RECORD: Darwin, C. R. [1870-1871]. Draft of Descent 2d ed. / Dec 26 Trinidad. CUL-DAR59.1.121. Edited by John van Wyhe (Darwin Online, http://darwin-online.org.uk/)

REVISION HISTORY: Transcribed by Christine Chua and edited by John van Wyhe 10.2022. RN1

NOTE: See record in the Darwin Online manuscript catalogue, enter its Identifier here. Reproduced with permission of the Syndics of Cambridge University Library and William Huxley Darwin. The volumes CUL-DAR 54-61 contain material for Darwin's book Insectivorous plants (1875).


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large horns, whilst the female ewes "generally speaking are without horns"; & in this breed, castration seems to produce a somewhat greater effect; so that if performed at an early in life age, the horns "remain almost undeveloped." * (*I am much obliged to Prof. V. Carus for having made enquiries for me in Saxony on this subject. H. von Nathusius (Viehzucht 1872 p. 64) says that the horns of the sheep castrated at an early period either altogether disappear or remain as a mere rudiment; but I do not know whether he refers to merinos or to ordinary breeds) On the Guinea coast there is a breed in which the females are quite hornless do not never bear horns & the rams after castration, as I see in Mr. Winwood Reade informs me, are quite destitute of horns them, again with all the many breeds of cattle again, both sexes of all breeds are either horned or hornless & for there is no breed in which the females alone are hornless, as in the case with some goats & sheep. After castration the horns of the males are greatly altered & lose their masculine character altered, & instead of being short & thick, became much elongated longer than those of the cow, which they otherwise resemble. The antilope bezoartica offers a somewhat analogous case:

[Descent 2d ed., p. 506: "Merino rams have large horns, whilst the ewes "generally speaking are without horns,;" and in this breed, castration seems to produce a somewhat greater effect, so that if performed at an early age the horns "remain almost undeveloped."18 On the Guinea coast there is a breed in which the females never bear horns, and, as Mr. Winwood Reade informs me, the rams after castration are quite destitute of them. With cattle, the horns of the males are much altered by castration; for instead of being short and thick, they become longer than those of the cow, but otherwise resemble them. The Antilope bezoartica offers a somewhat analogous case: the males have long straight spiral horns, nearly parallel to each other, and directed backwards; the females occasionally bear horns, but these when present are of a very different shape, for they are not spiral, and spreading widely, bend round with the points forwards.

18 I am much obliged to Prof. Victor Carus, for having made enquiries for me in Saxony on this subject. H. von Nathusius ('Viehzucht,' 1872, p. 64) says that the horns of sheep castrated at an early period, either altogether disappear or remain as mere rudiments; but I do not know whether he refers to merinos or to ordinary breeds."]

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Dec 26 Trinidad 9 Bladders looked of much brown natural granular, organic matter, I cannot say what, parts evidently cellular, not an articulate animal.— possibly decayed young snail slug, or worm —

(2) Bladder do little; quadrifids containing much brown matter.

3 I think do

4 certainly do, with large quantity

I may say several of them, number quite unknown certainly organic possibly decayed minute [illeg] or worm [few words illeg]

New Grenada. 6 [illeg] mostly small bladders, in one half filled by a large body large body, with quadrifids abounding with granular matter —

Probably a larva much elongated — much Bladder 1/2 filled up Brown decayed matter brown decayed matter in bladder

[sketch] Yellow chitinous head Head — triangular internally with a fork from & a transparent where the oesophagus is suspended —

Part of body covered with finest Hairs

Covered with excessively fine short hairs

[in margin:] A mass of organism, an acarus — double hooks of some other [illeg] animal— a flesh flask-shaped organ hook of tarsus with adjoining joint — the triangular head & other objects. The acarus white & digested, & Hairs contents all digested out


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Citation: John van Wyhe, ed. 2002-. The Complete Work of Charles Darwin Online. (http://darwin-online.org.uk/)

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