RECORD: Darwin, C. R. n.d. Abstract of Fries in Botanical Gazette. CUL-DAR73.118-119. Transcribed by Kees Rookmaaker, edited by John van Wyhe (Darwin Online,

REVISION HISTORY: Transcribed by Kees Rookmaaker, edited by John van Wyhe 3.2014. RN1

NOTE: Reference: Fries. 1850. A monograph of the Hieracia, being an abstract of Prof. Fries's "Symbolae ad Historiam Hieraciorum". Botanical Gazette, a journal of the progress of British Botany 2: 185-191.

Reproduced with the permission of the Syndics of Cambridge University Library and William Huxley Darwin.


p. 187. Fries upholds Linnean axiom. "The species gives the character, not the character the species." "The characters are by no means the criteria of the species, but only the aids to their distinction." "No character is found constant througout all nature; & it is necessary to inquire in every genus what parts are constant & what variable." Henfrey disputes very truly the above axiom. —

p. 188 "In genera containing many species, the individual species stand much closer together than in poor genera; hence it is well in the former case to collect them around certain types or principal species, about which, as around a centre, the others arrange themselves, as satellites."

This very important, it shows that extinction has not been at work in the large genera. — But some of the small growing genera ought to have close species

118 verso

[text illegible]


Bot. Gazette. vol. II. p. 185. Prof. Fries Monograph on Hieracium (from the Flora)

"The greatest number of species are accumulated on the Alps, the greatest number of individuals in the mountain Forests." . . .

It is remarkable "that different species of the American Series , although closely connected with each other, correspond to particular series in Europe, namely the S. American to our Pilosellae, the N. American to the Pulmonariae & Accipitrinae &c." (This is a case of parallelism.)

p. 186 "The separate chains of the main Alps appear to possess not only particular species, but even special groups. Thus H. cenuithoides with many allied forms appear to belong to the Pyrenees. On the Alps of central Europe flourish th groups of H. critybaceum &c &c, which, with exception of the first scarcely occur in th Pyrenees" & so on in several other cases.

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