MANY institutions, organizations and individuals have generously contributed to The Complete Work of Charles Darwin Online and its pilot website The writings of Charles Darwin on the web (2002-6) to make it the most complete and authoritative scholarly website on any historical individual in the world. It is a pleasure to acknowledge their support, assistance and permissions.


The Arts and Humanities Research Council generously provided primary funding, for three years (October 2005-8), to expand the pilot website and achieve a very great amount of the core work. The Charles Darwin Trust promised funds for web server costs for 2005-8. The project was privately funded by John van Wyhe from 2002-5, therefore early funding, in the form of van Wyhe's research expenses, was provided by the National University of Singapore (2002-3) and the Open University (2003-4). An anonymous donor generously funded Darwin Online from 2008-2009, and again 2009-2013.

Hosting the project

The Darwin Online project was hosted by the Centre for Research in the Arts, Social Sciences and Humanities (CRASSH) at the University of Cambridge from 2005-9. A particular debt of gratitude is owed to Ludmilla Jordanova, Mary Jacobus, Catherine Hurley, Melanie Leggatt, Gemma Tyler, Michele Maciejewska, Catherine Schneider, Philippa Smith, Rachel Agnew and Anna Malinowska. Thanks are also due to Stuart Williams who made an interim set of navigation buttons. The Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, currently provides excellent office space for the project.

Reproduction permissions

The Syndics of Cambridge University Library, English Heritage (Darwin Collection at Down House), the Darwin, Barlow and Keynes families, Gerry Crombie, the Master, Fellows and Scholars of Christ's College, Cambridge, the University Museum of Zoology Cambridge, the Sedgwick Museum of Earth Sciences, the Royal College of Surgeons of England, the Darwin Heirlooms Trust, the National Archives, Kew, Special Collections, the State Library, Aarhus, Denmark, Lehigh University Libraries, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, USA, The Huntington Library, The Linnean Society of London, Nottinghamshire Archives, the Dittrick Medical History Center, Case Western Reserve University, Lehigh University Libraries Special Collections, the Beinecke Library, Yale University, Surrey History Centre, Woking, Columbia University in the City of New York, Rare Book and Manuscript Library, the Dibner Library, New York, the Houghton Library Harvard University, the State Historical Society of Iowa, Fondation Martin Bodmer, and Bromley Library & Archives and the Osler Library of the History of Medicine, McGill University have kindly given permission to reproduce manuscripts and other materials in their possession.

An enormous debt is owed to Cambridge University Library for allowing most of the magnificent Darwin Archive to be digitized and put online. Patrick Zutshi and Cambridge University Library generously gave permission to reproduce the previously unpublished catalogue (created by Nick Gill) of the Darwin Archive.

The following institutions have also allowed their catalogues to be included: American Philosophical Society, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada, Kew Gardens, London, the Linnean Society of London, John Murray Archive, National Library of Scotland, Edinburgh, Lincolnshire Archives, Lincoln, Zoological Society of London, Elgin Museum, Elgin, Moray, Keele University Library, Staffordshire, the New York Botanical Garden University College London and others. For assistance with catalogues many thanks are owed to Nick Gill for the Cambridge University Library catalogue, Heather Townsend, Museum Assistant at the Elgin Museum, James Stevenson Archivist of the Lincolnshire Archives, Rachel Thomas, Assistant Curator John Murray Archive, Gina Douglas, Librarian of the Linnean Society of London, Michele Losse of Kew Gardens and Dan Mitchell of UCL. Joshua Nall and Borris Jardine provided details of the Darwin items in the Whipple Museum, Cambridge.

Cambridge University Press, the Natural History Museum (London), the Journal of Ornithology, Deutsche Ornithologen-Gesellschaft, Earth Sciences History, the Royal Society of Tasmania, the Society for the History of Natural History, the Societas Scientiarum Fennica Commentationes Biologicae, the Finska Vetenskaps-Societeten, the Bentham-Moxon Trust, the Suffolk Natural History Society, the Royal Society of Edinburg, Fabrizio Serra editore publishing house and the Natural History Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen, the American Philosophical Society, the Huntington Library, Oklahoma University Library and Fondation Martin Bodmer have granted important reproduction permissions.

Richard Darwin Keynes (Darwin's great-grandson) kindly gave permission to reproduce works written and edited by him and Emma Darwin's diaries and other manuscripts. Janet Browne generously assisted with their online publication.

The Master, Fellows and Scholars of Christ's College, Cambridge kindly gave permission to reproduce the Admissions Books and Record Books recording Darwin's presence in Christ's College. The College Honorary Keeper of the Archives, Geoffrey Thorndike Martin, graciously gave access to and helped scan the books and assisted in numerous ways.

Patricia Killiard of Cambridge University Library, Tori Reeve of English Heritage and Karen Goldie-Morrison of The Charles Darwin Trust have all helped enormously in preparing reproduction licenses for Darwin Online. Tori Reeve, Cathy Power and especially Olivia Fryman granted access to the Beagle field notebooks and other manuscripts and other collections and information at Down House. Tessa Kilgarriff has helpfully sent further information about the collections at Down House.

Other reproduction permissions have been graciously granted by English Heritage, The Balfour & Newton Libraries, The Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Gordon Chancellor, Mario Di Gregorio, Mary Whitear, Duncan Porter, Robert Brown, David Stoddart, Martin Rudwick, Frank Sulloway, Robert Olby, Simon Schaffer, Sandra Herbert, the American Institute of Biological Studies and the Swiss Geological Society, Edinburgh University Library, the Linnean Society of London and Birkhäuser Publishing House. Gordon Chancellor provided his draft transcriptions of Darwin's Beagle field notebooks and essential assistance with their completion. The Correspondence of Charles Darwin provided their working transcription of Darwin's 'Journal'. Wilma M. Barrett kindly gave permission to reproduce the work of the late Paul H. Barrett. Ya. M. Gall gave permission for his 1991 Russian edition of Origin of species to be reproduced. The California Academy of Sciences, Michael Ghiselin and Jonathan Hodge kindly give permission for some of their important publications to be reproduced in Darwin Online. Stephen Suess gave permission to reproduce an 1875 letter from Darwin to his great-grandfather.

Freeman Bibliographical Database

The Charles Darwin Trust facilitated copyright permission for Freeman's Bibliographical Handlist (1977), unpublished corrections and other publications as preserved by his widow, Dr Mary Whitear.

Christine Chua has provided references to hundreds of previously unrecorded Darwin translations in many languages as well as correcting errors and supplying omissions in hundreds of other references in the database. Maripola Kolokotsa provided bibliographical references and corrections for Greek translations. Jakub Jakubowski and Daniel Schuemann provided corrections to the Polish bibliographical entries. Sophia Rhizopoulou corrected the name of a Greek translator of the Origin of species in the bibliography. Minh Nguyet Pham kindly supplied references to Darwin's works in Vietnamese. Ally Sung Hee Lim corrected and extended the bibliographical entries for Darwin in Korean translation.

Works for digitizing

The Balfour and Newton Libraries (Cambridge), Richard Darwin Keynes, Milo Keynes, The Earth Sciences Library Cambridge, The Whipple Library University of Cambridge, the Library of the Geography Department, Cambridge, Gordon Chancellor, Kurt Stüber, Janet Browne, James Moore, New College Library Edinburgh University Library, Trinity College Library, Cambridge and The Charles Darwin Trust have generously offered works by Darwin and others for digitizing. Suzan Griffiths Librarian of St. Catharine's College, Cambridge, kindly lent books from the Sydney Smith collection. Christopher Banks generously sent a copy of Journal of Researches from Australia as a gift. Other works come from the collections of John van Wyhe and Angus Carroll and others as listed below.

Adam Perkins has cheerfully helped allow works on deposit by The Charles Darwin Trust to be specially borrowed from Cambridge University Library, lent a reel of microfilm for scanning, assisted with very many queries and generously provided catalogue updates and many other forms of information and assistance. Darwin's 'Journal'

Angus Carroll generously lent books and other works from his private collection for inclusion and even sent scans of many rare items. He also sent many of his precious American editions to be scanned at his own expense en masse for Darwin Online. Libby Tilley and Sarah Humbert of the Earth Sciences Library, Cambridge very kindly allowed rare Darwin books to be borrowed and scanned. Sarah Finney and Steve Laurie kindly assisted with the photography and reproduction of the Sedgwick Museum's Harker Catalogue of Darwin's geological specimens.

Anna Dettlaff, Agnieszka Krzebietke, Witold Nagel and Jakub Jakubowski generously scanned six Darwin works in Polish and provided the scans. Judith Magee, of the Natural History Museum (London), was extremly helpful in sharing their library and Lorraine Portch helpfully scanned an 1866 photo and article about Darwin, and further items. Jessica Warde scanned the 6th edition of Origin of species. Tim Eggington, Librarian of the Whipple Library, Cambridge, very generously offered books in his care for scanning. Thanks are also due to Dawn Moutrey, Library Assistant of the Whipple Library. The Museo Galileo - Istituto e museo di storia della scienza, Florence, kindly sent scans of The Origin of species in Italian (1875). Christine Chua has tirelessly scanned many of Darwin's works in translation, some from her own collection. Stephie Coane and Sally Jennings at Eton College Library were very helpful.

Help with digitizing

Several students have helped John van Wyhe with scanning and transcribing at the National University of Singapore in 2002-3. Subsequent scanning has been undertaken by Weng Qing Ng, S. Song, Christine Chua amongst others.

The History of Science Collections, University of Oklahoma Libraries, with special thanks to Kerry Magruder and Carilyn Giuliano, have provided many important scans of books from their collections, see here. The University Museum of Zoology Cambridge provided manuscript scans. Juan Arroyo and the University of Seville very helpfully provided scans of four volumes of Darwin's works in Spanish.

The 1st edition of the Origin of species, 1859Richard Kool sent scans of a Darwin obituary from The Nation. Luis Ernesto Martínez González provided copies of 'Darwin is dead' by Cuban writer and politician José Martí (1882). Francesca Cattaneo of the Biblioteca Unificata della Scienza e della Tecnica, Pavia, kindly scanned and provided Forms of flowers in Italian translation. The National Library of Norway kindly allowed scans of Darwin's Journal of researches to be reproduced. Doug Carnick kindly gave permission for his Darwin autograph signature to be reproduced. J. David Archibald sent colour scans of F1276 and later many other Darwin books and shorter publications and supplemnentary works from his collection. Michael Morrough of Shrewsbury School kindly supplied a photocopy from their collection. Dan Lewis and the Huntington Library, San Marino, California, kindly sent scans of Werner's colours and other Darwin items. Gilleasbuig Ferguson sent scans of F1263.

A Private Collection, Virginia, has kindly supplied some outstanding and rare items including Francis Darwin's annotated copy of Origin of species (1859) and a rare offprint of Darwin's paper on volcanic phenomena and other books that belonged to Darwin and his son Francis.

The Anatomy Visual Media Group, Department of Anatomy, Cambridge University and especially John Bashford and Ian Bolton were extremely helpful in photographing large and delicate materials and in stitching together large images that were scanned in two or more parts.


Important new manuscript transcriptions have been provided by Gordon Chancellor, Richard Darwin Keynes, Karen Parr, Margaret Bardy, Richard Carter and Robert Brown. Alistair Sponsel contributed his carefully transcribed and edited transcription of Darwin's Keeling Islands notes. K. Thalia Grant and Gregory B. Estes have valiantly transcribed and edited Darwin's geological notes from the Galapagos islands here. Clare Ring kindly transcribed geological notes from Chiloe. Anders Hansson and Adrian Bradbury contributed a translation of Hans Richter's account of his meeting with Darwin. Peter Lucas provided his transcription of Lowe's diary recording Darwin in Wales in 1831. Clark Peddicord suggested an alternative reading of a word in Notebook M. David Price, Derek Thompson, David Clifford, Ian Johnston, the University of Michigan Digital Library Production Service, Jim Endersby and Pavel Borodin have made important contributions of electronic texts.

Corrections and assistance

The support, help, advice and invaluable expertise of two of the foremost Darwin scholars, Janet Browne and Jim Secord, has not only made Darwin Online possible, but greatly contributed to its current form and academic merit. The debt of Darwin Online, and of John van Wyhe especially, is simply immeasurable. Everyone involved with Darwin Online, and indeed all who will read or use Darwin's writings and the other materials online, are deeply in their debt.

John Norman, Director of CARET at the University of Cambridge, generously provided fast, high-quality server facilities from 2006-2012. The debt owed to Dr Norman and to CARET cannot be overestimated. Daniel Parry was also very helpful in securing the unpublished test version of the new Darwin Online website in 2006. A much greater debt is owed to Parry since he almost single handedly, with the aid of Antranig Basman, enabled the site to survive the onslaught of millions of hits on launch day. Daniel Parry and Sultan Kus provided prompt and friendly assistance with server connection issues.

Sue Asscher has, with great enthusiasm and aplomb, tirelessly transcribed and corrected an enormous range of texts for Darwin Online since 2002. A very considerable percentage of Darwin Online is due to her valiant, unselfish efforts. Sue also doggedly renamed thousands of manuscript images according to the Darwin Online manuscript catalogue.

Fred Burkhardt, Gordon Chancellor, Jakub Jakubowski, Daniel Schuemann and Duncan Porter kindly sent corrections to Freeman's bibliography and Companion. Carl Fisher helpfully contributed details of Darwin's membership of The Shropshire and North Wales Natural History and Antiquarian Society for inclusion in the revisions to Freeman's Companion.

Gordon Chancellor received assistance from the Royal College of Surgeons while they were custodians of the Beagle field notebooks.

Over several years Randal Keynes (Darwin's great-great-grandson) provided particularly valuable encouragement, support and advice at many levels as well as contributing to Darwin Online. Nick Gill kindly gave crucial support in the adaptation of part of his magnificent catalogue of the Darwin Archive at Cambridge University Library.

Other important advice and assistance has been kindly given by Rob Iliffe, Director of the Newton Project, Adam Perkins, Archivist at Cambridge University Library, Pietro Corsi, Director of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck: works and heritage, The Arts and Humanities Data Service - History, Patrick Zutshi, David Norman, Malcolm Bowie, The Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Fred Burkhardt, Jim Secord, Duncan Porter, Shelley Innes, Rosemary Clarkson, Andrew Sclater, Alison Pearn, Peter Kjærgaard, Adrian Desmond and Alex Japha.

A particular debt is owed to Michael Hawkins, of the Newton Project, who created the original OS code on which the image representation is based. Some of the image navigation buttons on the image viewer are also borrowed from the Newton Project. Thomas Kirk of the University Press Office was extremely helpful during the busy run up to launching the site and the onslaught of media attention which followed when the story went viral.

James Moore lent a set of the The Correspondence of Charles Darwin [Moore took the set back in October 2009] and Uigeverij Nieuwezijds in Amsterdam sent a set of Darwin's works in Dutch. Alberto Gomis generously sent a copy of his bibliography of Darwin in Spain, and later the second edition. Mrs Doreen Speare, who lives in the house where Anne Elizabeth Darwin died in 1851, kindly contributed the 1905 edition of Voyage of the Beagle. Ludmilla Jordanova helpfully donated book cases. Simon Keynes kindly lent photographic equipment.

Special thanks are also due to R. Kumar and Mohan Thas S. and their team at AEL Data for their patience with academic requirements and willingness to re-do work until it was deemed just right.

Ted Krawec, Solicitor / Copyright Officer University of Cambridge, Legal Services Office, gave helpful, sympathetic and practical advice and assistance of great importance both before and after the launch of the new Darwin Online website.

The Editorial advisory panel, Joe Cain, Pietro Corsi, Thomas Glick, Jon Hodge, Mario di Gregorio, Randal Keynes, Rob Iliffe and Patrick Zutshi patiently endured countless questions and helped generously in many ways. But they are not responsible for any errors or shortcomings in Darwin Online.

Godfrey Waller and the staff of the Manuscripts Reading Room at Cambridge University Library have been extremely helpful and supportive. Gerry Bye, Ruth Long and the Imaging Services Cambridge University Library were helpful in many ways including the delivery of three large boxes of Darwin microfilms which the project purchased from Cambridge University Library.

Other vital assistance was kindly provided by Clair Castle, MCLIP, Librarian and Jane Acred, Assistant Librarian of the Balfour & Newton Libraries, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge; Ann Charlton, Senior Museum Technician and Archivist and Russell Stebbings, Senior Museum Technician and Insect Room Assistant, University Museum of Zoology, University of Cambridge and Christine Alexander, Assistant Librarian of the Library of the Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge.

Gavin Alexander, Fellow Librarian of Christ's College, Candace Guite, College Librarian, Colin Higgins, Assistant College Librarian, and Ann Keith, Rare Books Cataloguer have been extremely helpful and patient with numerous enquiries about their books and collections and provided important photocopies, permissions and generous assistance on many occassions.

Peter C. Kjærgaard and his hard-working team of student volunteers at the University of Aarhus, Denmark, by scanning Danish translations of Darwin, correcting OCRed text and writing English overviews and introductions created a stunning and important model that, it is hoped, others will follow. See Darwin in Denmark. Hanne Strager helped by sending scans of the manuscript barnacle list in Copenhagen.

Antranig Basman has worked far beyond the call of duty on all technical matters on Darwin Online, particularly in writing the software which allows text and images to be viewed side-by-side, the permanent URL system, the image viewing facility (based on that of the Newton Project) and the database and search engine which required endless fine tuning. Charmaine Low provided web design assistance to further enhance the appearance of the site in November 2012. In 2014 Karen Ang provided assistance with updating the appearance of the site and with designing the appearance of the Beagle Library pages.

Kees Rookmaaker has worked extremely hard and carefully in research and transcribing for Darwin Online, creating and editing databases, proofreading, and has tirelessly fetched books and photocopies from all over Cambridge and several books, because missing page scans were later discovered, more than once. His hard work and skillful attention makes vast tracts of Darwin's handwritten corpus readable and searchable to the world.

Gordon Chancellor has also made an enormous contribution. Firstly with his 116,000 words of handwritten working transcriptions of the Beagle field notebooks, several valuable books lent for scanning, further transcriptions, many valuable introductions to Darwin's books in Darwin Online as well as his energy, incomparable expertise and generous and helpful support on a wide range of matters.

David Sedley and David Butterfield kindly helped with the translation of a Latin quotation. Marsha Richmond provided an important introduction to Darwin's barnacle studies. Daniel Pauly provided an introduction to the Fish part of Zoology and his annotated transcription of the work in one volume. Susannah Wilson and Sharon Messenger kindly provided English translations to the French quotations in Expression. Pedro Navarro has provided extensive assistance with Brazilian translations, research and transcriptions. Cemil Ozan Ceyhan kindly contributed images of his collection of Darwin stamps. Stephen M. Woodburn, Andrew M. Drozd, Brendan G. Mooney provided edited translations of Russian reviews of Darwin's works.

Christine Chua has made the most substantial contributions of any volunteer with the project including adding hundreds of references to the Freeman Bibliographical Database, contributed scans of Darwin's works in more than ten further languages, transcribed the entirety of Emma Darwin's diary and made literally thousands of other corrections, transcriptions and additions to Darwin Online. Vast tracts of Darwin's writings are now readable and searchable for readers around the world.

Help from readers

Valuable corrections and assistance have been helpfully provided by readers and users of the websites including James Moore, Chris Haley, Aileen Fyfe, David Clifford, Mike Hopkins, Pete Goldie, the staff of the Darwin Correspondence Project, Greig Russell, Ulrich Heinen, Jaromir Kopecek, Randal Keynes, Andrew Sclater, Matt McGill, Rainer Matte, William Howarth, Michael Barton, Mitsuru Aimi, Henk Smout, Kees Rookmaaker, Antranig Basman, Geoffrey Martin, Adrian Desmond, James Sumner, Rebekah Higgitt, Ki Anderson, Peter C. Kjærgaard, Stine Grumsen, Richard Noakes, Rebecca Stott, D. Parashchak, Wesley Collins, Melvin Jefferson, J. David Archibald, Heinz Alfred Gemeinhardt of the Stadtsarchiv Reutlingen, Carolyn Kopp, Larry Zbikowski, David Allan Feller, Kim Dammers, John S. Wilkins, Gregory C. Mayer, Kenneth Bergman, John Ransom, Alexandra Caccamo, Librarian National Botanic Gardens, Dublin, Andy Rix, Jeff Ollerton, Martin Rudwick, Thomas Glick, Martin Willis, Co-Director, Research Centre for Literature, Arts and Science, University of Glamorgan, Daniel Glaser, R. Killick-Kendrick, Samantha Evans, Lynne Childers, Paul Sammut, Liesbeth Missel, Holger Pedersen, John Woram, Thomas Waschke, James Taylor, Louise Foster, Fabio Brambilla, Allan Milgate, Brian Rosen, Mary Spencer Jones, Dig Hadoke, Dave Souza, Ray Martinez, John Colman, Helena Barbas, Stephen Walker, Aurélien Berra, John Runnels, Dietrich Meyer, Sara Moralioglu, Jonathan Sambrook, Bill Collins, Anders Ruby, Andres Sanjuan, Cor Massar, Milton Forsyth, Tom Gilissen, Thalia Grant, Louis Caron, Henry Herepton, Bill Harris, John T. Cot, Mark Carter, Tim Bailey, David Blackburn, Thomas M. M. Gordon, Justin Croft, Bert Theunissen, Jeremy Winston, Alejandro Thamm, Charles Smith, Dan J. Bye, Heather Atkins, Jeff Moore, Michael Ghiselin, Jon Hodge, Anna Mayer, Paul Handford, Alan Canon, Wen Qing Ng, the Sociedad de Biología de Chile, Richard Aaron, Adrian Bradbury, James Costa, Evan Kladidis, Michael John DiSanto, Jonathan Jackson, Maurice McCarthy, Anne Secord, Charles Pence, David Taylor, Gillian Feeley-Harnik, Patricia Boyd, Joseph Marschall, Steven Byrnes, Bill Cotter, Steve Sheppard, Cemil Ozan Ceyhan, Jonathan Blake, James Hull, Anniece Ross, Renato Bender, Devin Griffiths, Jim Peterson, Joseph Yannielli, Bob Chevalier, Rodolfo J. Alaniz, Malgosia Nowak-kemp, Keith W. Larson, Michelle Frank, Olivia Judson, Hesham Sabry, Thomas L. Edsall, Brad Peatross, Charis Zhen Chia, Vimala Asty Fitra Tunggal Jaya, Terry Pyle, John Ptak, Joey Simand Ang, Theresa Wong, Moira White, Christine Chua, Toon van der Ouderaa, Eli Mantel, F. Précy, the Library of the Zoological Institute, St. Petersburg, James Kruk, J. Podani, Ken Bretherton, Diane L. Ritter, Michael B. Roberts, Alberto Gomis Blanco & Jaume Josa Llorca, Emma Pease, Egor Ananyev, Sam Evans, Michael Kogan, Paolo Coccia, Michael Wäser, Miguel Franco, Jie Ying Ong, Joachim Dagg, Jeremy Parrott, Keith S. Taber, Caroline Lam, C. S. Knighton, Graziano Ferrari, Alberto Comastri and Mary Hague-Yearl of the Osler Library of the History of Medicine, McGill University. Many thanks also for assistance to Anke Timmerman, Axel Gelfert, Kelvin Wee Chee Yee, Michael Roberts, Jennifer Nieves, Liz Mcgow, Mary Winsor, Will Beharrel, Joseph Azizi, Zoë Hill, David J. Gary, Kelsey Berryhill, Peter Lucas, Kate Bond, Malcolm Kottler, John Maindonald, Christopher Jones, Sjon Woodlyn and Beatriz Aguirre-Urreta.

After the project moved to the National University of Singapore important assistance was received from the Department of Biological Sciences, Paul Matsudaira, Al Davis, Dee Dupuy, Lisa Lau Li-Cheng, Yee Ngoh Chan, Nursyidah Binti Mansor, Ann Nee Yong, Soh Fun Lai, Soong Beng Ching, Laurence Gwee, Hew Choy Leong, Greg Clancey, Richard Corlett, Theo Evans amongst others.

John van Wyhe

7 May, 2024


File last up7 May, 2024e -->e -->