of others. — The mind of different animals less divided. — But as man has hereditary tendencies, his mind is still only, divided body. # p. 3 language seems to supply instincts, — & those powers which allow of acquirement of language hereditary, acquirable. — therefore mans mind not so different from that of brutes.
p. Hard to say what is instinct in animals & what reason, in precisely same way not possible to say what habitual in man & what reasonable. Some action may be either in same individual.

1 Edward Blyth. "On the Psychological distinctions between Man and all other animals; and the consequent Diversity of Human Influence over the inferior ranks of Creation, from any mutual and reciprocal Influence exercised among the latter." Mag. Nat. Hist. Lond., vol. 1, 1837, p. 1.


p. 7 is not squirrel hoarding. & killing grain acquirable through hoarding from short time. — My theory must encounter all these difficulties, knowing that animals have some reason, & actions habitual, it surely is not worthy interposition of deity to teach squirrel to kill ears of corn. According to my views, habits give structure, ∴ habits precede structure, ∴ habitual instincts precede structure. — duckling runs to water before it is conscious of web-feet. —
P. 7 Mr Blyths arguments1 against squirrel using reason in hiding its food is applicable to any habitual action even which man performs,—child striking a post in passion. —
Habit instinct gained during life. — do elephants easily acquire habits is this the key to their mental powers?
p. 8 mistakes of instinct are external contingencies where the habit is not applicable.

1 Edward Blyth. Ibid.


The degree of development of all animals of same class being about equal, — organs of generation about equally complicated. —
An Entomologist going into a country & collecting thousands & tens of thousands new insects, perhaps scarcely one new family & no new order. — Wonderful, partly explained on my theory, & otherwise mere fact creator chooses so to create. —
It is very remarkable, with so much death, as has gone on, no greater gaps. — External conditions to be sure have remained somewhat similar. — !!!


My theory drives me to say that there can be no animal at present time having an intermediate affinity between two classes. — there may be some descendant of some intermediate link. — the only connection between two such classes will be those of analogy, which when sufficiently multiplied become affinity yet often retaining a family likeness, & this I believe the case. — Any animal really connecting the fish & mammalia must be sprung from some source anterior to giving off of these two families, but we see analogies between fish. — Birds same remarks.


Characters of analogy. — last acquired, — or aberrant therefore more easily modified. = this is not easily told for any small family having analogous characters, might be multiplied. we must argue reversely: where character variable it is (one of analogy or) lately acquired. In pigs number of vertebrae subject to variation therefore lately acquired.
I fear great evil from vast opposition in opinion on all subjects of classification, I must work out hypothesis & compare it with results; if I acted otherwise my premises would be disputed. — According to Principle of last page osculant groups between two circles of equal value must be so from characters of analogy. — See my notes on p. 37 of Macleay.1 Wonderfully accordant with fact there stated only in most discordant groups.

1 William Sharp Macleay. Horae Entomologicae, London 1819, p. 37: "These genera I propose to call osculantia, from their occurring as it were at the point where the circles touch one another".


The formation of genera may sometimes be due to accident as submersion of land containing all of intermediate Father-species, & not, therefore, solely owing to such interm. father-species being little adapted to some physical change. — If Patagonia became fertile all intermediate species living there would be destroyed, & N. & S. existing species become fathers of genera — whatever the cause is, any osculant species which survived would be few in number. — Parallel of Japan, near Himalaya, & European forms on that Isld.


The races of men differ chiefly in size colour, form of head & features (hence intellect? & what kinds of intellect) quantity & kind of hair forms of legs — hence the father of mankind probably possessed a structure in these points for a less time than other points. — female genital organs, — make abstract on this subject from Lawrence,1 Blumenbach2 & Prichard.3 In some monkeys clitoris wonderfully produced. — Now we might expect that animal half way between man & monkey would have differed in hair colour & form of head & features; but likewise in length of extremities, how are men in this respect upper & lower, which I do not know whether it differs in present races, & form of feet. — Negro or father of negro probably was first black at base of nails & on white of eyes. —
Will he say creation is at end seeing that Tertiary geology has obeyed rules of modern causes & considering over the vicissitudes of present animals. He would be bold. I will venture to say unphilosophical.

1 William Lawrence. Lectures on physiology, zoology, and the natural history of man, London 1819. This edition was suppressed.
2 Johann Friedrich Blumenbach. A Manual of the Elements of Natural History. London 1825.
3 James Cowles Prichard. Researches into the physical history of Man, London 1813.


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L'Institut 1838 p. 128 Extraordinary genus. Mesites bird from Madagascar uniting pidgeons & gallinaceous birds & parrots.1 — legs of pidgeon perfect. — &c. &c.
do. p. 136 Ichthyosaurus in the Chalk.2
Those who say philosophically to a certain extent, — nothing but experience will tell us when group is true, — there are no genera if mammalia are adduced, say oh look to your fossils, now if extinction had gone, without creation this would have been fair, but to place all that ever have lived into one list is unfair (moreover what will become of the future creations, if the list is now perfect. —) the creator so creates animals, it will be said, that although at any one there are gaps yet altogether he has created a perfect chain +++ supra on next page

1 M. Bernier, L'Institut, tome 6, 1838, p. 128: "[Mesites] analogue par ses pattes au Pigeon plus qu'à aucun autre group, par ses ailes à la plupart des vrais Gallinacés".
2 A. Courcier, L'Institut, tome 6, 1838, p. 136: "Présence de l'Ichthyosaure dans la craie".


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It is a fact pregnant with something? that intermediate species have generally perfect organs of two adjoining families & not all organs blending away. — do changes of habits affect particular organs. —
+++ Hopeless work to systematist, who believed that all his divisions merely marked his own ignorance. The collector was plodding at making a series, which would render our knowledge a chaos : who will doubt this if series now existed from man to monad — though physiology would profit if the series were believed to pass into each other. —
Different classes keep to their types with different degrees of closeness — look how close birds ! look at Mammals, how wide. — therefore birds younger ???! or have not been exposed to so many contingencies ???


a question of immense difficulty is whether Apterix descend from same parent with other birds, or branched off anteriorly, think what principles are there to guide in this opinion? Excellent principle of abortion.
isolation of range tends to alteration view. — ostriches do. but then there may have existed series between Apterix & other birds. — Will having many trifling characters in common with other birds reveal the secret. — Now all the different forms of Synallaxis trifling characters as red band on wing show to be from one parent — same form of beak &c without these trifles, it would not then be told whether not descended from long way back. — aberrant forms produced when many species


but when much death, may be inferred much time elapsed & therefore descended from branch high up. — Such probabilities only guides. —
Yet trifles are produced by circumstances. Spines on Echidna, when it can be traced through series then probably hereditary & not produced by circumstances.
In Ostrich which is not isolated we must suppose the changes from typical structure have either been more rapid than in all other birds, or that it sprung from a branch high up. This argument not applicable to Apterix, but source of error for only


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some of the Ostriches were to die, then they would appear isolated. #
In my birds from S. Hemisphere there are some godwits which are close to European species, and the sexes of which vary in colour of plumage in same remarkable manner as European species = singular coincidence if distinct creation. — i.e. — a mere statement nothing is explained. — this is fact analogous to mocking thrush of Galapagos having tone of voice like S. American. —
Have not Ruffs & Reeves a remarkably varying plumage for wild birds —


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At Zoolog. Garden there is half Jackal & Scotch Terrier — certainly more like Jackal in gait, size, fur ; manner in which ears droop like dog in character, & manner of wagging tail habitual movement connected with mood. —
There is no progression in the development in instincts in the orders of insects, so is there none of reason in orders of mammals. — Mem. Elephants & dog.
There is one living spirit prevalent over this world, (subject to certain contingencies of organic matter & chiefly heat), which assumes a multitude of forms each having acting principle according to subordinate laws. —
There is one thinking sensible principle (intimately allied to one kind of

211 [page not microfilmed]

organic matter—have & which thinking principle seems to be given a assumed according to a more extended relations of the individuals, whereby choice with memory or reason? is necessary—which is modified into endless forms bearing a close relation in degree & kind to the endless forms of the living beings. We see thus unity in thinking and acting principle in the various shades of separation between those individuals thus endowed & the community of mind even in the tendency to delicate emotions between races. — recurrent habits in animals. —
Animal magnetism principle of irritation, sleep walking, fits, laughter, &c &c. Man & man may have some relation together as well as man & child, polypus & polypus, bud & bud, polypus & germ, plant & seed. —


instincts in young animals. well developed just like habits easily gained in childhood — young salmon first a species which lived in estuaries its tastes taught it to go to salter water (& its necessities teach it taste, but that a much more general argument) & therefore down the stream follow ebb tide, therefore got into habit of going down stream which would last were the stream 1000 miles long.
a monkey (Baboon) at Z. garden upon being beaten behaved very differently from a dog, more like man. continued long in a passion & looked out for him to come again, very different from dog, perhaps being in passion chief difference.


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Major Mitchell1 is not aware that Australian dogs ever hunt in company — marked difference with dogs of La Plata & Guyana # people will say not species. —
Organs of generation a capital character (Owen)2 not for first & grandest division, but for one of very high order. not for vertebrata. but mammalia & reptiles &c.
Timor is connected with Australia — Map to King's3 Australia — by a bank of soundings of which there appears to be one line in which greatest depth is not more than 60 F. & in the whole area 120 is greatest (about 200 miles distant). — directly beyond produced line of Timor 213. What productions Sandal Wood Isld? ought to agree with Java ??

1 Thomas Livingstone Mitchell, Three expeditions into the Interior of Eastern Australia, London, 1838.
2 Richard Owen, "Remarks on the Entozoa ", Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. 1, 1835, p. 387.
3 Philip Parker King, Survey of the Intertropical and West Coasts of Australia, London, 1818-22.


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Terrestrial Planariae assuming bright colours; good instance of colours dependent on localities. —
Hamilton will give an account in his Travels in Asia Minor of the domestic animals. At Angora Centre of Asia Minor are the fine haired goats, which it is said cannot be transported from their country. — the long-haired cats are supposed to come from there. — All the sheep are thick-tailed. The dogs called Persian greyhounds are Kurdish & come also from Asia Minor. — tail like setters, long ears — colours vary, but form constant. —


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These abortive organs in some males animals, mammae in man, capable of giving milk.
The females of some moths, like glowworm have rudimentary wings so nature can produce in sex what she does in species of Apterix.
This is important because if these abortive wings in the female are allowed to the fully organized wings of the male rendered abortive in the womb — if these apparently useless organs do indicate such origin, then we are bound to consider abortive organs of same tendency in species. this is capital & novel argument. —
(there is paper by Yarrell1 in Zoolog. Transactions & Hunter2 on this subject).
Are there any abortive organs in neuter bee, because if so as she can be converted into female, it will be splendid argument. Old female turning into cocks, abortive spurs growing. —

1 William Yarrell. Reference untraced.
2 John Hunter, Observations on certain parts of the Animal Oeconomy, with notes by Richard Owen, London, 1837, pp. 422-66 : "Observations on Bees".


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are there any abortive organs produced in domesticated animals. in plants I presume there are ? get examples. — for instance where a tendril passes into a mere stump. — Shall abortive organs of very same kind in these cases, have plain meaning and none in other case!
Savigny1 has shown same fundamental organs even in Haustellata & mandi-bulata. — !! Argument where general argument is extended from species to genera & classes.
p. 479. fragment of tusk & molar tooth of Hippopotamus from Madagascar2 !!!!!! Proceedings of Geolog. Soc. Vol. I.
It is capable of demonstration that all animals have never at any one time formed chain, since if cretaceous period assumed, then some perished before, carboniferous some perished

1 Marie-Jules-César de Savigny,? Mémoires sur les animaux sans vertèbres, Paris, 1816.
2 Proc. Geol. Soc, vol. 1, 1833, p. 479, "A letter was afterwards read from Mr Telfair to Sir Alexander Johnson, accompanying a specimen of recent conglomerate rock from the island of Madagascar, containing fragments of a tusk and part of a molar tooth of a hippopotamus".


before, then there always have been gaps, & there now must be, ∴ extinction of species bears relation to existence of genera &c &c.
discussion useless, until it were fixed what a species means.
Two savages, two species, — civilized man may exclaim with Christians we are all Brothers in spirit, all children of one father, — yet differences carried a long way.
Case of habit: I kept my tea in right hand side for some months, & then when that was finished kept it in left, but I always for a week took of[f] cover of right side though my hand would sometimes vibrate seeing no tea brought back memory — old habit of putting tea in pot, made me go to tea chest almost unconsciously. — Why do absent [minded] Dr Black tea & sugar people reverse habits.


Insects & birds are the only two tribes fitted for water, air & land (Macleay has this remark).
Mem. number 5 here most evident!!? examine into this case.
Ld Jeffrey1 (Life of Mackintosh, vol. II, p. 495) — ["] in fact in all reasonings of which human nature is the object, there is really no natural starting place, because there is nothing more elementary than that complex nature itself with which our speculations must end as well as begin" &c &c. The centre is everywhere & the circumference nowhere as long as this is so — !! Metaphysics !!!

1 Lord Francis Jeffrey. Robert James Mackintosh: Memoirs of the Life of the Right Honourable Sir James Mackintosh, London 1836. In chapter VIII there is a letter to the editor by The Hon. Lord Jeffrey, p. 491. Darwin's quotation is on p. 496 of the second edition.


Mrs Somerville1 connection of Phisical sciences p. 276 may be worth glancing at as she has no original idea, it will show state of knowledge. Negros existed since time of earliest Egyptian drawings & Old Testament.
Domesticated animals having same idiosyncrasy, cause of fertility. — varieties not produced as by nature, if so the habits which would have formed them would have arisen under different climates &c. Do I mean that idiosyncrasy of wild animals is generally different, because this difference arises a good deal from climate & habits, & therefore less fertile according to Mr Herbert's views.2
Argue case of abortive organs to mules in their genitals & even to a limb not used.
The only cause of similarity in individuals we know of is relationship, children of one parent, races of animals — argue opening case thus.

1 Mary Somerville. On the connexion of the physical sciences. London 1834. [from the 3rd edition, London 1836, p. 286]: "…nothing is more remarkable than the distinctions which characterise the different tribes of mankind, from the ebony skin of the torrid zone to the fair and ruddy complexion of Scandinavia,—a difference which existed in the earliest recorded times, since the African is represented in sacred writing to have been as black as he is at the present day, and the most ancient Egyptian paintings confirm that truth; yet it appears from a comparison of the principal circumstances relating to the animal economy or physical character of the various tribes of mankind, that the different races are identical in species. Many attempts have been made to trace the various tribes back to a common origin, by collating the numerous languages which are, or have been spoken.…"
2 William Herbert. Amaryllidaceae; preceded by an attempt to arrange the Monocotyledonous orders, and following the Treatise on Cross-bred Vegetables, and Supplement, London 1837, p. 343.


Educate all classes. avoid the contamination of castes, improve the women (double influence) & mankind must improve. —
The areas of subsidence marked out by animals of same spe genera is not equal to areas of elevation: marked out by existence of elevated extinct? genera of shells. — duration in the classes however different. —


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male glow worm knowing female good case of instinct, bees turning neuter into Queen, more wonderful case.
Dwight's1 Travels in America, speaks of short-legged sheep, hereditary proceeding from an accident. New England farmer — useful could not leap fences : — Dr Lang2 (quoted) on Polynesian nation p. 4. —
do. p. 186 quote Burkhardt3 to show black colour of certain Arabs. — N.B. avoid quoting these hackneyed cases.

1 Timothy Dwight, Travels in New England and New York, London, 1823.
2 John Dunmore Lang, Origin and migrations of the Polynesian nation, London, 1834.
3 John Lewis Burckhardt, Travels in Arabia, London, 1829.


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Mr Edw. Blyth1 does not believe in circular or linear arrangement. — Thinks passage very rare, in anatomical structure. — the passage between owls & hawks only external. intermediate groups often have full structure of one class & full of second — this class if analogous to petrel-grebe external appears to be a puzzle against my theory. —
If I be asked by what power the creator has added thought to so many animals of different types, I will confess my profound ignorance. — but seeing such passions acquired

1 Edward Blyth, "Observations on the various seasonal and other external changes which regularly take place in Birds, more particularly in those which occur in Britain ; with Remarks on their great Importance in indicating the true Affinities of Species; and upon the Natural System of Arrangement ", Magazine of Natural History, vol. 9, 1836 pp. 393-409; on p. 407: "[referring to those who] hold that every natural assemblage of species, great or small, forms part of some quinary circle. Now, I cannot but observe here … I should think that a due consideration of this first binary distribution must at once carry conviction of the mind, must be at once a most unanswerable argument against all quinary or similar doctrines …"


& hereditary & such definite thoughts, I will never allow that because there is a chasm between man (— & chasms necessary consequence of to account for the scheme of nature) and animals that man has different origin.
Dr Royle1 Royal Institution seems to think Botanical Provinces will turn out not nearly so confined as now thought. — N.American, European, & Chinese genera & some species in Himalaya, some English beetle, birds & a fox most close.

1 John Forbes Royle. "Illustrations of the Botany and other branches of the Natural History of the Himalayan Mountains, and of the Flora of Cashmere". Journ. Roy. Geogr. Soc. Lond., vol. 5, 1835, p. 361. The significance of the words "Royal Institution " is not clear.


The most curious case is saxifrage, almost same closely allied species Himalaya, 13.000 & Melville Isd. —
West Africa & India some plants same.
America. — See Brown Congo Expedition:1 400 Australian plants found in other parts of world.
Athenaeum June 3d 1838 quotes Mr Turpins2 assertion that globules of milk produce a plant capable of growing!! & propagating itself.
In Tropical countries (as St. Jago Cape de Verdes) the shells in equal periods with Europe would probably have changed much less. — Here is an

1 Robert Brown. "Observations, Systematical and Geographical, on Professor Christian Smith's collection of Plants from the Vicinity of the River Congo", Narrative of an Expedition to explore the River Zaire, usually called the Congo in South Africa in 1816 under the direction of Captain J. K. Tuckey, R.N., London 1818, Appendix v, p. 420.
2 Jean-Pierre-François Turpin. "Recherches microscopiques sur l'organisation et la vitalité des globules du lait; sur leur germination, leur développement et leur transformation en un végétal rameux et articulé." Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci., Paris tome 5, 1837, pp. 822-837. Darwin's reference to the Athenaeum of 3 June 1838 is incorrect, and should read June 2 where on page 396 M.Turpin's assertion is quoted.


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element of extreme difficulty in mundine geological chronology.
Annals of Natural History Vol. I ?? p. 318 some remarks on Bonaparte's1 list of birds in Europe & N. America on closely allied species replacing each other. good to consult.
p. 326 wild ass extending over 90° of Long. & Col. Sykes2 alludes to some other case of 180° & great diff. of Latd.
p. 355. Echidna of Van Diemen's land & Australia different.3 Temminck Fauna Japonica (??)4 82 Mammalia
p. 293 Phalangista5 of Australia & Van Diemen's land diff. —

1 Charles Louis Bonaparte, Prince of Musignano, "A geographical and comparative list of Birds of Europe and North America ", Annals of Natural History, vol. 1, 1838, pp. 318-320.
2 Annals of Natural History, vol. 1, 1838, p. 322, "Proceedings of Learned Societies … A Paper was read by Colonel Sykes, ' On the identity of the Wild Ass of Cutch and the Indus, with the Dzeggetai (Equus hemionus of Pallas) '."
3 Annals of Natural History, vol. 1, 1838, p. 335 : "Miscellaneous". … On the two species of Echidna, by J. E. Gray. "Sir E. Home, in his paper in the Phil. Trans. for 1802, figured two specimens of this animal, and Cuvier (Règne Animal, vol. i, p. 225) considered them as two species, naming the one Echidna Hystrix, and the other E. setosa ; but most succeeding zoologists have regarded them as a single species … The E. Hystrix, Cuv. … came from the continent of New Holland, while E. setosa, Cuv. … is confined to Van Diemen's Land".
4 Annals of Natural History, vol. 1, 1838, p. 335 : "Miscellaneous" … "Zoology of Java". "Temminck, in the Fauna Japonica, states, that he knows 82 kinds of mammalia, 455 birds, and 90 species of amphibia, as inhabiting that Island, although the interior is almost entirely unknown".
5 John Edward Gray, "A reply to Mr Ogilby's Communication to the Annals of Natural History respecting Phalangista cookii ", Annals of Natural History, vol. 1, 1838, pp. 293-7.


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Habits can only be used in classification as indication of structure (including brains & other organs difficult to analyse), will not this separate facts about abortive organs &c.
The doctrine of monsters1 is preeminently worthy of study on the idea of those parts being most easily mortified which last produced — insane men in civilized countries — this is well worthy of investigation.

1 John Hunter, in Richard Owen, Descriptive and illustrated Catalogue of the Physiological Series of Comparative Anatomy contained in the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons in London, London, 1833, vol. 1, p. iv.


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Institut 1838. p. 174. Aperçu very good on insectivorous quadrupeds — geographical range very good. — Blainville1
Ovington's2 voyage to Surat floating isld off coast of Africa p. 69 with tall grass. p. 72 hairy sheep
Edinburgh Transact Vol. IX p. 107 An Ascaris inhabits the eyes of horses in India in which it may be seen swimming about.3
A. Smith4 is firmly believed in representation, certain birds in many families, & very often in number 5 will have long tail. — in raptorial birds, & tigers & sharks, being spotted & colours of little value

1 Henri-Marie de Blainville, L'Institut, tome 6, 1838, p. 174, Zoologie : Mammiferes Insectivores.
2 John Ovington, Voyage to Suratt 1689, London, 1696.
3 Alexander Kennedy, "Account of a non-descript Worm (the Ascaris pellucidus) found in the eyes of Horses in India", Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, vol. 9, 1823, p. 107.
4 Andrew Smith, possibly personal communication.


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Dr Smith1 if black & white man crosses, children heterogenous, he feels sure of this, first offspring most like parents mother. — like dogs Smith knew Chinese hairless dog & common spaniel crossed. — 3 puppies perfectly like Chinese & 3 perfectly like spaniel even when grown up. — Are mules homogenious owing to no attempt to keep up offspring, are not half lion & tigers ditto. (see Griffith)2 & half Muscovy ducks, black cock & pheasant see Jardine's Journal.3 — consult on this point — pigs always go against this, without number of vertebra new acquisition, we must

1 ditto ; cf. also Edward Blyth, "An attempt to classify the varities of animals", Magazine of Natural History, vol. 8, 1835, pp. 40-53 ; on p. 52 : "The mixed offspring of different varieties of Man thus generally blends the character of each, though instances are not wanting of its entirely resembling … either one or the other of its parents".
2 Edward Griffith, The Animal Kingdom arranged in conformity with its organization, by the Baron Cuvier … with additional descriptions of all the species, London, 1827.
3 William Thompson, "On the hybrids produced in a Wild State between the Black-Grouse (Tetrao tetrix) and the Common Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus)", Magazine of Zoology and Botany, vol. 1, 1837, P. 450.

229-230 excised


Henry Thompson1 tells me best way to improve cattle is to cross between a good bull & the provincial breed, & the first offspring thus produced are better, than those bred in & in, — which looks as if qualities were not permanent in the new cross. — In the Bantam clubs they used to fix on the kind wanted, colouring of each feather, weight & size & they would produce number agreeing almost to the point in question. — Merely picking opposite qualities, with no other means whatever. —

1 Henry Thompson. Unidentified.


Individual man & animals could only exist by habit — therefore same principle transferable not wonderful.
According to my view because actions are constant they are instincts and not ∴ instincts constant.
? whether mutilations non-hereditary & variation produced in short time in some extent counterpart, mutilation being variation produced in shortest possible time.
Mr Willis1 long-eared little dogs, I am told, go to heat, take dog but do not become impregnated

1 Mr. Willis was the name of the hairdresser in Great Marlborough Street where Darwin was then living at No. 36. His Third Notebook on the Transmutation of Species (p. 163) has another reference to the breeding of dogs.


& puppies delicate. — they cross sister & brother of same litter, those of different litters or of father & child are thought to be unhealthy — puppies become very small, idiots, & bandy legged by this long breeding in.
Hope1 says must not trust him that genus of parasite to genus of animals different (p. 234), different species to different, — inguinal louse African — European different. — those 2 breeds differ Africa Australia.
Parasites die when brought over on tropical animals, which account for the species changing ∴ because mammalia can subsist where parasite [..?].
Read Entomological Transactions.

1 Frederick William Hope. The reference is presumably: "On Insects and their larvae occasionally found in the Human Body". Trans. Entom. Soc. Lond., vol. 2, 1837-40, p. 256.


Why if louse created should not new genus have been made, & only species. Good argument for origin of man one. —
Is the extinction & change of species two very different considerations, with respect to law of mammals shorter duration than molluscs, argue case both in Europe & S.America, very difficult case.
Does this law of duration apply to utter extinction or rapidity of specific change? One the first would be called generic & other specific extinction. —


In the Entomostraca1 (Magazine of Zoology & Botany) where several generations are produced in succession (13?) without impregnation, therefore sexual passion must arise after long interval, very good case. habit is awakened by association (case of Elephant which had run wild in India in Heber?)2 is analogous to dormant instinct. — (How wonderful a case bees developing sex of neuters). Species may have had their infancies as well as men, when habits much more firmly impressed we see in the Entomostraca. The sexual curiosity of the orang outang (in June 1838[)] when young male was added good instance of instinct showing itself, not from instruction.

1 William Baird. "The Natural History of the British Entomostraca", Mag. Zool. Bot., vol. 1, 1837, PP. 35, 309, 514. Om P. 522: "They must either therefore, be hermaphrodite, or, as in some other genera, as the Daphnia for instance, one copulation suffices not only to impregnate the female for life, but succeeding generations also."
2 Reginald Heber. Journey through the Upper Provinces of India, from Calcutta to Bombay, 1824-5, (with notes on Ceylon); to Madras & South Provinces, 1826, & Letters written in India. London 1828.


Even the action of the viscera under sympathetic nerve may be instinct or habits. ?are sympathetic nerves & nervous system of insects analogous? — Even plants have habitual actions. — this very important in considering how children come to suck or other actions in foetus of mammalia, or chick eat.
Generation becomes necessary when organs of parent are concentrated in different parts & scission cannot effect the process. — scission in all cases probably gemmation (Ehrenberg) but why two sexes — not necessary to generation (latent with no relation to time) as in buds. — I can scarcely doubt final cause is the adaptation of species to circumstances by principles, which I have given


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∴ Those animals, which only propagate by scission can not alter much ? !
Mr Brown showed me Bauer's1 drawings of a curious plant where a tube consisting of pistils & stamens united into long organ, moved on being touched, so as to protect itself, one segment of the corolla being (probably) smaller to allow it to lie on one side. — but in other species, this segment is converted into hood which possesses power of movement & not the organ itself

1 Ferdinand Bauer, in Matthew Flinders, A Voyage to Terra Australis, London, 1814, vol. 2.


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How except by direct adaptation has such a change been effected. — the consciousness of the plant that this part must be protected however it may be effected. —
Prodromus Florae Norfolkicae. 1833 Steph. Endlicher1 (He will give sketch of botany of islands of south sea says so in preface. — Mr Brown1 says character of Flora N. Zealand & N. Caledonia with a dash of New Holland. same species as in N. Zealand — Some species of Australian Genera

1 Stephan Ladislaus Endlicher, Prodromus Florae Norfolkicae; sive catalogus stirpium quae in insula Norfolk annis 1805-5 a Ferdinando Bauer collectae … Vindobonae, 1833


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same (Palm & Thormium tenax) as in New Zealand & Australia. some species of Australian genera ∴ good case. rather large flora (150 ?)
Mr Brown did not observe scarcely any Australian character in Timor plants, yet it seems there may be Eucalyptus! — (Hostile fact)
Be cautious about Goulds2 case of birds of Van Diemens land & Australia. — The wombat (Brown)3 is found in Isd of Bass's Straits

100 Robert Brown, in Matthew Flinders, A Voyage to Terra Australis, London, 1814, Appendix III; possibly also personal communication.
101 John Gould, Synopsis of the Birds of Australia and the adjacent islands, London, 1837-8.
102 proc. Zool. Soc. 1836, p. 49, the wombat "was brought from one of the islands in Bass's Straits".


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The common mushroom & other cryptogamic plants same in Australia & Europe.1 — if creation be absolute theory, the creation must take place as when creator sees the means of transport fail. — otherwise no relation between means of transport & creation exists. — pool may have been created at many spots & since disseminated.
See Habits of Malay fowls2 p. 5 (note) on some papers on instincts3

1 Robert Brown, in Matthew Flinders, Voyage to Terra Australis, London, 1814, Appendix III, p. 539 : "southern extremity of Van Diemen's Island, where the necessary conditions exist, the relative proportion of Cryptogamous plants is not materially different from that of the south of Europe".
2 reference untraced.
3 John Oliver French, "An inquiry respecting the true nature of instinct, …" Zoological Journal, vol. 1, 1825, pp. 1-3, 153-173, 346-366.


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L'Institut 1838 p. 184 Botany of Bonin1 "grande analogie avec la Flore du Japon", some European & Sandwich species & some of Japan. I do not understand any new ones. — Memoir will be published St. Petersbourgh Academy Journal. Paper read in 1837 semestre..
I suspect some valuable analogies might be drawn between habitual actions of plants when exciting cause is absent & memory of animals. — (surely in plants

1 Heinrich Gustav Bongard, L'Institut, tome 6, 1838, p. 184, "Mémoire sur la végétation des Iles de Bonin" ; original in Bull. Scient. Acad. Imp. Sci. Saint-Pétersbourg, tome 2, 1838, pp. 369-372.


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movements effects of irritability, though means injection of fluid different from contraction of fibre) — it is most remarkable habitual action in plants, it allows of any degree in lowest animals — habitual action in intestines subject to sympathetic nerves —
The vividness of first thoughts memory in children or rather their memory, very remarkable — scenes in themselves accidental — my first thought of sea side —


Study Bell on Expression1 & the Zoonomia2, for if the former shows that if a man grinning is to expose his canine teeth (this may be made a capital argument if man does move muscles for uncovering canines), no doubt a habit gained by formerly being a baboon with great canine teeth. — Blend this argument with his having canine teeth at all. — This way of viewing the subject important.
Laughing modified barking, smiling modified laughing. Barking to tell other animals in associated kinds of good news, discovery of prey, arising no doubt from want of assistance. — crying is a puzzler. — Under this point of view expression of all animals becomes very curious — a dog snarling in play. —

1 Sir Charles Bell. Anatomy and Philosophy of Expression, London 1806. Darwin referred to this subject in his Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (London 1872) on pp. 250-1.
2 Erasmus Darwin. Zoonomia; or, the Laws of Organic Life &c. London 1794-6.


Hensleigh1 says the love of the deity & thought of him or eternity only difference between the mind of man & animals. — yet how faint in a Fuegian or Australian! Why not gradation. — No greater difficulty for Deity to choose when perfect enough for future state, that when good enough for Heaven or bad enough for Hell. — Glimpses bursting on mind & giving rise to the wildest imagination & superstition. — York Minster story of storm of snow after his brothers murder, — good anecdote.2 Sowerby.3
Geographical range, shells, like cryptogamic plants, of marine kinds. there are some restricted genera, but then they appears always very small ones as Trigonia in Australia or Concholepas in America. — yet many countries have far more species than other countries (++4 p. 246)

1 Hensleigh Wedgwood. Brother of Darwin's wife.
2 Charles Darwin. The Descent of Man and selection in relation to Sex. London 1871, p. 67: "[York Minster] related how, when his brother killed a 'wild man', storms long raged, much rain and snow fell."
3 James Sowerby. The Genera of Recent and Fossil Shells, for the use of students in Conchology and Geology, London 1820-5.
4 These symbols refer to the passage marked by an asterisk on page 246 of the manuscript below.


as Cyclostoma in Phillippines & Amphidroma in S.America. — yet there are a few Cyclostomes & a few Amphidromas. — this is remarkable. —
Fish & drift sea weed may transport ova of shells. — Conchifera hermaphrodite, eggs in groups. Have dioecious plants more restricted ranges than other plants. —
Many same genera confined to hot countries & many to cold. — Hence latitude is more important element than longitude. But in land & f[resh] w[ater] shells there is more confinement, thus the Naiads (study de Ferussac)1 are confined to S.America. — Mr Sowerby says

1 André-Etienne-Justin-Pascal-Joseph-François D'Audebard de Ferussac. Histoire Naturelle et particulière des Mollusques terrestres et fluviatiles, Paris 1819-51.


there are some shells common to West coast of Afria & E.S.America. — get instances. — very good anomaly in range.
++1 What circumstances have led to formation of some species some few have been scattered over whole world.
Many shells at present day same (or according to Sowerby fine species) on coasts of N.America & England—but the fossils are not like, except in very few cases,

1 These symbols mark the beginning of the sentence referred to on page 244 of the manuscript above.


those of Tertiary European fossils — (so much the more remarkable, ∴ Carboniferous ones similar?). Now this is very remarkable (connect these facts with identity of land animals, these however come from Siberia). — It cannot be said American fossils more resemble those of America than of Europe, because the recent ones are so close.
Was there continent between N.America & Europe? — # Norton1 has written on fossils of N.America. —

1 Reference untraced.


At the end of "White's Selbourne"1 many references very good. also "Rays Wisdom of God".2 Often refer to these. — Also some few facts at end of "The British Aviary"3 or Bird Keepers Companion. Study Appendix (& only appendix) of Congo Expedition.4

1 Gilbert White. The Natural History and Antiquity of Selborne, in the country of Southampton: with engravings and an appendix, London 1789.
2 John Ray. The Wisdom of God manifested in the works of Creation, London 1691.
3 The British Aviary, London n.d.
4 Robert Brown. "Observations, Systematical and Geographical, on Professor Christian Smith's Collection of Plants from the Vicinity of the River Congo", Narrative of an Expedition to explore the River Zaire, usually called the Congo in South Africa in 1816 under the direction of Captain J. K. Tuckey, R.N. London 1818 Appendix v, p. 420.


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N.B. I met an old man who told me that the mules between canary birds & goldfinches differed considerably in their colour & appearance.
Every now & then — short-tailed cat ?cut? has its offspring short tails / one born at Maer
Tuckeys Voyage1 p. 36 "Cercopithecus sabaeus" said to be monkey of St Jago C de Verds; same as on coast of Africa. — Macleay tells me same thing
p. 55. 40 leagues from land several patches of reeds & trees.2
p. 259. 120 ft in length. some branches of Justicia still growing passed us.3

1 James Kingston Tuckey, Narrative of an Expedition to explore the River Zaire, usually called the Congo 1816 …, London, 1818.
2 ibid., p. 55, "When forty leagues from the land, several floating patches of reeds and trees passed u".
3 ibid., p. 259, "120 feet in length and consisting of reeds resembling the Donax, and a species of Agrostis, among which were still growing some branches of Justicia". These notes show that Darwin was already concerned with the survival of land organisms in sea water.


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do. p. 243 (Professor Smith's Journal) on the heights of St. Jago found a Euphorbia so near Piscatoria as scarcely to be distinguished from it.1 —& several old acquaintances which grow on the lower region of the Canary islands. —
p. 250 admirable table of plants of St. Jago showing many common to Canary isld, Europe, & St. Jago upper region, & some to Cape. — some proper well worth studying, with respect to forms. —

1 ibid., p. 243, "I found at last an Euphorbia, that bore so near a resemblance to piscatoria as scarcely to be distinguished from it".


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Study Appendix1 to Tuckey's Expedition
Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia Vol. VII Part II 1837 accounts of the various hares some since discovered of N. America,2 & of the shrews.
Dr Bachman3 told me that near Charleston ? three species near New York (600 miles N. ?) replaced by three other species. — Says all the hares West of Rocky Mountains have peculiar character in extreme length of ears & length of limbs, so that he first thought only one species. & all hares on East side have other

1 ibid. Appendix V, p. 420, is by Robert Brown, "Observations, Systematical and Geographical on Professor Christian Smith's Collection of Plants from the Vicinity of the River Congo."
2 John Bachman, "Observations on the different species of Hares (genus Lepus) inhabiting the United States and Canada ", Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 7, 1837, p. 282.
3 ibid., p. 358; also personal communication.


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peculiar appearances. Now this is precisely the case with the mice of S. America with respect to the Cordillera. — Bachman has seen webbed shrew, case of adaptation. — (case of Squirrel from extreme north turning white like Hares ?) I never saw more beautiful adaptation for snow like snow shoes than feet & hind legs of these white hares, fitted for region of snow. —

253-254 excised


gradually separated the birds might yet remember which way to fly. There is a kind of wren (Bebyk??) which seems common in Rocky mountains & on one lofty isolated spot on the Alleghanies to which it migrates every year; probably a chance wanderer like the first pair of Pipe flycatcher. —
Bachman1 says he thinks the Mocking thrush beats all English birds in song. — one of their thrushes exceeds our blackbird, but our blackbird exceeds their other thrushes, — yet they have one with very sweet notes. —

1 John Bachman. Reference untraced.


Their soft-billed birds are inferior to ours, & our lark ranks very high. — Upon the whole thinks more birds sing in England than in America, but the few of N.America are quite as beautiful. The thrushes of N.America singing so well & the mocking thrush being so very beautiful great contrast with South America. —


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In Holme's History of Man at Maer,1 it is said the Samoyed women (?North end of the Oural mountains) have black nipples to their breasts. —
L'Institut, 1838, p. 230 says the Macrotherium of Europe is between the anteater of C of Good Hope & those of S. America.2 — Are not some of the Australian fossils intermediate between those of Van Diemen's land & Australia proper. — Irish Elk case of fossil geographical range.

1 Henry Holme, Lord Karnes, Sketches of the History of Man, London, 1774.
2 Henri-Marie de Blainville, "Dépôt d'ossements fossiles de Sanson ", L'Institut, tome 6, 1838, p. 230:"Macrotherium, qui démontre en Europe 1'existence d'un genre intérmediaire au Pangoline et à 1'Orycteryx d'Afrique et aux Fourmiliers d'Amérique".


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259-264 [blank]

265 1

Books quoted by Herbert p. 338
Schiede in 1825 & Lasch. Linn. in 1829 has given list of Spontaneous Hybrids. where?
Sweet. Hortus Britannicus has remarks on acclimatizing of Plants.
Herbert p. 348 gives reference to Kohlreuter's Papers
Wiegman has published German pamphlet on crossing Oats, &c
Mr Coxe "Views of the Cultivation of Fruit trees in N.America" in Lib. of Hort. Soc.2
Mc Neil has written good article on Horticulture in Edinburgh Encyclop. — Horticulture Journal
The British & Foreign Medical Review No. XIV April 1839. — Review on "Walker on intermarriage", price 14s.
March 20th 1839. Philosophy of Blushing lately advertised /6s
Mrs. Necker on Education preeminently worthy of studying in metaphysical point of view
Henslow has list of plants of Mauritius with locality in which each one is found. Very good to see whether peculiar plants in high points

1 From this point the succession of pages is inverted, because Darwin wrote these pages by working forwards from the end of the notebook.
2 William Cox of Burlington, New Jersey. A view of the cultivation of fruit trees, and the management of orchards and cider, Philadelphia 1817.


Institution of Paris with respect to licentiousness destroying children, — it is not effect, as Lyell suggested, of organs being worn out as otherwise old couple would not have children
Turner's embassy to Thibet, perhaps worth reading, quoted by Malthus. —
Heberdens Observat. on increase & decrease of different diseases 4to 1801. — quoted by do. —
There appears to be good art. on Entozoa by Owen in Encyclop. of Anat & Physiology. —
Dampier probably worth reading
Lessings Laocoon (translated in 1837) on limits of painting & poetry. — Erasmus thinks I should like it.
The Sportsman's Repository 4to contains much on dogs. —
Reports of Brit. Assoc. — some important Papers.
Dr Mayo. Pathology of Human Mind. —
Audubons Ornithological Biography 4 volumes well worth reading
Bevans work on Bees, new edit 1838
Harlaam [Harlan] Physical & Medical Researches on Horse in N. America. — Owen has it —
Ld. Brougham. Dissertations on subject of Science connecting with Natural Theology, — on instinct & animal intelligence, — very good.
Endlicher has published in first volume of annalen of Vienna, sketch of South sea Botany
R. Brown has curious coloured maps by Copenhagen Botanist of range of plants


Silliman's [American] Journal [of Science]
Rengger on Mammalia of Paraguay, account wild cattle &c
Montagu on birds (facts about close species).
Wilson's American Ornithology
Read Aristotle to see whether any my views is ancient?
Study with profound care abortive organs produced in domesticated plants, where function has ceased to be used as tendril into stump
Library of Useful Knowledge, Horse, Cow, Sheep
Vesey Philosophic d'Histoire Naturelle
Marcel de Serres Cavernes d'Ossements 3rd edit. Octavo (good to trace European forms compared with African)
Annals [of natural history]
Histoire Generalle et Particuliere des Anomalies de l'organization des Hommes et les animaux. by Isid. Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1832 contains also his fathers views. Quoted by Owen. —
Hunter has written quarto works on physiology besides the papers collected by Owen (at Shrewsbury)
Yarrells Paper on change of plumage in the Pheasants Philosoph Transactions 1827 [vol. 118]
Paxton on the culture of Dahlias
Mrs Gore on roses might be worth consult.
Paper on Consciousness in Brutes in Blackwood, June 1838
H. C. Watson on Geograph. Distrib: of British Plants.
Humes Essay on H[uman] Understanding (some time)
Du[gald] Stewart works & lives of Reid, Smith & giving abstracts of their views Mackintosh Ethnical [Ethical] Philos:


To be read
Humbold[t]. New Spain — much about castes &c
Richardson's Fauna Borealis
Entomological Magazine (paper on geograph range)
Study Buffon on Varieties Domesticated animals see if laws cannot be made out
Find out from Statistical Society where M. Quetelet has published his laws about sexes relative to age of marriages
Brown at end of Flinders & at end of the Congo Voyage
Decandolle Philosophic on Geographical distrib in Dict.Sciences Geolog Soc.
F. Cuvier on instinct
L. Jenyns paper in Annals of Nat. History
Prichard. — Lawrence
Roy St. Vincent vol. iii p. 164 on unfixed form.
Dr Royle on Himalaya types.
Smellie. Philosophy of Zoology
Flemming. Ditto
Falconers remark on the influence of climate
Whites regular gradation in Man.
Lindleys introduction to the Natural System
Bevan on honey bee
Dutrochet memoires sur les vegetaux et animaux — on sleep & movements of Plants £1. 4s
Voyage aux terres Australes chapt. xxxix, tom iv. p. 273 [Peron …]
Latreille Geographie des insectes 8° p. 181
Sept. 17 [1839] For references to authors about E. Indian Islands consult Dr Horsfield


Sir G. Staunton's Embassy to China Oct. 12th [1838]
Kotzebues two voyages, skimmed well ditto
Lutkes Voyage, carefully read. —
Reynolds Discourses
Lessings Laocoon
Whewell's inductive History. References at end of each vol
Herschel's introduction to Natural Philosophy
R. W. Darwin's Botany. — references at end
Mayo Pathology of the Human Mind
Evelyn's Sylva, skimmed stupid
Brown's travels in Africa; well skimmed.
Jan. 10th All Life of W. Scott, except the V volume
— 19th Mungo Parks Travels
Feb. 12 Sir H. Davy Consolations in travels
— Observations on morals of Eugenius
— 14th Boswells Life of Johnson 4 vols.
25th Philips Geology, 2nd vol. —
March 16 Gardner's Music of Nature
— Herbert on Hybrid mixture: marginal notes.
— 20th Carlyle's French Revolution 3? vols oct:
— 26th Blumenbach's Essay on Generation. English Transla.
— The Rev. A. Wells Lecture on instinct
— Clive on the Breeding of animals
— Spallanzanis Essay on Animal Reproduction
— Treatise on Domestic pidgeons
— 30th Lives of Hayd[n] & Mozart
April 25th Lockarts Life of Napoleon.
5th Dr Edwards influence of physical causes, well skimmed
— Bartrams travels in N. America
May 18th Stanley familiar History of Birds
— Mackintosh's Ethical Philosophy
— Bell's Bridgewater Treatise
— Wilkinson's Egyptian remains skimmed
— Pliny Nat. Hist of world ditto
Lamarck II vol Philos. Zoology references at end of each chapter Crabbes Life
June 1st King & Fitzroy


Rays Wisdom of [God]
Lisiansky's Voyage round World. 1803-6. nothing
Lyells Elements of Geology
Gibbons Life on himself
Hume's ditto with correspond, with Rousseau
Miss Martineau How to observe
Mayo Philosophy of Art of Living
Several of Walter Savage Landors Imaginary Conversations very poor
Sir J. Browne's Religio Medici
Lyell Book III there are many marginal notes
Rengger & Mitchell's Australia
Walter Scotts Life 1st 2nd & 7th volumes
Abercrombie on the Intellectual Powers.
Hunters Universal Oeconomy edited by Owen, read several papers all that bear on any of my subjects
Elie de Beaumont 10 vols of Memoires on Geology of France on Etna almost reread the previous volume & C. Prevost on l'Ile Julie
Waterton's Essays on Natural History Octob 2d [1838]
Transactions of Royal Irish Academy ditto
Lavater's Physiognomy Octob 3rd
Malthus on Population
W. Earl's Eastern Seas. Octob 12th

271-274 excised


Sir J. Sebright's Pamphlets
Wilkinsons on cattle } not abstracted
Scientific Memoirs published by Taylor
Magazine of Zoology & Botany & continuation
Annals of Natural History
Skimmed von Buch travels
Whites Natural History of Selbourne References at end
Dr Langs Australian tract, skimmed
Macleays Horae Entomologicae
Rays Wisdom of God references at end
The British Aviary — ditto
Lisle's Husbandry
Tuckey Voyage reread Appendix
Ovington Voyage to Surinam
Voyage Congo Expedition Zaire except Browns Appendix & excellent table of Canary Island plants
Home's History of Man
Transactions of the Entomological Society vol. I & Ist no. of vol. II (read remainder) when out


Most of those which have references at end, is so said to have
Books examined with ref: to species
Mackenzie's Iceland
Molinas Chile
Falkner Patagonia
Azara Voyage & Quadrupeds of Paraguay
Dobrizhoffer Abipomnes
Edinburgh New Phil. Journal about 13 numbers have been read
Voyage a l'isle de France
Voyage de l'Astrolabe { Partie Zoologique
Pernety voyage a l'isle Malouines
Zoological Journal 5 vols
Voyage de la Coquille
Zoological Transactions up to parts published March 1838. done
Whole of Geographical Journal
Asiatic Journal to end of 1837, read. contains very little
Macleay's letter to Dr Fleming & Review of letter in Quarterly

[inside back cover]

Read Volney's Travels in Syria vol I, p 71. account of European plants transported —
Crawford. Eastern Archipelago probably some account
Raffles Sir S. ditto ditto —
Buffon suites
Line on the improvement of domesticated animals
Fries de plantarum praesertim crypt. transitu et analogior commentalia
Library of Useful Knowledge on horse & cow & sheep
Clarke's travels
Temmincks Hist. Nat. des Pigeons et des Gallinacés
Sillimans Journal during 1837. paper by Bachman on migration of birds [vol. 30 July 1836, p. 81.]
Temminck has written Coup d'Oeil sur la faune des iles de la sonde et de l'empire du Japon
Wowett on cattle — (Waterhouse has it)
Shells from Bernier Island many relations with a living Natica & many shells of genera Corbula, Chama, Cardium, Porcellana, Turbo, Cerithium
Jardin du Roi
Java fossils at same time
Study Botanical works on Buds & Gemmae

[back cover]


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