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F376    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1860. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 2d edition, second issue.   Text   Image   PDF
successive stage of modification and improvement, all the individuals of each variety will have descended from a single parent. But in the majority of cases, namely, with all organisms which habitually unite for each birth, or which often intercross, I believe that during the slow process of modification the individuals of the species will have been kept nearly uniform by intercrossing; so that many individuals will have gone on simultaneously changing, and the whole amount of modification
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F380    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1860. The origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. New York: D. Appleton. New edition, revised and augmented.   Text   Image   PDF
the bear genus. The whole case is preposterous; for where there has been close descent in common, there will certainly be close resemblance or affinity. As descent has universally been used in classing together the individuals of the same species, though the males and females and larv are sometimes extremely different; and as it has been used in classing varieties which have undergone a certain, and sometimes a considerable amount of modification, may not this same element of descent have been
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F380    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1860. The origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. New York: D. Appleton. New edition, revised and augmented.   Text   Image   PDF
time with a pre-existing closely allied species. And I now know from correspondence, that this coincidence he attributes to generation with modification. The previous remarks on single and multiple centres of creation do not directly bear on another allied question, namely whether all the individuals of the same species have descended from a single pair, or single hermaphrodite, or whether, as some authors suppose, from many individuals simultaneously created. With those organic beings which
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F376    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1860. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 2d edition, second issue.   Text   Image   PDF
, then we can understand, on the theory of descent with modification, most of the great leading facts in Distribution. We can see why there should be so striking a parallelism in the distribution of organic beings throughout space, and in their geological succession throughout time; for in both cases the beings have been connected by the bond of ordinary generation, and the means of [page] 47
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F380    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1860. The origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. New York: D. Appleton. New edition, revised and augmented.   Text   Image   PDF
there has been during the long course of ages much migration from one part of the world to another, owing to former climatal and geographical changes, and to the many occasional and unknown means of dispersal, then we can understand, on the theory of descent with modification, most of the great leading facts in Distribution. We can see why there should be so striking a parallelism in the distribution of organic beings throughout space, and in their geological succession throughout time; for in
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F380    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1860. The origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. New York: D. Appleton. New edition, revised and augmented.   Text   Image   PDF
support the theory of descent with modification. New species have come on the stage slowly and at successive intervals; and the amount of change, after equal intervals of time, is widely different in different groups. The extinction of species and of whole groups of species, which has played so conspicuous a part in the history of the organic world, almost inevitably follows on the principle of natural selection; for old forms will be supplanted by new and improved forms. Neither single
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F376    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1860. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 2d edition, second issue.   Text   Image   PDF
structure. Hence all the intermediate forms between the earlier and later states, that is between the less and more improved state of a species, as well as the original parent-species itself, will generally tend to become extinct. So it probably will be with many whole collateral lines of descent, which will be conquered by later and improved lines of descent. If, however, the G [page] 12
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F376    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1860. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 2d edition, second issue.   Text   Image   PDF
of bones being the same in the hand of a man, wing of a bat, fin of the porpoise, and leg of the horse,—the same number of vertebræ forming the neck of the giraffe and of the elephant,—and innumerable other such facts, at once explain themselves on the theory of descent with slow and slight successive modifications. The similarity of pattern in the wing and leg of a bat, though used for such different purpose,—in the jaws and legs of a crab,—in the petals, stamens, and pistils of a flower, is
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F376    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1860. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 2d edition, second issue.   Text   Image   PDF
seem to me simply to follow on the theory of descent with modification through natural selection. We can thus understand how it is that new species come in slowly and successively; how species of different classes do not necessarily change together, or at the same rate, or in the same degree; yet in the long run that all undergo modification to some extent. The extinction of old forms is the almost inevitable consequence of the production of new forms. We can understand why when a species has
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F376    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1860. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 2d edition, second issue.   Text   Image   PDF
judgment they do not overthrow the theory of descent from a few created forms with subsequent modification. Now let us turn to the other side of the argument. Under domestication we see much variability. This seems to be mainly due to the reproductive system being eminently susceptible to changes in the conditions of life; so that this system, when not rendered impotent, fails to reproduce offspring exactly like the parent-form. Variability is governed by many complex laws,—by correlation of growth
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F380    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1860. The origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. New York: D. Appleton. New edition, revised and augmented.   Text   Image   PDF
; and this by the concurrent evidence of our best pal ontologists seems frequently to be the case. Thus, on the theory of descent with modification, the main facts with respect to the mutual affinities of the extinct forms of life to each other and to living forms, seem to me explained in a satisfactory manner. And they are wholly inexplicable on any other view. On this same theory, it is evident that the fauna of any great period in the earth's history will be intermediate in general character
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F380    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1860. The origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. New York: D. Appleton. New edition, revised and augmented.   Text   Image   PDF
will be with many whole collateral lines of descent, which will be conquered by later and improved lines of descent. If, however, the modified offspring of a species get into some distinct country, or become quickly adapted to some quite new station, in which child and parent do not come into competition, both may continue to exist. If then our diagram be assumed to represent a considerable amount of modification, species (A) and all the earlier varieties will have become extinct, having been
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F376    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1860. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 2d edition, second issue.   Text   Image   PDF
existence of groups subordinate to groups, is the same with varieties as with species, namely, closeness of descent with various degrees of modification. Nearly the same rules are followed in classifying varieties, as with species. Authors have insisted on the necessity of classing varieties on a natural instead of an artificial system; we are cautioned, for instance, not to class two varieties of the pine-apple together, merely because their fruit, though the most important part, happens to be nearly
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F376    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1860. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 2d edition, second issue.   Text   Image   PDF
Batrachians, the older Fish, the older Cephalopods, and the eocene Mammals, with the more recent members of the same classes, we must admit that there is some truth in the remark. Let us see how far these several facts and inferences accord with the theory of descent with modification. As the subject is somewhat complex, I must request the reader to turn to the diagram in the fourth chapter. We may suppose that the numbered letters represent genera, and the dotted lines diverging from them the
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F376    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1860. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 2d edition, second issue.   Text   Image   PDF
CHAPTER VI. DIFFICULTIES ON THEORY. Difficulties on the theory of descent with modification — Transitions — Absence or rarity of transitional varieties — Transitions in habits of life — Diversified habits in the same species — Species with habits widely different from those of their allies — Organs of extreme perfection — Means of transition — Cases of difficulty — Natura non facit saltum — Organs of small importance — Organs not in all cases absolutely perfect — The law of Unity of Type and
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F376    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1860. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 2d edition, second issue.   Text   Image   PDF
existence of several quite distinct species, belonging to genera exclusively confined to the south, at these and other distant points of the southern hemisphere, is, on my theory of descent with modification, a far more remarkable case of difficulty. For some of these species are so distinct, that we cannot suppose that there has been time since the commencement of the Glacial period for their migration, and for their subsequent modification to the necessary degree. The facts seem to me to
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F376    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1860. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 2d edition, second issue.   Text   Image   PDF
complex laws in their degrees and kinds of resemblance to their parents,—in being absorbed into each other by successive crosses, and in other such points,—as do the crossed offspring of acknowledged varieties. On the other hand, these would be strange facts if species have been independently created, and varieties have been produced by secondary laws. If we admit that the geological record is imperfect in an extreme degree, then such facts as the record gives, support the theory of descent with
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F380    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1860. The origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. New York: D. Appleton. New edition, revised and augmented.   Text   Image   PDF
CHAPTER VI. DIFFICULTIES ON THEORY. Difficulties on the theory of descent with modification Transitions Absence or rarity of transitional varieties Transitions in habits of life Diversified habits in the same species Species with habits widely different from those of their allies Organs of extreme perfection- Means of transition Cases of difficulty Natura non facit saltum Organs of small importance Organs not in all cases absolutely perfect The law of Unity of Type and of the Conditions of
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F380    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1860. The origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. New York: D. Appleton. New edition, revised and augmented.   Text   Image   PDF
species, belonging to genera exclusively confined to the south, at these and other distant points of the southern hemisphere, is, on my theory of descent with modification, a far more remarkable case of difficulty. For some of these species are so distinct, that we cannot suppose that there has been time since the commencement of the Glacial period for their migration, and for their subsequent modification to the necessary degree. The facts seem to me to indicate that peculiar and very
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F376    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1860. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 2d edition, second issue.   Text   Image   PDF
CHAPTER XIII. MUTUAL AFFINITIES OF ORGANIC BEINGS: MORPHOLOGY: EMBRYOLOGY: RUDIMENTARY ORGANS. CLASSIFICATION, groups subordinate to groups — Natural system — Rules and difficulties in classification, explained on the theory of descent with modification — Classification of varieties — Descent always used in classification — Analogical or adaptive characters — Affinities, general, complex and radiating — Extinction separates and defines groups — MORPHOLOGY, between members of the same class
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F376    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1860. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 2d edition, second issue.   Text   Image   PDF
appearance of a modification of this nature having occurred, that naturalists can hardly avoid employing language having this plain signification. On my view these terms may be used literally; and the wonderful fact of the jaws, for instance, of a crab retaining numerous characters, which they would probably have retained through inheritance, if they had really been metamorphosed during a long course of descent from true legs, or from some simple appendage, is explained. Embryology.—It has already
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F380    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1860. The origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. New York: D. Appleton. New edition, revised and augmented.   Text   Image   PDF
CHAPTER XIII. MUTUAL AFFINITIES OF ORGANIC BEINGS: MORPHOLOGY: EMBRYOLOGY: RUDIMENTARY ORGANS. CLASSIFICATION, groups subordinate to groups Natural system Rules and difficulties in classification, explained on the theory of descent with modification Classification of varieties Descent always used in classification Analogical or adaptive characters Affinities, general, complex and radiating Extinction separates and defines groups MORPHOLOGY, between members of the same class, between parts of
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F376    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1860. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 2d edition, second issue.   Text   Image   PDF
), extinct, and have left no descendants. Hence the six new species descended from (I), and the eight descended from (A), will have to be ranked as very distinct genera, or even as distinct sub-families. Thus it is, as I believe, that two or more genera are produced by descent with modification, from two or more species of the same genus. And the two or G 2 [page] 12
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F376    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1860. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 2d edition, second issue.   Text   Image   PDF
whole classes various structures are formed on the same pattern, and at an embryonic age the species closely resemble each other. Therefore I cannot doubt that the theory of descent with modification embraces all the members of the same class. I believe that animals have descended from at most only four or five progenitors, and plants from an equal or lesser number. Analogy would lead me one step further, namely, to the belief that all animals and plants have descended from some one prototype. But
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F376    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1860. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 2d edition, second issue.   Text   Image   PDF
CHAPTER VI. DIFFICULTIES ON THEORY. Difficulties on the theory of descent with modification — Transitions — Absence or rarity of transitional varieties — Transitions in habits of life — Diversified habits in the same species — Species with habits widely different from those of their allies — Organs of extreme perfection — Means of transition — Cases of difficulty — Natura non facit saltum — Organs of small importance — Organs not in all cases absolutely perfect — The law of Unity of Type and
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F376    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1860. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 2d edition, second issue.   Text   Image   PDF
inferences briefly recapitulated. That many and serious objections may be advanced against the theory of descent with modification through natural selection, I do not deny. I have endeavoured to give to them their full force. Nothing at first can appear more difficult to believe than that the more complex organs and instincts should have been perfected, not by means superior to, though analogous with, human reason, but by the accumulation of innumerable slight variations, each good for the
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F380    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1860. The origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. New York: D. Appleton. New edition, revised and augmented.   Text   Image   PDF
neck of the giraffe and of the elephant, and innumerable other such facts, at once explain themselves on the theory of descent with slow and slight successive modifications. The similarity of pattern in the wing and leg of a bat, though used for such different purposes, in the jaws and legs of a crab, in the petals, stamens, and pistils of a flower, is likewise intelligible on the view of the gradual modification of parts or organs, which were alike in the early progenitor of each class. On the
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F380    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1860. The origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. New York: D. Appleton. New edition, revised and augmented.   Text   Image   PDF
more important objections relate to questions on which we are confessedly ignorant; nor do we know how ignorant we are. We do not know all the possible transitional gradations between the simplest and the most perfect organs; it cannot be pretended that we know all the varied means of Distribution during the long lapse of years, or that we know how imperfect the Geological Record is. Grave as these several difficulties are, in my judgment they do not overthrow the theory of descent with
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F380    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1860. The origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. New York: D. Appleton. New edition, revised and augmented.   Text   Image   PDF
intervals between existing orders. Organs in a rudimentary condition plainly show that an early progenitor had the organ in a fully developed state; and this in some instances necessarily implies an enormous amount of modification in the descendants. Throughout whole classes various structures are formed on the same pattern, and at an embryonic age the species closely resemble each other. Therefore I cannot doubt that the theory of descent with modification embraces all the members of the same
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F380    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1860. The origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. New York: D. Appleton. New edition, revised and augmented.   Text   Image   PDF
under species, with sub-varieties under varieties; and with our domestic productions, several other grades of difference are requisite, as we have seen with pigeons. The origin of the existence of groups subordinate to groups, is the same with varieties as with species, namely, closeness of descent with various degrees of modification. Nearly the same rules are followed in classifying varieties, as with species. Authors have insisted on the necessity of classing varieties on a natural instead of an
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F380    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1860. The origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. New York: D. Appleton. New edition, revised and augmented.   Text   Image   PDF
see how far these several facts and inferences accord with the theory of descent with modification. As the subject is somewhat complex, I must request the reader to turn to the diagram in the fourth chapter. We may suppose that the numbered letters represent genera, and the dotted lines diverging from them the species in each genus. The diagram is much too simple, too few genera and too few species being given, but this is unimportant for us. The horizontal lines may represent successive
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F380    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1860. The origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. New York: D. Appleton. New edition, revised and augmented.   Text   Image   PDF
cousins to the same millionth degree; yet they differ widely and in different degrees from each other. The forms descended from A, now broken up into two or three families, constitute a distinct order from those descended from I, also broken up into two families. Nor can the existing species, descended from A, be ranked in the same genus with the parent A; or those from I, with the parent I. But the existing genus F14 may be supposed to have been but slightly modified; and it will then rank with the
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F380    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1860. The origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. New York: D. Appleton. New edition, revised and augmented.   Text   Image   PDF
with modification; that the characters which naturalists consider as showing true affinity between any two or more species, are those which have been inherited from a common parent, and, in so far, all true classification is genealogical; that community of descent is the hidden bond which naturalists have been unconsciously seeking, and not some unknown plan of creation, or the enunciation of general propositions, and the mere putting together and separating objects more or less alike. But I must
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F380    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1860. The origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. New York: D. Appleton. New edition, revised and augmented.   Text   Image   PDF
modification Summary of the last and present chapters, 334 CHAPTER XIII. MUTUAL AFFINITIES OF ORGANIC BEINGS: MORPHOLOGY: EMBRYOLOGY: RUDIMENTARY ORGANS. CLASSIFICATION, groups subordinate to groups Natural system Rules and difficulties in classification, explained on the theory of descent with modification Classi [page]
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F376    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1860. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 2d edition, second issue.   Text   Image   PDF
as the presence of peculiar species of bats, and the absence of all other mammals, on oceanic islands, are utterly inexplicable on the theory of independent acts of creation. The existence of closely allied or representative species in any two areas, implies, on the theory of descent with modification, that the same parents formerly inhabited both areas; and we almost invariably find that wherever many closely allied species inhabit two areas, some identical species common to both still exist
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F380    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1860. The origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. New York: D. Appleton. New edition, revised and augmented.   Text   Image   PDF
: they are far from meaning that during a long course of descent, primordial organs of any kind vertebr in the one case and legs in the other have actually been modified into skulls or jaws. Yet so strong is the appearance of a modification of this nature having occurred, that naturalists can hardly avoid employing language having this plain signification. On my view these terms may be used literally; and the wonderful fact of the jaws, for instance, of a crab retaining numerous characters
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F376    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1860. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 2d edition, second issue.   Text   Image   PDF
the recent period all existing islands have been nearly or quite joined to some continent. This view would remove many difficulties, but it would not, I think, explain all the facts in regard to insular productions. In the following remarks I shall not confine myself to the mere question of dispersal; but shall consider some other facts, which bear on the truth of the two theories of independent creation and of descent with modification. The species of all kinds which inhabit oceanic islands are
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F380    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1860. The origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. New York: D. Appleton. New edition, revised and augmented.   Text   Image   PDF
between existing groups; and we can understand this fact, for the extinct species lived at very ancient epochs when the branching lines of descent had diverged less. I see no reason to limit the process of modification, as now explained, to the formation of genera alone. If, in our diagram, we suppose the amount of change represented by each successive group of diverging dotted lines to be very great, the forms marked a14 to p14, those marked b14 and f14, and those marked o14 to m14, will form three
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F380    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1860. The origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. New York: D. Appleton. New edition, revised and augmented.   Text   Image   PDF
great leading facts in pal ontology seem to me simply to follow on the theory of descent with modification through natural selection. We can thus understand how it is that new species come in slowly and successively; how species of different classes do not necessarily change together, or at the same rate, or in the same degree; yet in the long run that all undergo modification to some extent. The extinction of old forms is the almost inevitable consequence of the production of new forms. We can
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F376    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1860. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 2d edition, second issue.   Text   Image   PDF
started into life all at once, the fact would be fatal to the theory of descent with slow modification through natural selection. For the development of a group of forms, all of which have descended from some one progenitor, must have been an extremely slow process; and the progenitors must have lived long ages before their modified descendants. But we continually over-rate the perfection of the geological record, and falsely infer, because certain genera or families have not been found
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F380    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1860. The origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. New York: D. Appleton. New edition, revised and augmented.   Text   Image   PDF
briefly recapitulated. That many and grave objections may be advanced against the theory of descent with modification through natural selection, I do not deny. I have endeavoured to give to them their full force. Nothing at first can appear more difficult to believe than that the more complex organs and instincts should have been perfected, not by means superior to, though analogous with human reason, but by the accumulation of innumerable slight variations, each good for the individual possessor
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F376    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1860. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 2d edition, second issue.   Text   Image   PDF
forms — On the succession of the same types within the same areas — Summary of preceding and present chapters. LET us now see whether the several facts and rules relating to the geological succession of organic beings, better accord with the common view of the immutability of species, or with that of their slow and gradual modification, through descent and natural selection. New species have appeared very slowly, one after another, both on the land and in the waters. Lyell has shown that it is
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F376    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1860. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 2d edition, second issue.   Text   Image   PDF
descent with modification, we may conclude that the existence of organs in a rudimentary, imperfect, and useless condition, or quite aborted, far from presenting a strange difficulty, as they assuredly do on the ordinary doctrine of creation, might even have been anticipated, and can be accounted for by the laws of inheritance. Summary.—In this chapter I have attempted to show, that the subordination of group to group in all organisms throughout all time; that the nature of the relationship, by which
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F380    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1860. The origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. New York: D. Appleton. New edition, revised and augmented.   Text   Image   PDF
been produced by descent with modification, than that they have been separately created: the author first promulgated this opinion in 1831. M. Isidore Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, in his Lectures delivered in 1850 (of which a R sum appeared in the Revue et Mag. de Zoolog., Jan. 1851), briefly gives his reasons for believing that specific characters sont fixes, pour chaque esp ce, tant qu'elle se perp tue au milieu des m mes circonstances, ils se modifient, si les circonstances ambiantes viennent
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F380    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1860. The origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. New York: D. Appleton. New edition, revised and augmented.   Text   Image   PDF
succession of the same types within the same areas Summary of preceding and present chapters. LET us now see whether the several facts and rules relating to the geological succession of organic beings, better accord with the common view of the immutability of species, or with that of their slow and gradual modification, through descent and natural selection. New species have appeared very slowly, one after another, both on the land and in the waters. Lyell has shown that it is hardly possible to
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F376    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1860. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 2d edition, second issue.   Text   Image   PDF
be given in relation to the distribution of marine animals. On the theory of descent with modification, the great law of the long enduring, but not immutable, succession of the same types within the same areas, is at once explained; for the inhabitants of each quarter of the world will obviously tend to leave in that quarter, during the next succeeding period of time, closely allied though in some degree modified descendants. If the inhabitants of one continent formerly differed greatly from
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F376    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1860. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 2d edition, second issue.   Text   Image   PDF
different species within the same class, generally, but not universally, resembling each other;—of the structure of the embryo not being closely related to its conditions of existence, except when the embryo becomes at any period of life active and has to provide for itself;—of the embryo apparently having sometimes a higher organisation than the mature animal, into which it is developed? I believe that all these facts can be explained, as follows, on the view of descent with modification. It is
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F376    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1860. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 2d edition, second issue.   Text   Image   PDF
, imperfect nails sometimes appear on the stumps: I could as soon believe that these vestiges of nails have appeared, not from unknown laws of growth, but in order to excrete horny matter, as that the rudimentary nails on the fin of the manatee were formed for this purpose. On my view of descent with modification, the origin of rudimentary organs is simple. We have plenty of cases of rudimentary organs in our domestic productions,—as the stump of a tail in tailless breeds,—the vestige of an ear in
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F376    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1860. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 2d edition, second issue.   Text   Image   PDF
offspring of slightly modified forms or varieties acquire from being crossed increased vigour and fertility. So that, on the one hand, considerable changes in the conditions of life and crosses between greatly modified forms, lessen fertility; and on the other hand, lesser changes in the conditions of life and crosses between less modified forms, increase fertility. Turning to geographical distribution, the difficulties encountered on the theory of descent with modification are grave enough. All the
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F380    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1860. The origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. New York: D. Appleton. New edition, revised and augmented.   Text   Image   PDF
analogous manner Reversions to long lost characters Summary, 120 CHAPTER VI. DIFFICULTIES ON THEORY. Difficulties on the theory of descent with modification Transitions Absence or rarity of transitional varieties Transitions in habits of life Diversified habits in the same species Species with habits widely different from those of their allies Organs of extreme perfection Means of transition Cases of difficulty Natura non facit saltum Organs of small importance Organs not in all cases absolutely
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