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F385    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1866. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 4th edition. 8th thousand.   Text   Image   PDF
scarcely any means of transport would carry seeds for very great distances; for seeds do not retain their vitality when exposed for a great length of time to the action of sea-water; nor could they be long carried in the crops or intestines of birds. These means, however, would suffice for occasional transport across tracts of sea some hundred miles in breadth, or from island to island, U [page] 43
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F385    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1866. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 4th edition. 8th thousand.   Text   Image   PDF
Great Britain, has not, as far as is known (and it would be very difficult to prove this), received within the last few centuries, through occasional means of transport, immigrants from Europe or any other continent, that a poorly-stocked island, though standing more remote from the mainland, would not receive colonists by similar means. Out of twenty seeds or animals transported to an island, even if far less well-stocked than Britain, perhaps not more than one would be so well fitted to its new
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F385    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1866. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 4th edition. 8th thousand.   Text   Image   PDF
effects of all the changes of climate and of the level of the land, which have certainly occurred within the recent period, and of other similar changes which may have occurred within the same period; if we remember how profoundly ignorant we are with respect to the many and curious means of occasional transport, a subject which has hardly ever been properly experimented on; if we bear in mind how often a species may have ranged continuously over a wide area, and then have become extinct in
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F385    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1866. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 4th edition. 8th thousand.   Text   Image   PDF
yet very ignorant of the full extent of the various climatal and geographical changes which have affected the earth during modern periods; and such changes will obviously have greatly facilitated migration. As an example, I have attempted to show how potent has been the influence of the Glacial period on the distribution both of the same and of representative species throughout the world. We are as yet profoundly ignorant of the many occasional means of transport. With respect to distinct species
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F385    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1866. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 4th edition. 8th thousand.   Text   Image   PDF
batrachians and of terrestrial mammals notwithstanding the presence of a rial bats, the singular proportions of certain orders of plants, herbaceous forms having been developed into trees, c., seem to me to accord better with the view of occasional means of transport having been largely efficient in the long course of time than with the view of all our oceanic islands having been formerly connected by continuous land with the nearest continent; for on this latter view the migration would
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F385    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1866. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 4th edition. 8th thousand.   Text   Image   PDF
that before this flora was exterminated by the Glacial epoch, a few forms were widely dispersed to various points of the southern hemisphere by occasional means of transport, and by the aid, as halting-places, of now sunken islands. By these means, as I believe, the southern shores of America, Australia, and New Zealand, became slightly tinted by the same peculiar forms of vegetable life. Sir C. Lyell in a striking passage has speculated, in language almost identical with mine, on the effects of
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F385    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1866. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 4th edition. 8th thousand.   Text   Image   PDF
from this capacity as an almost necessary consequence. We can here consider only a few cases. In regard to fish, I believe that the same species never occur in the fresh waters of distant continents. But on the same continent the species often range widely and almost capriciously; for two river-systems will have some fish in common and some different. A few facts seem to favour the possibility of their occasional transport by accidental means; like that of the live fish not rarely dropped by
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F385    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1866. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 4th edition. 8th thousand.   Text   Image   PDF
climatal and geographical changes and various occasional means of transport, the belief that this has been the universal law, seems to me incomparably the safest. In discussing this subject, we shall be enabled at the same time to consider a point equally important for us, namely, whether the several distinct species of a genus, which on my theory have all descended from a common [page] 42
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F385    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1866. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 4th edition. 8th thousand.   Text   Image   PDF
of difference in the several islands. This difference might indeed have been expected on the view of the islands having been stocked by occasional means of transport a seed, for instance, of one plant having been brought to one island, and that of another plant to another island. Hence, when in former times an immigrant settled on any one or more of the islands, or when it subsequently spread from one island to another, it would undoubtedly be exposed to different conditions of life in the
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F385    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1866. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 4th edition. 8th thousand.   Text   Image   PDF
occasional means of transport, or by the species having become extinct in the intermediate tracts. Both in time and space, species and groups of species have their points of maximum development. Groups of species, living during the same period of time, or living within the same area, are often characterised by trifling features in common, as of sculpture or colour. In looking to the long succession of past ages, as in now looking to distant provinces throughout the world, we find that certain
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F387    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1869. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 5th edition. Tenth thousand.   Text   Image   PDF
strictly correct: the currents of the sea are not accidental nor is the direction of prevalent gales of wind. It should be observed that scarcely any means of transport would carry seeds for very great distances: for seeds do not retain their vitality when exposed for a great length of time to the action of sea-water; nor could they be long carried in the crops or intestines of birds. These means, however, would suffice for occasional transport across tracts of sea some hundred miles in breadth, or
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F387    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1869. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 5th edition. Tenth thousand.   Text   Image   PDF
falling on favourable soil, and coming to maturity! But it would be a great error to argue that because a well-stocked island, like Great Britain, has not, as far as is known (and it would be very difficult to prove this), received within the last few centuries, through occasional means of transport, immigrants from Europe or any other continent, that a poorly-stocked island, though standing more remote from the mainland, would not receive colonists by similar means. Out of a hundred seeds or
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F387    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1869. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 5th edition. Tenth thousand.   Text   Image   PDF
very ignorant of the full extent of the various climatal and geographical changes which have affected the earth during modern periods; and such changes may obviously have facilitated migration. As an example, I have attempted to show how potent has been the influence of the Glacial period on the distribution of the same and of allied species throughout the world. We are as yet profoundly ignorant of the many occasional means of transport. With respect to distinct species of the same genus
79%
F387    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1869. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 5th edition. Tenth thousand.   Text   Image   PDF
occasional transport, I have discussed at some little length the means of dispersal of fresh-water productions. If the difficulties be not insuperable in admitting that in the long course of time all the individuals of the same species, and likewise of the several species belong- [page] 48
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F387    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1869. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 5th edition. Tenth thousand.   Text   Image   PDF
piles of volcanic matter. I must now say a few words on what are called accidental means, but which more properly should be called occasional means of distribution. I shall here confine myself to plants. In botanical works, this or that plant is stated to be ill adapted for wide dissemination; but for transport across the sea, the greater or less facilities [page] 43
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F387    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1869. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 5th edition. Tenth thousand.   Text   Image   PDF
from this capacity as an almost necessary consequence. We can here consider only a few cases. In regard to fish, I believe that the same species never occur in the fresh waters of distant continents. But on the same continent the species often range widely and almost capriciously; for two river-systems will have some fish in common and some different. A few facts seem to favour the possibility of their occasional transport by accidental means; like that of the live fish not rarely dropped by
78%
F387    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1869. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 5th edition. Tenth thousand.   Text   Image   PDF
in space, it certainly is the general rule that the area inhabited by a single species, or by a group of species, is continuous, and the exceptions, which are not rare, may, as I have attempted to show, be accounted for by former migrations under different circumstances, or through occasional means of transport, or by the species having become extinct in the intermediate tracts. Both in time and space, species and groups of species have their points of maximum development. Groups of species
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F387    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1869. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 5th edition. Tenth thousand.   Text   Image   PDF
members of certain groups, and not of other groups in the same class, having been modified the absence of certain whole orders, as of batrachians and of terrestrial mammals, notwithstanding the presence of a rial bats, the singular proportions of certain orders of plants, herbaceous forms having been developed into trees, c., seem to me to accord better with the belief in the efficiency of occasional means of transport, carried on during a long course of time, than with the belief in the former
76%
F387    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1869. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 5th edition. Tenth thousand.   Text   Image   PDF
centre; and I am inclined to look in the southern, as in the northern hemisphere, to a former and warmer period, before the commencement of the Glacial period, when the Antarctic lands, now covered with ice, supported a highly peculiar and isolated flora. It may be suspected that before this flora was exterminated during the last Glacial epoch, a few forms had been already widely dispersed to various points of the southern hemisphere by occasional means of transport, and by the aid, as halting
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F387    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1869. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 5th edition. Tenth thousand.   Text   Image   PDF
those of the Galapagos to America. Facts such as these, admit of no sort of explanation on the ordinary view of independent creation; whereas on the view here maintained, it is obvious that the Galapagos Islands would be likely to receive colonists, whether by occasional means of transport or by formerly continuous land, from America; the Cape de Verde Islands from Africa; and that such colonists would be liable to modification, the principle of inheritance still betraying their original birthplace
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F387    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1869. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 5th edition. Tenth thousand.   Text   Image   PDF
our ignorance with respect to former climatal and geographical changes and to the various occasional means of transport, the belief that a single birthplace is the law, seems to me incomparably the safest. In discussing this subject, we shall be enabled at the same time to consider a point equally important for us, namely, whether the several species of a genus, which [page] 43
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F387    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1869. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 5th edition. Tenth thousand.   Text   Image   PDF
generally a far more important element of success. Now if we look to the species which inhabit the Galapagos Archipelago and are likewise found in other parts of the world, we find that they differ considerably in the several islands. This difference might indeed have been expected if the islands have been stocked by occasional means of transport a seed, for instance, of one plant having been brought to one island, and that of another plant to another island, though all proceeding from the same
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F391    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1872. The origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 6th edition; with additions and corrections. Eleventh thousand.   Text   Image   PDF
they be long carried in the crops or intestines of birds. These means, however, would suffice for occasional transport across tracts of sea some hundred miles in breadth, or from island to island, or from a continent to a neighbouring island, but not from one distant continent to another. The floras of distant continents would not by such means become mingled; but would remain as distinct as they now are. The currents, from their course, would never bring seeds from North America to Britain
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F391    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1872. The origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 6th edition; with additions and corrections. Eleventh thousand.   Text   Image   PDF
been already widely dispersed to various points of the southern hemisphere by occasional means of transport, and by the aid as halting-places, of now sunken islands. Thus the southern shores of America, Australia, and New Zealand, may have become slightly tinted by the same peculiar forms of life. Sir C. Lyell in a striking passage has speculated, in language almost identical with mine, on the effects of great alternations of climate throughout the world on geographical distribution. And we
74%
F391    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1872. The origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 6th edition; with additions and corrections. Eleventh thousand.   Text   Image   PDF
opposite hemispheres to mingle, and left some of them stranded on the mountain-summits in all parts of the world. As showing how diversified are the means of occasional transport, I have discussed at some little length the means of dispersal of fresh-water productions. If the difficulties be not insuperable in admitting that in the long course of time all the individuals of the same species, and likewise of the several species belonging to the same genus, have proceeded from some one source; then
73%
F391    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1872. The origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 6th edition; with additions and corrections. Eleventh thousand.   Text   Image   PDF
that we are as yet very ignorant as to the full extent of the various climatal and geographical changes which have affected the earth during modern periods; and such changes will often have facilitated migration. As an example, I have attempted to show how potent has been the influence of the Glacial period on the distribution of the same and of allied species throughout the world. We are as yet profoundly ignorant of the many occasional means of transport. With respect to distinct species of
72%
F391    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1872. The origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 6th edition; with additions and corrections. Eleventh thousand.   Text   Image   PDF
, which have certainly occurred within the recent period, and of other changes which have probably occurred,—if we remember how ignorant we are with respect to the many curious means of occasional transport,—if we bear in mind, and this is a very important consideration, how often a species may have ranged continuously over a wide area, and then have become extinct in the intermediate tracts,—the difficulty is not insuperable in believing that all the individuals of the same species, wherever found
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F391    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1872. The origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 6th edition; with additions and corrections. Eleventh thousand.   Text   Image   PDF
from a single birthplace; then, considering our ignorance with respect to former climatal and geographical changes and to the various occasional means of transport, the belief that a single birthplace is the law, seems to me incomparably the safest. In discussing this subject, we shall be enabled at the same time to consider a point equally important for us, namely, whether the several species of a genus, which must on our theory all be descended from a common progenitor, can have migrated
69%
F391    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1872. The origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 6th edition; with additions and corrections. Eleventh thousand.   Text   Image   PDF
should be called occasional means of distribution. I shall here confine myself to plants. In botanical works, this or that plant is often stated to be ill adapted for wide dissemination; but the greater or less facilities for transport across the sea may be said to be almost wholly unknown. Until I tried, with Mr. Berkeley's aid, a few experiments, it was not even known how far seeds could resist the injurious action of sea-water. To my surprise I found that out of 87 kinds, 64 germinated after an
67%
F391    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1872. The origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 6th edition; with additions and corrections. Eleventh thousand.   Text   Image   PDF
absent in it, but which occur both above and below: so in space, it certainly is the general rule that the area inhabited by a single species, or by a group of species, is continuous, and the exceptions, which are not rare, may, as I have attempted to show, be accounted for by former migrations under different circumstances, or through occasional means of transport, or by the species having become extinct in the intermediate tracts. Both in time and space, species and groups of species have
66%
F391    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1872. The origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 6th edition; with additions and corrections. Eleventh thousand.   Text   Image   PDF
certain groups, but not those of other groups in the same class, having been modified—the absence of certain whole orders, as of batrachians and of terrestrial mammals, notwithstanding the presence of aerial bats,—the singular proportions of certain orders of plants,—herbaceous forms having been developed into trees, c.,—seem to me to accord better with the belief in the efficiency of occasional means of transport, carried on during a long course of time, than with the belief in the former
66%
F391    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1872. The origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 6th edition; with additions and corrections. Eleventh thousand.   Text   Image   PDF
of Africa, like those of the Galapagos to America. Facts such as these, admit of no sort of explanation on the ordinary view of independent creation: whereas on the view here maintained, it is obvious that the Galapagos Islands would be likely to receive colonists from America, whether by occasional means of transport or (though I do not believe in this doctrine) by formerly continuous land, and the Cape de Verde Islands from Africa; such colonists would be liable to modification,—the principle
66%
F391    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1872. The origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 6th edition; with additions and corrections. Eleventh thousand.   Text   Image   PDF
species with which each has to compete, is at least as important, and generally a far more important element of success. Now if we look to the species which inhabit the Galapagos Archipelago and are likewise found in other parts of the world, we find that they differ considerably in the several islands. This difference might indeed have been expected if the islands have been stocked by occasional means of transport—a seed, for instance, of one plant having been brought to one island, and that of
96%
F401    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1876. The origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 6th edition, with additions and corrections. [First issue of final definitive text]   Text   Image   PDF
they be long carried in the crops or intestines of birds. These means, however, would suffice for occasional transport across tracts of sea some hundred miles in breadth, or from island to island, or from a continent to a neighbouring island, but not from one distant continent to another. The floras of distant continents would not by such means become mingled; but would remain as distinct as they now are. The currents, from their course, would never bring seeds from North America to Britain
76%
F401    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1876. The origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 6th edition, with additions and corrections. [First issue of final definitive text]   Text   Image   PDF
been already widely dispersed to various points of the southern hemisphere by occasional means of transport, and by the aid as haltingplaces, of now sunken islands. Thus the southern shores of America, Australia, and New Zealand, may have become slightly tinted by the same peculiar forms of life. Sir C. Lyell in a striking passage has speculated, in language almost identical with mine, on the effects of great alternations of climate throughout the world on geographical distribution. And we
74%
F401    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1876. The origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 6th edition, with additions and corrections. [First issue of final definitive text]   Text   Image   PDF
opposite hemispheres to mingle, and left some of them stranded on the mountain-summits in all parts of the world. As showing how diversified are the means of occasional transport, I have discussed at some little length the means of dispersal of fresh-water productions. If the difficulties be not insuperable in admitting that in the long course of time all the individuals of the same species, and likewise of the several species belonging to the same genus, have proceeded from some one source; then
73%
F401    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1876. The origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 6th edition, with additions and corrections. [First issue of final definitive text]   Text   Image   PDF
that we are as yet very ignorant as to the full extent of the various climatal and geographical changes which have affected the earth during modern periods; and such changes will often have facilitated migration. As an example, I have attempted to show how potent has been the influence of the Glacial period on the distribution of the same and of allied species throughout the world. We are as yet profoundly ignorant of the many occasional means of transport. With respect to distinct species of
72%
F401    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1876. The origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 6th edition, with additions and corrections. [First issue of final definitive text]   Text   Image   PDF
, which have certainly occurred within the recent period, and of other changes which have probably occurred, if we remember how ignorant we are with respect to the many curious means of occasional transport, if we bear in mind, and this is a very important consideration, how often a species may have ranged continuously over a wide area, and then have become extinct in the intermediate tracts, the difficulty is not insuperable in believing that all the individuals of the same species, wherever found
71%
F401    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1876. The origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 6th edition, with additions and corrections. [First issue of final definitive text]   Text   Image   PDF
from a single birthplace; then, considering our ignorance with respect to former climatal and geographical changes and to the various occasional means of transport, the belief that a single birthplace is the law, seems to me incomparably the safest. In discussing this subject, we shall be enabled at the same time to consider a point equally important for us, namely, whether the several species of a genus, which must on our theory all be descended from a common progenitor, can have migrated
69%
F401    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1876. The origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 6th edition, with additions and corrections. [First issue of final definitive text]   Text   Image   PDF
should be called occasional means of distribution. I shall here confine myself to plants. In botanical works, this or that plant is often stated to be ill adapted for wide dissemination; but the greater or less facilities for transport across the sea may be said to be almost wholly unknown. Until I tried, with Mr. Berkeley's aid, a few experiments, it was not even known how far seeds could resist the injurious action of sea-water. To my surprise I found that out of 87 kinds, 64 germinated after an
67%
F401    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1876. The origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 6th edition, with additions and corrections. [First issue of final definitive text]   Text   Image   PDF
absent in it, but which occur both above and below: so in space, it certainly is the general rule that the area inhabited by a single species, or by a group of species, is continuous, and the exceptions, which are not rare, may, as I have attempted to show, be accounted for by former migrations under different circumstances, or through occasional means of transport, or by the species having become extinct in the intermediate tracts. Both in time and space, species and groups of species have
66%
F401    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1876. The origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 6th edition, with additions and corrections. [First issue of final definitive text]   Text   Image   PDF
certain groups, but not those of other groups in the same class, having been modified the absence of certain whole orders, as of batrachians and of terrestrial mammals, notwithstanding the presence of aerial bats, the singular proportions of certain orders of plants, herbaceous forms having been developed into trees, c., seem to me to accord better with the belief in the efficiency of occasional means of transport, carried on during a long course of time, than with the belief in the former
66%
F401    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1876. The origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 6th edition, with additions and corrections. [First issue of final definitive text]   Text   Image   PDF
Africa, like those of the Galapagos to America. Facts such as these, admit of no sort of explanation on the ordinary view of independent creation; whereas on the view here maintained, it is obvious that the Galapagos Islands would be likely to receive colonists from America, whether by occasional means of transport or (though I do not believe in this doctrine) by formerly continuous land, and the Cape Verde Islands from Africa; such colonists would be liable to modification, the principle of
66%
F401    Book:     Darwin, C. R. 1876. The origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray. 6th edition, with additions and corrections. [First issue of final definitive text]   Text   Image   PDF
species with which each has to compete, is at least as important, and generally a far more important element of success. Now if we look to the species which inhabit the Galapagos Archipelago and are likewise found in other parts of the world, we find that they differ considerably in the several islands. This difference might indeed have been expected if the islands have been stocked by occasional means of transport a seed, for instance, of one plant having been brought to one island, and that of
64%
F1452.3    Book:     Darwin, Francis ed. 1887. The life and letters of Charles Darwin, including an autobiographical chapter. vol. 3. London: John Murray.   Text   Image   PDF
it had received some few Australian forms by occasional means of transport. Is there any reason to suppose that New Zealand could have been more closely connected with South Australia during the Glacial period, when the Eucalypti, c., might have been driven further North? Apparently there remains only the line, which I think you suggested, of sunken islands from New Caledonia. Please remember that the Edwardsia was certainly drifted there by the sea. I remember in old days speculating on the
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