What's new

Darwin Online is by far the largest Darwin resource/publication in the world—and probably the most comprehensive scholarly website on any historical person. It contains 204,300 searchable text pages, including 19,330 pages of newly transcribed manuscripts, 233,700 page images, 103,300 scans of manuscripts, 3,674 PDFs, 10,000 illustrations in books, Darwin's writings in 29 languages, 7,000 bibliographical records and 76,145 manuscript/archival records (with thousands of new corrections and additions). The majority of have been edited and annotated here for the first time with hundreds of new editorial introductions and more than 6,000 new editorial notes. Significant additions and discoveries are listed on this page.

2022, 05.19

Before the definitive edition of Darwin's correspondence began to appear in 1985, very many Darwin letters had appeared here and there in print. Not only do these letters count as unique Darwin publications (if previously unpublished), but they reveal what primary source information was available in the public domain by a certain date. We have added over seventy more publications with Darwin letters.

Darwin, C. R. 1881. Une Lettre de Darwin [to Emily Talbot]. Journal général de l'Instruction publique (December): 805-6. Text PDF F3420

Darwin, C. R. 1882. [Letter to W. B. Carpenter, 1860]. In Carpenter, Charles Darwin: his life and work. Modern Review 3: 500-24, p. 521. Text F4054

Darwin, C. R. 1882. [Letters to Isaac Anderson-Henry]. In John Hutton Balfour, Obituary Notice of Charles Robert Darwin. Transactions and Proceedings of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh 14: 286-87. Text F4050

Darwin, C. R. 1882. [Letter to H. W. Crosskey and the Birmingham Philosophical Society, 1880]. Death of Charles Darwin, F.R.S. Birmingham Daily Post (21 April): 4. Text F3426

Darwin, C. R. 1883. Darwin sur la Révélation. Revue d'anthropologie, 6: 185-6. Text F3419

Darwin, C. R. 1884. [Letter extract from 1881 and recollection of Darwin's words]. In R. Meldola, The presidential address: Darwin and modern evolution. Transactions of the Essex Field Club 3: 64-93. Text F3396

Darwin, C. R. 1885. [Letters to Henry Fawcett. 1861]. In Stephen, Leslie, Life of Henry Fawcett. London,pp. 100-2. Text F3374

Darwin, C. R. 1887. [Letter to T. Mellard Reade, 1880]. The theories of the origin of coral reefs and islands. Nature. Text PDF F3437

Darwin, C. R. 1890. [Letter to P. H. Gosse, 1863]. In E. W. Gosse, The life of Philip Henry Gosse F.R.S. London: Kegan Paul, pp. 299-300. Text PDF F4051

Darwin, C. R. 1890. [Letters to Leonard Horner, 1846, 1847 and 1861]. In Katherine Murray Lyell ed. Memoir of Leonard Horner, F.R.S., F.G.S. Consisting of letters to his family and from some of his friends. 2 vols. London: privately printed, vol. 2. Text PDF F3432

Darwin, C. R. 1891. [Letter to Milne Home, 1840]. In G., Milne Home ed., Biographical sketch of David Milne Home LL.D., F.R.S.E, F.G.S, etc. Edinburgh: David Douglas, pp. 67-69. Text F4048

Darwin, C. R. 1892. [Letters to H. W. Bates, 1860-1863]. In E. C. Clodd, Memoir on H. W. Bates, naturalist on the River Amazons. London, pp. xxx-lxii. Text F3375

Darwin, C. R. 1893. [Letter to Asa Gray] In Gray, Jane Loring, ed., Letters of Asa Gray. 2 vols. Boston and New York, vol. 2, p. 557. F2110

Darwin, C. R. 1894. [Letter to Charles Bradlaugh, 1877]. In Bonner, Hypatia Bradlaugh, Charles Bradlaugh: a record of his life and work. 2 vols. London, p. 24. [CUL-DAR202.32] Text F3382

Darwin, C. R. 1894. [Letters to Richard Owen, 1848, 1852 and 1859]. In Owen, Richard, The life of Richard Owen. 2 vols. London, pp. 209; 407-8; 90-4. Text PDF F3401

Darwin, C. R. 1896. [Letters to James Croll 1868-71, 1877]. In Irons, James Campbell, Autobiographical sketch of Dr. Croll with memoir of his life and work. London, pp. 200-3; 215-7; 220-2; 257-8; 324.Text PDF F3402

Darwin, C. R. 1896. [Letter to D. T. Ansted, 1860]. In Raphael Meldola, The president's address. The utility of specific characters and physiological correlation. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London. lxii-xcii, pp. lxv-lxvi. Text F4055

Darwin, C. R. 1897. [Letter to William Pengelly, 1873]. In Hester Pengelly ed., A memoir of William Pengelly of Torquay, F.R.S., geologist, with a selection from his correspondence. London: John Murray, pp. 229-30. Text PDF F3376

Darwin, C. R. 1898. [Letters to Max Müller and recollections of Darwin]. In Friedrich Max Müller, Auld lang syne. London, pp, 201, 202, 204. Text F3383

Darwin, C. R. 1900. [Letters to Grant Allen, 1879-1882]. In Edward Clodd, Grant Allen: A memoir with bibliography. London. Text PDF F3429

Darwin, C. R. 1900. [Letters to Huxley and words attributed to Darwin]. In Huxley, Leonard, Life and letters of Thomas Henry Huxley. 2 vols. London. Text F3433

Darwin, C. R. 1901. [Letter to James Paget, 1873]. In Stephen Paget, ed. Memoirs and letters of Sir James Paget. London, New York, and Bombay, p. 287. Text F3377

Darwin, C. R. 1902. [Letters to George Grey, John Lort Stokes and Edgar Leopold Layard, 1846, 1847 & 1855 (Layard)]. Letters to Sir George Grey. New Zealand Herald, (6 September): 1. Text PDF F3373

Darwin, C. R. 1902-3. [Letter to Max Müller, 1873]. In Georgina Max Müller, Life and letters of Friedrich Max Müller. 2 vols. London, vol. 1, p. 478. Text F3384

Darwin, C. R. 1904. [Letter to Annie Dowie, regarding Chambers and Vestiges] In Eliza Chambers Priestley, The story of a lifetime, by Lady Priestley. London: Gilbert & Rivington, p. 16. Text F2263

Darwin, C. R. 1905. [Letter to John Phillips, 1859]. In Sollas, The age of the earth and other geological studies, London, pp. 99; 251-3. Text PDF F3378

Darwin, C. R. 1907. [Three letters to G. G. Stokes]. In Larmor, Joseph, ed., Memoir and scientific correspondence of the late Sir George Gabriel Stokes, Bart. 2 vols. Cambridge. Text PDF F3403

Darwin, C. R. 1908. [Letters to Herbert Spencer and J. D. Hooker, 1858, 1860, 1866, 1867]. In David Duncan, The life and letters of Herbert Spencer. London, pp. 87, 98, 125, 150. Text PDF F3379

Darwin, C. R. 1908. [Letter to Richard Spruce. 1869]. In Spruce, Richard, Notes of a botanist on the Amazon and Andes. Edited by Alfred Russel Wallace. 2 vols. London, pp. 385-6. Text PDF F3380

Darwin, C. R. 1909. [Letter to Joseph Leidy, 1861]. In H. F. Osborn, Darwin and paleontology. Fifty years of Darwinism; modern aspects of evolution; centennial addresses in honor of Charles Darwin. American Association for the Advancement of Science. New York: H. Holt & Co., pp. 209-210. Text F4056

Darwin, C. R. 1912-21. [Letters to Fritz Müller] In Möller, Alfred, ed. 1912-21. Fritz Müller: Werke, Briefe und Leben 2vols. Jena. Text F4047

Darwin, C. R. 1913. [Letter to Alexander Agassiz, 1871, 1881]. In Agassiz, G. R., ed., Letters and recollections of Alexander Agassiz. Boston and New York, pp. 118-19; 162-3; 282-3. Text PDF F3381

Darwin, C. R. 1913. [Letter to Eben Jenks Loomis, 1881]. In Todd, Millicent. Eben Jenks Loomis. Cambridge, Mass., p. 20. Text F3404

Darwin, C. R. 1917. [Letter to James Geikie, 1876]. In Newbigin, Marion I., and Flett, J. S., James Geikie. The man and the geologist. Edinburgh and London, p. 27.  Text F3505

Darwin, C. R. 1914. [Letters to John Lubbock and Lubbock's recollections of Darwin]. In Horace Gordon Hutchinson, Life of Sir John Lubbock, Lord Avebury. 2 vols. London. Text PDF F3385

Darwin, C. R. 1914. [Letter to G. R. Waterhouse, 1850]. In Horace Gordon Hutchinson, Life of Sir John Lubbock, Lord Avebury. London, vol. 2, pp. 269-70. Text F3386

Darwin, C, R. 1916-18. [Letters to J. D. Hooker and recollections of Darwin, 1842-81]. In Huxley, Leonard, Life and letters of Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker. 2 vols. London. Text F3390

Darwin, C. R. 1919. [Letter to William Turner, 1866, 1867, 1871]. In A. Logan turner, Sir William Turner. K.C.B., F.RS., Professor of Anatomy and Principal and Vice-Chancellor of the University of Edinburgh, a chapter in medical history. Edinburgh and London, pp. 182-3; 186-9. Text PDF F3387

Darwin, C. R. 1921. [Letter to Alfred Newton, 1867]. In Wollaston, Alexander Frederick Richmond, Life of Alfred Newton: Professor of Comparative Anatomy, Cambridge University, 1866-1907. London, pp. 294-5. Text PDF F3388

Darwin, C. R. 1921. [Letters to Fritz Müller]. In Alfred Möller ed., Fritz Müller. Werke, Briefe und Leben. 3 vols. in 5. Jena: Gustav Fischer, vol. 2 Briefe. Text F4047

Darwin, C. R. 1922. [Letter to R. H. Meade, 1860]. Obituary Notices of Fellows deceased.  Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 93, no. 655 (1 July): x-xix. Text PDF F3406

Darwin, C. R. 1923. [Letter to Smith, Elder and Co., 1863]. In Leonard Huxley, The House of Smith Elder. London: Smith, Elder, & Co., p. 23. Text F4066

Darwin, C. R. 1923. [Letter to W. M. Canby] In Jones, Frank Morton, 'The most wonderful plant in the world'. Nat. Hist. 23: 589-6. PDF F3427

Darwin, C. R. 1924. [Letter to Joseph Lister, 1878]. In Godlee, Rickman J., Lord Lister, Oxford, p. 310. Text F3389

Darwin, C. R. 1926. [Letter to T. H. Huxley] In Osborn, H. F., A priceless Darwin letter. Science 64: 476-7. Text F3391

Darwin, C. R. 1926. [Letters to Forchhammer]. Clément, Breve til og fra J. F. Forchhammer. III. J. G. Forchhammer og Charles Darwin, 1849-1850. Text PDF F4053

Darwin, C. R. 1929. [Letter to W. W. Baxter, 1873, and recollections of Darwin]. In William Baxter, Darwin's old home. Personal recollections of the great scientist. Bromley and District Times, (13 September): 3. Text Image PDF F3436

Darwin, C. R. 1931. [Letters to Lewis Henry Morgan, 1870-2, 1877]. In Bernhard J. Stern, Lewis Henry Morgan- social evolutionist. Chicago, pp. 28-9; 48; 85-6; 106. Text PDF F3392

Darwin, C. R. 1932. [Letter to John Murray, 1859] In Paston, George (pseud. for Emily Morse Symonds), At John Murray's- records of a literary circle. 1843-1892. London, pp. 168-7. Text PDF F3407

Darwin, C. R. 1932. [Letters to J. T. Gulick, 1872 and recollection of Darwin]. In Addison Gulick, Evolutionary and missionary: John Thomas Gulick. Chicago, pp. 233-5. Text PDF F3393

Darwin, C. R. 1935. [Letter to Giovanni Canestrini, fasc.]. In Canestrini family, Nel centenario dalla nascita di Giovanni Canestrini. Trento. PDF F3409

Darwin, C. R. 1936. Three unpublished letters of Charles Darwin [to William Benjamin Carpenter, 1860, 1873, 1882]. Nature 137 (7 March): 400. Text PDF F3371

Darwin, C. R. 1937. [Letter to Cuthbert Collingwood, 1861]. In Sarton, G. Darwin's conception of the theory of natural selection. Isis 26: 336-40. Text PDF F3408

Darwin, C. R. 1939. [Letters to Asa Gray]. In Historical Records Survey Division of Professional and Service Projects, Works Projects Administration. Calendar of the letters of Charles Robert Darwin to Asa Gray. Boston. PDF F3400

Darwin, C. R. 1947. [Letter to C. H. Blackley, 1873]. In Albert E. Lownes, Charles Darwin to Charles Harrison Blackley: an early chapter on pollen allergy. Isis 37: 21-4. Text PDF F3394

Darwin, C. R. 1951. [Letters to Jeffries Wyman, 1860-66]. In A. H. Dupree, Some letters from Charles Darwin to Jeffries Wyman. Isis 42: 104-10. Text F4058

Darwin, C. R. 1955. [Letters to Alphonse de Candolle]. In Baehni, C, Correspondance de Charles Darwin et d'Alphonse de Candolle, Gesnerus, 12(3-4), 109-56. CUL-DAR258.2039. Text PDF F3399

Darwin, C. R. 1959. [Letter fragment to T. W. Woodbury, 1863]. In Brian, A. D. and Crane, E. E. Charles Darwin and bees. Bee world 40: 297-303, p. 299. Text F4065

Darwin, C. R. 1960. [Letter to Louis Agassiz, 1841-1866] In Lurie, Edward, Louis Agassiz: a life in science. University of Chicago Press. Text F3395

Darwin, C. R. 1962. [Letter to J. D. Dana, 1851 and 1863]. In Rezneck, Samuel. Notes on a correspondence between Charles Darwin and James Dwight Dana, 1861-63. Yale University Library Gazette 36: 176-83. Text F3410

Darwin, C. R. 1964. [Letter to Charles Babbage, 1838]. In Moseley, Maboth, Irascible genius: a life of Charles Babbage. London. Text F3411

Darwin, C. R. 1965. [Letter to Charles Renard: Imperial Society of Naturalists of Moscow, 1870]. In Stecher, Robert M., and Klavins, Jams V., Charles Darwin and the Moscow Society of Naturalists. Journal of the History of Medicine. 20: 157-61. Text F3412

Darwin, C. R. 1972. [Letters to Charles Lyell] In Wilson, Leonard G., Charles Lyell: the years to 1841: the revolution in geology. Text F3413

Darwin, C. R. 1972. [Letter to Mrs. Whitby] In Colp, Ralph, Jr., Charles Darwin and Mrs. Whitby. Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 2d ser. 48: 870-76. Text F3414

Darwin, C. R. 1972. [Letter to Lawrence Ruck and reminiscences of Darwin]. In Berta Ruck, Ancestral voices. London, pp. 223-6; 228-9. Text F3398

Darwin, C. R. 1972. [Letter to Alexander von Humboldt, 1839]. In Barrett, Paul H. and Alain F. Corcos, A letter from Alexander Humboldt to Charles Darwin. Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 27, no. 2 (April): 159-72. Text F3434

Darwin, C. R. 1974. [Letters to Robert Fitch, 1849-51]. In Trenn, Thaddeus J., Charles Darwin, fossil cirripedes, and Robert Fitch: presenting sixteen hitherto unpublished Darwin letters of 1849-1851. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 118: 471-91. Text F3415

Darwin, C. R. 1974. [Letters to Walsh, 1864-66]. In Walsten, David M., Darwin's backwoods correspondent: letters between Charles Darwin and Illinois naturalist Benjamin D. Walsh. Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin, 45: 8-9, 12-15. Text F3416

Darwin, C. R. 1975. [Letter to Edward Lumb, 1834]. In J. H. Winslow, Mr Lumb and Masters Megatherium: an unpublished letter by Charles Darwin from the Falklands. Journal of Historical Geography 1: 347-60, pp. 348, 350. Text F4057

Darwin, C. R. 1980. [Letter to T. N. Staley, 1874]. In Plews, John H. R., Charles Darwin and Hawaiian sex ratios, or, genius is a capacity for making compensating errors. Hawaiian Journal of History 14: 26-49. Text F3417

Darwin, C. R. 1982. [Letter to Mrs Stutchbury, 1854]. In L. Harrison Matthews, Samuel Stutchbury and Darwin's cirripedes. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 36: 261-6. Text F3372

Darwin, C. R. 1985. [Extract of a letter to Marian Evans, 30 March 1873 and recollections of the Darwins]. In G. S. Haight ed., Selections from George Eliot's letters, New Haven: Yale University Press, pp. 416; 434. Text F3397


2022, 05.18

Today we have added one of the most charming and interesting recollections of Darwin by someone who knew him. William Baxter was the son of the chemist in nearby Bromley who supplied Darwin with chemicals for his experiments as well as conventional medicines. The younger Baxter attended the opening of Down House as a museum on 7 June 1929 and this extraordinary though brief article was the result.

Darwin, C. R. 1929. [Letter to W. W. Baxter, 1873, and recollections of Darwin]. In William Baxter, Darwin's old home. Personal recollections of the great scientist. Bromley and District Times, (13 September): 3. Text Image PDF F3436

2022, 05.17

Darwin's many contributions to the Gardeners' Chronicle are well known, but one has evaded notice until now.

Darwin, C. R. 1879. [Letter to Wilson, 1878]. In A. Stephen Wilson, Experiments with Kubanka and Saxonica wheat. Gardeners' Chronicle. Text Image PDF F3428

2022, 05.15

We have found two more previously unknown Darwin letters!

Darwin, C. R. 1840. [Letter to Eugène Robert, 1838]. In Robert, Voyage en Islande et au Groënland exécuté pendant les années 1835 et 1836 sur la corvette La Recherche. Text Image PDF F3418

Darwin, C. R. 1876. [Letter to Zacharias, 1875?]. In Zacharias, Darwins Einwände gegen die Cohn'sche Hypothese über die Befruchtungs= und Vererbungsvorgänge. Das Ausland. Text Image PDF F3421
Dutch: Text PDF F3423

2022, 05.12

Many 19th-century German translations of Darwin's publications have remained uncatalogued. We have recently added forty-seven translations to the Freeman Bibliographical Database and added copies to Darwin Online:

Darwin, C. R. 1885. [Extract from Memoir of Professor Henslow]. In E. Krause, Charles Darwin und sein Verhältnis zu Deutschland, pp. 14-15. Text F4041

Darwin, C. R. 1885. [Extracts from letters addressed to Professor Henslow (abridged)]. In E. Krause, Charles Darwin und sein Verhältnis zu Deutschland, pp. 21-33. Text F4042

Darwin, C. R. 1885. [Letters to Fritz Müller, Hermann Müller, J. V. Carus and Ernst Haeckel]. In E. Krause, Charles Darwin und sein Verhältnis zu Deutschland, pp. 124-233. Text F4043

Ernst Krause ed., Gesammelte kleinere Schriften von Charles Darwin. Ein Supplement zu seinen grosseren Werken:

Fragmente über den Instinkt. PDF F4034

1882. [Extracts from Darwin's notes.] In Romanes, Animal intelligence. Text Image PDF F1416

Das Wahrnehmungsvermögen bei niedriger stehenden Tieren. PDF F4000

1873. Perception in the lower animals. Nature. 7 (13 March): 360. Text Image PDF F1810

Ererbte Instinkte. PDF F4001

1873. Inherited instinct. Nature. 7 (13 February): 281. Text Image PDF F1757

Über den Ursprung gewisser Instinkte. PDF F4002

1873. Origin of certain instincts. Nature. 7 (3 April): 417-418. Text Image PDF F1760

Zusatz. PDF F4003

1876. Cherry blossoms. Nature. 14 (11 May): 28. Text Image PDF F1772

Über die Lebensweise des Pampasspechts. PDF F4004

1870 Notes on the habits of the pampas woodpecker (Colaptes campestris). Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. Text Image PDF F1750

Die parasitischen Gewohnheiten von Molothrus. PDF F4005

1881 The parasitic habits of Molothrus. Nature. Text Image PDF F1798

Die Gewohnheiten der Ameisen. PDF F4006

1873. Habits of ants. Nature. Text Image PDF F1761

Fruchtbarkeit von Bastarden zwischen der gemeinen und der chinesischen Gans. PDF F4007

1880. Fertility of hybrids from the common and Chinese goose. Nature. Text Image PDF F1786

Über die Verbreitung der Süsswassermuscheln. PDF F4008

1882. On the dispersal of freshwater bivalves. Nature. Text Image PDF F1802

Über die Wirkung des Seewassers auf die Keimung der Samen. PDF F4009

1857. On the action of sea-water on the germination of seeds. Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London (Botany). Text Image PDF F1694

Pangenesis. PDF F4010

1871. Pangenesis. Nature. Text Image PDF F1751

Über die Männchen und klomplementären Männchen gewisser Ranken-füssler und über rudimentare Bildungen. PDF F4011

1873. On the males and complemental males of certain cirripedes, and on rudimentary structures. Nature. 8 (25 September): 431-432. Text Image PDF F1762

Erster Zusatz, von G. H. Darwin. PDF F4012

 Darwin, G. H. 1873. Variations of organs. Nature. 8 (16 October): 505. Text Image PDF F1763

Zweiter Zusatz. PDF F4013

1879. Fritz Müller on a frog having eggs on its back - on the abortion of the hairs on the legs of certain caddis-flies, &c. Nature. 19 (20 March): 462-463. Text Image PDF F1784

Die geschlechtlichen Färbungen gewisser Schmetterlinge. PDF F4014

1880. The sexual colours of certain butterflies. Nature. 21 (8 January): 237.Text Images PDF F1787

Die geschlechtliche Zuchtwahl in Bezug auf die Affen. PDF F4015

1876. Sexual selection in relation to monkeys. Nature. 15 (2 November): 18-19. Text Image PDF F1773

Beobachtungen über den Bau und die Fortpflanzung der Gattung Sagitta. PDF F4016

1844. Observations on the structure and propagation of the genus Sagitta. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, including zoology, botany, and geology 13 (81) (January): 1-6, 1 plate. Text Image PDF F1664

Kurze Beschreibung einiger auf der Erde lebender Plattwürmer, sowie einiger mariner Arten, nebst einem Bericht über ihre Gewohnheiten. PDF F4017

1844. Brief descriptions of several terrestrial planariæ, and of some remarkable marine species, with an account of their habits. Annals and Magazine of Natural History 14 (October): 241-251, 1 plate. Text Image PDF F1669

Über den sogenannten Hörsack der Rankenfüssler. PDF F4018

1863. On the so-called "auditory-sac" of Cirripedes. Natural History Review 3 (January): 115-116. Text Image PDF F1722

Die Einwirkung des Ammonium - Karbonats auf die Wurzeln gewisser Pflanzen. PDF F4019

1882. The action of carbonate of ammonia on chlorophyll-bodies. [Read 6 March] Journal of the Linnean Society of London (Botany) 19: 262-284. Text Image PDF F1801

Über die Befruchtung der Schminkbohnen. PDF F4020

1857. Bees and the fertilisation of kidney beans. Gardeners' Chronicle and Agricultural Gazette no. 43 (24 October): 725. Text Image PDF F1697

Über die Thätigkeit der Bienen bei der Befruchtung der Schmetterlingsblumen und über die Kreuzung der Schminkbohnen. PDF F4021

1858. On the agency of bees in the fertilisation of papilionaceous flowers, and on the crossing of kidney beans. Gardeners' Chronicle and Agricultural Gazette no. 46 (13 November): 828-829. Text Image PDF F1701

Die Befruchtung der Vinca-Arten. PDF F4022

1861. Fertilisation of Vincas. Gardeners' Chronicle and Agricultural Gazette no. 24 (15 June): 552. Text Image PDF F1836

Zusatz. PDF F4023

1861. Orchids, Fertilization of. Gardeners' Chronicle and Agricultural Gazette no. 37 (14 September): 831. Text Image PDF F1712

Die Befruchtung von Leschenaultia. PDF F4024

1871. Fertilisation of Leschenaultia. Gardeners' Chronicle and Agricultural Gazette no. 36 (9 September): 1166. Text Image PDF F1755

Die Befruchtung der Fumariaceen. PDF F4025

1874. Fertilisation of the Fumariaceæ. Nature. 9 (16 April): 460. Text Image PDF F1769

Fritz Müller über Blumen und Insekten. PDF F4026

1877. Fritz Müller on flowers and insects. Nature. 17 (29 November): 78-79. Text Image PDF F1781

Bewegungen der Blätter: Erste Mitteilung. PDF F4027

1881. Movements of plants. Nature. 23 (3 March): 409. Text Image PDF F1791

Bewegungen der Blätter: Zweite Mitteilung. PDF F4028

1881. The movements of leaves. Nature. 23 (28 April): 603-604.Text Image PDF F1794

Durch nächtliche Strahlung beschädigte Blätter. PDF F4029

1881. Leaves injured at night by free radiation. Nature. 24 (15 September): 459. Text Image PDF F1796

Über den Transport erratischer Blöcke von einem tieferen zu einem höheren Niveau. PDF F4030

1848. On the transportal of erratic boulders from a lower to a higher level. [Read 19 April.] Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London 4: 315-323. Text Image PDF F1677

Über das Vermögen der Eisberge, gradlinige, gleichgerichtete Schrammen auf einer unterseeischen wellenförmigen Oberfläche hervorzubringen. PDF F4031

1855. On the power of icebergs to make rectilinear uniformly-directed grooves across a submarine undulatory surface. The London, Edinburgh and Dublin Philosophical Magazine 10 (August): 96-98. Text Image PDF F1681

Bemerkung über einen in 16° südl. Breite auf einem Eisberge gesehenen Felsblock. PDF F4032

1839. Note on a rock seen on an iceberg in 61° south latitude. Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London 9 (March): 528-529. Text Image PDF F1652

Über den geringen Betrag der alluvialen Thätigkeit seit der Bildung der Simse im Roy-Thal. PDF F4033 [Section VIII only]

1839. Observations on the parallel roads of Glen Roy, and of other parts of Lochaber in Scotland, with an attempt to prove that they are of marine origin. [Read 7 February.] Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 129: 39-81. Text Image PDF F1653

Darwin, C. R. 1878. Kleinere geologische Abhandlungen. F1601:

Über die Geologie der Falkland-Inseln, pp. 1-1.1 PDF F4035

Über den Zusammenhang gewisser vulcanischer Erscheinungen in Süd-America, und über die Bildung von Bergketten und Vulcanen, als Wirkung derselben Kraft, duch welche Continente erhoben werden, pp. 12-53, 1 map. PDF F4036

Ueber die Verbreitung der erratischen Blöcke und über die gleichzeitigen nichtgeschichten Ablagerungen in Süd-America. PDF F4037

Ueber die von den alten Gletschern in Caernarvonshire hervorgebrachten Wirkungen und die von schwimmendem Eise transportierten erratischen Blöcke.  PDF F4038

Ueber die Bildung der Ackererde. PDF F4039

Beschreibung des feinen Staubes, welcher oft auf Schiffe im atlantischen Ocean fäll. PDF F4040


2022, 05.11

A newly discovered Darwin letter!

Darwin, C. R. 1882. [Letter to James Sinclair, 1882]. In Sigma [James Macdonald], Polled Aberdeen or Angus cattle. Origin and early history. National Live-Stock Journal. Text PDF F4045

Newly discovered Darwin publications:

Darwin, C. R. 1881. [Letter to Balfour, 1881]. In The works of Francis Maitland Balfour. Text F4062

Darwin, C. R. 1885. [Letter to G. A. Gaskell, 1878]. In Jane Hume Clapperton, Scientific meliorism and the evolution of happiness. Text F4063

Darwin, C. R. 1877. Die Stechpalme und die Bienen. Bienen Zeitung. PDF F4059

Darwin, C. R. 1880. [Letter to Moritz Wagner, 13 Oct. 1876]. In Wagner, Über die Entstehung der Arten durch Absonderung. Kosmos. Text F4044

Darwin, C. R. 1884. Der Instinkt. Eine nachgelassene Abhandlung. Kosmos. PDF F4061 [First German printing of the 'Essay on instinct']


2022, 04.19

On the occasion of the 140th anniversary of Darwin's death, we are providing the Darwin family's collection of letters and telegrams from his relatives, friends, contemporaries and institutions at home and abroad upon the news of his death in 1882. The messages, addressed to the Darwin family, expressed grief and sorrow, offered condolences, reminiscences and tributes to the scientific figure who had transformed our understanding of the world forever. Over ninety of these letters reveal intimate and personal sentiments felt by the sender. These have been transcribed for the first time, only on Darwin Online.

Galton, Francis. 1882.04.20. Letter to George Howard Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.7h

Lubbock, John. 1882.04.20. Letter to Francis Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.10n

Moore, Norman. 1882.04.20. Telegram to Francis Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.10o

Hooker, Joseph Dalton. 1882.04.21. Letter to Francis Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.10i

Huxley Thomas Henry. 1882.04.21. Letter to Francis Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.10k

Keller, [Christian]. 1882.04.21. Telegram to Francis Darwin. Image CUL-DAR215.6g

Lubbock, John, et al 1882.04.21. Letter to the Dean of Westminster. Text & image CUL-DAR215.4c-d

Papé, Charlotte. 1882.04.21. Letter to [Francis] Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.7k

Pritchard, Charles. 1882.04.21. Letter to George Howard Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.7n

Reinwald, Charles-Ferdinand. 1882.04.21. Telegram to Francis Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.10r

Stephen, Leslie. 1882.04.21. Letter to William Erasmus Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.7q

Spottiswoode, William. 1882.04.21. Letter to George Howard Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.5a

Tait, Lawson (Birmingham Philosophical Society). 1882.04.21. Telegram to Francis Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.12a

Thiselton-Dyer, William Turner. 1882.04.21. Letter to Francis Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.8g

Thomson, William. 1882.04.21; 1882.04.28. Letters to George Howard Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.12[.1]

Wiesner Julius. 1882.04.21. Letter to Francis Darwin. Image CUL-DAR215.8h

Ball, Robert S. 1882.04.22. Letter to George Howards Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.7c

Chaumont, Francis. 1882.04.22. Letter to William Erasmus Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.10c

Ferstendich, Albert. 1882.04.22. Telegram to Emma Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.10f

Harrison, Frederic. 1882.04.22. Letter to George Howard Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.7i

Huxley, T. H. 1882.04.22. Letter to George Howard Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.6c

Innes, John Brodie. 1882.04.22. Letter to Francis Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.8b

Lubbock, John. 1882.04.22. Letter to Francis Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.8c

Müller (Heinrich Ludwig) Hermann. 1882.04.22. Letter to Francis Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.8d

Rich, Anthony. 1882.04.22. Letter to George Howard Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.7o

Romanes, George John. 1882.04.22. Letter to Francis Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.8e

Universita di Napoli 1882.04.22. Telegram to [Francis] Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.12m

Weale, John (Clapham Scientific Society). 1882.04.22. Telegram to Francis Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.12e

Derby, Edward. 1882.04.23. Letter to William Erasmus Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.9a

Gifford, A. G. (Sedgwick Club). 1882.04.23. Letter to George Howard Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.11l

Gray, Asa. 1882.04.23. Letter to Francis Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.10h 

Lankester, Edwin Ray. [1882].04.23. Letter to Francis Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.9f

Lubbock, John. 1882.04.23. Letter to William Erasmus Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.6d

Newton, Alfred. 1882.04.23. Letter to George Howard Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.7j

Richter, Carolus (Karl). 1882.04.23. Telegram to the Darwin family. Text & image CUL-DAR215.10s

Bristowe, Henry Fox. 1882.04.24. Letter to George Howard Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.7d

Campbell, George (Duke of Argyll). 1882.04.24. Letter to George Howard Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.6a

Haeckel, Ernst. 1882.04.24. Letter to Francis Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.8a

Hawkshaw, John Clarke. 1882.04.24. Letter to Francis Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.9e

Moseley, H. N. 1882.04.24. Letter to Francis Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.12[.2]

Murray, John. [1882].04.24. Letter to William Erasmus Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.10p

Spencer, Herbert. [1882.04.24]. Letter to George Howard Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.7p

Spencer, Herbert. 1882.04.24. Letter to George Howard and Francis Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.8f

Spottiswoode, William. 1882.04.24. Letter to George Howard Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.5b

Students, Agricultural Academy in Petrovsky, Moscow. 1882.04.24. Telegram to Francis Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.12l

Allman, George James. 1882.04.25. Letter to George Howard Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.7a

Balfour, Francis Maitland. [1882.04.25]. Letter to George Howard Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.12[.3]

Bentham, George. 1882.04.25. Letter to Francis Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.9c

Cavendish, Sir William, 7th Duke of Devonshire. 1882.04.25. Letter to William Erasmus Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.6b

Circolo cacciatori Napoli. 1882.04.25. Telegram to [Francis] Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.12c

Fitzmaurice, Edmond. 1882.04.25. Letter to George Howard Darwin? Text & image CUL-DAR215.7g

Lubbock, John. 1882.04.25. Letter to William Erasmus Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.6e

Porter, James. 1882.04.25. Letter to George Howard Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.7m

Vries, Hugo de. 1882.04.25. Letter to Francis Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.9i

Donders, Franciscus Cornelis. 1882.04.26. Letter of condolence to Emma Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.7e

Estournelles, Jean. 1882.04.26. Telegram to George Howard Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.10e

Graham, William. 1882.04.26. Letter to Emma Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.10g

Paget, James. 1882.04.26. Letter to George Howard Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.6f

Société Zoologique de France. 1882.04.26. Telegram to the Darwin family. Text & images CUL-DAR215.12j

Vines, Sydney Howard. 1882.04.26. Letter to Francis Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.9h

Jersons, Henry (British and Foreign Unitarian Association). 1882.04.27. Letter to Carpenter, W.B. Text & image CUL-DAR215.11f

Farrer, Thomas H. 1882.04.28. Letter to George Howard Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.7f

Jevons, William Stanley. 1882.04.28. Letter to [George Howard] Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.10m

Moscow University Geological Department. 1882.04.28. Letter to George Howard Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.11o

Carus, Julius Victor. 1882.04.29. Letter to Francis Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.10b

Circolo aspiranti naturalisti Napoli. 1882.04.29. Telegram to [Francis] Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.12b

Gioventu universitaria Palermo. 1882.04.29. Telegram to the Darwin family. Text & image CUL-DAR215.12g

Hooker, Joseph Dalton. 1882.04.29. Letter to William Erasmus and George Howard Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.10j

Papé, Charlotte. 1882.04.29. Letter to [Francis] Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.7l

Simon, John. 1882.04.29. Letter to Sara Darwin née Sedgwick. Text & image CUL-DAR215.9b

Wilson, Hugh (West Kent Natural History, Microscopical and Photographic Society). 1882.04.29. Letter to Emma Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.11p

Carpenter, W. B. (British and Foreign Unitarian Association). 1882.04.30. Letter to Emma Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.11e

Studenti, Università di Bologna. 1882.04.30. Telegram to [Francis] Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.12k

Mantegazza, [Paolo], Società Antropologica Italiana. [1882.04]. Telegram to the Darwin family. Text & image CUL-DAR215.12i

Balfour, Francis Maitland. 1882.05.01. Letter to Emma Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.12[.4]

Chester, Joseph Lemuel. 1882.05.01. Letter to [Francis] Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.10d 

Huxley, Thomas Henry. 1882.05.01. Letter to William Erasmus and George Howard Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.10l

Etudiants de l'Université de Padove. 1882.05.01. Telegram to Francis Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.12f

Casse, J. (V. P. of Société Belge de Microscopie). 1882.05.02. Letter to Emma Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.11m

Jackson, Benjamin Daydon, (Secretary of the Linnean Society). 1882.05.02. Extract from minutes of meeting. Text & image CUL-DAR215.11i

Birmingham Philosophical Society. 1882.05.03. Letter to Emma Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.11d

Crosskey, Henry William (Birmingham Philosophical Society). 1882.05.03. Letter to Emma Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.11c

British Odontological Society. 1882.05.04. Letter to William Erasmus Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.11h

Sevill, John (Birmingham Natural History and Microscopical Society). 1882.05.04. Letter to William Erasmus Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.11b

Spencer, Herbert. 1882.05.04. Letter to [Francis] Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.10t

Vignoli, Tito. 1882.05.04. Letter to Darwin's sons. Text & image CUL-DAR215.10u

Jackson, Benjamin Daydon, (Secretary of the Linnean Society). 1882.05.05. Letter to Emma Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.11j

Prothero, George. 1882.05.05. Letter to [Francis?] Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.12[.5]

Reale Istituto Lombardo di Scienze e Lettere. 1882.05.05. Letter to Darwin Emma. Image CUL-DAR215.11k

Sclater, Philip Lutley (Zoological Society of London). 1882.05.05. Letter to Emma Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.11q

Stomar, John (University of London). 1882.05.09. Extract from minutes. Text & image CUL-DAR215.11n

Rudler, Frederick William. (Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland). 1882.05.06. Letter to William Erasmus Darwin. Text & image CUL- DAR215.11a

Circolo democratico studenti Ravenna. 1882.05.08. Telegram to the Darwin family. Text & image CUL-DAR215.12d


2022, 03.27

As part of his barnacle researches, Darwin examined different parts of barnacles under his microscope. He prepared permanent slides which were labelled with a number which corresponded to a hand-written catalogue. The catalogue has now been transcribed for the first time.

Darwin, C. R. [1854-1855]. Catalogue of the appendages and other parts of Cirripedes, mounted as microscopical slides. Text & images UMZC-Histories3.454

2022, 03.15

Darwin's influential 1877 article 'A biographical sketch of an infant' (F1779) has been translated into traditional Chinese by Meng-Hua Hung, a student from the department of Translation and Interpretation Studies, Chang Jung Christian University, Taiwan. The article has thus far also been translated into: 1914 Armenian (F1310). 1958 Chinese (F1310a). 1877 French (F1311), 1877 German (F1312), 1877 Greek (F2005). 1981 Italian (F2739) and 1877 Russian (F1314).

Darwin, C. R. 2022. 嬰兒簡略傳記. Mind. A Quarterly Review of Psychology and Philosophy 2 (7) (July 1877). Translated by Meng-Hua Hung for Darwin Online. Text F3367

2022, 01.04

Darwin, C. R. [Extract from letter to Samuel Butler]. In S. Butler, Evolution old and new. Athenaeum, (31 Jan.): 155. Text PDF F3366

Several new Italian reviews of Darwin's works have also been added from information kindly provided by Paolo Coccia.

2021, 12.31

We are pleased to share a previously unknown 1860 letter by Darwin to Henslow which mentions the recently published Origin of species: "My Book has been far more successful as yet, then I dreamed of." We were asked to add this letter to the manuscript items shared with Darwin Online by the same collection, which includes Darwin's November 1859 letter to Adam Sedwick on sending a copy of Origin of species. The collection can be found on the Manuscripts page under "Private Collection, USA".

Darwin, C. R. 1860.1.29. Letter to John Stevens Henslow. Edited by John van Wyhe (Darwin Online, http://darwin-online.org.uk/) Text & images PDF PC-USA-CDtoHenslow1860

2021, 11.18

Three newly discovered translations of Darwin and Darwin letters in print.

Darwin, C. R. 1881. Las vivisecciones y Carlos Darwin. El Siglo Médico (Madrid): 27. Text PDF F3358

Darwin, C. R. 1881. Darwin's oordeel over vivisectie. Album der Natuur, (Haarlem): 170. PDF F3359

Darwin, C. R. 1882. [Letter to N. A. von Mengden]. La Iberia (Madrid), no. 8017 (26 September): 2. Text PDF F3360

Darwin, C. R. 1940. [Letters to John Fiske, 1874-80]. In Ethel F. Fiske ed., The letters of John Fiske. New York. Text F3361

2021, 11.11

Over 1,700 book reviews of Charles Darwin's works go online.

Charles Darwin has been the most influential scientist in history. Launched online now are the results of a project over sixteen years in the making, finding and collecting the contemporary book reviews of Darwin's works by the Darwin Online project, directed by Dr John van Wyhe, at the National University of Singapore (formerly at the University of Cambridge). It is the largest collection of reviews ever created for a historical scientist- and probably for any person in history. There are over 1,700 reviews in sixteen languages spanning the years 1835 to the early 20th century.

  Countless thousands of publications have been written about Darwin and the reception of his theories in the last 160 years. Until now, our understanding of how the world reacted to Darwin's revolutionary ideas has been based on a small sample of the original evidence. Most people today think that the reactions to Darwin's theory of evolution boiled down to a conflict of science with religion. This was usually far from the truth as these reviews reveal for the first time in unprecedented detail. There was in fact a huge range of reactions, from reverent to contemptuous, from scientifically sophisticated to entirely ignorant, from suspicious to satirical. And the reviews are full of surprises. For example, modern readers might be surprised to see how many religious leaders accepted and praised Darwin's theories.

  One early reviewer of his Origin of Species remarked: "Although it is certain that Mr. Darwin's views will cause painful anxiety to many who will regard them as hostile to the truths of Revelation, we cannot share in that anxiety, and are therefore not disposed to discuss the new theory on any other than strictly scientific grounds. …the conclusions announced by Mr. Darwin are such as, if established, would cause a complete revolution in the fundamental doctrines of natural history". And, of course, they did.

  Other reviewers could not resist poking fun at Darwin and his work, coming up with titles for their reviews such as 'Darwin demolished', 'The angel or the ape' or 'The wonders of worm world'.

  This new collection will make possible countless new studies, theses and student projects based not on the usual handful of reactions to Darwin, but a near comprehensive picture of the reactions to the greatest scientific revolution in history.

See the introduction to the reviews here.


2021, 11.07

Newly recorded published Darwin letters:

Darwin, C. R. 1861. Do cross-bred rabbits tend to a grey colour? Journal of Horticulture and Cottage Gardener, vol. 1 (28 May): 170. Text Image PDF F3356

Darwin, C. R. 1880. [Extract of a letter to F. E. Abbot]. The Index (Boston, Mass.)., 11 (20 May): [1]. Text PDF F3355


2021, 10.14

A previously unknown Darwin letter- this one is to Swedish zoologist August Wilhelm Malm (1821-1882). With thanks to Rosemary Clarkson of The Correspondence of Charles Darwin for kindly sending this published letter.

Darwin, C. R. 1874. [Letter to August Wilhelm Malm]. Göteborgsposten (14 November): 1. Text PDF F3354

The first Swedish translation of Descent of man:

Darwin, C. R. 1872. Menniskans Härledning och Könsurvalet. 2 vols in one. Translated by Rudolf Sundström. Stockholm: Albert Bonnier. PDF F1136

2021, 10.10

Darwin's collection of notes for his research on earthworms, c. 50,000 words in all, has been transcribed by Christine Chua.

Darwin, C. R. and family. 1870-1882. [Notes on worms etc. for Earthworms, including (1) castings; (2) furrows & ploughed land; (3) experiments at different locales, anatomy etc.] Text & images CUL-DAR63-65

2021, 09.18

A collection of little known and forgotten biographical entries (some with unique portraits), a recollection, and obituaries of Darwin.

André, Ed. 1873. Charles Darwin. [with a portrait]. Revue Horticole: 293-300. PDF A2624

Anon. 1874. Charles Robert Darwin [with portrait]. Harper's Weekly (Supplement), (18 April): 345. PDF A2625

Fowler, L. N. 1880. Charles Darwin. A phrenological delineation [with portrait]. Phrenological Magazine, vol. 1 (April): 89-92. Text PDF A2655

Quatrefages, M. de. 1882. [Recollection of Darwin]. Charles Darwin. Annals and magazine of natural history, vol. 9, series 5: 467-474. PDF A2640

[Mawer, W.] 1889. A scientific centenary [with a portrait of Darwin]. Life-lore: a monthly magazine of biology, vol. 1, no. 4 (October 1888): 2-3; 76-81. PDF A2071

Canestrini, Giovanni. 1882. [Obituary of Darwin]. Nuova Antologia di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, vol. 63: 7-16. PDF A2637

[Noll, F. C.] 1882. [Obituary of Darwin]. Zoologische Garten, vol. 23, no. 6 (June): 191-192. PDF A2638

Lessona, Michelle. 1882. Commemorazione di Carlo Darwin. Atti della Reale accademia della scienze di Torino, vol. 18: 525-534. PDF A2538

Tschirch, A. 1882. [Obituary of Darwin with portrait].  Garten-Zeitung, vol. 1: 286-291. PDF A2614

Parker, Jeffery T. 1882. Charles Darwin. Victorian Review, vol. 6 (1 August): 387-403. PDF A2639

2021, 07.16

Beagle voyage expert Gordon Chancellor has written an important and detailed introduction to one of Darwin's most important yet least known books- The Zoology of the Beagle (1838-1843).

Gordon Chancellor, Introduction to The Zoology of the Beagle.

2021, 07.15

A newly uncovered Darwin letter:

Darwin, C. R. 1871. [Extract of a letter to Louis Bouton, (secretary of the Royal Society of arts and sciences, Mauritius) 26 October 1871]. Transactions of the Royal Society of Arts and Sciences of Mauritius, vol. 6, n.s.: 167-168. Text PDF F3347

Darwin, C. R. 1880. [Letter to A. S. Packard, 23 November 1879]. The Botanical Gazette, vol. 5, no. 2 (February): 19. Text PDF F3351

And newly recorded Darwin letters in print:

Darwin, C. R. 1884. Letters from Charles Darwin, Esq., to Albany Hancock, Esq. Communicated by John Hancock. Transactions of the Natural History Society of Northumberland, Durham, and Newcastle-upon-Tyne, vol. 8: 250-278. Text PDF F3352

Some newly recorded translations of Darwin articles:

Darwin, C. R. 1855. Werden Samen durch Seewasser getödtet? Bonplandia: Zeitschrift für die gesammte Botanik, vol. 3, no. 11 (15 June): 142-144. (German translation of F1683) PDF F3350

Darwin, C. R. 1874. Charles Darwin. Flowers of primrose destroyed by birds. Just's botanischer jahresbericht, vol. 2: 900. (German translation of F1770) PDF F3348

Darwin, C. R. 1881. [Translation of the introduction to Power of Movement in Plants]. Les mouvements des plantes: Introduction de l'ouvrage. (Translated by Dr. H. F). La Belgique Horticole, etc., vol. 31: 37-44. PDF F3353

New colour scans of one of the first biographies of Darwin, courtesy of Angus Carroll.

Woodall, E. 1884. Charles Darwin. a paper contributed to the Transactions of the Shropshire Archæological Society. Text PDF A317

2021, 07.03

A new book revealing a lost chapter of Darwin's life- full of new research and countless surprising details:

Wyhe, John van & Christine Chua. 2021. Charles Darwin: Justice of the peace. The complete records (1857-1882). PDF A2115

2021, 07.01

A newly discovered Darwin memorial/letter.

Darwin, C. R. 1879. Memorial to Elliott Coues. In J. A. Allen, Coues's bibliography of ornithology. Bulletin of the Nuttall Ornithological Club: A Quarterly Journal of Ornithology, (July), vol. 4, no. 3: 176-178. Text PDF F3345

Also a new recollection:

Ainsworth, William F. 1882. [Recollection] Mr. Darwin. Athenaeum (13 May): 604. Text PDF A2119


2021, 06.04

A newly discovered Darwin letter and a recollection of a visit to Down House.

Darwin, C. R. 1890. [Letter to John Downing, 1873, and recollections of a visit to Darwin]. Live Stock Journal. Text Image PDF F3340

Two newly recorded Darwin publications:

1885-1887. [Two letters to W. H. Fitton and Agassiz]. In Louis Agassiz. Text F3338

1889. [Letter to Richard Owen, 1848]. In Journal of the New York Microscopical Society. Text F3339


2021, 06.02

A newly uncovered Darwin manuscript:

Darwin, C. R. [1852]. [Notes on the chain for the well at Down House]. Text & image Carroll5.

A newly recorded publication communicated by Darwin:

Barber, M. E. (Mrs). 1874. Notes on the peculiar habits and changes which take place in the larva and pupa of Papilio Nireus. Communicated by Charles Darwin. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London. Text PDF A2100

2021, 05.18

A bizarre pamphlet 'refuting' Darwin's Descent, in a series of letters to his cat Rupert by Irish draper and quack Charles O'Shaughnessy. Transcribed and introduced by Pedro Navarro:

O'Shaughnessy, Charles. 1876. Darwin confounded. Text Image CUL-DAR132.4.

2021, 05.04

A newly recorded Darwin publication:

Darwin, C. R. 1877. Aus einem Briefe von Mr. Charles Darwin an die Redaktion. Kosmos. Text Image PDF F3333

German translations of Darwin articles in Kosmos:

Darwin, C. R. 1880. Die geschlechtlichen Faerbungen gewisser Schmetterlinge. Kosmos. PDF F1787b

Darwin, C. R. 1880. Fruchtbarkeit von Bastarden zwischen der gemeinen und chinesischen Gans. Kosmos. PDF F1786b

Darwin, C. R. 1881. Vererbung. Kosmos. Images PDF F1795b

After Darwin's death in 1882, an 1873 letter he wrote about his belief in God was widely reprinted in newspapers around the world. This is the original publication by the recipient of the letter:

Darwin, C. R. 1882. [Letter to N. D. Doedes on 2 April 1873 on Darwin's religious views]. In N. D. Doedes, Darwin's geloof aan God. De Nederlandsche Spectator. PDF F3334

See an English translation based on this:

Darwin, C. R. 1883. Rutland Daily Herald. Text F2531


2021, 05.02

A new and very detailed introduction to Darwin's Journal of researches or 'Voyage of the Beagle' by Gordon Chancellor has been added.

Introduction to Darwin's Voyage of the Beagle by Gordon Chancellor.

2021, 04.18

Darwin, C. R. 1895. [Letter to Andrew Crombie Ramsay, 10 October 1846]. In Archibald Geikie, Memoir of Andrew Crombie Ramsay, p. 85. Text PDF F3302

Darwin, C. R. 1947. [Letter to James Croll, 1868]. In H. P. Zuidema, Discovery of letters by Lyell and Darwin. Journal of Geology 55 (5): 439-445. PDF F2107

Newly transcribed recollections of Darwin

Darwin died 19 April 1882. Tributes and accolades soon poured in from all over the world. Perhaps none so personal as letters sent to the Darwin family, particularly to Francis Darwin. Francis placed notices, following his father’s death, in various newspapers and scientific journals asking for the loan of letters by Darwin, for a biography of his father. The biography is of course the Life and Letters of Charles Darwin published in 1887. The response to the notices was overwhelming. We have transcribed those with reminiscences and recollections of Darwin.

Agassiz, Alexander. 1882.06.07. [Recollection of Darwin in a letter to Francis Darwin]. Text  PDF CUL-DAR198.1.

Bates, Henry Walter. 1886.04.30. [Recollection of Darwin and Wallace’s civil list pension]. Text  PDF CUL-DAR198.11.

Cambridge, Octavius Pickard. 1882.10.02. [Recollection of Darwin in a letter to Francis Darwin]. Text PDF CUL-DAR198.31a.

Carpenter, W. B. 1882.06.13. [Recollection of Darwin in a letter to Francis Darwin]. Text PDF CUL-DAR198.33.

Downing, John. 1882.06.26. [Recollection of Darwin in a letter to Francis Darwin]. Text  PDF CUL-DAR198.60.

Du Bois-Reymond, Emil Heinrich. 1882.05.24. [Recollection of Darwin in a letter to Francis Darwin]. Text PDF CUL-DAR198.62.  

Fiske, John. 1882.07.27. [Recollection of Darwin in a lett er to Francis Darwin]. Text  PDF CUL-DAR198.71.

Galton, Francis. 1882.06.27. [Recollection of Darwin in a letter to Francis Darwin]. Text PDF CUL-DAR198.73.

Haliburton, Sarah Harriet née Mostyn Owen. 1882.11.12. [Recollection of Darwin in a letter to Francis Darwin]. Text  PDF CUL-DAR198.85.

Hooker, J. D. 1918. [Recollections of Darwin]. In L. Huxley ed., Life and letters of Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker. London: John Murray, vol. 2. Text A2094

Judd, John Wesley. 1882.06.04. [Recollection of Darwin in a letter to Francis Darwin]. Text PDF CUL-DAR198.113.  

Mengden, Nikolai von, Baron. 1882.00.00. [Recollection of Darwin in a letter to Francis Darwin]. Text PDF CUL-DAR198.139.  

Skertchly, Sydney B. J. 1882.06.08. [Recollection of Darwin in a letter to Francis Darwin]. Text PDF CUL-DAR198.191.

Sulivan, Bartholomew J. 1882.06.16. [Recollection of Darwin in a letter to Francis Darwin]. Text PDF CUL-DAR198.201.

Woodd, Charles H. L. 1882.06.21. [Recollection of Darwin in a letter to Francis Darwin]. Text PDF CUL-DAR198.222.

2021, 03.24

A newly discovered Darwin letter!

Darwin, C. R. 1848. Kent [letter on the potato disease]. Gardeners’
, no. 30 (22 July): 491. Text PDF F1901

This Darwin letter to the Gardeners’ Chronicle had been previously overlooked. We first re-publish it here. Darwin makes reference to the spread of the infamous potato blight of 1848. There is no other reference to the blight in Darwin's surviving correspondence making this brief line particularly interesting. See the pdf for the full context in which this line by Darwin appeared.

Previously unrecorded Darwin letters in print:

1875. Mr. Thomas Carlyle. The Standard, (6 December): 5. Text PDF F2754

1887. [Letter to W. H. Dallinger, 1878]. In Dallinger, The president's address. Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society: 191-192. PDF F2760

1891. [Letter to George Bentham, 25 November 1869]. In W. T. Thiselton Dyer, The multiplication of races. Nature, vol. 43, no. 1119, (9 April): 535-536. PDF F2756

1909. Letters from Charles Darwin [to F. A. Sampson]. Science, n.s. vol. XXX, no 766: 303-304. PDF F2755

1936. [Extract of a letter to John Richardson, 24 July 1837]. Aftermath of the Beagle voyage. The Times (12 October): 10. Text F2758

1995. [Letter to Rudolph Amandus Philippi, 3 April 1882]. In Darwin en Chile (1832-1835), Viaje de un naturalista alrededor del mundo, p. 32. Text F2759

And a strange apocryhal paper- the result of a garbled press report :

Anon. 1839. [On the gradual uprising of the Earth in certain Places, by Charles Darwin.] The Literary Gazette. Text A2084


2021, 03.05

The first large Darwin manuscript that was transcribed after the Darwin Online project set up its office in Cambridge was Darwin's Beagle diary. This transcription is true to the manuscript rather than being cleaned up for publication in print and is presented side-by-side with images of the original from the 1979 Genesis facsimile.

Darwin, C. R. [Beagle diary (1831-1836)]. Transcribed by Kees Rookmaaker. Text & image EH88202366

After the launch of Darwin Online, this transcription of the Beagle diary inspired the BBC to produce an abridged (c.60 minutes) audio version as BBC Radio 4's 'Book of the Week' in 2006. This is available only on Darwin Online here.

The Beagle diary was first transcribed and published in 1933 by Darwin’s granddaughter Nora Barlow. The standard edition now with an important introduction and excellent notes was published by Richard Keynes in 1988. Both are available online only on Darwin Online here (Barlow) and here (Keynes).


2021, 03.04

In 1979 a lavish 843-page 3.4kg facsimile edition of Darwin's Beagle diary was published together with a foreword by Prince Charles, an introduction by Richard Darwin Keynes and a reproduction of the crew list of the Beagle. The edition was limited to 500 copies, each signed by Darwin's great-grandson George Pember Darwin. Today book dealers still offer a few for hundreds of pounds. Most readers will never see a copy. We here provide the introductory and editorial material.

[Keynes, R. D. ed.] 1979. The journal of a voyage in H.M.S. Beagle by Charles Darwin. PDF F1583b

2021, 02.19

A new introduction to Charles Lyell's Principles of geology (1830-1833) and its influence on Darwin's scientific thinking by Gordon Chancellor.

Gordon Chancellor, Introduction to Charles Lyell’s Principles of Geology.

2021, 02.13

In 1873, Francis Galton asked Darwin to fill in a questionnaire for a study "on the dispositions of original workers in science". Darwin answered Galton's queries in the enclosure to a letter to Galton on 28 May 1873. Darwin's answers are interesting and very revealing. Galton only printed selected parts of Darwin's responses, but anonymously, in his book English men of science, their nature and nurture in 1874. In 1924 the complete questionnaire and many letters between Darwin and Galton were published by Karl Pearson.

These additions to Darwin Online have increased the number of transcribed text pages to over 200,000.

Darwin, C. R. 1874. [Answers to personal questionnaire]. In Francis Galton, English men of science, their nature and nurture. London: Macmillan: 90, 105, 119, 130, 165, 256. Text PDF F2059

Darwin, C. R. 1924. [Correspondence with Francis Galton]. In Pearson, Karl. The life, letters and labours of Francis Galton. 3 vols, in 4. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, vol. 2: 156-202. Text PDF F2753


2021, 01.30

A collection of articles in various languages on Darwin. See for example the news report of cricket matches played on the Down House grounds in 1870, a spoof of Darwin playing draw poker and an article by Horace Darwin on the 'worm stone'. Two early biographies of Darwin have been proofread and corrected.

Whewell, William. 1838. [Extracts of the address delivered at the anniversary meeting of the Geological Society of London, etc.] Proceedings of the Geological Society, (16 February): 3-4; 6-7, 24-27. Text A2037

Anon. 1870. [Cricket matches at Down House.] Maidstone Journal and Kentish Advertiser (6 August): 2. PDF A2038

Spencer, H. 1872. The survival of the fittest. Nature 5: 263-264. PDF A2060

Anon. 1887. [Draw poker: A spoof or a forgery of words attributed to Darwin]. Los Angeles Herald (20 November): 6. PDF A2039

Anon. 1889. [Recollection of Darwin by John Lynn]. Death of the head-constable of Devonport. Western morning news (14 January): 5. PDF A2061

B. N. 1900. [On Darwin’s botanical activities]. Botanická činnost Darwinova. Praha: Matice česká při Museu Království českého, vol. 10:7: 198-201. PDF A2040

Darwin, Horace. 1901. On the small vertical movements of a stone laid on the surface of the ground. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, vol. 68: 253-61. PDF A2041

Rami, A. 1909. [Biographical sketch with portrait]. Nuori Voima (1 March), pp. 46-47. PDF A2042

Rordgaard, D. 1909. [Centenary with portrait]. Trondhjems Adresseavis (11 February): 1. PDF A2043

Anon. 1909. [Centenary with portrait]. Landsbladet (12 February): 1. PDF A2044

Anon. 1942. Darwin manuscripts and letters. Nature, no. 3810 (7 November): 535. PDF A2045

Early biographies of Darwin

Holder, Charles Frederick. 1892. Charles Darwin: his life and work. Text Image PDF A268

Woodall, Edward. 1884. Charles Darwin. a paper contributed to the Transactions of the Shropshire Archæological Society. Text Image PDF A317

Printed letters

Darwin, C. R. 1897. [Two letters to Gustav Jäger]. In Schlichter, H. G. edited and translated, Problems of Nature, etc. Text PDF F2752


2021, 01.24

Family Letters  

Darwin, Emma. [1879.28.06]. [Letter to Francis Darwin] Text CUL-DAR211.93

Darwin, Leonard. 1906.03.30. Letter to Bernard Darwin. Text CUL-DAR211.95

Darwin reading notes (abstracts):

Darwin, C. R. [1842]. [Abstract of J. F. Royle, Illustrations of the botany of the Himalayan Mountains, 1839]. Text CUL-DAR71.20-25

Darwin, C. R. [1844]. [Abstract of L. Lloyd, Field sports of the north of Europe, 1842, vol. 1]. Text CUL-DAR71.80-81

Darwin, C. R. [1847]. [Abstract of E. T. Bennett, The natural history and antiquities of Selborne, 1837, by Gilbert White]. Text CUL-DAR71.29-30

Darwin, C. R. [1847]. [Abstract of J. J. von Tschudi, Travels in Peru during the years 1838-1842]. Text CUL-DAR71.66-67

Darwin, C. R. [1849]. [Abstract of J. D. Dana, Geology of the U.S exploring expedition, 1849, vol 10]. Text CUL-DAR71.51-52

Darwin, C. R. [1852 or after]. [Abstract of R. Knox, Great artists and great anatomists, 1852]. Text CUL-DAR71.60-61

American editions

Darwin, C. R. 1846. Journal of researches into the natural history and geology of the various countries visited by H.M.S. Beagle etc. New York: Harper and Brothers. PDF F16

Darwin, C. R. 1889. The structure and distribution of coral reefs. 3d edition. New York: D. Appleton.  PDF F278

Darwin, C. R. 1891. Volcanic islands and South America. 3d edition. New York: D. Appleton. PDF F283

Darwin Centenary

Kraemer, Henry. 1909. The centenary of Charles Darwin. American Journal of Pharmacy, vol. 81 (April): 196-99. PDF A2033 

Harshberger, John W. 1909. Charles Darwin, as a botanist. American Journal of Pharmacy, vol. 81 (July): 342-51. PDF A2034

Power, F. B. 1909. Biographical sketch of Charles Darwin and the Darwin Commemoration at Cambridge. American Journal of Pharmacy, vol. 81 (November): 511-22. PDF A2035 

2020, 12.21

Online for the first time today, the foreword, introduction, maps, chronological register and a list of Darwin's equipment during the voyage of the Beagle, 78 pages in all, from:

Gordon Chancellor & John van Wyhe eds. with assistance from Kees Rookmaaker. 2009. Charles Darwin's notebooks from the voyage of the Beagle. With a foreword by Richard Darwin Keynes. PDF F2044

2020, 12.11

Charles and Emma Darwin were passionate about preventing animal suffering. In 1863 they jointly wrote a privately printed pamphlet, 'An appeal' against steel vermin traps. Darwin also published the text in the Gardener's Chronicle. Emma Darwin published it in the local newspaper, The Bromley Record, now added to Darwin Online. During the heated debates over vivisection (or operating on live animals) in the 1870s, she wrote a letter about animal cruelty to the editor of The Spectator, also added today.

Darwin, Emma. 1863. [An appeal]. The Bromley Record, (1 September): 168. PDF A2031

Darwin, Emma. 1877. Vivisection and cruelty. To the editor of the "Spectator". The Spectator, (6 January): 15. Text A2030

2020, 12.04

A great deal has been written about Charles Darwin and Karl Marx. Here are the first publications containing two letters by Darwin relevant to that convoluted story. The 1931 publication initiated the long-standing myth that Darwin had declined to have Marx's Das Kapital dedicated to him.

Darwin, C. R. 1897. [Letter to Karl Marx and recollection of Darwin by Aveling]. In E. B. Aveling, Charles Darwin and Karl Marx: a comparison. Text PDF F2565

Darwin, C. R. 1931. [Letter purported to be to Karl Marx but in fact to E. B. Aveling.] Pod Znamenem Marxizma [Под зна́менем маркси́зма]. [In Russian]. Text PDF F2566

2020, 11.29

Some more of Darwin's scientific reading notes have been transcribed and published for the first time.

[1844]. [Abstract of W. Scrope, The art of deer-stalking, 1839]. Text & image CUL-DAR71.70-73

[1847]. [Abstract of Prichard, Researches into the physical history of mankind, 1836]. Text & image CUL-DAR71.139-142

[On shells and plant migration]. Text & image CUL-DAR205.2.53

2020, 11.23

Today we are delighted to launch an extraordinary collection of scans (all transcribed here) of rare and important Darwin manuscripts from a private collection in the USA including notes on ants for the Origin of species, draft leaves of the Origin of species, Descent of man and Expression of the emotions. There is also the letter in which Darwin nervously presents Adam Sedgwick a copy of the Origin of species, a letter to T.H. Huxley about pigeons in preparation for his Royal Institution lecture, and a letter to Asa Gray on Variation. There is also the original receipt from Darwin's publisher for Descent of man- for £630.

Darwin, C. R. [c. 1858]. [Reading notes on Huber's Recherches sur les Moeurs des Fourmis Indigènes [Researches on the Habits of Indigenous Ants] (1810)]. Text & image PC-USA-OriginAnts

Darwin, C. R. 1858. [Draft leaf of Origin of species]. Text & image PC-USA-OriginMS270

Darwin, C. R. 1858-59. [Draft leaf of Origin of species]. Text & image PC-USA-OriginMS324

Darwin, C. R. 1859.11.11. [Letter to Adam Sedgwick on sending Origin of species]. Text & image PC-USA-SedgwickOrigin

Darwin, C. R. [1859].12.24. [Letter to T. H. Huxley on a manuscript on the evolution of pigeons]. Text & image PC-USA-HuxleyPigeons

Darwin, C. R. 1870. [Draft leaf of Descent of man]. Text & image PC-USA-DescentMS10

Darwin, C. R. 1871. [Receipt for Murray's payment for Descent of man]. Text & image PC-USA-DescentReceipt

Darwin, C. R. 1871. [Draft leaf of Expression]. Text & image CUL-DAR185.143

Darwin, C. R. 1871. [Draft leaf of Expression]. Text & image CUL-DAR185.144

Darwin, C. R. 1868.02.09. [Letter to Asa Gray on Variation]. Text & image PC-USA-GrayVariation

2020, 11.12

Some fascinating rare items on Darwin's home, Down House.

Anon. 1945. Down House during the war. The Advancement of Science. PDF A2012 (with thanks to J. David Archibald)

Dobson, Jessie. 1971. Charles Darwin and Down House. PDF A2011

Compare to this later guide to the house:

[Titheradge, P.] 1981. The Charles Darwin memorial at Down House, Downe, Kent. Text PDF A691

Here are some of the other items already on Darwin Online:

Anon. 1897. [Down House to be let]. The Times. Text A541

Anon. 1897. A run to Darwin's Downe. Image A987

Darwin, L. 1929. Memories of Down House. Text Image A224

Keith, A. 1922. Darwin's famous home. The Straits Times. Text A1103

[Keith, A.] 1929. Down House. British Association for the Advancement of Science Report of the ninety-sixth meeting…1928. PDF A1335

North, Marianne. 1894. [Recollection of a visit to Down House]. Text Image F2002

Skinner, A. J. 1927. [Letter of reminiscences of Darwin at Down House]. Text Image A543


2020, 10.16

Darwin, C. R. 1901. [Letters to Lyell and Thomas Francis Jamieson] in A. I. M'connochie, Across Creag Meaghaidh. The Cairngorm Club Journal, vol. 3: 236-37. Text F2564

Darwin, C. R. and Covington, S. 1832. [Diodon in Bahia]. Text & image CUL-DAR29.1.A49

Darwin, C. R. and Covington, S. [Reading notes on Thomas Bell's A History of British Quadrupeds]. Text & image CUL-DAR71.116-124

2020, 10.06

Published today, a recollection of Darwin on the Beagle by a shipmate has been transcribed as well two important transcriptions of Darwin's post-voyage geological notes from the UK by Michael B. Roberts.

Usborne, A. B. 1882.09.15. [Recollection of Darwin on the Beagle]. Text
& image

Darwin, C. R 1838.07.16. [Geological notes on Shrewsbury]. Text & image CUL-DAR5.B19-B22

Darwin, C. R. 1842.06.19. [Glacier notes]. Text & image CUL-DAR27.1.B1-B20

Darwin, C. R. 1932. [Brief extracts from 3 letters not previously published in 1932]. Darwin letters show personal side of author. The Times Dispatch [Richmond, Virginia] (20 November): 6. Text F2550

2020, 09.19

Today we publish transcriptions of some of Darwin's earliest notes including one on treating patients from information from his father and his grandfather's Zoonomia, characteristics of birds, notes on materia medica from Edinburgh University and some of his first geological notes taken near the family home. We have also transcribed the correspondence relating to the transfer of the Darwin papers to Cambridge University Library in the 1940s.

Darwin, C. R. [1825]. [Medical notes based on information from his father and grandfather]. Text & image CUL-DAR5.A3

Darwin, C. R. [1826]. [Birds – List of generic characters]. Text & image CUL-DAR5.A30-A31

Darwin, C. R. 1826. Dr. Duncan's Materia Medica. Text & image CUL-DAR5.A24-A27

Darwin, C. R. [1831]. [Early geological notes near Shrewsbury]. Text & image CUL-DAR5.B1-B4

Darwin, C. R. [c.1827-31?] [Note on rock formation in Massachusetts]. Text & image CUL-DAR5.B92

1942-1949. Correspondence between members of the Darwin family, British Association, etc., & Cambridge University Library, on the gift of the Darwin MSS. Text & image CUL-DAR156

2020, 08.30

A newly discovered memorial signed by Darwin (for the National Sunday League) and previously unrecorded recollections of Darwin with words attributed to him, including an overlooked visit by the Czech philosopher Josef Durdík.

Darwin, C. R. et al. 1860. Memorial to the Queen, presented by the National Sunday League. [London, printed]. Text PDF F2561

Darwin, C. R. 1876. [Recollection. "Yes, I am Darwin"]. In Durdík, Josef. [Visit to Darwin] Návštĕva u Darwina. Osvěta, Prague: Václav Vlček, vol. 6:10, (October): 717-27. Text F2562

Darwin, C. R. 1881. [Letter to Frithiof Holmgren on vivisection, 15 April 1881], Darwin on vivisektionen. Helsingfors Dagblad, no. 114, (29 April): 3. Text F1352a

Darwin, C. R. 1881. [Recollection of Darwin as a schoolboy by W. A. Leighton]. In Smith, W. G. A holiday in Shropshire. Gardeners' Chronicle (20 August): 232. Text F2563

2020, 08.27

Today we have added nine early translations of Darwin into Japanese as well as transcribed some draft fragments of Origin, Expression and other notes by Darwin.

Darwin, C. R. 1887. The descent of man [in Japanese]. Translated by Nitta Keijirou. Tokyo. PDF F2333

Darwin, C. R. 1891. Autobiography [in Japanese]. Translated by Gotō Seitarō. PDF F2339

Darwin, C. R. 1905. The origin of species [in Japanese]. Translated by Senzaburo Tachibana. Tokyo: Kaisekan. PDF F719

Darwin, C. R. 1909. The descent of man [in Japanese]. Translated by Shigeho Tanaka. Tokyo: Ryūbunkan. PDF F1099d

Darwin, C. R. 1912. Journal of researches [in Japanese]. Translated by Kaneteru Koiwai. Tokyo: Dōbun-kan. PDF F2312

Darwin, C. R. 1915. Foundations of The origin of species. [in Japanese] Tokyo: Dainihon Bunmei Kyukai. Translated by Fumio Abe. PDF F1563a

Darwin, C. R. 1921. The expression of the emotions [in Japanese]. Translated by Genjiro Ando & Aikichi Okamoto. Tokyo: Nihonhyōron-sha Shuppan-bu. PDF F1202b

Darwin, C. R. 1924. The origin of species [in Japanese]. Translated by Sakae Õsugi. Tokyo: Shinchō-sha. PDF F2324

Darwin, C. R. 1926. The descent of man [in Japanese]. Translated by Ohata Tatsuo. Tokyo: Nihonhyōron-sha. PDF F2335


Darwin, C. R. 1859. [Draft of Origin, folio 209]. Text & image CUL-DAR185.141

Darwin, C. R. 1871. [Draft page of Expression]. Text & image CUL-DAR185.143

Darwin, C. R. 1871. [Draft page of Expression]. Text & image CUL-DAR185.144

Darwin, C. R. 1863. [Abstract of The Game-Preserver's Manual by Edward Levett Darwin]. Text & image CUL-DAR185.147

2020, 08.23

Darwin, C. R. 1825-1826. Dr Hope's Chymistry. Text & image CUL-DAR5.A6-A11

Darwin, C. R. 1871. [Comment on Brehm's, The Life of Birds, 1871]. Morgenbladet (11 March): 4. Text PDF F2560

2020, 07.29

Today we add a new book on John Clements Wickham, 1st Lieutenant during Darwin's voyage on the Beagle, and the officer that Darwin got on better with than with any other. This richly illustrated book has been provided courtesy of its author Barrie Jamieson.

Jamieson, Barrie. 2019. John Clements Wickham: Charles Darwin's Glorious Fellow. Minos Books. PDF A1855

2020, 07.12

Huxley, Leonard. 1929. At Downe House, June 7, 1929. Cornhill Magazine (July), vol. 67: 80-83. Text A1798

Anon. 1891. Bromley Naturalists' Society: Excursion to Keston Rectory, the Rookery, and home of Darwin. Bromley & District Times (7 August): 6. Text A1793

Bain, Alexander. 1904. [Recollections and an 1873 letter of Darwin]. Autobiography. Text F2024

2020, 07.11

Thanks to the diligence of Christine Chua, we are adding a large collection of supplementary works that cover a myriad of topics in various languages. There are biographical sketches of Darwin, discussions of his work and tributes, several with interesting illustrations.

About Darwin

Anon. 1864. Royal Society Anniversary. [Copley medallist of the year: Charles Darwin.] Reader (3 December): 708-09. PDF A1782

Anon. 1874. [Biographical sketch with drawing by Frederick Waddy]. Men Of The Day, 2nd edition: 6-7. PDF A1785

Anon. 1879. Mr. Charles Darwin [Baly medal]. British Medical Journal, vol. 2, no. 966 (5 July): 15. PDF A1774

Anon. 1879. [Darwin and his writings, with portrait]. Examiner (11 October): 1311-12. PDF A1786

Anon. 1882. Hommage a Darwin. Revue Scientifique de la France et de l'etranger, Paris, series 3, vol. 4: 829. PDF A1755

Anon. 1896. [Charles R. Darwin in The Library of Historical Characters, etc.] William Finley & Co., pp.46-54. PDF A1788

Anon. 1897. In honour of Darwin – An honour to Salop. Shrewsbury Chronicle (13 August): 6. PDF A1790

Anon. 1908. The naturalist: The Darwin-Wallace Celebration. Field (4 July): 24-25. PDF A1797

Bidwell, W. H. 1871. Professor Charles Darwin [with engraving]. Eclectic magazine, vol. 13, n.s., (June): 757-58. PDF A1783

Cadman, Parkers, S. 1911. [Lecture 1:Charles Darwin]. Charles Darwin and other English thinkers. Pilgrim Press (New York): 3-44. PDF A1799

Dove, A. 1871. Was macht Darwin popular? Im Neuen Reich, vol. 2, (July): 1-6. PDF A1653

Graham, Richard D. 1897. The masters of Victorian Literature. Simpkin, Marshall & Co., Ltd (London); James Thin (Edinburgh): 453-65. PDF A1789

Gray, Asa. 1874. Charles Robert Darwin. American Naturalist, vol. 8, no. 8, (August): 473-79. PDF A1784

Kidder, M. Grier. 1909. Moral Courage. Overland Monthly: 201-04. PDF A1791

Marshall, T. F. 1910. Shropshire men: Charles Darwin; Darwin as a boy. Shrewsbury Chronicle (24 June: 10); (1 July: 10). PDF A1792

Sunderland, J. T. 1936. [Biographical sketch] Charles Darwin. The Modern Review, vol. 59:1, (January): 1-7. PDF A1795

Wells, H. G. 1923. Outline of History. Washington Post (16 September): 76. PDF A1794

Wells, G. P. 1932. The Great Victorians: Charles Robert Darwin. Doubleday, Doran & Company Inc., pp.135-45. PDF A1796

About Darwin's work

Agassiz, J. L. R. 1874. Evolution and Permanence of Type. Atlantic Monthly, Boston. (January): 92-101. PDF A1656

Allen, J. A. 1877. The evolution of morality, a reply. Canadian Monthly and National Review, vol. 11, (May): 490-501. PDF A1660

Anon. 1861. Respect to the Earth-worm. California Farmer and Journal of Useful Sciences, vol. 16:11, (20 December): 82. PDF A1171       

Anon. 1867. Note [concerning Anthropological Review, April, 1866]. Journal and Transactions of the Victoria Institute, vol. 2: 125-28. PDF A1643

Anon. 1868. Ludwig Schmarda's Ansichten uber die Darwin'sche Hypothese. Globus, illustrierte Zeitschrift, vol. 15 (February): 91-92. PDF A1645

Anon. 1870. Sur le transformisme. Revue Scientifique de la France et de l'etranger, Paris, vol. 7, (30 July): 545-60. PDF A1650

Anon. 1870. Darwin before the French Academy. Nature, vol. 2, (11 August): 298. PDF A1647

Anon. 1872. [Review of]. Palaeontographica: Beiträge zur Naturgeschichte der Vorwelt, herausgegeben von Dr. W. Dunker and Dr. K. A. Zittel, 1872. Nature, vol. 7, (21 November): 45. CUL-DAR205.9.42. PDF

Anon. 1872. "E.L.G." and the proof of deluge. English Mechanic and World of Science, vol. 15, (June): 303-06. PDF A1654

Anon. 1874. [Review of Descendenzlehre und Darwinismus, Oskar Schmidt; die Fortschritte des Darwinismus. Separatabdruck aus Dr. Klein's. Revue der Naturwissenschaften, J. W. Spengel. Jenaer Literaturzeitung, no. 1, (3 January): 7-8. PDF A1657

Anon. 1874. The origin of man. New York Times (5 September): 1. PDF A1767

Anon. 1875. [Review of Benson L. S. Philosophic reviews; Darwin answered, or evolution a myth]. Penn Monthly, vol. 6, (May): 368-72. PDF A1658

Anon. 1876. [Review of Lessons from nature, Mivart St. G. J.] Biological controversy and its laws. Quarterly Journal of Science, vol. 6, n.s., (April): 201-28. PDF A1659

Anon. 1876. Darwin's theory of pangenesis. Scientific American, vol. 34, no. 25. (17 June): 384. PDF A1768

Anon. 1878. [Review of]. Cook's lecture on biology. New Englander, (January): 100-13. PDF A1661

"A field naturalist", Edward Bell. 1902. The Primrose and Darwinism. New York: E.P. Dutton & Co., London Grant Richards, 250pp. PDF A1520

Brace, C. L. 1870. Darwinism in Germany. North American Review, vol. 110, (April): 284-99. PDF A1648

[Bell, Edward]. 1902. [Letter to the editor.] The Primrose and Darwinism. Nature (9 October): 574-76. PDF A1521

Bennett, A. W. 1870. The theory of natural selection from a mathematical point of view. Nature, vol. 3, (10 November): 30-33. (R156[b]); Mr. Wallace's reply to Mr. Bennett, (17 November: 49-50). PDF A1646

Cope, E. D. 1870. On the Hypothesis of Evolution. Lippincott's Magazine of Literature, Science and Education (July: 29-41); (August: 173-80); (September: 310-19. PDF A1649

Ewbank, Thomas. 1863. Cursory thoughts on some natural phenomena, bearing chiefly on the primary cause of the succession of new species, and on the unity of force. New York Scribner, 2nd edition. 46pp. PDF A1641

Farrar, F.W. 1870. Philology and Darwinism. Nature (24 March): 527-29. PDF A1758

Fiske, J. 1873. Agassiz and Darwinism. Popular Science Monthly, vol. 3 (October): 692-705. PDF A1557

Fry, Edward. 1872. Darwinism and theology. London: Henry Sotheran and Co. Reprinted with slight alterations from the Spectator, of the 7th, 14th, and 21st September, 1872. 24pp. PDF A1671

Greg, W.R. 1868. On the failure of natural selection in the case of man. Fraser's Magazine, vol. 78 (September): 353-62. PDF A1644

Hitchman, Francis. 1881. Erasmus Darwin. Eighteenth Century Studies: Essays, Sampson Low, et al.: 360-86. PDF A1787

Laugel, Auguste. 1868. Darwin et ses critiques. Revue des Deux Mondes, vol. 74, (1 March): 130-36. PDF A1781

Löwenthal, E. 1864. Herr Schleiden und der Darwin'sche Arten-Entstehungs-Humbug. Nebst einer Anhange: Sechs Thesen für die künftige Philosophie und Natürforschung. Berlin: Schlingman. 13pp. PDF A1642

Meehan, Thomas. 1871. Proceedings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (August 1870): 280-82. PDF A1761

"Minister". 1871. Evolution and Theology. Radical, vol. 9, (December): 375-85. PDF A1652

Müller, Max F. 1873. Lectures on Darwin's philosophy of language. Fraser's Magazine (May), 61pp. PDF A1754

Paulhan, Fr. 1881. La theoria di Darwin criticamente esposta. Revue Philosophique de la France et de l'Étranger, vol. 11, (January to June): 559-60. PDF A1775

Quatrefages, Armand de. 1868-69. Origines des espèces animales et végétales. Revue des Deux Mondes, vol. 78, (15 December: 832-60); vol. 79 (1 January: 208-40). PDF A1756

Rougemont, F von. [1871]. Der Mensch und der Affe. Stuttgart Marriott. 56pp. PDF A1651

Westwood, J. O. 1860. Mr. Darwin's theory of development. Gardeners' Chronicle and Agricultural Gazette (11 February): 122. PDF A1196

Wright, C. 1870. Limits of Natural Selection. North American Review (October): 282-311. PDF A1759

Zacharias, Otto. 1874. Zur Kritik des Darwinismus. Ausland, no. 28, (13 July): 541-48. PDF A1655


2020, 07.10

Darwin, C. R. 1930. An early letter from Darwin to Owen. Nature, vol. 125,no. 3163, (14 June): 910-11. Text F2553

Darwin, C. R. 1882. [Letters to Charles E. Norton, 1881]. Letters from Mr. Charles Darwin. Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, vol. 19 (May): 311-312. Text PDF F2551

Darwin, C. R. 1899. [Letters with J. D. Dana]. The Life of James Dwight Dana: 209-10, 287, 302-15. PDF F2552

Darwin, C. R. 1945. [Letter to James E. Todd, 10 April, 1882]. Charles Darwin's last letter? Transactions Kansas Academy of Science, vol. 48, no. 3: 317-18. Text PDF F2555

W.A.H. 1930. Charles Darwin: Some reminiscences [with words attributed to Darwin]. Telegraph, (Brisbane, Queensland), (10 March): 20. Text F2554


Darwin, C. R. 1872. [Letter to Paolo Mantegazza]. Dell 'Elezione Sessuale di Darwin. Archivio della Società Italiana di Antropologia e di Etnologia, vol. 2: 112. PDF F2548

Anon. 1882. Darwin's Selbstbiographie. Prager Tageblatt (25 April): 8. Text A1640

Anon. 1909. [Apocryphal retraction by Darwin after his death.] Brief aus dem Jenseits. Kikeriki [Austria] (21 February): 2. Text A1639


A newly discovered Darwin letter, three new Darwin publications as well as a transcription of his list of shells collected during the voyage of the Beagle.

Darwin, 1873. Testimonial to Dr. James Murie. Medical Times and Gazette, (29 March): 350. Text PDF F2547

Darwin, 1877. [Letter to Anton Kerner]. Neue Freie Presse (5 January): 2. Text F2546

Darwin, 1877. [Letter to Anton Kerner]. Nature (1 February): 305. Text PDF F2545

Darwin & [Covington, S]. 1832-6. Shells. Text & image CUL-DAR29.3.4-8


A fascinating glimpse into how FitzRoy talked about the voyage and Darwin the day after their return to England in 1836.

Pym, H. N. ed. 1882. [Recollection of FitzRoy on Darwin.] Memories of old friends being extracts from the journals and letters of Caroline Fox: 13-14. Text PDF A1338

[Keith, Arthur]. 1929. Down House. British Association for the Advancement of Science Report of the ninety-sixth meeting…1928. London. PDF A1335

2020, 05.17

Four contemporary biographical articles on Darwin.

Anon. 1870. Charles Robert Darwin. Appleton's Journal., vol. 3: 439-41. PDF A1288

Anon. 1873. Charles Robert Darwin. Popular Science Monthly, vol. 2: 497-98. PDF A1289

Gray, Asa. 1874. Charles Robert Darwin. Nature, vol. 10 (4 June): 79-81. PDF A1290

Anon. 1878. Contemporary portraits: Charles Darwin, F.R.S. University Magazine, vol. 2, (August): 154-163. PDF A1291

Adams, W.H. Davenport. 1886.  'Charles Darwin' In: Master minds in art, science, and letters, London: 251-76. PDF A1292

2020, 05.11

Some overlooked items by Darwin's son Francis, one dictated by Darwin on a press report about a race of men with tales "even if it should, prove true, it would...have no important bearing on evolution" and his father's view of Greek in education. Also, an anonymous report about how Darwin respected and facilitated the church attendance of his servants.

Darwin, Francis. 1877. Charles Darwin on tailed men. The Star [Christchurch], (2 March): 2. Text A1284

Darwin, Francis. 1904. Darwin and Greek. The Times (29 December): 9. Text A1285

Anon. 1903. [Darwin's religiously tolerant agnosticism]. Sunderland Daily Echo (29 June): 2. Text A1287

2020, 05.05

Five newly recorded Darwin publications, in this case some of his letters in print.

Darwin, 1876. [Letter to James Torbitt] in Northern Whig (21 April): 4, and Professor Ansted's letter to Torbitt in Belfast News-Letter (22 April): 2. Text F2542

Darwin, 1896. [Letter to George Birkbeck Norman Hill] in Hill, Talks about autographs: 58-9. Text/PDF F2540

Darwin, 1909. Letters from Charles Darwin [to R. A. Blair] Science, vol. 30:766 (3 September): 303-4. PDF F2541

Darwin, 2002. [Letters with F. de Furtado]. in Correspondência científica de Francisco de Arruda Furtado: 107-118. PDF F2041

Darwin, 1891. Darwin on the unity of the human race. [Letter from Darwin, 23 September 1878]. Nature, (5 March): 415. PDF F2539

2020, 05.03

An important previously unrecorded manuscript by Charles Darwin - courtesy of a private collector in California. The scans were kindly provided by Sophia Rare Books. The Darwins moved to Down in 1842. This 11-page document lists a vast array of trees and plants in the grounds of Down House when Darwin began extensive planting and landscaping.

Darwin, 1844-1846. [Catalogue of trees and plants at Down House.] Private collection, California. PC-California Text Images PDF


2020, 03.10

Darwin letters in:

Jones, H. F. 1912. Samuel Butler's lost dialogue: On the origin of species. The Press [Christchurch, New Zealand] (1 June): 9. Text F2536

2020, 03.01

On the occasion of Annie Darwin's 180th birthday letters by Annie, her governess Miss Thorley and Emma Darwin's personal memorial and other related items have been transcribed and published online for the first time.

Darwin, Anne E. (Annie). [1851]. Letters to Greta and Katherine Euphemia (Effie) Wedgwood. CUL-DAR210.13.1 Text & images

Darwin, Emma. 1851. Last letter to Annie Darwin. [29 March]. CUL-DAR210.13.4 Text & images

Thorley, C. A. 1851. Letter to Emma Darwin. [14 April]. CUL-DAR210.13.5 Text & images

Thorley, C. A. 1851. Letter to Emma Darwin. [16 April]. CUL-DAR210.13.6 Text & images

Darwin, Erasmus A. 1851. Telegram to Emma Darwin. [19 April]. CUL-DAR210.13.12 Text & image

Darwin, Emma. 1851. Transcription of a poem on early death by Hartley Coleridge. (9 May). CUL-DAR210.13.27 Text & image

Darwin, Emma. [1851]. [Reminiscence of Anne Elizabeth Darwin]. CUL-DAR210.13.ED Text & images

Already transcribed: Darwin's memorial of Annie.

Darwin, 'Our poor child, Annie' (30.04.1851). CUL-DAR210.13.40 Text & images


2020, 01.26

Another memorial signed by Darwin has been added:

Darwin, et al. 1879. The society for the protection of ancient buildings (Venice Memorial). The Times, 19 November: 8. Text & image F2534

2020, 01.25

Another newly discovered Darwin letter in print. This one explains why Darwin omitted the famous whale-bear story from later editions of Origin of species. And, curiously, the Christian lecturer whose unflattering remarks on Darwin had prompted the exchange, claimed he had a letter in his possession that showed that Darwin wrote that "he can with confidence look to Calvary". Obviously Darwin did not write such a thing.

Darwin, 1887. [Letter to R. G. Whiteman, 1881.] Notes by citizen. Worcestershire Chronicle (26 November): 1. Text F2533

Further newly discovered and highly interesting sketches of Wallace have been added in an appendix to the earlier article:

Some original sketches of Alfred Russel Wallace in contemporary newspapers. By Christine Chua with assistance from John van Wyhe. PDF A1126

2020, 01.14

Some original sketches of Alfred Russel Wallace in contemporary newspapers. By Christine Chua with assistance from John van Wyhe. PDF A1126

2020, 01.03

More newly discovered Darwin publications and letters in print:

Darwin, 1884. [Letter to "A. Panchin", 1880.] Ein Brief von Charles Darwin. Kosmos vol. 2: 80. Text F2526

Darwin, 1875. [Letter to Mary Treat, 1874]. Carnivorous Plants.- Vegetable insect traps. Australian Town and Country Journal [Sydney] (23 January): 17. Text F2494

Darwin, 1878. Memorial of the Afghan Committee. Manchester Guardian (19 November). p. 8. Text F2527

Darwin, 1881. [Letter to E. W. Bok, 1881.] New-York Daily Tribune (9 November): 8. Text F2528

Darwin, 1882. Memorial on the persecution of Jews in Russia. Manchester Weekly Times (28 January): 5. Text F2529

Darwin, 1883. [Letter to Doedes on Darwin's religious views, 1873.] Rutland Daily Herald [Rutland, Vermont] (23 February): 2. Text F2531

Darwin, 1884. [Letter to James Torbitt.] Belfast News-Letter (8 February): 4. Text F2532

2019, 12.30

A newly discovered Darwin letter to an Austrian admirer:

Darwin, 1869. [Letter to F. M. Malvern.] Ein Brief Darwin's. Neue Freie Presse [Vienna] (4 March): 8. Text Image F2492

Also new Darwin words found in print:

Darwin, 1882. [Letter to Emil Holub, 1882.] Ein Brief Charles Darwin's. Wiener Allgemeine Zeitung (4 February): 5. Text F2524

Darwin, 1882. [Letters to Julius Wiesner, 1882.] Charles Darwin. Neue Freie Presse [Vienna] (22 April): 5. Text F2525

Thomatis, D. 1875. Carnivorous Plants and Darwinism. The Telegraph [Brisbane] (29 September): 3. Text A1123

[Chambers, Robert.] 1875. [Review of Insectivorous Plants]. A carnivorous plant. Chambers's Journal, no. 608, (21 August): 530. Text A1124

Anon. 1873. [Mocking comments on Expression.] Mr. Charles Darwin at Home. Public Ledger [Memphis, Tennessee] vol. XV, no. 126 (25 January): 1. Text A1125

Darwin, C. R & Emma Darwin. 1956. [Correspondence extracts with Hooker, Huxley and Leonard Darwin, 1861, 1863, 1871, 1873.] In W. Irvine, Apes, Angels and Victorians. London: 88, 93, 139, 216. Text F2497

2019, 12.29

Three newly discovered Darwin publications and a purported fragment of a lost letter to Julia Margaret Cameron:

Darwin, 1878. The declaration against war [with Russia]. The Times (1 May): 10. Text F2449

Darwin, 1878. Lord Salisbury and the declaration against war. London Evening Standard (23 May): 5. Text F2482

Darwin, 1893. [Purported quotation from a letter to Julia Margaret Cameron.] H. H. H. Cameron. Alfred, Lord Tennyson and his friends. Text F2491

Darwin, 1882. [Fragment of an 1881 letter to Balfour.] Memorial to the late Professor Balfour. Cambridge Independent Press (4 November): 5. Text F2485

Other new items:

Darwin, 1917. [Letter to F. J. Muniz.] A letter of Ch. Darwin in Argentina. Nature (14 June): 305-306. Text F2481

Darwin, 1930. An early letter from Darwin to Owen. Nature, no. 3163, vol. 125 (14 June): 910-911. Text F2476

Darwin, L. 1934. Myths about Darwin. The Times (15 August): 11. Text A1122


2019, 12.26

Fragment of a previously unknown Darwin letter and reference to a lost one:

Darwin, 1884. [Quotation from a letter to Harrison Weir.] In Anon. Mr. Harrison Weir at Weirleigh. Celebrities at home. From The World. Kent & Sussex Courier (25 April): 7. Text F1884

Lewins, Robert. 1882. [Darwin on the non-existence of the soul.] Mr. Darwin and Professor Haeckel. Journal of science vol. 19: 751-752. Text A1119

Newly transcribed:

Anon. 1861. Darwin library. List of books received in the University Library Cambridge March – May 1961. Text A1036

Darwin, [1845-6?]. On care of M.S. Text & image CUL-DAR43.1.1a

Darwin, List of shells from Patagonia: 51-2. Text & image CUL-DAR43.1.51-52

Darwin, G. H. 1882.04.26 List of mourners for information of the Press. Text CUL-DAR140.5.2

Darwin, 1890. [Letter to J. S. Henslow, 25 July 1845] Darwin on allotments. Croydon Advertiser and East Surrey Reporter (29 March): 3. Text F1882

[Griffith, J.] 1875. [Darwin donated £5 to the charity.] The Rector of Merthyr's Sermon on the Children's Meal. The Merthyr Telegraph (2 April). Text A1120

Darwin, B. 1955. The world that Fred made: An autobiography. London: Chatto & Windus. PDF A1121

2019, 12.24

Two newly discovered Darwin letters:

Darwin, 1929. [Letter to Charles Augustus Bennet, Lord Tankerville.] S. Gordon. Famous cattle. The Chillingham herd. The Scotsman (19 July): 13. Text F2377

Darwin, 1909. [Autograph note to J. T. Page, 1881.] In John T. Page. Rambles among my autographs. Tower Hamlets Independent and East End Local Advertiser (27 February): 6. Text F2224

Two newly discovered and important recollections of Darwin:

Anon. 1927. [Recollection of Darwin by gardener Henry Wheeler.] Darwin at home: a crusty, snuff-taking recluse. Sunday Post (4 September): 3. Text PDF A1111

Anon. 1927. [Recollection of Darwin by gardener Bailey.] A glimpse of Darwin. Gardener's story of his life at Downe. Londonderry Sentinel (8 September): 8. Text A1112

More letters in print:

Darwin, 1884. [Letters to Syms Covington.] Original Letters of Charles Darwin to an Australian Settler. Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (9 August): 254-5. Text F2219

Darwin, 1930. [Letter to James Crichton-Browne.] In James Crichton-Browne. What the doctor thought. London: 61-65, 71. Text F2446

Darwin, 1929. Unpublished Darwin letter [to Symington Grieve, 1882.] The Scotsman (18 January): 12. Text F2260

More recollections of Darwin:

Tegetmeier, W. 1891. How Darwin accumulated his facts. St James's Gazette (7 April): 6. Text A1117

Anon. 1929. [Recollection of Darwin and Carlyle.] The Cheyne Row Household. The Scotsman (5 February): 8. Text A1116

Darwin, 1883. [Purported remark on Margaret Oliphant.] Shields Daily Gazette (16 January). Text F1886

Stephen, L. 1906. [Recollection of Darwin]. In F. W. Maitland, Life and letters of Leslie Stephen: 488-9. Text A1114

Early visits to Down House

[Newman, George]. 1893. Darwin's house at Down. Maidstone Journal and Kentish Advertiser (22 June): 5. Text A1107

Darwin, 1896. [Words attributed to Darwin.] [T. B.] Darwin's Coffin. The Sketch (15 April): 528. Text F2360

Anon. 1893. A visit to Charles Darwin's home. Cambridge Independent Press (8 September): 7. Text A1115

'Natura'. 1893. [A visit to Downe]. Wanderings in the Kent and Surrey Lanes. Norwood News (24 June): 5. Text A1118

Fordyce, J. 1879. Aspects of Scepticism (chapter only). PDF F1861

2019, 12.19

Two newly discovered Darwin letters:

Darwin, 1875. [Letter to H.K. Rusden.] Darwin on Criminals. Ovens and Murray Advertiser (27 March): p. 5. Text & image F1891

Darwin, 1875. [Letter to 'Pomona'.] Letter from Mr. Darwin. Rockhampton Bulletin (Queensland) (22 August): 2. Text F2131

Darwin, 1900. [Correspondence with A.D. Bartlett and Edward Bartlett.] In E. Bartlett ed., Bartlett's life among the wild beasts in the 'Zoo': 330-338. Text PDF F2183

Nicholson, H.A. 1886. Charles Darwin. In Natural history: its rise and progress in Britain as developed in the life and labours of leading naturalists. PDF A1106

Anon. 1882. The home of the late Charles Darwin, Down, Kent. The Graphic, (1 July): 16. Image A1109

Anon. 1894. Darwin & Darwinismus. Brockhaus' Konversations=Lexkion. 14th edn. vol. 4: 819-823. PDF A1112

2019, 11.23

Many newly discovered items including recollections of Darwin, obituaries of his family and a transcription of his collection of Beagle rocks, all transcribed by Christine Chua, have been added to Darwin Online.

Harker, Alfred, [1907]. Catalogue of the "Beagle" Collection of Rocks. Sedgwick Museum, Cambridge. Text & images HarkerCatalogue. Transcribed by Christine Chua.

Anon. 1868. Charles Darwin, the eminent naturalist. American Phrenological Journal (October) vol. 48, no. 4: 121-123. PDF A1105

Derby, Lord, [Stanley, E.H]. 1883. [Recollection of Darwin]. The Times (1 October): 9. Text A1100

Vaughan, John. 1893. Boyhood of Charles Darwin. Boys Own Paper (8 April): 445-446. Text & images A986

Anon. 1896. Obituary [Emma Darwin]. The Times (5 October): 6. Text A1093

Anon. 1912. Obituary of George Howard Darwin. The Times (9 December): 9. Text A1094

Anon. 1914. Obituary of William Erasmus Darwin. The Times (12 September): 11. Text A1095

Anon. 1925. Obituary of Francis Darwin. The Times (21 September): 12 and 14. Text A1096

Anon. 1927. Obituary of Mrs. Litchfield. The Times (20 December): 1, (24 December): 10. Text A1097

Anon. 1928. Obituary of Sir Horace Darwin. The Times (24 September): 21 and funeral (27 September): 15. Text A1098

Anon. 1943. Obituary of Leonard Darwin. The Times (27 March): 1, 6 and 14. Text A1099

Farrar, F. W. 1897. [Recollection of Darwin] Men I have known: 140-149. Text A1101

Morley, J. 1901. [Recollection of Down House visit with Gladstone in 1877]. The Times (24 October): 9. Text A1102

Collier, J. 1929. [Recollection of and quote from Darwin] A famous artist's recollections. The Straits Times (8 October): 17. Text F1864

Collier, J. 1930. [Recollection of Darwin] When Shaw posed for a portrait. Darwin and Huxley. Famous artist on celebrities he has painted. The Singapore Free Press, (15 August): 18. Text A1092

Keith, A. 1922. Darwin's famous home. The Straits Times (29 November): 11. Text A1103

2019, 10.05

Darwin, Emma, 'The pound of sugar'. Transcribed by Christine Chua. Text CUL-DAR185.101

Darwin, 2019. [1838 Autobiographical fragment in Portuguese]. Translated by Pedro Navarro, Tradução de texto primário da história da biologia: O primeiro relato autobiográfico de Darwin: tradução do manuscrito "vida" de 1838. Boletim de História e Filosofia da Biologia. vol. 13, no. 3 (September): 10-15. Text F2230

Anon. [1908?] Index to annotations by Darwin in his copies of Gardeners' Chronicle; List of the numbers of special interest to Darwin and kept by him in separate parcels, 1847-71. Text & images CUL-DAR222.1

Stebbing, T. T. R. 1871. The 'Times' Review of Darwin's 'Descent of Man'. Nature, (20 April): 488-9. Text Image A1027

2019, 09.22

We have combined the text of all sixty notebooks of Emma Darwin's diary into a single file for easier searching:

Emma Darwin's diary (1824-1896): Text CUL-DAR242

2019, 09.11

Wedgwood, H. A. 1887. The Bird talisman. An eastern tale. Preface by Emma Darwin. Cambridge: privately printed. PDF A1091

[Wedgwood, H. A.] 1852. The Bird talisman. An eastern tale. The family tutor. vol. 3: 49-52, 89-92, 109-111, 143-146, 168-171, 234-237. PDF A1090

Seward, A. 1804. Memoirs of the life of Dr. Darwin. London. PDF A1089

Courtesy of the Library of the Zoological Institute, St. Petersburg:

1950 Fertilisation of Flowers [in Russian]. Darwin's preface only. PDF F1433

List of personal friends invited to funeral of Darwin Charles Robert. 1882.04.26. Transcribed by Christine Chua, edited by John van Wyhe. Text & image CUL-DAR215.3c.

Anon. 1860. Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. Oxford Chronicle and Berks and Bucks Gazette, (21 July): 3. Text A1088

Scott, John. 1864. Observations on the functions and structure of the reproductive organs in the Primulaceæ. Communicated by Charles Darwin. [Read 4 Feb.] Journal of of the Linnean Society (Botany) 8 (1865): 78-126. PDF A1057

Brown-Séquard, C.Ē. 1861. Review of Origin of Species [In French]. Revue germanique (July): pp. 523-59. PDF A1065

Anon ed. 1909. Fifty years of Darwinism: modern aspects of evolution, centennial addresses in honor of Charles Darwin before the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Baltimore, Friday, January 1, 1909. PDF A1087

2019, 07.13

A newly discovered letter to Darwin. Emma Sophia Galton to Darwin, 19 Nov. 1879 on corrections to Erasmus Darwin. Text & images (From a private collection)

This letter fits between others exchanged between Galton and Darwin on the subject, see the Darwin Correspondence Project website here.

2019, 07.13

Newly transcribed by Christine Chua:

William Darwin, Francis Darwin and Albert Dicey on the religious part of Darwin's Autobiography. Text & images DAR210.8

2019, 07.12

Newly discovered, the first translation from Darwin's book Expression of the emotions in Hungarian, thanks to Christine Chua:

1873. Expression of the emotions [in Hungarian]. (Chap. VIII on laughter only) Trans. by Lajos Felméri. Természettudományi közlöny (Budapest) vol. 5: 179-192, 1 plate. PDF F1849

2019, 07.11

Darwin, G. H. 1873. Instinct: moving in a circle. Nature, May 1: 6. Text A1056

Darwin, G. H. 1873. Variations of organs. Nature, (16 Oct.): 505. Text A1054

Darwin, G. H. 1874. Endowment of Research. Nature, Nov. 12: 27. Text A1060

Darwin, G. H. 1874. Science at Cambridge. Nature, Aug. 13: 286. Text A1055

Darwin, G. H. 1875. Marriages between first cousins in England and their effects. Journal of the Statistical Society of London, vol. 38, No. 2, Jun.: 153-84. PDF A1058

Darwin, G. H. 1877. On a suggested explanation of the obliquity of planets to their orbits. The London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science, 3:17, 188-192. PDF A1061

Darwin, G. H. 1877. On the influence of geological changes on the Earth's axis of rotation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, vol. 167: 271-312. PDF A1059

Darwin, G. H. 1878. On Professor Haughton's estimate of geological time. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, vol. 27: 179-183. PDF A1063

Darwin, G. H. 1878. On the precession of a viscous spheroid, and on the remote history of the Earth. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Dec. 19: 447-593. PDF A1062

Darwin, G. H. 1879. The Determination of the Secular Effects of Tidal Friction by a Graphical Method. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Jun. 19: 168-81, with illustrations. PDF A1064

Darwin, G. H. 1880. History of planet and single satellite. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Mar. 6: 255-78. PDF A1066

Darwin, G. H. 1885. Note on a previous paper. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Mar. 19: 322-28. PDF A1067

Darwin, G. H. 1885. Results of the harmonic analysis of tidal observations. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Mar. 19: 135-207. PDF A1068

Darwin, G. H. 1886. On Jacobi's figure of equilibrium for a rotating mass of fluid.  Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Oct. 12: 319-36. PDF A1075

Darwin, G. H. 1886. On the correction to the equilibrium theory of tides for the continents.  Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Mar. 12: 303-15. PDF A1076

Darwin, G. H. 1886. On the Dynamical Theory of the Tides of Long Period, Nov. 5: 337-42. PDF A1074

Darwin, G. H. 1889. Second series of results of the harmonic analysis of tidal observations.  Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Feb. 7: 556-611. PDF A1077

Darwin, G. H. 1890. On the harmonic analysis of tidal observations of high and low water.  Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Jun. 17: 278-340. PDF A1078

Darwin, G. H. 1892. On the Apparatus for facilitating the Reduction of Tidal Observations.  Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Nov. 12: 345-389. PDF A1086

Darwin, G. H. 1898. On Sea-beaches and sandbanks: discussion. The geographical Journal, vol. 11, No. 6, Jun.: 647-651. PDF A1079

Darwin, G. H. 1899. The tides and kindred phenomena in the solar system. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin and company. PDF A1080

Darwin, G. H. 1902. The stability of the pear-shaped figure of equilibrium of a rotating mass of liquid. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Containing Papers of a Mathematical or Physical Character, Jun. 19: 251-314. PDF A1081

Darwin, G. H. 1903. The approximate determination of the form of Maclaurin's spheroid. Transactions of the American Mathematical Society, vol. 4, No. 2, Apr.: 113-133. PDF A1082

Darwin, G. H. 1906. On the figure and stability of a liquid satellite. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Containing Papers of a Mathematical and Physical Character, vol. 77, No. 519, May 14: 422-425. PDF A1083

Darwin, G. H. 1907. Oceanic tides and lunar disturbance of gravity, vol. 1. Cambridge University Press. PDF A1069

Darwin, G. H. 1908. Tidal Friction and Cosmogony, vol. 2. Cambridge University Press. PDF A1070

Darwin, G. H. 1909. The genesis of double stars. Cambridge University Press. PDF A1084

Darwin, G. H. 1910. Figures of equilibrium of rotating liquid and geophysical investigations, vol. 3. Cambridge University Press. PDF A1071

Darwin, G. H. 1910. The tidal observations of the British Antarctic Expedition, 1907. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Dec. 15: 403-422. PDF A1085

Darwin, G. H. 1911. Periodic Orbits and Miscellaneous Papers, vol. 4. Cambridge University Press. PDF A1072

Darwin, G. H. 1912. Sir William Herschel. Science, New Series, vol. 36, No. 917, Jul. 26: 97-108. PDF A1086

Darwin, G. H. 1916. Supplementary volume, vol. 5. Cambridge University Press. PDF A1073


2019, 07.07

A new introduction to Darwin's book the Fertilisation of Orchids by Gordon Chancellor. Introduction.

2019, 07.05

Fullerton, W. Y. 1931. [Recollection and letter of Darwin] J. W. C Fegan: A tribute, The Life of Mr. Fegan. Text F2523

Tait, L. 1875. Insectivorous plants. Nature (29 July): 251-2. (Forwarded to Nature by Darwin.) Text A1053

2019, 06.24-27

John van Wyhe, 2012. Darwin in translation. American Philosophical Society Darwin-Valentine collection.

Cooper, T. ed., 1878. Men of mark: a gallery of contemporary portraits...photographed from life by Lock and Whitfield with brief biographical notices. With photograph. Text & image A2052

Thackray, J.C. 2003. [Recollections of Darwin at the Geological Society of London] In: To see the fellows fight. Text A1050

Cohn, Ferdinand. [1876]. [Recollection of a visit to Darwin]. Breslauer Zeitung, 1882. (English translation) Text A654

Anon. 1871. Mr. Darwin, F.R.S. Illustrated London News. (11 March): 243-4 (with portrait). PDF A1051

Origin of species in Dutch, corrected text by Toon van der Ouderaa:

1860. Het ontstaan der soorten van dieren en planten door middel van de natuurkeus, of het bewaard blijven van bevoorregte rassen in de strijd des levens.
Vol. 1 PDF F2056.1
Vol. 2 PDF F2056.2

Variation vol. 1 in French, corrected by F. Précy:

1872-3. La descendance de l'homme et la sélection sexuelle. Vol. 1 PDF F1058.1


2019, 06.22

Completely transcribed for the first time, courtesy of Christine Chua:

Emma Darwin's Recipe Book. Text & images DAR214

2019, 06.18

Darwin in Finnish- a new language for Darwin Online- bringing the number of languages to 29. Courtesy of Christine Chua.

Journal of Researches

1924. Matka maapallon ympäri. Translated by Alfred Jotuni. Helsinki: Kustannusosakeyhtiö Kirja. PDF F179a

Origin of Species

1928. Lajien synty luonnollisen valinnan kautta eli Luonnon suosimien rotujen säilyminen taistelussa olemassaolosta. Translated by A. R. Koskimies. Hämeenlinna: Karisto. PDF F2026


1987. Elämäni. Translated by Anto Leikola. Oulu: Pohjoinen. PDF F2028

2019, 05.13

A critical review of Darwin's first book. Courtesy of J. David Archibald.

Anon. 1839. [Review of] Narratives of the Surveying Voyages of H.M.S. Adventure and Beagle, between the Years 1826 and 1836 [Second Notice]. Athenaeum no. 607 (15 June): 446-449. PDF A1049

2019, 05.11

Published here for the first time- complete transcriptions of Emma Darwin's diaries. They contain a treasure trove of unique information about the lives of the Darwin family and many others.

This final installment covers 1824-1835 and 1860-1896. This new content includes Darwin's life from the publication of the Origin of species to his death in 1882. Emma Darwin continued the diaries until her own death in 1896.

After clicking on a diary, scroll up to see a brief introduction. See the general introduction here.

[Emma Darwin's diary for: 1824] Text & images CUL-DAR242[.1]

[Emma Darwin's diary for: 1833] Text & images CUL-DAR242[.2]

[Emma Darwin's diary for: 1834] Text & images CUL-DAR242[.3]

[Emma Darwin's diary for: 1835] Text & images CUL-DAR242[.4]

[Emma Darwin's diary for: 1860] Text & images CUL-DAR242[.24]

[Emma Darwin's diary for: 1861] Text & images CUL-DAR242[.25]

[Emma Darwin's diary for: 1862] Text & images CUL-DAR242[.26]

[Emma Darwin's diary for: 1863] Text & images CUL-DAR242[.27]

[Emma Darwin's diary for: 1864] Text & images CUL-DAR242[.28]

[Emma Darwin's diary for: 1865] Text & images CUL-DAR242[.29]

[Emma Darwin's diary for: 1866] Text & images CUL-DAR242[.30]

[Emma Darwin's diary for: 1867] Text & images CUL-DAR242[.31]

[Emma Darwin's diary for: 1868] Text & images CUL-DAR242[.32]

[Emma Darwin's diary for: 1869] Text & images CUL-DAR242[.33]

[Emma Darwin's diary for: 1870] Text & images CUL-DAR242[.34]

[Emma Darwin's diary for: 1871] Text & images CUL-DAR242[.35]

[Emma Darwin's diary for: 1872] Text & images CUL-DAR242[.36]

[Emma Darwin's diary for: 1873] Text & images CUL-DAR242[.37]

[Emma Darwin's diary for: 1874] Text & images CUL-DAR242[.38]

[Emma Darwin's diary for: 1875] Text & images CUL-DAR242[.39]

[Emma Darwin's diary for: 1876] Text & images CUL-DAR242[.40]

[Emma Darwin's diary for: 1877] Text & images CUL-DAR242[.41]

[Emma Darwin's diary for: 1878] Text & images CUL-DAR242[.42]

[Emma Darwin's diary for: 1879] Text & images CUL-DAR242[.43]

[Emma Darwin's diary for: 1880] Text & images CUL-DAR242[.44]

[Emma Darwin's diary for: 1881] Text & images CUL-DAR242[.45]

[Emma Darwin's diary for: 1882] Text & images CUL-DAR242[.46]

[Emma Darwin's diary for: 1883] Text & images CUL-DAR242[.47]

[Emma Darwin's diary for: 1884] Text & images CUL-DAR242[.48]

[Emma Darwin's diary for: 1885] Text & images CUL-DAR242[.49]

[Emma Darwin's diary for: 1886] Text & images CUL-DAR242[.50]

[Emma Darwin's diary for: 1887] Text & images CUL-DAR242[.51]

[Emma Darwin's diary for: 1888] Text & images CUL-DAR242[.52]

[Emma Darwin's diary for: 1889] Text & images CUL-DAR242[.53]

[Emma Darwin's diary for: 1890] Text & images CUL-DAR242[.54]

[Emma Darwin's diary for: 1891] Text & images CUL-DAR242[.55]

[Emma Darwin's diary for: 1892] Text & images CUL-DAR242[.56]

[Emma Darwin's diary for: 1893] Text & images CUL-DAR242[.57]

[Emma Darwin's diary for: 1894] Text & images CUL-DAR242[.58]

[Emma Darwin's diary for: 1895] Text & images CUL-DAR242[.59]

[Emma Darwin's diary for: 1896]  Text & images CUL-DAR242[.60]


2019, 04.13

The Origin of species in Chinese. Courtesy of Christine Chua.

1972. 物种起源. 谢蕴贞译, 伍献文, 陈世骧. PDF F640a

2019, 04.01

Published here for the first time- transcriptions of Emma Darwin's diaries from 1850-1859. This period includes the deaths of her children Annie and Charles Waring and the writing and publication of Darwin's Origin of species.

[Emma Darwin's diary for: 1850] Text & images CUL-DAR242[.14]

[Emma Darwin's diary for: 1851] Text & images CUL-DAR242[.15]

[Emma Darwin's diary for: 1852] Text & images CUL-DAR242[.16]

[Emma Darwin's diary for: 1853] Text & images CUL-DAR242[.17]

[Emma Darwin's diary for: 1854] Text & images CUL-DAR242[.18]

[Emma Darwin's diary for: 1855] Text & images CUL-DAR242[.19]

[Emma Darwin's diary for: 1856] Text & images CUL-DAR242[.20]

[Emma Darwin's diary for: 1857] Text & images CUL-DAR242[.21]

[Emma Darwin's diary for: 1858] Text & images CUL-DAR242[.22]

[Emma Darwin's diary for: 1859] Text & images CUL-DAR242[.23]




For previous entries see the History of Darwin Online page.


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