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CUL-Dar84.2.157    abstract:    [1876][.02.24.after]   Barrington D `Phil Trans' 1773: 164
Secondly from the cowslip 16 plants raised, showing a regular transition from ordinary cowslip to the Claygate oxlip, even a little nearer to the caulescent primrose than the oxlip. — Of the 16, 10 very close to true cowlsip; 2 to Primula veris var. major — 4 to Primula veris var. intermedia. (I do not know that this is much opposed to Hybridisation view.) Conclusions: seeds of a cowslip can produce cowslips oxlips. — seeds of an oxlip can produce cowslips oxlips primroses. The transition from
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CUL-Dar84.2.157    abstract:    [1876][.02.24.after]   Barrington D `Phil Trans' 1773: 164
recorded described in Books. — So H.C. Watson is a hostile witness. — says the vars. by diligent search may be found wild, — may be raised by anybody, — may be seen in many gardens. — p. 147. Further Report of experiments on the cowslip oxlip by H.C. Watson. marked in garden an ordinary cowslip Claygate oxlip. (P. vulgaris var. intermedia of Lond. Cat.) growing near each other, got their seeds. — From Clay—gate oxlip raised 14 plants flowered scarcely 2 alike (some of them flowered in 1847
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CUL-DAR73.106-113    Abstract:    [Undated]   Godley; Newman; Henslow; Bromfield `Phytologist' 3: 180; 180; 651; 693   Text   Image
Darwin Online 106 Phytol. vol. 3. p. 180. Mr Godfrey gathered seed from common cowslip isolated in field 36 seedlings raised all came true. (Of course because parent left growing in its own pasture: this though so foolish as argument against variation, is rather good evidence of effect of garden on the production of vars.) p. 180. Mr Edward Newman having planted the Bardfield Oxlip = Primula Jacquinii without any particular precautions near other vars, raised 8 seedlings which came all
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CUL-DAR73.106-113    Abstract:    [Undated]   Godley; Newman; Henslow; Bromfield `Phytologist' 3: 180; 180; 651; 693   Text   Image
Dr Bromfield remarks the cowslip may be regarded as a contracted, so to speak concentrated form of the primrose. It seems proved that the seeds of the primrose are capable of producing cowslip every intermediate grade between these two, or in other words, all the puzzling vars. to which we give the name of oxlip. — also that roots of the primrose have been seen bearing both cowslips oxlips along with their own proper flowers, yet the tendency to metamorphosis wd appear to be very strongly
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CUL-DAR74.55-64,66-103    Abstract:    [Undated]   19 / [reference incomplete] `Horticultural Transactions'   Text   Image
much undulated as those of the parent so that Cryptogamic plants vary are hereditary like others. p. 358 Mr Gibbs has produced a great number of beautiful variations from the Cowslip; yet none of the specimens appeared to have lost the general character appearance of the Cowslip not running into the oxlip or Primrose, but some had become Hose in Hose . Henslow sowed Primrose?? not cowslip - No. V. p. 18 p. 378 Mr C. Strachan in his Account of the different varieties of the Onion says the [63v
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A505.2    Beagle Library:     Lyell, Charles. 1830. Principles of geology, being an attempt to explain the former changes of the earth's surface, by reference to causes now in operation. 3 vols. London: John Murray. vol. 2.   Text
effect of certain soils on the colours of the petals. In garden-mould or compost, the flowers are invariably red; in some kinds of bog-earth they are blue; and the same change is always produced by a particular sort of yellow loam. Linn eus was of opinion that the primrose, oxlip, cowslip, and polyanthus, were only varieties of the same species. The majority of modern botanists, on the contrary, consider them to be distinct, although some conceived that the oxlip might be a cross between the
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CUL-DAR73.78-81    Abstract:    [Undated]   `Phytologist' 1: 40, 95-96, 204, 296; Watson H.C; [Notices] `Phytologist' 2 1845: 218ff, 852-853; 463   Text   Image
this: what is wanted is to see what will come from either primrose cowslip when planted separate. — p. 296. Mr Brichan remarks that he thinks the most acute observer cd not distinguish by the leaves three species of Pyrola, viz. P. minor, media, rotundifolia. 1845. Vol. 2 p. 218. H. C. Watson Report of an experiment on the Cowslip Primrose. — seed, from Primula vulgaris var. intermedia of London Catalogue; distributed by Bot. Soc as oxlip No 2. (this shows it is different from common oxlip
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CUL-DAR73.78-81    Abstract:    [Undated]   `Phytologist' 1: 40, 95-96, 204, 296; Watson H.C; [Notices] `Phytologist' 2 1845: 218ff, 852-853; 463   Text   Image
p. 853. sowed seeds of cowslip 26 seedlings, as far as can be ascertained all show leaves of cowslip but the three flowery examples differ considerably in their coralles from the wild cowslip — what are a third or a half-way towards those of the jasmine in size, form colour — they are intermediate between cowslip oxlip no. 2 (see above) — these three seedlings resemble each other in their flowers. — 8
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CUL-DAR73.78-81    Abstract:    [Undated]   `Phytologist' 1: 40, 95-96, 204, 296; Watson H.C; [Notices] `Phytologist' 2 1845: 218ff, 852-853; 463   Text   Image
characteristic of species — very slight differences being overlooked from analogy.) p. 204. several notices unimportant on cowslip primrose; the only tolerable theory except variation is that the oxlip is a hybrid between primrose cowslip, but the great variation in the first generation, some going back to parent form is opposed to 7
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F1583    Book:     Stauffer, R. C. ed. 1975. Charles Darwin's Natural Selection; being the second part of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.   Text   Image   PDF
Names of seedlings produced Seed from P. veris produced (cowslip) Seed from P. veris, var. major produced (oxlip) Seed from P. vulgaris an intermedia produced (Claygate oxlip)1 Seed from P. vulgaris produced (primrose) Seed from P. Jacquinii = P. elatior of Jacq. Produced (Bardfield oxlip) P. veris (common cowslip) 412 9 P. veris var. major of Lond. 30 21 Cat. (oxlip) (3 being hose-in-hose) P. veris approaching Polyanthus (oxlip) (some hose-in- hose) some dark-coloured 13 20 P. vulgaris var
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F1583    Book:     Stauffer, R. C. ed. 1975. Charles Darwin's Natural Selection; being the second part of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.   Text   Image   PDF
took the seed of some cowslips growing in a shady part of his garden, raised seedlings which varied considerably, approaching more or less closely to certain wild oxlips which Prof Henslow had observed ; one was a perfect primrose . These experiments were not thought sufficient;1 that most critical observer Mr. H. C. Watson raised at several periods many seedlings, from the cowslip, (P. veris), from a Claygate oxlip, from an oxlip, truly intermediate in most points, but with/72/the primrose
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F1583    Book:     Stauffer, R. C. ed. 1975. Charles Darwin's Natural Selection; being the second part of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.   Text   Image   PDF
between P. veris vulgaris grows by thousands in places within many leagues of which the P. vulgaris is absolutely unknown .1 so it must be with the oxlip from its Northern range in Russia; so with the oxlip (or P. Jacquinii) of Bardfield, round which place the primrose does not occur for some miles .2 Lastly, I may venture to say that I speak after a careful study of all well ascertained facts on Hybridism, there is no known instance of one species fertilised by the pollen of another species
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F1583    Book:     Stauffer, R. C. ed. 1975. Charles Darwin's Natural Selection; being the second part of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.   Text   Image   PDF
intermediate oxlip forms the cowslip, the Bardfield oxlip. It is, perhaps, the most probable view that the common oxlips are varieties of the cowslip, easily reverting back towards the primrose; some of the forms having been complicated by crosses with either the primrose or cowslip. I have entered into this case with great detail because, considering the structure habitat, range in height latitude, apparent infertility of the two forms, the many careful experiments made on them, this seems the
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F1583    Book:     Stauffer, R. C. ed. 1975. Charles Darwin's Natural Selection; being the second part of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.   Text   Image   PDF
single hybrid between these two forms, whence he concludes that they are distinct: Herbert succeeded with Anagallis collina; if Gaertner had shown that he could artificially fertilise either variety with its own pollen one would then have had more confidence in his result. The most interesting case on record is that of the Primrose, common oxlip Bardfield oxlip cowslip (Primula vulgaris elatior veris). These plants differ, as everyone knows, in their flowers foliage habit; they all three differ
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F1583    Book:     Stauffer, R. C. ed. 1975. Charles Darwin's Natural Selection; being the second part of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.   Text   Image   PDF
, the lessened fertility has been thus caused; if we add to these cases, those of the primrose, cowslip, oxlip, of the anagallis all leguminous plants, it cannot possibly be any longer pretended that we have evidence worth anything on the infertility of a vast number of related forms, which are universally acknowledged to be distinct species, but which when crossed are in some degree fertile together. As for myself I believe in the very general infertility of even closely related species when
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F1583    Book:     Stauffer, R. C. ed. 1975. Charles Darwin's Natural Selection; being the second part of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.   Text   Image   PDF
, 106, 134 n 1, 135 Fleeting variations not varieties, 104, 137, 159, 160 Primrose and oxlip ascend to different heights, 128 n 7 Range and abundance of species, 142 table Varieties of species from large and small genera, 150 table, 152 table, 163, 169; Smaller genera of Labiatae have more varieties, 156 n 1 Bosse, Species of Passiflora more easily fertilised by pollen of allied species, 400 n 2 Bouches, M. C. Iris germanica converted to allied species, 127 Bourgoing, Jean Francois de Annual
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F1583    Book:     Stauffer, R. C. ed. 1975. Charles Darwin's Natural Selection; being the second part of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.   Text   Image   PDF
is indigenous : Messrs. Bentham Hooker inform me that in the East, the primrose is found only in the Caucasus; that the oxlip ranges from the Caucasus to about the latitude of Moscow the Cowslip from the Caucasus to four degrees northwards to the latitude of St. Petersburgh.1 Lastly Gaertner laboriously experimentised on these several forms during four years, actually castrated crossed no less than 170 flowers, yet strange to say he only twice succeeded in getting any good yet scanty seed2
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F1583    Book:     Stauffer, R. C. ed. 1975. Charles Darwin's Natural Selection; being the second part of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.   Text   Image   PDF
Kolreuter is in error, concludes that these are true species. I need not here do more than to recall to mind that Gaertner after the most persevering effort concluded that, Primula veris, acaulis, elatior, (the primrose, cowslip oxlip) are good distinct species, from being highly infertile one with another; that Anagallis arvensis coerulae, tried on 19 flowers were absolutely sterile! I must believe that these experiments failed from causes analogous with those which prevented his entire success
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F1583    Book:     Stauffer, R. C. ed. 1975. Charles Darwin's Natural Selection; being the second part of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.   Text   Image   PDF
.), and P. elatior Jacq.; and on the hybrid nature of the common Oxlip. With Supplementary remarks on naturally produced hybrids in the genus Verbascum.' Linn. Soc. Lond. J. 10, Bot. (1868), 437 54. IV, introd., note 1.] ed. The Zoology of the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle under the command of Captain Fitzroy, R.N., during the years 1832 to 1836. Published with the approval of the Lords Commissioners of her Majesty's Treasury. Edited and superintended by Charles Darwin, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., Sec. G.S
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F1583    Book:     Stauffer, R. C. ed. 1975. Charles Darwin's Natural Selection; being the second part of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.   Text   Image   PDF
their Management. London, 1851. VI, 44. IX, 88 a. Ornamental and Domestic Poultry: their history and management. London, 1848. IX, 79. Dobrizhoffer, Martin. An Account of the Abipones, an Equestrian People of Paraguay. 3 vols., London, 1822. III, 1. x, 38. Don, David. 'An Account of the Indian Species of Juncus and Luzula.' Linn. Soc. Lond. Trans., 18 (1841), 317 26. VII, 8. Doubleday, Edward. Verbal Report on Bardfield Oxlip etc. to Botanical Society of London. Ann. Mag. of Nat. Hist., 9 (1842
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F1583    Book:     Stauffer, R. C. ed. 1975. Charles Darwin's Natural Selection; being the second part of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.   Text   Image   PDF
caerulea.' Mag. Nat. Hist., 3 (1830), 537 8.IV, 67. 'On the Specific Identity of the Primrose, Oxlip, Cowslip, and Polyanthus,' Mag. Nat. Hist., 3 (1830), 406 9. IV, 71. 'On the Triticoidal Forms of Aegilops and on the Specific Identity of Centaurea nigra and C. nigrescens.' Brit. Ass. Advanc. Sci. Rep. for 1856, (1857), part 2, pp. 87 8. VI, 47. 'Retrospective criticism on the specific Identity of Anagallis arvensis and caerulea.' Mag. Nat. Hist., IV, 67.5 (1832), 493 4. Herbert, Thomas. Some Yeares
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F1583    Book:     Stauffer, R. C. ed. 1975. Charles Darwin's Natural Selection; being the second part of his big species book written from 1856 to 1858. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.   Text   Image   PDF
variation, 284 Polygleae, opposite and alternate leaves on same plant,325 Polygonaceae; Varieties in large and small genera, 153 table, Watson on classification, 104, 126 Pompilus, smooth sting, 381 n 2 Ponera (ant), blind, 368 Prepotency: 284, 417, 450, 456 8; Confounded with sex, 455; Decided types usually sterile, 417 Primula: Conversion, 96, 133; Intermediate forms, 130 1; Similarities and differences between P. veris (cowslip), P. vulgaris (primrose) and P. elatior (oxlip), 128 [page] 680
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CUL-DAR91.107-109    Note:    1866--1874   'a sketch of the principal events in my life' (2)   Text   Image
(3 Bot Works Continued. On the Character and hybrid-like nature of the offspring from the illegitimate offspring of dimorphic and trimorphic plants: Journal of Linn. Soc. Vol 10 1867 (Bot) p 393 to 437. On the specific difference between Primula Veris and Vulgaris and on the hybrid nature of the common Oxlip: Journal of Linn. Soc. Vol 10 1867 (Bot) p 437 to 454 notes on the Fertilization of Orchids, Annals Magazine of Natural History Sept. 1869. Continued in CUL-DAR91.110-11
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F1744    Periodical contribution:     Darwin, C. R. 1868. On the specific difference between Primula veris, Brit. Fl. (var. officinalis, of Linn.), P. vulgaris, Brit. Fl. (var. acaulis, Linn.) and P. elatior, Jacq.; and on the hybrid nature of the common Oxlip. With supplementary remarks on naturally-produced Hybrids in the genus Verbascum. [Read 19 March] Journal of the Linnean Society of London (Botany) 10: 437-454.   Text   Image   PDF
short-styled oxlip: 8 flowers fertilized, produced not one capsule. Long-styled cowslip, by pollen of short-styled oxlip: 8 flowers fertilized, produced one capsule, containing 26 seeds. Long-styled cowslip, by pollen of long-styled oxlip: 8 flowers fertilized, produced three capsules, containing 5, 6, and 14 seeds. Average 8.3. Short-styled cowslip, by pollen of long-styled oxlip: 8 flowers fertilized, produced eight capsules, containing 58, 38, 31, 44, 23, 26, 37, and 66 seeds. Average 40.4
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F1744    Periodical contribution:     Darwin, C. R. 1868. On the specific difference between Primula veris, Brit. Fl. (var. officinalis, of Linn.), P. vulgaris, Brit. Fl. (var. acaulis, Linn.) and P. elatior, Jacq.; and on the hybrid nature of the common Oxlip. With supplementary remarks on naturally-produced Hybrids in the genus Verbascum. [Read 19 March] Journal of the Linnean Society of London (Botany) 10: 437-454.   Text   Image   PDF
. Illegitimate union. Legitimate union. Short-styled oxlip, by pollen of short-styled oxlip: 20 flowers fertilized, did not produce one capsule. Short-styled oxlip, by pollen of long-styled oxlip: 10 flowers fertilized, did not produce one capsule. Long-styled oxlip, by pollen of long-styled oxlip: 24 flowers fertilized, produced five capsules, containing 6, 10, 20, 8, and 14 seeds. Average 11.6. Long-styled oxlip, by pollen of short-styled oxlip: 10 flowers fertilized, did not produce one capsule
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F1744    Periodical contribution:     Darwin, C. R. 1868. On the specific difference between Primula veris, Brit. Fl. (var. officinalis, of Linn.), P. vulgaris, Brit. Fl. (var. acaulis, Linn.) and P. elatior, Jacq.; and on the hybrid nature of the common Oxlip. With supplementary remarks on naturally-produced Hybrids in the genus Verbascum. [Read 19 March] Journal of the Linnean Society of London (Botany) 10: 437-454.   Text   Image   PDF
We will first consider the results, as shown in the two left-hand compartments in the five Tables, obtained from the short-styled Oxlip when crossed with the long-styled Oxlip, and when crossed with both forms of the Cowslip and Primrose. I may premise that the pollen of two of the short-styled Oxlips consisted of nothing but minute aborted whitish cells; but in the third plant about one-fifth of the grains appeared in a sound condition. Hence it is not surprising that neither the short-styled
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F1744    Periodical contribution:     Darwin, C. R. 1868. On the specific difference between Primula veris, Brit. Fl. (var. officinalis, of Linn.), P. vulgaris, Brit. Fl. (var. acaulis, Linn.) and P. elatior, Jacq.; and on the hybrid nature of the common Oxlip. With supplementary remarks on naturally-produced Hybrids in the genus Verbascum. [Read 19 March] Journal of the Linnean Society of London (Botany) 10: 437-454.   Text   Image   PDF
, Brit. Fl. (var. acaulis, Linn.), and P. elatior, Jacq.; and on the Hybrid Nature of the common Oxlip. With Supplementary Remarks on naturally-produced Hybrids in the genus Verbascum. By CHARLES DARWIN, M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S., c.1 [Read March 19, 1868.] THE claim of the above three forms (namely, the common Cowslip, Primrose, and Bardfield Oxlip) to be ranked as distinct species has been discussed at greater length than that of almost any other plants. Linnæus considered them varieties, as do some
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F1744    Periodical contribution:     Darwin, C. R. 1868. On the specific difference between Primula veris, Brit. Fl. (var. officinalis, of Linn.), P. vulgaris, Brit. Fl. (var. acaulis, Linn.) and P. elatior, Jacq.; and on the hybrid nature of the common Oxlip. With supplementary remarks on naturally-produced Hybrids in the genus Verbascum. [Read 19 March] Journal of the Linnean Society of London (Botany) 10: 437-454.   Text   Image   PDF
be shown that the common wild Oxlip, which stands exactly between the Cowslip and Primrose, resembles in sterility and other essential respects a hybrid plant, and if it can further be shown that the Oxlip, though in a high degree sterile, can be fertilized by the pure parent species, thus giving rise to still finer gradational links, then the presence of such forms in a state of nature ceases to be an argument of any weight in favour of the Cowslip and Primrose being varieties, and becomes, in
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F1744    Periodical contribution:     Darwin, C. R. 1868. On the specific difference between Primula veris, Brit. Fl. (var. officinalis, of Linn.), P. vulgaris, Brit. Fl. (var. acaulis, Linn.) and P. elatior, Jacq.; and on the hybrid nature of the common Oxlip. With supplementary remarks on naturally-produced Hybrids in the genus Verbascum. [Read 19 March] Journal of the Linnean Society of London (Botany) 10: 437-454.   Text   Image   PDF
tall thick scape, bearing many flowers, like that of the parent Oxlip, was thrown up. The third plant likewise produced at first only single-flowered scapes, with the flowers rather small and of a darker yellow; but it perished early; otherwise it would probably have thrown up an umbel. The second plant also died in September; and the first plant, though all three grew under very favourable conditions, looked very sickly. Hence we may infer that seedlings from a self-fertilized Oxlip would not
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F1744    Periodical contribution:     Darwin, C. R. 1868. On the specific difference between Primula veris, Brit. Fl. (var. officinalis, of Linn.), P. vulgaris, Brit. Fl. (var. acaulis, Linn.) and P. elatior, Jacq.; and on the hybrid nature of the common Oxlip. With supplementary remarks on naturally-produced Hybrids in the genus Verbascum. [Read 19 March] Journal of the Linnean Society of London (Botany) 10: 437-454.   Text   Image   PDF
intercrossed, as there is no trustworthy evidence that either plant, when uncrossed, has given birth to the other plant or to any intermediate form, and as the intermediate forms which are often found in a state of nature have been shown to be more or less sterile hybrids of the first or second generation, we must for the future look at the Cowslip and Primrose as good and true species. PRIMULA ELATIOR, Jacq., or Bardfield Oxlip. This Primula is found in England only in two or three of the
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F1744    Periodical contribution:     Darwin, C. R. 1868. On the specific difference between Primula veris, Brit. Fl. (var. officinalis, of Linn.), P. vulgaris, Brit. Fl. (var. acaulis, Linn.) and P. elatior, Jacq.; and on the hybrid nature of the common Oxlip. With supplementary remarks on naturally-produced Hybrids in the genus Verbascum. [Read 19 March] Journal of the Linnean Society of London (Botany) 10: 437-454.   Text   Image   PDF
ascertain whether the Bardfield oxlip, when crossed with the Cowslip and Primrose, behaved like a distinct species; for if it can be clearly proved not to be a hybrid, and if the Cowslip and Primrose are specifically distinct, I presume that no one will any longer doubt that the P. elatior is likewise distinct. The following Table shows the fertility of the four unions between the two forms of this dimorphic species:— Table VI. Primula elatior or Bardfield Oxlip. Nature of union. Number of
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F1744    Periodical contribution:     Darwin, C. R. 1868. On the specific difference between Primula veris, Brit. Fl. (var. officinalis, of Linn.), P. vulgaris, Brit. Fl. (var. acaulis, Linn.) and P. elatior, Jacq.; and on the hybrid nature of the common Oxlip. With supplementary remarks on naturally-produced Hybrids in the genus Verbascum. [Read 19 March] Journal of the Linnean Society of London (Botany) 10: 437-454.   Text   Image   PDF
in the third plant a large majority of the grains, were in an aborted condition, whilst in the short-styled P. elatior I could not detect a single bad grain. It may be seen in Table V. that eight long-styled flowers of the Primrose, fertilized by pollen from the long-styled common Oxlip, produced eight capsules, containing, however, only a low average of seeds; but the same number of flowers of the Primrose similarly fertilized by the long-styled Bardfield Oxlip produced only a single capsule
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F1744    Periodical contribution:     Darwin, C. R. 1868. On the specific difference between Primula veris, Brit. Fl. (var. officinalis, of Linn.), P. vulgaris, Brit. Fl. (var. acaulis, Linn.) and P. elatior, Jacq.; and on the hybrid nature of the common Oxlip. With supplementary remarks on naturally-produced Hybrids in the genus Verbascum. [Read 19 March] Journal of the Linnean Society of London (Botany) 10: 437-454.   Text   Image   PDF
Surrey found that twenty-nine Oxlips which grew in the neighbourhood of his house consisted of thirteen long-styled and sixteen short-styled plants; now, if the parent plants had been illegitimately united, either the long- or short-styled form would have greatly preponderated in number. The case of the Oxlip is interesting; for hardly any other instance is known of a hybrid spontaneously arising in such large numbers over so wide an extent of country. The common Oxlip (not the P. elatior of
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A2472    Review:     Anon. 1868. [Review of Variation]. Mr. Darwin's recent researches. Popular Science Review, 7: 422.   Text
refer our  readers to the Linnean Society's Journal (Botany, vol. x.) for further information. In one of  the papers – On the specific Difference between Primula veris, P. vulgaris, and P. elatior, and on the hybrid Nature of the common Oxlip –Mr. Darwin proves, as we think  satisfactorily, that the three first forms are specifically distinct, and that the oxlip is merely a  hybrid. The results of the different crossing experiments are so lucidly tabulated, that the  evidence in favour of the
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F1744    Periodical contribution:     Darwin, C. R. 1868. On the specific difference between Primula veris, Brit. Fl. (var. officinalis, of Linn.), P. vulgaris, Brit. Fl. (var. acaulis, Linn.) and P. elatior, Jacq.; and on the hybrid nature of the common Oxlip. With supplementary remarks on naturally-produced Hybrids in the genus Verbascum. [Read 19 March] Journal of the Linnean Society of London (Botany) 10: 437-454.   Text   Image   PDF
neighbouring species. Mr. H. C. Watson, a critical and most careful observer, made many experiments by sowing the seeds of Cowslips and of various kinds of Oxlips, and arrived at the following conclusion†, namely, that seeds of a Cowslip can produce Cowslips and Oxlips, and that seeds of an Oxlip can produce Cowslips, Oxlips, and Primroses. This conclusion harmonizes perfectly with the view that in all cases, when such results have been obtained, the unprotected Cowslips have been crossed by Primroses, and
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F1744    Periodical contribution:     Darwin, C. R. 1868. On the specific difference between Primula veris, Brit. Fl. (var. officinalis, of Linn.), P. vulgaris, Brit. Fl. (var. acaulis, Linn.) and P. elatior, Jacq.; and on the hybrid nature of the common Oxlip. With supplementary remarks on naturally-produced Hybrids in the genus Verbascum. [Read 19 March] Journal of the Linnean Society of London (Botany) 10: 437-454.   Text   Image   PDF
much, an almost perfect series of forms connecting the two parent species, though these are widely distinct, could easily have been selected. This case, like that of the common Oxlip, shows that botanists ought to be cautious in inferring the specific identity of two forms from the presence of intermediate gradations; nor in the many cases in which hybrids are moderately fertile would it be easy to detect a slight degree of sterility in plants growing in a state of nature and liable to be
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F1742    Periodical contribution:     Darwin, C. R. 1868. On the character and hybrid-like nature of the offspring from the illegitimate unions of dimorphic and trimorphic plants. [Read 20 February] Journal of the Linnean Society of London (Botany) 10: 393-437.   Text   Image   PDF
reversion, namely, the small size and wild aspect of their flowers. Now I have elsewhere‡ given abundant evidence showing that the offspring of crossed species and varieties are eminently liable to reversion. Hence in the cases in which illegitimate birth appears to have been the exciting cause of reversion, illegitimacy has acted like hybridization. The parallelism in this particular instance is close; in a future paper I shall show that the common Oxlip is a hybrid between P. veris and vulgaris
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F1277    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1877. The different forms of flowers on plants of the same species. London: John Murray.   Text   Image   PDF
forms of the common Oxlip. Illegitimate union. Legitimate union. Illegitimate union. Legitimate union. Short-styled oxlip, by pollen of short-styled oxlip: 10 flowers fertilised, did not produce one capsule. Short-styled oxlip, by pollen of long-styled oxlip: 10 flowers fertilised, did not produce one capsule. Long-styled oxlip, by its own pollen: 24 flowers fertilised, produced five capsules, containing 6, 10, 20, 8, and 14 seeds. Average 11 6. Long-styled oxlip, by pollen of short-styled oxlip
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F1297    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1877. Die verschiedenen Blüthenformen an Pflanzen der nämlichen Art. Translated by J. V. Carus. Stuttgart: Schweizerbart.   Text   Image   PDF
D, 158. Öxlip, uctur und Fund i Wirkungen - R'it \ um. 104. Anui. r, 161 : bei legitimer und Nie i; 0 Zahl [page break
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F1277    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1877. The different forms of flowers on plants of the same species. London: John Murray.   Text   Image   PDF
, by pollen of short-styled oxlip: 8 flowers fertilised, produced not one capsule. Long-styled cowslip, by pollen of short-styled oxlip: 8 flowers fertilised, produced one capsule, containing 26 seeds. Long-styled cowslip, by pollen of long-styled oxlip: 8 flowers fertilised, produced three capsules, containing 5, 6, and 14 seeds. Average 8 3. Short-styled cowslip, by pollen of long-styled oxlip: 8 flowers fertilised, produced eight capsules, containing 58, 38, 31, 44, 23, 26, 37, and 66 seeds
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F1297    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1877. Die verschiedenen Blüthenformen an Pflanzen der nämlichen Art. Translated by J. V. Carus. Stuttgart: Schweizerbart.   Text   Image   PDF
Wii Anzahl ron KapseL......1 Srnern, welche durch Kreuzung beider Formen des* Oxlip in legitimer and illegitimer \\ ider and mil irl wurden. Ich will voraus- schicken, dasz der Pollen von zwei der kurzgriffeligen Oxlips aus liehen Zellen bestand: aber in der dritten kurzgri Ihr ein Fünfti in. Es isl daher nicht uberr das kurzgriffeli » Oxlip ein eil körn producirfa Pollen befruchte! wurden, i damit befruchtet wurden; wo r legitim damil kurzgriffeligen Oxlips. eh in einem - wenn sie von den La
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F1277    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1877. The different forms of flowers on plants of the same species. London: John Murray.   Text   Image   PDF
We see in these five tables the number of capsules and of seeds produced, by crossing both forms of the oxlip in a legitimate and illegitimate manner with one another, and with the two forms of the primrose and cowslip. I may premise that the pollen of two of the short-styled oxlips consisted of nothing but minute aborted whitish cells; but in the third short-styled plant about one-fifth of the grains appeared in a sound condition. Hence it is not surprising that neither the short-styled nor
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F1277    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1877. The different forms of flowers on plants of the same species. London: John Murray.   Text   Image   PDF
hereafter see good reason to believe. The case of the oxlip is interesting; for hardly any other instance is known of a hybrid spontaneously arising in such large numbers over so wide an extent of country. The common oxlip (not the P. elatior of Jacq.) is found almost everywhere throughout England, where both cowslips and primroses grow. In some districts, as I have seen near Hartfield in Sussex and in parts of Surrey, specimens may be found on the borders of almost every field and small wood
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F1297    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1877. Die verschiedenen Blüthenformen an Pflanzen der nämlichen Art. Translated by J. V. Carus. Stuttgart: Schweizerbart.   Text   Image   PDF
, ein Argume welchem Gewicht zu Gunsten der Ansicht zu sein, das/ /'. veris und ietäten sind und wird factisch ein Argument für [einung. Der hybride Ursprung einer Pflanze im Naturzustande kann durch vier Proben erkannt werden: erstens dasz Bie nur d ide Elternspeci.....sistiren oder neuerdings existirt haben; und dies tteln kann, bei dem Oxlip; a '.. welche, w ii larsteilt, darf nicht mit dem gemeinen Oxlip vei ' - die vermeintliche hybride Pflanze im Character nahezu intern a den zwei elterlichi
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F1277    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1877. The different forms of flowers on plants of the same species. London: John Murray.   Text   Image   PDF
where. Owing to the frequency of this intermediate hybrid form, and to the existence of the Bardfield oxlip (P. elatior), which resembles to a certain extent the common oxlip, the claim of the three forms to rank as distinct species has been discussed oftener and at greater length than that of almost any other plant. Linn us considered P. veris, vulgaris and elatior to be varieties of the same species, as do some distinguished botanists at the present day; whilst others who have carefully
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F1277    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1877. The different forms of flowers on plants of the same species. London: John Murray.   Text   Image   PDF
somewhat smaller and more deeply coloured than those of the common primrose. From what I have myself observed with oxlips, I cannot doubt that this plant was an oxlip in a highly variable condition, almost like that of the famous Cytisus adami. This presumed oxlip was propagated by offsets, which were planted in different parts of the garden; and if Prof. Henslow took by mistake seeds from one of these plants, especially if it had been crossed by a primrose, the result would be quite intelligible
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F1277    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1877. The different forms of flowers on plants of the same species. London: John Murray.   Text   Image   PDF
species exist or have recently existed; and this holds good, as far as I can discover, with the oxlip; but the P. elatior of Jacq., which, as we shall presently see, constitutes a distinct species, must not be confounded with the common oxlip. Secondly, by the supposed hybrid plant being nearly intermediate in character between the two parent-species, and especially by its resembling hybrids artificially made between the same two species. Now the oxlip is intermediate in character, and
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F1277    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1877. The different forms of flowers on plants of the same species. London: John Murray.   Text   Image   PDF
illegitimately fertilising, pure cowslips and primroses. The four corresponding legitimate unions, however, were moderately fertile, and one (viz. that between a short-styled cowslip and the long-styled oxlip in Table 17) was nearly as fertile as if both parents had been pure. A short-styled primrose legitimately fertilised by the long-styled oxlip (Table 18) also yielded a moderately good average, namely 48 7 seeds; but if this short-styled primrose had been fertilised by a long-styled
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F1277    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1877. The different forms of flowers on plants of the same species. London: John Murray.   Text   Image   PDF
oxlip is a hybrid between the primrose and cowslip, it is not surprising that eight long-styled flowers of the primrose, fertilised by pollen from the long-styled common oxlip, produced eight capsules (Table 18), containing, however, only a low average of seeds; whilst the same number of flowers of the primrose, similarly fertilised by the long-styled Bardfield oxlip, produced only a single capsule; this latter plant being an altogether distinct species from the primrose. Plants of P. elatior
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F1297    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1877. Die verschiedenen Blüthenformen an Pflanzen der nämlichen Art. Translated by J. V. Carus. Stuttgart: Schweizerbart.   Text   Image   PDF
Pflanze 'du Oxlip in einem bedeutend variablen Zustande war, beinahe dem des berühmten i ermutb- liche Oxlip war durch Senker fortgepflanzt worden, welche en Stellen des Gartens gepflanzt waren: und wenn Prol low aus Versehen Pflanzen von einigen dieser Pflanzen nahm, ders we mit P. vulgaris gekreuzt waren, so würde das schwieriger zu verstehen: Dr. Eerberi ' zog aus dem Samen einer hoch cultivirten rothblühenden P. veris Pflanzen von /. Arten Oxlips und eine /'. vulgaris. Wenn dieser Fall richtig
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