Comparison of three versions of Darwin's Queries about expression

Three different versions of Darwin's queries about expression are compared here from 1867, 1872 and 1874. Freeman and Gautrey examined the five versions known in 1972 and 1975. The version in Darwin 1874 was then unknown and it has additions not present in earlier versions. See [Darwin] 1867 and Darwin 1868. Answers to the pre-1872 queries were used in the writing of Expression. See Freeman, Queries about Expression and Correspondence vol. 15.

Darwin, C. R. 1867. Queries about expression. [N.p.: publisher or printer: ?London]. Text Image Text & image F876 [Entries below in normal type.]

Darwin, C. R. 1872. The expression of the emotions in man and animals. London: John Murray. Text Image Text & image PDF F1142, pp. 15-16. [Entries below in italic type.]

Darwin, C. R. 1874. Physiognomy. In Notes and queries on Anthropology, for the use of travellers and residents in uncivilized lands. (Drawn up by a Committee appointed by the British Association for the Advancement of Science.) London: Edward Stanford, pp. 12-13. Text Image Text & image PDF F1832 [Entries below in bold type.]

John van Wyhe


1. Is astonishment expressed by the eyes and mouth being opened wide, and by the eyebrows being raised?

1. Is astonishment expressed by the eyes and mouth being opened wide, and by the eyebrows being raised?

1. Is astonishment expressed by the eyes and mouth being opened wide, and by the eyebrows being raised? Are the open hands often raised high up, with the fingers widely separated, and the palms directed towards the person causing astonishment? Is the open mouth in some cases covered by the hand? or is the hand carried to some part of the head?

2. Does shame excite a blush when the colour of the skin allows it to be visible? and especially how low down the body does the blush extend?

2. Does shame excite a blush when the colour of the skin allows it to be visible? and especially how low down the body does the blush extend?

2. Does shame excite a blush when the colour of the skin allows it to be visible? and especially how low down the body does the blush extend?

3. When a man is indignant or defiant does he frown, hold his body and head erect, square his shoulders and clench his fists?

3. When a man is indignant or defiant does he frown, hold his body and head erect, square his shoulders and clench his fists?

3. When a man is indignant or defiant, does he frown, hold his body and head erect, square his shoulders and clench his fists?

4. When considering deeply on any subject, or trying to understand any puzzle, does he frown, or wrinkle the skin beneath the lower eyelids.

4. When considering deeply on any subject, or trying to understand any puzzle, does he frown, or wrinkle the skin beneath the lower eyelids?

4. When considering deeply on any subject, or trying to understand any puzzle, does he frown, or wrinkle the skin beneath the lower eyelids?

5. When in low spirits, are the corners of the mouth depressed, and the inner corner of the eyebrows raised by that muscle which the French call the "Grief muscle?" The eyebrow in this state becomes slightly oblique, with a little swelling at the inner end; and the forehead is transversly wrinkled in the middle part, but not across the whole breadth, as when the eyebrows are raised in surprise.

5. When in low spirits, are the corners of the mouth depressed, and the inner corner of the eyebrows raised by that muscle which the French call the "Grief muscle"? The eyebrow in this state becomes slightly oblique, with a little swelling at the inner end; and the forehead is transversely wrinkled in the middle part, but not across the whole breadth, as when the eyebrows are raised in surprise.

5. When in low spirits, are the corners of the mouth depressed, and the inner corner of the eyebrows raised by that muscle which the French call the "Grief muscle"? (The eyebrow in this state becomes slightly oblique, with a little swelling at the inner end; and the forehead is transversely wrinkled in the middle part, but not across the whole breadth, as when the eyebrows are raised in surprise.)

6. When in good spirits do the eyes sparkle, with the skill a little wrinkled round and under them, and with the mouth a little drawn back at the corners?

6. When in good spirits do the eyes sparkle, with the skin a little wrinkled round and under them, and with the mouth a little drawn back at the corners?

6. When in good spirits do the eyes sparkle, with the skin a little wrinkled round and under them, and with the mouth a little drawn back at the corners?

7. When a man sneers or snarls at another, is the corner of the upper lip over the canine or eye tooth raised on the side facing the man whom he addresses?

7. When a man sneers or snarls at another, is the corner of the upper lip over the canine or eye tooth raised on the side facing the man whom he addresses?

7. When a man sneers or snarls at another, is the corner of the upper lip over the canine or eye tooth raised on the side facing the man whom he addresses?

8. Can a dogged or obstinate expression be recognized, which is chiefly shewn by the mouth being firmly closed, a lowering brow; and a slight frown?

8. Can a dogged or obstinate expression be recognized, which is chiefly shown by the mouth being firmly closed, a lowering brow and a slight frown?

8. Can a dogged or obstinate expression be recognized, which is chiefly shown by the mouth being firmly closed, a lowering brow, and a slight frown?

9. Is contempt expressed by a slight protrusion of the lips and by turning up the nose, with a slight expiration?

9. Is contempt expressed by a slight protrusion of the lips and by turning up the nose, and with a slight expiration?

9. Is contempt expressed by a slight protrusion of the lips and by turning up the nose, with a slight expiration, or by the closure of the eyes, or by other gestures?

10. Is disgust shewn by the lower lip being turned down, the upper lip slightly raised, with a sudden expiration, something like incipient vomiting, or like something spat out of the mouth?

10. Is disgust shown by the lower lip being turned down, the upper lip slightly raised, with a sudden expiration, something like incipient vomiting, or like something spit out of the mouth?

10. Is disgust shown by the lower lip being turned down, the upper lip slightly raised, with a sudden expiration, something like incipient vomiting, or like something spat out of the mouth?

11. Is extreme fear expressed in the same general manner as with Europeans?

11. Is extreme fear expressed in the same general manner as with Europeans?

11. Is extreme fear expressed in the same general manner as with Europeans?

12. Is laughter ever carried to such an extreme as to bring tears into the eyes?

12. Is laughter ever carried to such an extreme as to bring tears into the eyes?

12. Is laughter ever carried to such an extreme as to bring tears into the eyes?

13. When a man wishes to shew that he cannot prevent something being done, or cannot himself do something, does he shrug his shoulders, turn inwards his elbows, extend outwards his hands and open the palms; with the eyebrows raised?

13. When a man wishes to show that he cannot prevent something being done, or cannot himself do something, does he shrug his shoulders, turn inwards his elbows, extend outwards his hands and open the palms; with the eyebrows raised?

13. When a man wishes to show that he cannot prevent something being done, or cannot himself do something, does he shrug his shoulders, turn inwards his elbows, extend outwards his hands and open the palms, with the eyebrows raised and mouth somewhat opened?

14. Do the children when sulky, pout or greatly protrude the lips?

14. Do the children when sulky pout or greatly protrude the lips into a tubular form? Do they at the same time frown or utter any noise?

14. Do the children when sulky, pout or greatly protrude the lips?

15. Can guilty, or sly, or jealous expressions be recognized? though I know not how these can be defined.

15. Can guilty, or sly, or jealous expressions be recognized? though I know not how these can be defined.

15. Can guilty, or sly, or jealous expressions be recognized? though I know not how these can be defined.

16. As a sign to keep silent, is a gentle hiss uttered?

16. Is the head nodded vertically in affirmation, and shaken laterally in negation?

16. Is the head nodded vertically in affirmation, and shaken laterally in negation? or is the hand or finger so used?

17. Is the head nodded vertically in affirmation, and shaken laterally in negation?

 

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