What's new

Darwin Online is the largest Darwin resource in the world— probably the most comprehensive scholarly website on any historical person. It contains 240,000 searchable text pages, including 34,941 pages of newly transcribed manuscripts, 127,800 page images, 118,700 scans of manuscripts, 3,900 PDFs, 10,000 illustrations in books, Darwin's writings in 29 languages, the most comprehensive bibliography of Darwin ever created (7,000 records) and 78,000 manuscript/archival records (with thousands of corrections and additions to older catalogues). The majority of these materials have been edited and annotated here for the first time with hundreds of new editorial introductions and more than 15,000 editorial notes. Significant additions and discoveries are listed on this page.


2020, 11.24

Drafts of Origin of species

On the 164th anniversary of Origin of species, we launch all the known surviving draft pages of one of the most influential books in history.
After his book was published, Darwin discarded the original handwritten draft of his book into the family scrap paper pile. His children used some for drawings and others were torn in half by a son who used the blank back sides for mathematical exercises. In the end, almost all of the draft was destroyed. Near the end of Darwin's life there was intense interest in the original draft. Some were rescued from the piles of scrap paper and old notes and, over decades, many were given away as gifts especially by his children after his death. These are now scattered around the world and some have probably been lost forever.

Today the draft pages of Darwin's Origin of species are some of the most precious and valuable pieces of paper in the history of science, worth almost a million dollars each. The last one to sell at auction, in 2018, went for £490,000 ($600,000). Due to its cultural and national significance, the manuscript was placed under an export bar by the UK's Minister for Arts, Heritage and Tourism in the hopes of keeping it in the country.

Until now, about 50 sheets were known to survive. This edition of the drafts includes seven not in previous lists with three sheets recently rediscovered- bringing the total to 59. This edition includes unprecedented details about each sheet and its history. For example, one was donated by Darwin's daughter Henrietta Litchfield to a Red Cross auction during WWI for the war wounded. It was purchased anonymously by cotton merchant and aviation pioneer Sir Alfred Paton who donated it to his old school, Clifton College. After many years in the College Library, it was sold at auction in 1999 for £39,500 to an anonymous buyer "in the Americas" and has never been seen again.

See the introduction by John van Wyhe.


2020, 11.03

Today a most surprising discovery- an unknown and unrecorded letter from Charles Darwin to Alfred Russel Wallace! See an introduction above the brief letter quotation.

Darwin, C. R. 1947. [Unrecorded letter to A. R. Wallace [19-20 June 1867]]. Maggs Bros. Autograph letters and historical documents. Catalogue no. 765. London. Text F3595


2023, 10.18

A newly discovered Darwin letter and publication!

Darwin, C. R. 1915. [Letter to T. M. Coan]. In Anon. Benefit sale for the Belgian sufferers: under the auspices of the Authors Club: original manuscripts, presentation books, autograph letters and original drawings: on public exhibition from Saturday, May 15 and to be sold Thursday afternoon and evening May 20, 1915 at…The Anderson Galleries. New York, p. 21. Text Image F3556

2023, 10.18

Could this overlooked piece of paper be an early draft of the introduction to Darwin's Origin of species? See an introduction by John van Wyhe.

2023, 10.07

A collection of letters from Emma Darwin to her son Francis. The early letters recount the activities of Francis's infant son Bernard and a myriad of activities at Down House and the village. They also reveal Darwin as a grandfather. With so many activities surrounding Bernard, and later Erasmus, Darwin is usually mentioned only in passing, though these are no less interesting or amusing. There is also a little mystery solved on ‘Horace’s pit’.

See: Introduction by Christine Chua and John van Wyhe

2023, 09.08

A little mystery solved. In his magnificent 1977 Darwin bibliography, R. B. Freeman noted a German translation of what many regard as Darwin's first scientific publication- Letters to Henslow of 1835. But when Darwin Online was being created, we found that the publication Freeman cited as the translation was something completely different. We have now found the translation- it was in a different journal and year- but both were by psychologist W.T. Preyer. See it and an intro here:

Preyer, W. T. 1892. Reisebriefe von Charles Darwin. Das Ausland 65, nos. 13-14 (26 March; 2 April): 193-198; 215-217. Text Image PDF F3554

2023, 08.25

Today we are pleased to unveil a very special Darwinian collection of over 430 colour images courtesy of the Osler Library of the History of Medicine, McGill University. It was assembled by Canadian biologist J.C. Simpson who helped organise the 1909 Darwin centenary events in Cambridge and especially at Christ’s College.

The collection contains letters from all of Darwin's sons, as well as the little known daughter 'Bessie'. There is a letter from Darwin's friend J. D. Hooker, a postcard from Ernst Haeckel, a note from A. R. Wallace which makes a very casual reference to his 1858 Ternate essay manuscript, a photograph of Darwin that once belonged to him, a manuscript leaf of Darwin's Insectivorous plants (1875) and personal cheques signed by Darwin and Emma Darwin. There is a letter offering a photograph of Darwin that the Darwin family had never seen before. And there is the stuffed monkey that was suspended over Darwin’s head when he was given his honorary law degree at Cambridge in 1877.

See the introduction and catalogue of the collection by John van Wyhe here.

Christine Chua has since transcribed virtually the entire collection and improved the catalogue.


2023, 08.18

Today we add the fully corrected text of the 1877 French translation of Darwin's book The effects of cross and self fertilisation in the vegetable kingdom by Françoise Percy.

Darwin, 1877. Des effets de la fécondation croisée et de la fécondation directe dans le règne végétal. Text Image PDF F1265

2023, 07.20

Of the hundreds of Darwin manuscripts being transcribed for the first time are those in the volumes CUL-DAR157.1-2 which contain notes for Darwin’s long 1865 paper and later book 'On the movements and habits of climbing plants' (F1733).

See all of these notes here: CUL-DAR157.1 Itemized and CUL-DAR157.2 Itemized

2023, 07.16

"On The Protection of Leaves from Water"
Charles Darwin's unpublished last book

Everyone interested in Darwin knows that his last book was on earthworms. But he was working on another book when he died. There are three volumes in Darwin's manuscripts and papers with notes from his research on "bloom on leaves and fruit". These have also been transcribed for the first time. See an introduction and links to all of the notes for Darwin's last book here: Introduction.


2023, 05.29

Of the thousands of Darwin manuscripts being newly transcribed this year, here is another interesting discovery. This draft fragment was originally catalogued as possibly part of the draft of Descent of man. It is in fact an unrecorded early draft of Natural selection.

Darwin, [1857]. Draft fragment of Natural selection, chapter IX Hybridism. CUL-DAR77.112r. Text & image


2023, 04.26

Darwin's funeral in Westminster Abbey was held 141 years ago today. We have provided an introduction with many new details and important original manuscripts and documents have been transcribed for the first time.

Darwin's funeral.

2023, 04.19

Charles Darwin died 141 years ago today. He was widely seen as the most influential scientific man of the age, perhaps of any age. Consequently, an unprecedented number of obituaries of Darwin were published around the world. The Darwin Online project has assembled the largest collection of Darwin obituaries in history- over 260 in 11 languages- 180 of them fully transcribed:



2023, 03.02

Record transcription of Darwin manuscripts

In 2022 about 7,000 more pages of Darwin’s hard-to-decipher handwritten scientific notes, abstracts and drafts were transcribed in Darwin Online. (26,978 manuscript pages in total)

This also included are hundreds of further corrections to the original catalogue of Darwin papers with many words or species names being corrected or first deciphered and dates found or clarified. Also very many fragments of drafts of Darwin’s books and articles have been correctly identified for the first time.

For example, CUL-DAR59.1.138r was catalogued simply as “draft [geological] [p] 138A” but is now identified as “Draft of Coral reefs 2d ed. [p.] 138A” (see image). CUL-DAR76.B149-B150 was catalogued as “[Undated] Hildebrand `[reference incomplete]'; Müller H.L.H `[reference incomplete]'” and is now “Abstract of Hildebrand, Geschlechter-Vertheilung bei den Pflanzen and H. Müller, Die Befruchtung.” CUL-DAR59.1.121 was recorded as “Draft [of `Expression'?]” but has now been identified as “Draft of Descent 2d ed. / Dec 26 Trinidad.” (see image) This is one of many, many fragments of Darwin’s drafts now identified and transcribed.

These transcriptions make up almost the entirety of these volumes in the Darwin Archive at Cambridge University Library for Darwin’s book Movement in plants (1880): DAR209.1, DAR209.3, DAR209.6, DAR209.7, DAR209.8, DAR209.9, DAR209.10 & DAR209.13:

Notes for Movement in plants


Abstracts, some on expression, Galapagos birds, etc. DAR256:


'notes found with MS of Climbing Plants' DAR187:


Notes for Cross and self fertilisation, Hybridity, Diptera, etc. DAR76:


Also DAR107, DAR108




As well as DAR11.1, DAR185, DAR189, DAR193, DAR195, DAR202, DAR205.2, DAR206-7 and many more.

All are freely available and searchable in Darwin Online via the Manuscripts page: http://darwin-online.org.uk/manuscripts.html


2023, 02.12

Darwin Day – 12 February. Today we launch one of the most significant additions ever to Darwin Online.

The Complete Photographs of Darwin

An unprecedentedly detailed catalogue of all known photographs of Darwin – a dozen newly discovered – and c.300 printed variants produced up to the early 20th century. Now online, illustrated with 450 images!
The catalogue is an updated version of the photograph section of the iconography of Darwin by John van Wyhe in Darwin: A Companion. (2021).


2023, 01.13

A new Darwin letter has been discovered- to the French seismologist Alexis Perrey (1807-1882). The authors of the paper publishing it sent it to Darwin Online.

Darwin, 2022. [Letter to A. Perrey, 1853]. In G. Ferrari and A. Comastri, An unknown letter by Charles Darwin to the seismologist Alexis Perrey. Archivio Storico per le Province Napoletane cxl: 177-183. PDF F3533

2023, 01.02

A newly discovered Darwin publication!

Darwin, 1880. [Letter to Henslow, 1845]. Autographs and historical documents on sale by John Waller. Text Image F3531

2022, 12.26

A newly uncovered Darwin manuscript, photograph and more.

Darwin, Draft of Orchids, fair copy, chap. III, folio 179. Text & image Christies-21034Lot54

Litchfield, H. E. 1892.07.31. Letter to ? sending draft of Orchids. Text & image Christies-21034Lot54[.2]

Photograph of Darwin by Leonard Darwin 1878a.4b. Image Christies-21034Lot55

Anon. Darwin: Ein Mord wird gestanden. Der Spiegel no. 52 (26 December): 50-72. Image PDF A2958

2022, 12.16

A newly discovered Darwin publication.

Darwin, 1889. [Letter to Henry van der Weyde, 1876]. Evolution of animal life. Text Image PDF F3529

2022, 12.07

Two notes by Darwin to his local dispensing chemist, courtesy of Bromley Historic Collections.

Note to Baxter's chemist 'Spirits of wine'. 16 March. Text & image BROM-144.1

Note to Baxter's chemist 'Hydrated Magnesia' 11 Dec. Text & image BROM-144.2

These are very similar to two other notes, from different collections, that were added to Darwin Online recently.

2022, 12.04

A newly recorded Darwin publication.

Darwin, C. R. & C. Lyell. 1838. Report of Museum Committee. Annual general meeting, 16 February. Proceedings of the Geological Society no. 55, 2: 604-6. Text Image PDF F3525

2022, 12.03

Three hand-corrected article proofs and sketches by Darwin's Cambridge mentor, John Stevens Henslow. Now kept in the Old Library of Christ's College, Cambridge.


Henslow, Geological description of Anglesea. 1822. [Corrected proof with coloured drawings & map]



Henslow, On the examination of a hybrid Digitalis. Transactions of the Cambridge Philsophical Society. 1831. [Corrected proof with coloured drawings]




Henslow, On a monstrosity of the common Mignionette. 1833. [Transactions of the Cambridge Philsophical Society & Pamphlet, 1833]. [Corrected proof]


2022, 12.02

Darwin, C. R. 1855.11.27. Codicil to Darwin's last Will and Testament. Text & image Skinner-2865BLot18

2022, 12.01

Over 280 more reviews of Darwin's works have been transcribed as well as many references corrected.

See the introduction to the reviews here.

2022, 11.30

We have added some exciting manuscripts and recollections of Darwin. Almost all are transcribed by Christine Chua.

Darwin, C. R. Signed Zoological Society of London pass. Text  Image Bonhams-16157Lot2029

Darwin, C. R. If Mivart had read my account of the niata Cattle. [1872]. Text & image Sothebys-L11408

Darwin, C. R. Memorandum to John Murray on index for Variation. [1867]. Text & image HA-2006Lot25535

Darwin, Abstract of Watson, Cybele Britannica, [7.1856]. Text & image CWRU-StecherWatsonAbstract

J. Brodie Innes. [Recollections of Darwin, 1882]. Text & image  CWRU-StecherBrodieInnes   

Herter, [1904]. Darwin's marriage notes, partial copy from Henrietta Litchfield. Text & image CUCNY-HerterBox1[.3]

Darwin, C. R. Note to chemist W. W. Baxter? [1873]. Text & image CUCNY-HerterBox1[.2]

Darwin, C. R. Abstract of M'Andrew, Remarks upon Mr. J. G. Jeffrey's last dredging report. Text & image UCL-GaltonPapers1.1.3.5[.2]

Darwin, C. R. Cheque to 'Mr Sales' (Union Bank of London) 1875 for £50. Image UCL-GaltonPapers1.1.3.5[.1]

Darwin, C. R. Cheque to 'Mr Nicholls' (Union Bank of London) 1878 for £34 10s. Image Christies-14301

Darwin, C. R. Cheque to 'Mr Payne' (Union Bank of London) 1879 for £25.4.0. Image RRAuction2019

2022, 11.27

A curious manuscript currently up for auction. It records borrowing books from 1838-1840. It is unclear which library it is from, but likely that of the Royal Geographical Society or the Geological Society of London.

Darwin, 1838-1840. Library borrowing ledger page. Text & image RRAuction7Dec.2022Lot1095.

2022, 11.26

The first biography of Darwin- and today the rarest.

Bacon, G. W. [1882]. The life of Charles Darwin, with British opinion on evolution. Compiled by G. W. Bacon, F.R.G.S. London: G. W. Bacon & Co. Text Image PDF A2951

2022, 11.25

Darwin's draft sketch of the long- and short-styled Cowslip for his important paper 'Dimorphic condition in Primula', p. 78:

Darwin, [1861].03.23. Sketch of the dimorphic flowers of the primrose. Text & image Bonhams-11388Lot83.

2022, 11.24

On the 163rd anniversary of the publication of Origin of species on 24 November 1859, we have added a special manuscript. Once mistaken for a page of the draft of Origin, Darwin copied out a passage from the conclusion of the book and signed it with his full name on request. But he chose a passage that had special meaning for him. See the introduction to find out why.

Darwin, 10.1865. Signed autograph paragraph from Origin 3d ed. for Hermann Kindt. Text & image Sothebys-N11124.

2022, 11.20

A newly recorded Darwin publication.

Darwin, 1913. [Letter to Borrow, 1858]. In Shorter, George Borrow and his circle. Text Image PDF F3521

2022, 11.11

J. David Archibald gets to the bottom of an old mystery about the so-called 1st issue of the 2nd edition of Darwin's Origin of species with a new introduction.

2022, 11.10

A lost Darwin manuscript is found.

Darwin, 1910. [Manuscript facsimile: 'the percentage system takes no account of relationship of organisms, when all species different']. In T. D. A. Cockerell, The Darwin celebration at Cambridge. The Popular Science Monthly 76 (January): 23-31. Text Image PDF F3515

2022, 10.29

Ten newly recorded/discovered Darwin publications. The 1863 item contains some unique German translations of some of Darwin's writings. A copy of the very rare pamphlet by Zacharias in 1882 was purchased for Darwin Online.

Darwin, 1863. [German translation of portions of: Zoology (pt 2, pp. 10-12, pt 4, p. 151), Coral reefs, Journal of researches 2d ed., South America, Origin & Orchids]. In J. Schönemann, Charles Darwin, englischer Naturforscher. Unsere Zeit. Jahrbuch zum Conversations-Lexikon 7: 699-718. Text PDF F3514

Darwin, 1883. [Words attributed to Darwin, 1878]. [Recollections of Darwin 1872-8]. Address of Thomas Wentworth Higginson. The Index (14 June): 596-7. Text PDF F3504

Darwin, 1877. [Letter to Thomas Davidson, 1861]. What is a Brachiopod? Geological Magazine. Text Image F3506

Darwin, 1882. [Letter to Otto Zacharias, 1877]. In Zacharias, Charles Darwin. Vom Fels zum Meer. Spemann's illustrirte Zeitschrift für das deutsche Haus 2: 348-53, p. 348. Text F3509

Darwin, 1880. [Words attributed to Darwin]. In E. von Hesse-Wartegg, Bei Charles Darwin. Frankfurter Zeitung und Handelsblatt (30 July). Text Image F2553

Darwin, 1877. [Letter to Zacharias stating when Darwin became an evolutionist. First publication of this letter]. Charles Darwin und seine deutschen Anhänger im Jahre 1876. Text F3508

Darwin, 1882. [Three letters to Zacharias, 1875-7]. Charles R. Darwin und die culturhistorische Bedeutung seiner Theorie vom Ursprung der Arten. Text PDF F3422

Darwin, 1885. [Letter to Hermann Settegast, 1870]. Wiener Landwirtschaftliche Zeitung 101 (19 December): 798. Text Image F2755

Darwin, 1897. [Letters to Farrar, 1867, 1871 and recollection of Darwin]. In F. W. Farrar, Men I have known. New York: Crowell, pp. 140-9. Text F3510

Darwin, 1950. [Letters to Hooker (1) and Nilsson (2) 1868-9]. In Sten Lindroth, Om Sven Nilssons engelska förbindelser (Lyell, Darwin och Lubbock). Lychnos 1948-9 (1950), 155-8. PDF F3507

Anon. 1894. [Recollections of Darwin and John Lubbock]. Darwin's workshop. Bromley and West Kent Telegraph (17 March): 3. Text A2945

2022, 10.17

Seven previously unknown Darwin letters including two unrecorded correspondents are added today. Plus a treasure trove of other printed Darwin letters and recollections of Darwin not previously recorded, including a previously unknown visit to Darwin by an American Marxist (A2932).

Darwin, 1863. [Letter to James Anderson, [1863]]. In West of Scotland Horticultural Magazine (September): 67. Text PDF F3460

Darwin, C. R. 1888. [Letter to Lillie Devereux Blake, 1874]. In Canine suicides. Outing: an illustrated monthly magazine of recreation (New York) 12: 47-8. Text PDF F3496

Darwin, 1883. [Letter to Octavius March, 1875]. In H. C. March, Darwinism and the evolution of man. Text F3494

Darwin, 1883. Letter to Hermann Müller in The fertilisation of flowers, p. 305 n. Text F1432

Darwin, C. R. 1905. [Recollection of and words attributed to Darwin, "Painless surgery"]. In Stearns, Cambridge sketches. Text F3495

Darwin, C. R. 1924. [Letter to Archibald Geikie, 1881]. A long life's work: an autobiography. Text PDF F3489

Darwin, C. R. 1951. Three unpublished letters from Charles Darwin to Professor John Phillips. Proceedings and Report, Ashmolean Natural History Society of Oxfordshire. Text PDF F3490

Darwin, C. R. 1958. [Letter to H. Weyenbergh, 1879]. Castellanos, Academia Nacional de Ciencias (Córdoba, Argentina). Text F3491

Darwin, C. R. 1882. [Letter to James E. Todd, 1882]. The Round Table and Beloit Monthly. Text Image F3493

Darwin, C. R. 1911. [Letters to Samuel Butler, 1880]. In Henry Festing Jones, Charles Darwin and Samuel Butler: A step towards reconciliation. Text F3488

Darwin, C. R. 1958. [Letter to Paweł Edmund Strzelecki, 1845]. Kosmos Seria A: Biologia. PDF F3487

Darwin, C. R. 1927. [Two letters to W. Cole, 1880]. The Essex Naturalist. PDF F3486

Darwin, C. R. 1883. [Letters to I. Anderson-Henry, 1863]. Transactions & Proceedings of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh. Text F3485

Darwin, C. R. 1909. [Letter to F. W. Hope, 1837, 19 letters to R. Trimen, 1863-71]. In Poulton ed. Charles Darwin and the Origin of species. Text F3484

Darwin, C. R. 1915. [Letter to Richard Hill, 1859]. West India Committee Circular. Text Image F3483

Darwin, C. R. 1838. [Letter to J. G. Children]. British Museum (Officers' Reports). Text F3482

Darwin, C. R. 1883. [Letter to Baruch Jakob Placzek]. Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archæology. Text Image F3481

Darwin, C. R. 1912. [Letter to Henry Faulds, 1880]. Dactylography or the study of finger-prints. Text Image F3480

Darwin, C. R. 1889. [Letters to W. P. Garrison, 1879]. William Lloyd Garrison 1805-1879. Text Image F3479

Darwin, C. R. 1896. [Letter to George Birkbeck Hill, 1879]. Talks about autographs. Text Image F3478

Darwin, C. R. 1892. [Letter to Constantin James, 1877]. Moïse et Darwin. Text Image F3477

Darwin, C. R. 1877. [Letter to Pietro Siciliani]. La critica nella filosofia zoologica. Text F3476

Darwin, C. R. 1873. [Letter to A. W. Bennett, 1871]. Journal of the Linnean Society (Botany). Text Image F3475

Darwin, C. R. 1877. [Letter to Thomas Brittain]. Hardwicke's Science-Gossip. Text Image F3474

Darwin, C. R. 1875. [Letter on animal tails]. In Lawson Tait, The uses of tails in animals. Birmingham Daily Post. Text Image F3473

Darwin, C. R. 1953. [Letter to A. W. Merriam, 1873]. In Creole city: its past and its people. Text F3472

Darwin, C. R. 1871. [Letter to C. L. Balch, May 1871]. Milwaukee Sentinel. Text F3471

Darwin, C. R. 1869. [Letter to L. E. Becker, 1863]. Journal of Botany. Text Image F3470

Darwin, C. R. 1975. [Letter to Albert Günther, 1870]. A century of zoology at the British Museum through the lives of two keepers, 1815-1914. Text F3469

Darwin, C. R. 1953. [Letter to Siemens, 1881]. A collection of letters to Sir William Charles Siemens 1823-1883. Text F3468

Darwin, C. R. 1948. [Letter to Henry Edwards, 1881]. In Weiss, Journal of the New York Entomological Society. Text F3467

Darwin, C. R. 1842. Library. Proceedings of the Geological Society of London. Text Image F3466

Darwin, C. R. 1912. [Three letters to Matthew]. In Calman, Patrick Matthew of Gourdiehill, naturalist. Text Image F3463

Darwin, 1902. [Letter to E. S. Morse, 1877]. In Address of Prof. Edward S. Morse [at the Memorial of Professor Alpheus Hyatt]. Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History. Text F3497

Darwin, 1882. [Three letters to R. A. Blair, 1877-8]. In The history of Pettis County, Missouri. Text Image F3498

Darwin, 1959. [Letter to Emil Holub, 1882]. In B. Matouskowá, Charles Darwin a český darwinismus. Vedecká Kniha (Praha) 1: 2. PDF F3499

Darwin, 1959. [Letter to Enrico Morselli, 10 April 1874]. In Piero Leonardi, Una lettera inedita di Carlo Darwin. Annali dell'Università di Ferrara. Sezione 9: Scienze Geologiche e Mineralogiche n.s. 3 (no. 4): 71-4. Text PDF F3500

Darwin, 1909. [Letter to Johannes Steenstrup, 28 July, 1881]. In Steenstrup, Darwins brevveksling med Professor Japetus Steenstrup. Tilskueren (1909 lte Halvbind): 217-23. PDF F3501

Darwin, 1948. [Letters to Wilhelm Dunker, 1850-1]. Arne Portman, Three unknown Darwin letters. Lychnos (1948-9): 206-10. PDF F3502

Ward, C. O. 1895. [Recollection of a visit to Darwin, 1868]. The equilibration of human aptitudes and powers of adaptation. Text A2932

Cobbe, Frances Power. 1883. [Recollection of Darwin]. Agnostic morality. Contemporary Review 43 (June): 783-94, p. 787. Text A2933

2022, 10.10

Almost 80 pages of previously unpublished notes on reading Darwin and others and recollections of Darwin in private from long-term family friend Vernon Lushington. Transcribed here for the first time. Courtesy of the Surrey History Centre, Woking.

T. V. Lushington, notes on Origin of species, Descent of man, works by others and recollections of Darwin. [1866-1883]. Text & image SHC-7854.

2022, 09.28

Communicated by Darwin

In addition to Darwin's own publications, he also directly facilitated many publications by others— at least sixty-eight between 1838 and 1882. This list of publications is the result of many years of research and contains items not previously known. These constitute an often overlooked part of Darwin's scientific output.


2022, 09.25

Darwin's referee reports and other interesting items from the Linnean Society of London published for the first time. Photographed and transcribed by Christine Chua.

Perhaps of greatest interest is a fascinating and previously unpublished manuscript recollection of Darwin by Thomas Henry Farrer.

LINSOC-SP.57 Text & image Report on Mary Elizabeth Barber's "On the fertilization and dissemination of Duvernoia adhatoides", with the draft paper and a watercolour drawing and pencil sketch (5.1869)
Transcribed here
LINSOC-CR.67 Text & image Recommendation certificate to elect Darwin a Fellow of the Linnean Society of London (1853)
Transcribed here
LINSOC-SP.585c[1] Text & image Report on T. H. Huxley's "Agamic Reproduction & Embryology of Aphis" (5.[1858])
Transcribed here
LINSOC-SP.585c[2] Text & image Thomas Bell's report on Mr Huxley's paper on Crocodilia (1859)
LINSOC-SP.585c[3] Text & image Richard Owen's report on The paper by Willm Huxley, Esq, On the Physalia (1850)
Transcribed here
LINSOC-SP.585c[4] Text & image Edward Forbes, letter to J. J. Bennett submitting papers by Huxley (5.[1848])
Transcribed here

Text & image

Richard Owen, letter to J. J. Bennett on Huxley's papers (1850)
Transcribed here
LINSOC-MS.299 Text & image T. H. Farrer, [c.1885]. Recollections and letters of Darwin, 1868-1881.
Transcribed here



Darwin's copy of: Greenough, 1819. A critical examination of the first principles of geology. Inscribed: "Charles Darwin, Buenos Aires Oct: 1832".


2022, 09.20

Christine Chua has heroically transcribed CUL-DAR39 and CUL-DAR46.2.

The rough OCRed text of the 2d French edition of Origin of species (1866) has been corrected by Françoise Précy.

Darwin, 1866. L'origine des espèces par sélection naturelle ou des lois de transformation des êtres organisés. Text Image PDF F656

2022, 08.13

A newly discovered Darwin publication.

Darwin, 1875. [Letter to R. D. Fitzgerald]. The book of Australian Orchids. The Sydney Morning Herald (16 September): 5. Text Image F3464

2022, 08.08

A newly discovered Darwin letter expresses interest in evolution in the Gardeners' Chronicle in 1844!

Darwin, C. R. 1844. [Quotation from a lost letter to John Lindley agreeing that transmutation in plants is well worth investigation]. Gardeners' Chronicle and Agricultural Gazette. Text PDF F3455

2022, 08.06

Yet another newly discovered Darwin letter and publication. See the introduction in the item below.

Darwin, et al. [c.1873]. [Memorial for the endowment of scientific research]. Text Image F3462

2022, 08.03

Another newly discovered Darwin letter and publication. See the introduction in the item below.

Darwin, et al. 1871. [Memorial on behalf of] M. Elisee Reclus. Pall Mall Gazette (26 December): 7. Text PDF F3458

2022, 08.02

Another previously unknown Darwin item. Darwin's search for a plant "worth more than diamonds". See the introduction to this item.

Darwin, C. R. 1873. Procuring a plant of Neptunia oleracea. Gardeners' Chronicle (15 November): 1538. Text PDF F3457

2022, 08.01

A quote from a lost Darwin letter and the great 1879 rat debate in Nature. See the introduction to the new item below.

Darwin, 1879. [Quote from a lost 1875 letter to Arthur Nicols]. In A. Nicols, Intellect in brutes. Nature (20 February): 365. Text PDF F3459

2022, 07.31

Some newly recorded items from Darwin.

Darwin, 1856. Cross breeding. Gardeners' Chronicle, no. 49 (6 December): 808. Text PDF F3456

[Fox, William Darwin] W. D. F. 1846. Potato disease [with information from and about Darwin]. Gardeners' Chronicle, no. 40, (3 October): 661. Text PDF A2884

Henslow, J. S. 1843. Clover dodder [citing a lost letter from Darwin]. Gardeners' Chronicle (7 October): 694. Text A2886

[Buckman, James] J. B. 1858. Foreign and native weeds. (Forwarded by Darwin) Gardeners' Chronicle no. 1, (2 January): 11. Text PDF A2885  

Hooker, J. D. 1871. Abutilon darwinii. Curtis's Botanical Magazine (1 August), ser. 3, vol. XXVII, n.p., tab. 5917. PDF A2890

Darwin, et al. 1880. Memorial addressed to the Governor of New York, and the Governor-General of Canada [on the preservation of Niagara Falls]. Text F3453

2022, 07.24

And another newly recorded Darwin publication. This was an offprint to collect signatures for a recently published memorial (F2449). Instead, Darwin used the back of this copy to take notes on movement in cotyledons (seed-leaves) of plants (see CUL-DAR209.9.51), later published in Movement in plants (1880).

Darwin, et al. 1878. Declaration against war [with Russia]. Text Image F2449b

2022, 07.20

Another newly recorded Darwin publication! This is a German translation of a letter to Charles Lyell which was forwarded to the leaders of the first Austrian scientific expedition to circumnavigate the globe.

Darwin, 1857. [Letter to Lyell]. In Lecture by Ferdinand Hochstetter. Mittheilungen der k.k. Geographischen Gesellschaft in Wien. Text PDF F3452

2022, 07.18

A newly recorded Darwin publication! This is extracts from Darwin's notes on some of his specimens of algae from the Beagle voyage, including a colour plate illustrating some of Darwin's specimens.

Darwin, 1847. [Extracts from notes on algae]. In Harvey, Nereis Australis. Text Image PDF F3449

See further descriptions of Darwin's specimens in the full publication: Harvey, Nereis Australis, pp. 46, 47, 95-96, 98, 100, 103-107, 109, 110, TAB. XXXVIII, TAB. XL, TAB. XLI. PDF A2912

2022, 07.14

Darwin's great-great grandson Richard Darwin Keynes published Darwin's Zoological diary from the voyage of the Beagle in 2000. The whole volume is on Darwin Online, thanks to Richard's efforts. Christine Chua has adapted and expanded the transcription to fit alongside images of the manuscript. The diary lists the animals collected by Darwin during the voyage with fascinating details about their habits.

See here: Itemized

2022, 07.09

George Howard Darwin was born 9 July 1845. Launched today, Emma Darwin's letters to her son George, 1881-1883. See the introduction by Christine Chua & John van Wyhe.

2022, 07.04

In 1882, Darwin co-signed a memorial or petition appealing for "a public expression of opinion respecting the persecution which the Jews of Russia have recently and for some time past suffered." The printed versions of this memorial were not recorded until re-published on Darwin Online. Angus Carroll has uncovered a further example in The Penny Illustrated Paper which used the subject for their dramatic cover illustration. Coming out as it did just a few months before Darwin's death in April 1882, this must be his final publication with a cover illustration.

Darwin, et al. 1882. The civil war against the Jews in Russia. The Penny Illustrated Paper (28 January): 52. (with cover illustration) Text PDF F2529b

The memorial was first published here:

Darwin, et al. 1882. [Memorial on the] Persecution of the Jews in Russia. London Evening Standard (23 January): 5. Text F2529a


2022, 06.27

A rare pamphlet in which Darwin's letter to his Cambridge friend Charles Thomas Whitley was first published. Courtesy of J. David Archibald. This item was not catalogued by R. B. Freeman and so is a newly recorded Darwin publication.

Darwin, 1971. A letter of Charles Darwin about preparations for the voyage of the Beagle, 1831. [Philadelphia]: American Philosophical Society. Text Image PDF F3450


2022, 06.23

Important new additions to Darwin Online. Darwin's personal and annotated copies of Descent of Man (1st ed.), Insectivorous Plants and Erasmus Darwin with added slips of handwritten corrections for future editions, a clipping from Nature in his copy of Orchids (2d ed.), illustration clippings in his copy of Movements and habits of climbing plants (2d ed.) and further items by Francis Darwin. All from a private collection.

PC-Virginia-Descent-F937.1 Image
Darwin's annotated copy of Descent, 1871, vol. 1.


Single leaf tipped in to Darwin's copy of 1st ed. of Descent, vol. 1.
Transcribed here


Letter by A. Macalister to Francis Darwin 6 May 1901 tipped in to Darwin's copy of 1st ed. of Descent, vol. 1.
Transcribed here
PC-Virginia-Descent-F937.2 Image
Darwin's annotated copy of Descent, 1871, vol. 2.
PC-Virginia-Orchids2dNature Image Annotated clipping: Müller, Hermann. 1878. Ophrys muscifera. Nature (27 June): 221.
PC-Virginia-ClimbingPlants1 Image 'Antirrhinum majuss' pinned on inside back flyleaf of Darwin's copy of Movements and habits of climbing plants. 2d ed.
PC-Virginia-Insectivorous-F1217 Image
Darwin's annotated copy of Insectivorous Plants, 1875.
PC-Virginia-Insectivorous-F1217.1 Image
Corrections for 2d ed. of Insectivorous Plants, tipped in to Darwin's copy of 1st ed. 2 leaves.
PC-Virginia-Erasmus-F1319 Image
Darwin's annotated copy of Krause, E., Erasmus Darwin...with a preliminary notice by Charles Darwin, 1879.


Corrections for 2d ed. of Erasmus Darwin, tipped in to Darwin's copy of 1st ed. 2 leaves.
Transcribed here

PC-Virginia-Erasmus-F1319.2 Image
Proofs for 2d ed. of Erasmus Darwin (pp. 1-2, 15-16) with corrections by Francis Darwin, tipped in to Darwin's copy of 1st ed.
PC-Virginia-Galton1879 Text & images Letter from E. S. Galton to Darwin, 19 Nov. 1879, on corrections for Erasmus Darwin. Tipped in to Darwin's copy above.
Transcribed here


This is the same collection which in 2009 gave us scans of this important item:




Francis Darwin's annotated copy of Origin of Species, 1859. Once Darwin's own copy.
Introduction by John van Wyhe
Annotations only: Image and PDF


2022, 06.19

Darwin's notes for his research on the expression of emotions have now been transcribed- about 360 pages in all. CUL-DAR195, CUL-DAR53 and CUL-DAR189.


2022, 06.11

A previously unrecognised draft of Darwin's Historical sketch for Origin of species written in 1860 has been identified and transcribed.

Dariwn, C. R. [1-2.1860]. [Draft of Historical sketch for Origin]. Text & image CUL-DAR64.2.13v

2022, 06.02

A newly recorded Darwin publication. Darwin edited and added to this biographical entry about himself in 1865. He occasionally edited such biographical accounts, as, for example, Reeve and Walford's Portraits of men of eminence (Text F1856) the following year.

[Darwin, and Hermann Kindt]. 1865. Charles R. Darwin. The Autographic Mirror 3, n.s. no. 20 (11 November): 82-3. Text PDF F3448

2022, 05.19

Before the definitive edition of Darwin's correspondence began to appear in 1985, very many Darwin letters had appeared here and there in print. Not only do these letters count as unique Darwin publications (if previously unpublished), but they reveal what primary source information was available in the public domain by a certain date. We have added over seventy more publications with Darwin letters.

Darwin, 1881. Une Lettre de Darwin [to Emily Talbot]. Journal général de l'Instruction publique (December): 805-6. Text PDF F3420

Darwin, C. R. 1882. [Letter to W. B. Carpenter, 1860]. In Carpenter, Charles Darwin: his life and work. Modern Review 3: 500-24, p. 521. Text F4054

Darwin, C. R. 1882. [Letter to H. W. Crosskey and the Birmingham Philosophical Society, 1880]. Death of Charles Darwin, F.R.S. Birmingham Daily Post (21 April): 4. Text F3426b

Darwin, C. R. 1883. Darwin sur la Révélation. Revue d'anthropologie, 6: 185-6. Text F3419

Darwin, C. R. 1884. [Letter extract from 1881 and recollection of Darwin's words]. In R. Meldola, The presidential address: Darwin and modern evolution. Transactions of the Essex Field Club 3: 64-93. Text F3396

Darwin, C. R. 1885. [Letters to Henry Fawcett. 1861]. In Stephen, Leslie, Life of Henry Fawcett. London,pp. 100-2. Text F3374

Darwin, C. R. 1887. [Letter to T. Mellard Reade, 1880]. The theories of the origin of coral reefs and islands. Nature. Text PDF F3437

Darwin, C. R. 1890. [Letter to P. H. Gosse, 1863]. In E. W. Gosse, The life of Philip Henry Gosse F.R.S. London: Kegan Paul, pp. 299-300. Text PDF F4051

Darwin, C. R. 1890. [Letters to Leonard Horner, 1846, 1847 and 1861]. In Katherine Murray Lyell ed. Memoir of Leonard Horner, F.R.S., F.G.S. Consisting of letters to his family and from some of his friends. 2 vols. London: privately printed, vol. 2. Text PDF F3432

Darwin, C. R. 1891. [Letter to Milne Home, 1840]. In G., Milne Home ed., Biographical sketch of David Milne Home LL.D., F.R.S.E, F.G.S, etc. Edinburgh: David Douglas, pp. 67-69. Text F4048

Darwin, C. R. 1892. [Letters to H. W. Bates, 1860-1863]. In E. C. Clodd, Memoir on H. W. Bates, naturalist on the River Amazons. London, pp. xxx-lxii. Text F3375

Darwin, C. R. 1893. [Letter to Asa Gray] In Gray, Jane Loring, ed., Letters of Asa Gray. 2 vols. Boston and New York, vol. 2, p. 557. Text F2110

Darwin, 1894. [Letter to Charles Bradlaugh, 1877]. In Bonner, Hypatia Bradlaugh, Charles Bradlaugh: a record of his life and work. 2 vols. London, p. 24. [CUL-DAR202.32] Text F3382

Darwin, C. R. 1894. [Letters to Richard Owen, 1848, 1852 and 1859]. In Owen, Richard, The life of Richard Owen. 2 vols. London, pp. 209; 407-8; 90-4. Text PDF F3401

Darwin, C. R. 1896. [Letters to James Croll 1868-71, 1877]. In Irons, James Campbell, Autobiographical sketch of Dr. Croll with memoir of his life and work. London, pp. 200-3; 215-7; 220-2; 257-8; 324.Text PDF F3402

Darwin, 1896. [Letter to D. T. Ansted, 1860]. In Raphael Meldola, The president's address. The utility of specific characters and physiological correlation. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London. lxii-xcii, pp. lxv-lxvi. Text F4055

Darwin, 1897. [Letter to William Pengelly, 1873]. In Hester Pengelly ed., A memoir of William Pengelly of Torquay, F.R.S., geologist, with a selection from his correspondence. London: John Murray, pp. 229-30. Text PDF F3376

Darwin, 1898. [Letters to Max Müller and recollections of Darwin]. In Friedrich Max Müller, Auld lang syne. London, pp, 201, 202, 204. Text F3383

Darwin, 1900. [Letters to Grant Allen, 1879-1882]. In Edward Clodd, Grant Allen: A memoir with bibliography. London. Text PDF F3429

Darwin, 1900. [Letters to Huxley and words attributed to Darwin]. In Huxley, Leonard, Life and letters of Thomas Henry Huxley. 2 vols. London. Text F3433

Darwin, C. R. 1901. [Letter to James Paget, 1873]. In Stephen Paget, ed. Memoirs and letters of Sir James Paget. London, New York, and Bombay, p. 287. Text F3377

Darwin, 1902. [Letters to George Grey, John Lort Stokes and Edgar Leopold Layard, 1846, 1847 & 1855 (Layard)]. Letters to Sir George Grey. New Zealand Herald, (6 September): 1. Text PDF F3373

Darwin, C. R. 1902-3. [Letter to Max Müller, 1873]. In Georgina Max Müller, Life and letters of Friedrich Max Müller. 2 vols. London, vol. 1, p. 478. Text F3384

Darwin, C. R. 1904. [Letter to Annie Dowie, regarding Chambers and Vestiges] In Eliza Chambers Priestley, The story of a lifetime, by Lady Priestley. London: Gilbert & Rivington, p. 16. Text F2263

Darwin, 1905. [Letter to John Phillips, 1859]. In Sollas, The age of the earth and other geological studies, London, pp. 99; 251-3. Text PDF F3378

Darwin, C. R. 1907. [Three letters to G. G. Stokes]. In Larmor, Joseph, ed., Memoir and scientific correspondence of the late Sir George Gabriel Stokes, Bart. 2 vols. Cambridge. Text PDF F3403

Darwin, C. R. 1908. [Letters to Herbert Spencer and J. D. Hooker, 1858, 1860, 1866, 1867]. In David Duncan, The life and letters of Herbert Spencer. London, pp. 87, 98, 125, 150. Text PDF F3379

Darwin, C. R. 1908. [Letter to Richard Spruce. 1869]. In Spruce, Richard, Notes of a botanist on the Amazon and Andes. Edited by Alfred Russel Wallace. 2 vols. London, pp. 385-6. Text PDF F3380

Darwin, 1909. [Letter to Joseph Leidy, 1861]. In H. F. Osborn, Darwin and paleontology. Fifty years of Darwinism; modern aspects of evolution; centennial addresses in honor of Charles Darwin. American Association for the Advancement of Science. New York: H. Holt & Co., pp. 209-210. Text F4056

Darwin, C. R. 1913. [Letter to Alexander Agassiz, 1871, 1881]. In Agassiz, G. R., ed., Letters and recollections of Alexander Agassiz. Boston and New York, pp. 118-19; 162-3; 282-3. Text PDF F3381

Darwin, C. R. 1913. [Letter to Eben Jenks Loomis, 1881]. In Todd, Millicent. Eben Jenks Loomis. Cambridge, Mass., p. 20. Text F3404

Darwin, C. R. 1917. [Letter to James Geikie, 1876]. In Newbigin, Marion I., and Flett, J. S., James Geikie. The man and the geologist. Edinburgh and London, p. 27.  Text F3505

Darwin, C. R. 1914. [Letters to John Lubbock and Lubbock's recollections of Darwin]. In Horace Gordon Hutchinson, Life of Sir John Lubbock, Lord Avebury. 2 vols. London. Text PDF F3385

Darwin, C. R. 1914. [Letter to G. R. Waterhouse, 1850]. In Horace Gordon Hutchinson, Life of Sir John Lubbock, Lord Avebury. London, vol. 2, pp. 269-70. Text F3386

Darwin, C, R. 1916-18. [Letters to J. D. Hooker and recollections of Darwin, 1842-81]. In Huxley, Leonard, Life and letters of Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker. 2 vols. London. Text F3390

Darwin, C. R. 1919. [Letter to William Turner, 1866, 1867, 1871]. In A. Logan turner, Sir William Turner. K.C.B., F.RS., Professor of Anatomy and Principal and Vice-Chancellor of the University of Edinburgh, a chapter in medical history. Edinburgh and London, pp. 182-3; 186-9. Text PDF F3387

Darwin, C. R. 1921. [Letter to Alfred Newton, 1867]. In Wollaston, Alexander Frederick Richmond, Life of Alfred Newton: Professor of Comparative Anatomy, Cambridge University, 1866-1907. London, pp. 294-5. Text PDF F3388

Darwin, C. R. 1921. [Letters to Fritz Müller]. In Alfred Möller ed., Fritz Müller. Werke, Briefe und Leben. 3 vols. in 5. Jena: Gustav Fischer, vol. 2 Briefe. Text F4047

Darwin, C. R. 1922. [Letter to R. H. Meade, 1860]. Obituary Notices of Fellows deceased.  Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 93, no. 655 (1 July): x-xix. Text PDF F3406

Darwin, C. R. 1923. [Letter to Smith, Elder and Co., 1863]. In Leonard Huxley, The House of Smith Elder. London: Smith, Elder, & Co., p. 23. Text F4066

Darwin, C. R. 1923. [Letter to W. M. Canby] In Jones, Frank Morton, 'The most wonderful plant in the world'. Nat. Hist. 23: 589-6. PDF F3427

Darwin, 1924. [Letter to Joseph Lister, 1878]. In Godlee, Rickman J., Lord Lister, Oxford, p. 310. Text F3389

Darwin, 1926. [Letter to T. H. Huxley] In Osborn, H. F., A priceless Darwin letter. Science 64: 476-7. Text F3391

Darwin, 1926. [Letters to Forchhammer]. Clément, Breve til og fra J. F. Forchhammer. III. J. G. Forchhammer og Charles Darwin, 1849-1850. Text PDF F4053

Darwin, C. R. 1929. [Letter to W. W. Baxter, 1873, and recollections of Darwin]. In William Baxter, Darwin's old home. Personal recollections of the great scientist. Bromley and District Times, (13 September): 3. Text Image PDF F3436

Darwin, C. R. 1931. [Letters to Lewis Henry Morgan, 1870-2, 1877]. In Bernhard J. Stern, Lewis Henry Morgan- social evolutionist. Chicago, pp. 28-9; 48; 85-6; 106. Text PDF F3392

Darwin, 1932. [Letter to John Murray, 1859] In Paston, George (pseud. for Emily Morse Symonds), At John Murray's- records of a literary circle. 1843-1892. London, pp. 168-7. Text PDF F3407

Darwin, 1932. [Letters to J. T. Gulick, 1872 and recollection of Darwin]. In Addison Gulick, Evolutionary and missionary: John Thomas Gulick. Chicago, pp. 233-5. Text PDF F3393

Darwin, 1935. [Letter to Giovanni Canestrini, fasc.]. In Canestrini family, Nel centenario dalla nascita di Giovanni Canestrini. Trento. PDF F3409

Darwin, 1936. Three unpublished letters of Charles Darwin [to William Benjamin Carpenter, 1860, 1873, 1882]. Nature 137 (7 March): 400. Text PDF F3371

Darwin, 1937. [Letter to Cuthbert Collingwood, 1861]. In Sarton, G. Darwin's conception of the theory of natural selection. Isis 26: 336-40. Text PDF F3408

Darwin, 1939. [Letters to Asa Gray]. In Historical Records Survey Division of Professional and Service Projects, Works Projects Administration. Calendar of the letters of Charles Robert Darwin to Asa Gray. Boston. PDF F3400

Darwin, C. R. 1947. [Letter to C. H. Blackley, 1873]. In Albert E. Lownes, Charles Darwin to Charles Harrison Blackley: an early chapter on pollen allergy. Isis 37: 21-4. Text PDF F3394

Darwin, C. R. 1951. [Letters to Jeffries Wyman, 1860-66]. In A. H. Dupree, Some letters from Charles Darwin to Jeffries Wyman. Isis 42: 104-10. Text F4058

Darwin, C. R. 1955. [Letters to Alphonse de Candolle]. In Baehni, C, Correspondance de Charles Darwin et d'Alphonse de Candolle, Gesnerus, 12(3-4), 109-56. CUL-DAR258.2039. Text PDF F3399

Darwin, C. R. 1959. [Letter fragment to T. W. Woodbury, 1863]. In Brian, A. D. and Crane, E. E. Charles Darwin and bees. Bee world 40: 297-303, p. 299. Text F4065

Darwin, C. R. 1960. [Letter to Louis Agassiz, 1841-1866] In Lurie, Edward, Louis Agassiz: a life in science. University of Chicago Press. Text F3395

Darwin, C. R. 1962. [Letter to J. D. Dana, 1851 and 1863]. In Rezneck, Samuel. Notes on a correspondence between Charles Darwin and James Dwight Dana, 1861-63. Yale University Library Gazette 36: 176-83. Text F3410

Darwin, C. R. 1964. [Letter to Charles Babbage, 1838]. In Moseley, Maboth, Irascible genius: a life of Charles Babbage. London. Text F3411

Darwin, C. R. 1965. [Letter to Charles Renard: Imperial Society of Naturalists of Moscow, 1870]. In Stecher, Robert M., and Klavins, Jams V., Charles Darwin and the Moscow Society of Naturalists. Journal of the History of Medicine. 20: 157-61. Text F3412

Darwin, C. R. 1972. [Letters to Charles Lyell] In Wilson, Leonard G., Charles Lyell: the years to 1841: the revolution in geology. Text F3413

Darwin, C. R. 1972. [Letter to Mrs. Whitby] In Colp, Ralph, Jr., Charles Darwin and Mrs. Whitby. Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 2d ser. 48: 870-76. Text F3414

Darwin, C. R. 1972. [Letter to Lawrence Ruck and reminiscences of Darwin]. In Berta Ruck, Ancestral voices. London, pp. 223-6; 228-9. Text F3398

Darwin, C. R. 1972. [Letter to Alexander von Humboldt, 1839]. In Barrett, Paul H. and Alain F. Corcos, A letter from Alexander Humboldt to Charles Darwin. Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 27, no. 2 (April): 159-72. Text F3434

Darwin, C. R. 1974. [Letters to Robert Fitch, 1849-51]. In Trenn, Thaddeus J., Charles Darwin, fossil cirripedes, and Robert Fitch: presenting sixteen hitherto unpublished Darwin letters of 1849-1851. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 118: 471-91. Text F3415

Darwin, C. R. 1974. [Letters to Walsh, 1864-66]. In Walsten, David M., Darwin's backwoods correspondent: letters between Charles Darwin and Illinois naturalist Benjamin D. Walsh. Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin, 45: 8-9, 12-15. Text F3416

Darwin, C. R. 1975. [Letter to Edward Lumb, 1834]. In J. H. Winslow, Mr Lumb and Masters Megatherium: an unpublished letter by Charles Darwin from the Falklands. Journal of Historical Geography 1: 347-60, pp. 348, 350. Text F4057

Darwin, C. R. 1980. [Letter to T. N. Staley, 1874]. In Plews, John H. R., Charles Darwin and Hawaiian sex ratios, or, genius is a capacity for making compensating errors. Hawaiian Journal of History 14: 26-49. Text F3417

Darwin, C. R. 1982. [Letter to Mrs Stutchbury, 1854]. In L. Harrison Matthews, Samuel Stutchbury and Darwin's cirripedes. Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 36: 261-6. Text F3372

Darwin, C. R. 1985. [Extract of a letter to Marian Evans, 30 March 1873 and recollections of the Darwins]. In G. S. Haight ed., Selections from George Eliot's letters, New Haven: Yale University Press, pp. 416; 434. Text F3397


2022, 05.18

Today we have added one of the most charming and interesting recollections of Darwin by someone who knew him. William Baxter was the son of the chemist in nearby Bromley who supplied Darwin with chemicals for his experiments as well as conventional medicines. The younger Baxter attended the opening of Down House as a museum on 7 June 1929 and this extraordinary though brief article was the result.

Darwin, 1929. [Letter to W. W. Baxter, 1873, and recollections of Darwin]. In William Baxter, Darwin's old home. Personal recollections of the great scientist. Bromley and District Times, (13 September): 3. Text Image PDF F3436

2022, 05.17

Darwin's many contributions to the Gardeners' Chronicle are well known, but one has evaded notice until now.

Darwin, 1879. [Letter to Wilson, 1878]. In A. Stephen Wilson, Experiments with Kubanka and Saxonica wheat. Gardeners' Chronicle. Text Image PDF F3428

2022, 05.15

We have found two more previously unknown Darwin letters!

Darwin, 1840. [Letter to Eugène Robert, 1838]. In Robert, Voyage en Islande et au Groënland exécuté pendant les années 1835 et 1836 sur la corvette La Recherche. Text Image PDF F3418

Darwin, 1876. [Letter to Zacharias, 1875?]. In Zacharias, Darwins Einwände gegen die Cohn'sche Hypothese über die Befruchtungs= und Vererbungsvorgänge. Das Ausland. Text Image PDF F3421
Dutch: Text PDF F3423

2022, 05.12

Many 19th-century German translations of Darwin's publications have remained uncatalogued. We have recently added forty-seven translations to the Freeman Bibliographical Database and added copies to Darwin Online:

Darwin, 1885. [Extract from Memoir of Professor Henslow]. In E. Krause, Charles Darwin und sein Verhältnis zu Deutschland, pp. 14-15. Text F4041

Darwin, 1885. [Extracts from letters addressed to Professor Henslow (abridged)]. In E. Krause, Charles Darwin und sein Verhältnis zu Deutschland, pp. 21-33. Text F4042

Darwin, 1885. [Letters to Fritz Müller, Hermann Müller, J. V. Carus and Ernst Haeckel]. In E. Krause, Charles Darwin und sein Verhältnis zu Deutschland, pp. 124-233. Text F4043

Ernst Krause ed., Gesammelte kleinere Schriften von Charles Darwin. Ein Supplement zu seinen grosseren Werken:

Fragmente über den Instinkt. PDF F4034

1882. [Extracts from Darwin's notes.] In Romanes, Animal intelligence. Text Image PDF F1416

Das Wahrnehmungsvermögen bei niedriger stehenden Tieren. PDF F4000

1873. Perception in the lower animals. Nature. 7 (13 March): 360. Text Image PDF F1810

Ererbte Instinkte. PDF F4001

1873. Inherited instinct. Nature. 7 (13 February): 281. Text Image PDF F1757

Über den Ursprung gewisser Instinkte. PDF F4002

1873. Origin of certain instincts. Nature. 7 (3 April): 417-418. Text Image PDF F1760

Zusatz. PDF F4003

1876. Cherry blossoms. Nature. 14 (11 May): 28. Text Image PDF F1772

Über die Lebensweise des Pampasspechts. PDF F4004

1870 Notes on the habits of the pampas woodpecker (Colaptes campestris). Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. Text Image PDF F1750

Die parasitischen Gewohnheiten von Molothrus. PDF F4005

1881 The parasitic habits of Molothrus. Nature. Text Image PDF F1798

Die Gewohnheiten der Ameisen. PDF F4006

1873. Habits of ants. Nature. Text Image PDF F1761

Fruchtbarkeit von Bastarden zwischen der gemeinen und der chinesischen Gans. PDF F4007

1880. Fertility of hybrids from the common and Chinese goose. Nature. Text Image PDF F1786

Über die Verbreitung der Süsswassermuscheln. PDF F4008

1882. On the dispersal of freshwater bivalves. Nature. Text Image PDF F1802

Über die Wirkung des Seewassers auf die Keimung der Samen. PDF F4009

1857. On the action of sea-water on the germination of seeds. Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London (Botany). Text Image PDF F1694

Pangenesis. PDF F4010

1871. Pangenesis. Nature. Text Image PDF F1751

Über die Männchen und klomplementären Männchen gewisser Ranken-füssler und über rudimentare Bildungen. PDF F4011

1873. On the males and complemental males of certain cirripedes, and on rudimentary structures. Nature. 8 (25 September): 431-432. Text Image PDF F1762

Erster Zusatz, von G. H. Darwin. PDF F4012

 Darwin, G. H. 1873. Variations of organs. Nature. 8 (16 October): 505. Text Image PDF F1763

Zweiter Zusatz. PDF F4013

1879. Fritz Müller on a frog having eggs on its back - on the abortion of the hairs on the legs of certain caddis-flies, &c. Nature. 19 (20 March): 462-463. Text Image PDF F1784

Die geschlechtlichen Färbungen gewisser Schmetterlinge. PDF F4014

1880. The sexual colours of certain butterflies. Nature. 21 (8 January): 237.Text Images PDF F1787

Die geschlechtliche Zuchtwahl in Bezug auf die Affen. PDF F4015

1876. Sexual selection in relation to monkeys. Nature. 15 (2 November): 18-19. Text Image PDF F1773

Beobachtungen über den Bau und die Fortpflanzung der Gattung Sagitta. PDF F4016

1844. Observations on the structure and propagation of the genus Sagitta. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, including zoology, botany, and geology 13 (81) (January): 1-6, 1 plate. Text Image PDF F1664

Kurze Beschreibung einiger auf der Erde lebender Plattwürmer, sowie einiger mariner Arten, nebst einem Bericht über ihre Gewohnheiten. PDF F4017

1844. Brief descriptions of several terrestrial planariæ, and of some remarkable marine species, with an account of their habits. Annals and Magazine of Natural History 14 (October): 241-251, 1 plate. Text Image PDF F1669

Über den sogenannten Hörsack der Rankenfüssler. PDF F4018

1863. On the so-called "auditory-sac" of Cirripedes. Natural History Review 3 (January): 115-116. Text Image PDF F1722

Die Einwirkung des Ammonium - Karbonats auf die Wurzeln gewisser Pflanzen. PDF F4019

1882. The action of carbonate of ammonia on chlorophyll-bodies. [Read 6 March] Journal of the Linnean Society of London (Botany) 19: 262-284. Text Image PDF F1801

Über die Befruchtung der Schminkbohnen. PDF F4020

1857. Bees and the fertilisation of kidney beans. Gardeners' Chronicle and Agricultural Gazette no. 43 (24 October): 725. Text Image PDF F1697

Über die Thätigkeit der Bienen bei der Befruchtung der Schmetterlingsblumen und über die Kreuzung der Schminkbohnen. PDF F4021

1858. On the agency of bees in the fertilisation of papilionaceous flowers, and on the crossing of kidney beans. Gardeners' Chronicle and Agricultural Gazette no. 46 (13 November): 828-829. Text Image PDF F1701

Die Befruchtung der Vinca-Arten. PDF F4022

1861. Fertilisation of Vincas. Gardeners' Chronicle and Agricultural Gazette no. 24 (15 June): 552. Text Image PDF F1836

Zusatz. PDF F4023

1861. Orchids, Fertilization of. Gardeners' Chronicle and Agricultural Gazette no. 37 (14 September): 831. Text Image PDF F1712

Die Befruchtung von Leschenaultia. PDF F4024

1871. Fertilisation of Leschenaultia. Gardeners' Chronicle and Agricultural Gazette no. 36 (9 September): 1166. Text Image PDF F1755

Die Befruchtung der Fumariaceen. PDF F4025

1874. Fertilisation of the Fumariaceæ. Nature. 9 (16 April): 460. Text Image PDF F1769

Fritz Müller über Blumen und Insekten. PDF F4026

1877. Fritz Müller on flowers and insects. Nature. 17 (29 November): 78-79. Text Image PDF F1781

Bewegungen der Blätter: Erste Mitteilung. PDF F4027

1881. Movements of plants. Nature. 23 (3 March): 409. Text Image PDF F1791

Bewegungen der Blätter: Zweite Mitteilung. PDF F4028

1881. The movements of leaves. Nature. 23 (28 April): 603-604.Text Image PDF F1794

Durch nächtliche Strahlung beschädigte Blätter. PDF F4029

1881. Leaves injured at night by free radiation. Nature. 24 (15 September): 459. Text Image PDF F1796

Über den Transport erratischer Blöcke von einem tieferen zu einem höheren Niveau. PDF F4030

1848. On the transportal of erratic boulders from a lower to a higher level. [Read 19 April.] Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London 4: 315-323. Text Image PDF F1677

Über das Vermögen der Eisberge, gradlinige, gleichgerichtete Schrammen auf einer unterseeischen wellenförmigen Oberfläche hervorzubringen. PDF F4031

1855. On the power of icebergs to make rectilinear uniformly-directed grooves across a submarine undulatory surface. The London, Edinburgh and Dublin Philosophical Magazine 10 (August): 96-98. Text Image PDF F1681

Bemerkung über einen in 16° südl. Breite auf einem Eisberge gesehenen Felsblock. PDF F4032

1839. Note on a rock seen on an iceberg in 61° south latitude. Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London 9 (March): 528-529. Text Image PDF F1652

Über den geringen Betrag der alluvialen Thätigkeit seit der Bildung der Simse im Roy-Thal. PDF F4033 [Section VIII only]

1839. Observations on the parallel roads of Glen Roy, and of other parts of Lochaber in Scotland, with an attempt to prove that they are of marine origin. [Read 7 February.] Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 129: 39-81. Text Image PDF F1653

Darwin, 1878. Kleinere geologische Abhandlungen. F1601:

Über die Geologie der Falkland-Inseln, pp. 1-1.1 PDF F4035

Über den Zusammenhang gewisser vulcanischer Erscheinungen in Süd-America, und über die Bildung von Bergketten und Vulcanen, als Wirkung derselben Kraft, duch welche Continente erhoben werden, pp. 12-53, 1 map. PDF F4036

Ueber die Verbreitung der erratischen Blöcke und über die gleichzeitigen nichtgeschichten Ablagerungen in Süd-America. PDF F4037

Ueber die von den alten Gletschern in Caernarvonshire hervorgebrachten Wirkungen und die von schwimmendem Eise transportierten erratischen Blöcke.  PDF F4038

Ueber die Bildung der Ackererde. PDF F4039

Beschreibung des feinen Staubes, welcher oft auf Schiffe im atlantischen Ocean fäll. PDF F4040


2022, 05.11

A newly discovered Darwin letter!

Darwin, C. R. 1882. [Letter to James Sinclair, 1882]. In Sigma [James Macdonald], Polled Aberdeen or Angus cattle. Origin and early history. National Live-Stock Journal. Text PDF F4045

Newly discovered Darwin publications:

Darwin, 1881. [Letter to Balfour, 1881]. In The works of Francis Maitland Balfour. Text F4062

Darwin, 1885. [Letter to G. A. Gaskell, 1878]. In Jane Hume Clapperton, Scientific meliorism and the evolution of happiness. Text F4063

Darwin, 1877. Die Stechpalme und die Bienen. Bienen Zeitung. PDF F4059

Darwin, 1880. [Letter to Moritz Wagner, 13 Oct. 1876]. In Wagner, Über die Entstehung der Arten durch Absonderung. Kosmos. Text F4044

Darwin, 1884. Der Instinkt. Eine nachgelassene Abhandlung. Kosmos. PDF F4061 [First German printing of the 'Essay on instinct']


2022, 04.19

On the occasion of the 140th anniversary of Darwin's death, we are providing the Darwin family's collection of letters and telegrams from his relatives, friends, contemporaries and institutions at home and abroad upon the news of his death in 1882. The messages, addressed to the Darwin family, expressed grief and sorrow, offered condolences, reminiscences and tributes to the scientific figure who had transformed our understanding of the world forever. Over ninety of these letters reveal intimate and personal sentiments felt by the sender. These have been transcribed for the first time, only on Darwin Online.

Galton, Francis. 1882.04.20. Letter to George Howard Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.7h

Lubbock, John. 1882.04.20. Letter to Francis Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.10n

Moore, Norman. 1882.04.20. Telegram to Francis Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.10o

Hooker, Joseph Dalton. 1882.04.21. Letter to Francis Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.10i

Huxley Thomas Henry. 1882.04.21. Letter to Francis Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.10k

Keller, [Christian]. 1882.04.21. Telegram to Francis Darwin. Image CUL-DAR215.6g

Lubbock, John, et al 1882.04.21. Letter to the Dean of Westminster. Text & image CUL-DAR215.4c-d

Papé, Charlotte. 1882.04.21. Letter to [Francis] Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.7k

Pritchard, Charles. 1882.04.21. Letter to George Howard Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.7n

Reinwald, Charles-Ferdinand. 1882.04.21. Telegram to Francis Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.10r

Stephen, Leslie. 1882.04.21. Letter to William Erasmus Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.7q

Spottiswoode, William. 1882.04.21. Letter to George Howard Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.5a

Tait, Lawson (Birmingham Philosophical Society). 1882.04.21. Telegram to Francis Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.12a

Thiselton-Dyer, William Turner. 1882.04.21. Letter to Francis Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.8g

Thomson, William. 1882.04.21; 1882.04.28. Letters to George Howard Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.12[.1]

Wiesner Julius. 1882.04.21. Letter to Francis Darwin. Image CUL-DAR215.8h

Ball, Robert S. 1882.04.22. Letter to George Howards Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.7c

Chaumont, Francis. 1882.04.22. Letter to William Erasmus Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.10c

Ferstendich, Albert. 1882.04.22. Telegram to Emma Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.10f

Harrison, Frederic. 1882.04.22. Letter to George Howard Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.7i

Huxley, T. H. 1882.04.22. Letter to George Howard Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.6c

Innes, John Brodie. 1882.04.22. Letter to Francis Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.8b

Lubbock, John. 1882.04.22. Letter to Francis Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.8c

Müller (Heinrich Ludwig) Hermann. 1882.04.22. Letter to Francis Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.8d

Rich, Anthony. 1882.04.22. Letter to George Howard Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.7o

Romanes, George John. 1882.04.22. Letter to Francis Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.8e

Universita di Napoli 1882.04.22. Telegram to [Francis] Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.12m

Weale, John (Clapham Scientific Society). 1882.04.22. Telegram to Francis Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.12e

Derby, Edward. 1882.04.23. Letter to William Erasmus Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.9a

Gifford, A. G. (Sedgwick Club). 1882.04.23. Letter to George Howard Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.11l

Gray, Asa. 1882.04.23. Letter to Francis Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.10h 

Lankester, Edwin Ray. [1882].04.23. Letter to Francis Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.9f

Lubbock, John. 1882.04.23. Letter to William Erasmus Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.6d

Newton, Alfred. 1882.04.23. Letter to George Howard Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.7j

Richter, Carolus (Karl). 1882.04.23. Telegram to the Darwin family. Text & image CUL-DAR215.10s

Bristowe, Henry Fox. 1882.04.24. Letter to George Howard Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.7d

Campbell, George (Duke of Argyll). 1882.04.24. Letter to George Howard Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.6a

Haeckel, Ernst. 1882.04.24. Letter to Francis Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.8a

Hawkshaw, John Clarke. 1882.04.24. Letter to Francis Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.9e

Moseley, H. N. 1882.04.24. Letter to Francis Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.12[.2]

Murray, John. [1882].04.24. Letter to William Erasmus Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.10p

Spencer, Herbert. [1882.04.24]. Letter to George Howard Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.7p

Spencer, Herbert. 1882.04.24. Letter to George Howard and Francis Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.8f

Spottiswoode, William. 1882.04.24. Letter to George Howard Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.5b

Students, Agricultural Academy in Petrovsky, Moscow. 1882.04.24. Telegram to Francis Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.12l

Allman, George James. 1882.04.25. Letter to George Howard Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.7a

Balfour, Francis Maitland. [1882.04.25]. Letter to George Howard Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.12[.3]

Bentham, George. 1882.04.25. Letter to Francis Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.9c

Cavendish, Sir William, 7th Duke of Devonshire. 1882.04.25. Letter to William Erasmus Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.6b

Circolo cacciatori Napoli. 1882.04.25. Telegram to [Francis] Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.12c

Fitzmaurice, Edmond. 1882.04.25. Letter to George Howard Darwin? Text & image CUL-DAR215.7g

Lubbock, John. 1882.04.25. Letter to William Erasmus Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.6e

Porter, James. 1882.04.25. Letter to George Howard Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.7m

Vries, Hugo de. 1882.04.25. Letter to Francis Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.9i

Donders, Franciscus Cornelis. 1882.04.26. Letter of condolence to Emma Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.7e

Estournelles, Jean. 1882.04.26. Telegram to George Howard Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.10e

Graham, William. 1882.04.26. Letter to Emma Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.10g

Paget, James. 1882.04.26. Letter to George Howard Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.6f

Société Zoologique de France. 1882.04.26. Telegram to the Darwin family. Text & images CUL-DAR215.12j

Vines, Sydney Howard. 1882.04.26. Letter to Francis Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.9h

Jersons, Henry (British and Foreign Unitarian Association). 1882.04.27. Letter to Carpenter, W.B. Text & image CUL-DAR215.11f

Farrer, Thomas H. 1882.04.28. Letter to George Howard Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.7f

Jevons, William Stanley. 1882.04.28. Letter to [George Howard] Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.10m

Moscow University Geological Department. 1882.04.28. Letter to George Howard Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.11o

Carus, Julius Victor. 1882.04.29. Letter to Francis Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.10b

Circolo aspiranti naturalisti Napoli. 1882.04.29. Telegram to [Francis] Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.12b

Gioventu universitaria Palermo. 1882.04.29. Telegram to the Darwin family. Text & image CUL-DAR215.12g

Hooker, Joseph Dalton. 1882.04.29. Letter to William Erasmus and George Howard Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.10j

Papé, Charlotte. 1882.04.29. Letter to [Francis] Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.7l

Simon, John. 1882.04.29. Letter to Sara Darwin née Sedgwick. Text & image CUL-DAR215.9b

Wilson, Hugh (West Kent Natural History, Microscopical and Photographic Society). 1882.04.29. Letter to Emma Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.11p

Carpenter, W. B. (British and Foreign Unitarian Association). 1882.04.30. Letter to Emma Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.11e

Studenti, Università di Bologna. 1882.04.30. Telegram to [Francis] Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.12k

Mantegazza, [Paolo], Società Antropologica Italiana. [1882.04]. Telegram to the Darwin family. Text & image CUL-DAR215.12i

Balfour, Francis Maitland. 1882.05.01. Letter to Emma Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.12[.4]

Chester, Joseph Lemuel. 1882.05.01. Letter to [Francis] Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.10d 

Huxley, Thomas Henry. 1882.05.01. Letter to William Erasmus and George Howard Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.10l

Etudiants de l'Université de Padove. 1882.05.01. Telegram to Francis Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.12f

Casse, J. (V. P. of Société Belge de Microscopie). 1882.05.02. Letter to Emma Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.11m

Jackson, Benjamin Daydon, (Secretary of the Linnean Society). 1882.05.02. Extract from minutes of meeting. Text & image CUL-DAR215.11i

Birmingham Philosophical Society. 1882.05.03. Letter to Emma Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.11d

Crosskey, Henry William (Birmingham Philosophical Society). 1882.05.03. Letter to Emma Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.11c

British Odontological Society. 1882.05.04. Letter to William Erasmus Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.11h

Sevill, John (Birmingham Natural History and Microscopical Society). 1882.05.04. Letter to William Erasmus Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.11b

Spencer, Herbert. 1882.05.04. Letter to [Francis] Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.10t

Vignoli, Tito. 1882.05.04. Letter to Darwin's sons. Text & image CUL-DAR215.10u

Jackson, Benjamin Daydon, (Secretary of the Linnean Society). 1882.05.05. Letter to Emma Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.11j

Prothero, George. 1882.05.05. Letter to [Francis?] Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.12[.5]

Reale Istituto Lombardo di Scienze e Lettere. 1882.05.05. Letter to Darwin Emma. Image CUL-DAR215.11k

Sclater, Philip Lutley (Zoological Society of London). 1882.05.05. Letter to Emma Darwin. Text & image CUL-DAR215.11q

Stomar, John (University of London). 1882.05.09. Extract from minutes. Text & image CUL-DAR215.11n

Rudler, Frederick William. (Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland). 1882.05.06. Letter to William Erasmus Darwin. Text & image CUL- DAR215.11a

Circolo democratico studenti Ravenna. 1882.05.08. Telegram to the Darwin family. Text & image CUL-DAR215.12d


2022, 03.27

As part of his barnacle researches, Darwin examined different parts of barnacles under his microscope. He prepared permanent slides which were labelled with a number which corresponded to a hand-written catalogue. The catalogue has now been transcribed for the first time.

Darwin, [1854-1855]. Catalogue of the appendages and other parts of Cirripedes, mounted as microscopical slides. Text & images UMZC-Histories3.454

2022, 03.15

Darwin's influential 1877 article 'A biographical sketch of an infant' (F1779) has been translated into traditional Chinese by Meng-Hua Hung, a student from the department of Translation and Interpretation Studies, Chang Jung Christian University, Taiwan. The article has thus far also been translated into: 1914 Armenian (F1310). 1958 Chinese (F1310a). 1877 French (F1311), 1877 German (F1312), 1877 Greek (F2005). 1981 Italian (F2739) and 1877 Russian (F1314).

Darwin, 2022. 嬰兒簡略傳記. Mind. A Quarterly Review of Psychology and Philosophy 2 (7) (July 1877). Translated by Meng-Hua Hung for Darwin Online. Text F3367

2022, 01.04

Darwin, [Extract from letter to Samuel Butler]. In S. Butler, Evolution old and new. Athenaeum, (31 Jan.): 155. Text PDF F3366

Several new Italian reviews of Darwin's works have also been added from information kindly provided by Paolo Coccia.

2021, 12.31

We are pleased to share a previously unknown 1860 letter by Darwin to Henslow which mentions the recently published Origin of species: "My Book has been far more successful as yet, then I dreamed of." We were asked to add this letter to the manuscript items shared with Darwin Online by the same collection, which includes Darwin's November 1859 letter to Adam Sedwick on sending a copy of Origin of species. The collection can be found on the Manuscripts page under "Private Collection, USA".

Darwin, C. R. 1860.1.29. Letter to John Stevens Henslow. Text & images PDF PC-USA-CDtoHenslow1860

2021, 11.18

Three newly discovered translations of Darwin and Darwin letters in print.

Darwin, 1881. Las vivisecciones y Carlos Darwin. El Siglo Médico (Madrid): 27. Text PDF F3358

Darwin, 1881. Darwin's oordeel over vivisectie. Album der Natuur, (Haarlem): 170. PDF F3359

Darwin, C. R. 1882. [Letter to N. A. von Mengden]. La Iberia (Madrid), no. 8017 (26 September): 2. Text PDF F3360

Darwin, 1940. [Letters to John Fiske, 1874-80]. In Ethel F. Fiske ed., The letters of John Fiske. New York. Text F3361

2021, 11.11

Over 1,700 book reviews of Charles Darwin's works go online.

Charles Darwin has been the most influential scientist in history. Launched online now are the results of a project over sixteen years in the making, finding and collecting the contemporary book reviews of Darwin's works by the Darwin Online project, directed by Dr John van Wyhe, at the National University of Singapore (formerly at the University of Cambridge). It is the largest collection of reviews ever created for a historical scientist- and probably for any person in history. There are over 1,700 reviews in sixteen languages spanning the years 1835 to the early 20th century.

  Countless thousands of publications have been written about Darwin and the reception of his theories in the last 160 years. Until now, our understanding of how the world reacted to Darwin's revolutionary ideas has been based on a small sample of the original evidence. Most people today think that the reactions to Darwin's theory of evolution boiled down to a conflict of science with religion. This was usually far from the truth as these reviews reveal for the first time in unprecedented detail. There was in fact a huge range of reactions, from reverent to contemptuous, from scientifically sophisticated to entirely ignorant, from suspicious to satirical. And the reviews are full of surprises. For example, modern readers might be surprised to see how many religious leaders accepted and praised Darwin's theories.

  One early reviewer of his Origin of Species remarked: "Although it is certain that Mr. Darwin's views will cause painful anxiety to many who will regard them as hostile to the truths of Revelation, we cannot share in that anxiety, and are therefore not disposed to discuss the new theory on any other than strictly scientific grounds. …the conclusions announced by Mr. Darwin are such as, if established, would cause a complete revolution in the fundamental doctrines of natural history". And, of course, they did.

  Other reviewers could not resist poking fun at Darwin and his work, coming up with titles for their reviews such as 'Darwin demolished', 'The angel or the ape' or 'The wonders of worm world'.

  This new collection will make possible countless new studies, theses and student projects based not on the usual handful of reactions to Darwin, but a near comprehensive picture of the reactions to the greatest scientific revolution in history.

See the introduction to the reviews here.


2021, 11.07

Newly recorded published Darwin letters:

Darwin, 1861. Do cross-bred rabbits tend to a grey colour? Journal of Horticulture and Cottage Gardener, vol. 1 (28 May): 170. Text Image PDF F3356

Darwin, 1880. [Extract of a letter to F. E. Abbot]. The Index (Boston, Mass.)., 11 (20 May): [1]. Text PDF F3355


2021, 10.14

A previously unknown Darwin letter- this one is to Swedish zoologist August Wilhelm Malm (1821-1882). With thanks to Rosemary Clarkson of The Correspondence of Charles Darwin for kindly sending this published letter.

Darwin, 1874. [Letter to August Wilhelm Malm]. Göteborgsposten (14 November): 1. Text PDF F3354

The first Swedish translation of Descent of man:

Darwin, 1872. Menniskans Härledning och Könsurvalet. 2 vols in one. Translated by Rudolf Sundström. Stockholm: Albert Bonnier. PDF F1136

2021, 10.10

Darwin's collection of notes for his research on earthworms, c. 50,000 words in all, has been transcribed by Christine Chua.

Darwin, and family. 1870-1882. [Notes on worms etc. for Earthworms, including (1) castings; (2) furrows & ploughed land; (3) experiments at different locales, anatomy etc.] Text & images CUL-DAR63-65

2021, 09.18

A collection of little known and forgotten biographical entries (some with unique portraits), a recollection, and obituaries of Darwin.

André, Ed. 1873. Charles Darwin. [with a portrait]. Revue Horticole: 293-300. PDF A2624

Anon. 1874. Charles Robert Darwin [with portrait]. Harper's Weekly (Supplement), (18 April): 345. PDF A2625

Fowler, L. N. 1880. Charles Darwin. A phrenological delineation [with portrait]. Phrenological Magazine, vol. 1 (April): 89-92. Text PDF A2655

Quatrefages, M. de. 1882. [Recollection of Darwin]. Charles Darwin. Annals and magazine of natural history, vol. 9, series 5: 467-474. PDF A2640

[Mawer, W.] 1889. A scientific centenary [with a portrait of Darwin]. Life-lore: a monthly magazine of biology, vol. 1, no. 4 (October 1888): 2-3; 76-81. PDF A2071

Canestrini, Giovanni. 1882. [Obituary of Darwin]. Nuova Antologia di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, vol. 63: 7-16. PDF A2637

[Noll, F. C.] 1882. [Obituary of Darwin]. Zoologische Garten, vol. 23, no. 6 (June): 191-192. PDF A2638

Lessona, Michelle. 1882. Commemorazione di Carlo Darwin. Atti della Reale accademia della scienze di Torino, vol. 18: 525-534. PDF A2538

Tschirch, A. 1882. [Obituary of Darwin with portrait].  Garten-Zeitung, vol. 1: 286-291. PDF A2614

Parker, Jeffery T. 1882. Charles Darwin. Victorian Review, vol. 6 (1 August): 387-403. PDF A2639

2021, 07.16

Beagle voyage expert Gordon Chancellor has written an important and detailed introduction to one of Darwin's most important yet least known books- The Zoology of the Beagle (1838-1843).

Gordon Chancellor, Introduction to The Zoology of the Beagle.

2021, 07.15

A newly uncovered Darwin letter:

Darwin, 1871. [Extract of a letter to Louis Bouton, (secretary of the Royal Society of arts and sciences, Mauritius) 26 October 1871]. Transactions of the Royal Society of Arts and Sciences of Mauritius, vol. 6, n.s.: 167-168. Text PDF F3347

Darwin, C. R. 1880. [Letter to A. S. Packard, 23 November 1879]. The Botanical Gazette, vol. 5, no. 2 (February): 19. Text PDF F3351

And newly recorded Darwin letters in print:

Darwin, 1884. Letters from Charles Darwin, Esq., to Albany Hancock, Esq. Communicated by John Hancock. Transactions of the Natural History Society of Northumberland, Durham, and Newcastle-upon-Tyne, vol. 8: 250-278. Text PDF F3352

Some newly recorded translations of Darwin articles:

Darwin, 1855. Werden Samen durch Seewasser getödtet? Bonplandia: Zeitschrift für die gesammte Botanik, vol. 3, no. 11 (15 June): 142-144. (German translation of F1683) PDF F3350

Darwin, C. R. 1874. Charles Darwin. Flowers of primrose destroyed by birds. Just's botanischer jahresbericht, vol. 2: 900. (German translation of F1770) PDF F3348

Darwin, 1881. [Translation of the introduction to Power of Movement in Plants]. Les mouvements des plantes: Introduction de l'ouvrage. (Translated by Dr. H. F). La Belgique Horticole, etc., vol. 31: 37-44. PDF F3353

New colour scans of one of the first biographies of Darwin, courtesy of Angus Carroll.

Woodall, E. 1884. Charles Darwin. a paper contributed to the Transactions of the Shropshire Archæological Society. Text PDF A317

2021, 07.03

A new book revealing a lost chapter of Darwin's life- full of new research and countless surprising details:

Wyhe, John van & Christine Chua. 2021. Charles Darwin: Justice of the peace. The complete records (1857-1882). PDF A2115

2021, 07.01

A newly discovered Darwin memorial/letter.

Darwin, 1879. Memorial to Elliott Coues. In J. A. Allen, Coues's bibliography of ornithology. Bulletin of the Nuttall Ornithological Club: A Quarterly Journal of Ornithology, (July), vol. 4, no. 3: 176-178. Text PDF F3345

Also a new recollection:

Ainsworth, William F. 1882. [Recollection] Mr. Darwin. Athenaeum (13 May): 604. Text PDF A2119


2021, 06.04

A newly discovered Darwin letter and a recollection of a visit to Down House.

Darwin, 1890. [Letter to John Downing, 1873, and recollections of a visit to Darwin]. Live Stock Journal. Text Image PDF F3340

Two newly recorded Darwin publications:

1885-1887. [Two letters to W. H. Fitton and Agassiz]. In Louis Agassiz. Text F3338

1889. [Letter to Richard Owen, 1848]. In Journal of the New York Microscopical Society. Text F3339


2021, 06.02

A newly uncovered Darwin manuscript:

Darwin, C. R. [1852]. [Notes on the chain for the well at Down House]. Text & image Carroll5.

A newly recorded publication communicated by Darwin:

Barber, M. E. (Mrs). 1874. Notes on the peculiar habits and changes which take place in the larva and pupa of Papilio Nireus. Communicated by Charles Darwin. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London. Text PDF A2100

2021, 05.18

A bizarre pamphlet 'refuting' Darwin's Descent of man, in a series of letters to his cat Rupert by Irish draper and quack Charles O'Shaughnessy. Transcribed and introduced by Pedro Navarro:

O'Shaughnessy, Charles. 1876. Darwin confounded. Text Image CUL-DAR132.4.

2021, 05.04

A newly recorded Darwin publication:

Darwin, 1877. Aus einem Briefe von Mr. Charles Darwin an die Redaktion. Kosmos. Text Image PDF F3333

German translations of Darwin articles in Kosmos:

Darwin, 1880. Die geschlechtlichen Faerbungen gewisser Schmetterlinge. Kosmos. PDF F1787b

Darwin, 1880. Fruchtbarkeit von Bastarden zwischen der gemeinen und chinesischen Gans. Kosmos. PDF F1786b

Darwin, 1881. Vererbung. Kosmos. Images PDF F1795b

After Darwin's death in 1882, an 1873 letter he wrote about his belief in God was widely reprinted in newspapers around the world. This is the original publication by the recipient of the letter:

Darwin, 1882. [Letter to N. D. Doedes on 2 April 1873 on Darwin's religious views]. In N. D. Doedes, Darwin's geloof aan God. De Nederlandsche Spectator. PDF F3334

See an English translation based on this:

Darwin, 1883. Rutland Daily Herald. Text F2531


2021, 05.02

A new and very detailed introduction to Darwin's Journal of researches or 'Voyage of the Beagle' by Gordon Chancellor has been added.

Introduction to Darwin's Voyage of the Beagle by Gordon Chancellor.

2021, 04.18

Darwin, 1895. [Letter to Andrew Crombie Ramsay, 10 October 1846]. In Archibald Geikie, Memoir of Andrew Crombie Ramsay, p. 85. Text PDF F3302

Darwin, 1947. [Letter to James Croll, 1868]. In H. P. Zuidema, Discovery of letters by Lyell and Darwin. Journal of Geology 55 (5): 439-445. PDF F2107

Newly transcribed recollections of Darwin

Darwin died 19 April 1882. Tributes and accolades soon poured in from all over the world. Perhaps none so personal as letters sent to the Darwin family, particularly to Francis Darwin. Francis placed notices, following his father’s death, in various newspapers and scientific journals asking for the loan of letters by Darwin, for a biography of his father. The biography is of course the Life and Letters of Charles Darwin published in 1887. The response to the notices was overwhelming. We have transcribed those with reminiscences and recollections of Darwin.

Agassiz, Alexander. 1882.06.07. [Recollection of Darwin in a letter to Francis Darwin]. Text  PDF CUL-DAR198.1.

Bates, Henry Walter. 1886.04.30. [Recollection of Darwin and Wallace’s civil list pension]. Text  PDF CUL-DAR198.11.

Cambridge, Octavius Pickard. 1882.10.02. [Recollection of Darwin in a letter to Francis Darwin]. Text PDF CUL-DAR198.31a.

Carpenter, W. B. 1882.06.13. [Recollection of Darwin in a letter to Francis Darwin]. Text PDF CUL-DAR198.33.

Downing, John. 1882.06.26. [Recollection of Darwin in a letter to Francis Darwin]. Text  PDF CUL-DAR198.60.

Du Bois-Reymond, Emil Heinrich. 1882.05.24. [Recollection of Darwin in a letter to Francis Darwin]. Text PDF CUL-DAR198.62.  

Fiske, John. 1882.07.27. [Recollection of Darwin in a lett er to Francis Darwin]. Text  PDF CUL-DAR198.71.

Galton, Francis. 1882.06.27. [Recollection of Darwin in a letter to Francis Darwin]. Text PDF CUL-DAR198.73.

Haliburton, Sarah Harriet née Mostyn Owen. 1882.11.12. [Recollection of Darwin in a letter to Francis Darwin]. Text  PDF CUL-DAR198.85.

Hooker, J. D. 1918. [Recollections of Darwin]. In L. Huxley ed., Life and letters of Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker. London: John Murray, vol. 2. Text A2094

Judd, John Wesley. 1882.06.04. [Recollection of Darwin in a letter to Francis Darwin]. Text PDF CUL-DAR198.113.  

Mengden, Nikolai von, Baron. 1882.00.00. [Recollection of Darwin in a letter to Francis Darwin]. Text PDF CUL-DAR198.139.  

Skertchly, Sydney B. J. 1882.06.08. [Recollection of Darwin in a letter to Francis Darwin]. Text PDF CUL-DAR198.191.

Sulivan, Bartholomew J. 1882.06.16. [Recollection of Darwin in a letter to Francis Darwin]. Text PDF CUL-DAR198.201.

Woodd, Charles H. L. 1882.06.21. [Recollection of Darwin in a letter to Francis Darwin]. Text PDF CUL-DAR198.222.

2021, 03.24

A newly discovered Darwin letter!

Darwin, 1848. Kent [letter on the potato disease]. Gardeners’ Chronicle, no. 30 (22 July): 491. Text PDF F1901

This Darwin letter to the Gardeners’ Chronicle had been previously overlooked. We first re-publish it here. Darwin makes reference to the spread of the infamous potato blight of 1848. There is no other reference to the blight in Darwin's surviving correspondence making this brief line particularly interesting. See the pdf for the full context in which this line by Darwin appeared.

Previously unrecorded Darwin letters in print:

1875. Mr. Thomas Carlyle. The Standard, (6 December): 5. Text PDF F2754

1887. [Letter to W. H. Dallinger, 1878]. In Dallinger, The president's address. Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society: 191-192. PDF F2760

1891. [Letter to George Bentham, 25 November 1869]. In W. T. Thiselton Dyer, The multiplication of races. Nature, vol. 43, no. 1119, (9 April): 535-536. PDF F2756

1936. [Extract of a letter to John Richardson, 24 July 1837]. Aftermath of the Beagle voyage. The Times (12 October): 10. Text F2758

1995. [Letter to Rudolph Amandus Philippi, 3 April 1882]. In Darwin en Chile (1832-1835), Viaje de un naturalista alrededor del mundo, p. 32. Text F2759

And a strange apocryhal paper- the result of a garbled press report :

Anon. 1839. [On the gradual uprising of the Earth in certain Places, by Charles Darwin.] The Literary Gazette. Text A2084


2021, 03.05

The first large Darwin manuscript that was transcribed after the Darwin Online project set up its office in Cambridge was Darwin's Beagle diary. This transcription is true to the manuscript rather than being cleaned up for publication in print and is presented side-by-side with images of the original from the 1979 Genesis facsimile.

Darwin, [Beagle diary (1831-1836)]. Transcribed by Kees Rookmaaker. Text & image EH88202366

After the launch of Darwin Online, this transcription of the Beagle diary inspired the BBC to produce an abridged (c.60 minutes) audio version as BBC Radio 4's 'Book of the Week' in 2006. This is available only on Darwin Online here.

The Beagle diary was first transcribed and published in 1933 by Darwin’s granddaughter Nora Barlow. The standard edition now with an important introduction and excellent notes was published by Richard Keynes in 1988. Both are available online only on Darwin Online here (Barlow) and here (Keynes).


2021, 03.04

In 1979 a lavish 843-page 3.4kg facsimile edition of Darwin's Beagle diary was published together with a foreword by Prince Charles, an introduction by Richard Darwin Keynes and a reproduction of the crew list of the Beagle. The edition was limited to 500 copies, each signed by Darwin's great-grandson George Pember Darwin. Today book dealers still offer a few for hundreds of pounds. Most readers will never see a copy. We here provide the introductory and editorial material.

[Keynes, R. D. ed.] 1979. The journal of a voyage in H.M.S. Beagle by Charles Darwin. PDF F1583b

2021, 02.19

A new introduction to Charles Lyell's Principles of geology (1830-1833) and its influence on Darwin's scientific thinking by Gordon Chancellor.

Gordon Chancellor, Introduction to Charles Lyell’s Principles of Geology.

2021, 02.13

In 1873, Francis Galton asked Darwin to fill in a questionnaire for a study "on the dispositions of original workers in science". Darwin answered Galton's queries in the enclosure to a letter to Galton on 28 May 1873. Darwin's answers are interesting and very revealing. Galton only printed selected parts of Darwin's responses, but anonymously, in his book English men of science, their nature and nurture in 1874. In 1924 the complete questionnaire and many letters between Darwin and Galton were published by Karl Pearson.

These additions to Darwin Online have increased the number of transcribed text pages to over 200,000.

Darwin, 1874. [Answers to personal questionnaire]. In Francis Galton, English men of science, their nature and nurture. London: Macmillan: 90, 105, 119, 130, 165, 256. Text PDF F2059

Darwin, 1924. [Correspondence with Francis Galton]. In Pearson, Karl. The life, letters and labours of Francis Galton. 3 vols, in 4. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, vol. 2: 156-202. Text PDF F2753


2021, 01.30

A collection of articles in various languages on Darwin. See for example the news report of cricket matches played on the Down House grounds in 1870, a spoof of Darwin playing draw poker and an article by Horace Darwin on the 'worm stone'. Two early biographies of Darwin have been proofread and corrected.

Whewell, William. 1838. [Extracts of the address delivered at the anniversary meeting of the Geological Society of London, etc.] Proceedings of the Geological Society, (16 February): 3-4; 6-7, 24-27. Text A2037

Anon. 1870. [Cricket matches at Down House.] Maidstone Journal and Kentish Advertiser (6 August): 2. PDF A2038

Spencer, H. 1872. The survival of the fittest. Nature 5: 263-264. PDF A2060

Anon. 1887. [Draw poker: A spoof or a forgery of words attributed to Darwin]. Los Angeles Herald (20 November): 6. PDF A2039

Anon. 1889. [Recollection of Darwin by John Lynn]. Death of the head-constable of Devonport. Western morning news (14 January): 5. PDF A2061

B. N. 1900. [On Darwin’s botanical activities]. Botanická činnost Darwinova. Praha: Matice česká při Museu Království českého, vol. 10:7: 198-201. PDF A2040

Darwin, Horace. 1901. On the small vertical movements of a stone laid on the surface of the ground. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, vol. 68: 253-61. PDF A2041

Rami, A. 1909. [Biographical sketch with portrait]. Nuori Voima (1 March), pp. 46-47. PDF A2042

Rordgaard, D. 1909. [Centenary with portrait]. Trondhjems Adresseavis (11 February): 1. PDF A2043

Anon. 1909. [Centenary with portrait]. Landsbladet (12 February): 1. PDF A2044

Anon. 1942. Darwin manuscripts and letters. Nature, no. 3810 (7 November): 535. PDF A2045

Early biographies of Darwin

Holder, Charles Frederick. 1892. Charles Darwin: his life and work. Text Image PDF A268

Woodall, Edward. 1884. Charles Darwin. a paper contributed to the Transactions of the Shropshire Archæological Society. Text Image PDF A317

Printed letters

Darwin, 1897. [Two letters to Gustav Jäger]. In Schlichter, H. G. edited and translated, Problems of Nature, etc. Text PDF F2752


2021, 01.24

Family Letters  

Darwin, Emma. [1879.28.06]. [Letter to Francis Darwin] Text CUL-DAR211.93

Darwin, Leonard. 1906.03.30. Letter to Bernard Darwin. Text CUL-DAR211.95

Darwin reading notes (abstracts):

Darwin, [1842]. [Abstract of J. F. Royle, Illustrations of the botany of the Himalayan Mountains, 1839]. Text CUL-DAR71.20-25

Darwin, [1844]. [Abstract of L. Lloyd, Field sports of the north of Europe, 1842, vol. 1]. Text CUL-DAR71.80-81

Darwin, [1847]. [Abstract of E. T. Bennett, The natural history and antiquities of Selborne, 1837, by Gilbert White]. Text CUL-DAR71.29-30

Darwin, [1847]. [Abstract of J. J. von Tschudi, Travels in Peru during the years 1838-1842]. Text CUL-DAR71.66-67

Darwin, [1849]. [Abstract of J. D. Dana, Geology of the U.S exploring expedition, 1849, vol 10]. Text CUL-DAR71.51-52

Darwin, [1852 or after]. [Abstract of R. Knox, Great artists and great anatomists, 1852]. Text CUL-DAR71.60-61

American editions

Darwin, 1846. Journal of researches into the natural history and geology of the various countries visited by H.M.S. Beagle etc. New York: Harper and Brothers. PDF F16

Darwin, 1889. The structure and distribution of coral reefs. 3d edition. New York: D. Appleton.  PDF F278

Darwin, 1891. Volcanic islands and South America. 3d edition. New York: D. Appleton. PDF F283

Darwin Centenary

Kraemer, Henry. 1909. The centenary of Charles Darwin. American Journal of Pharmacy, vol. 81 (April): 196-99. PDF A2033 

Harshberger, John W. 1909. Charles Darwin, as a botanist. American Journal of Pharmacy, vol. 81 (July): 342-51. PDF A2034

Power, F. B. 1909. Biographical sketch of Charles Darwin and the Darwin Commemoration at Cambridge. American Journal of Pharmacy, vol. 81 (November): 511-22. PDF A2035 

2020, 12.21

Online for the first time today, the foreword, introduction, maps, chronological register and a list of Darwin's equipment during the voyage of the Beagle, 78 pages in all, from:

Gordon Chancellor & John van Wyhe eds. with assistance from Kees Rookmaaker. 2009. Charles Darwin's notebooks from the voyage of the Beagle. With a foreword by Richard Darwin Keynes. PDF F2044

2020, 12.11

Charles and Emma Darwin were passionate about preventing animal suffering. In 1863 they jointly wrote a privately printed pamphlet, 'An appeal' against steel vermin traps. Darwin also published the text in the Gardener's Chronicle. Emma Darwin published it in the local newspaper, The Bromley Record, now added to Darwin Online. During the heated debates over vivisection (or operating on live animals) in the 1870s, she wrote a letter about animal cruelty to the editor of The Spectator, also added today.

Darwin, Emma. 1863. [An appeal]. The Bromley Record, (1 September): 168. PDF A2031

Darwin, Emma. 1877. Vivisection and cruelty. To the editor of the "Spectator". The Spectator, (6 January): 15. Text A2030

2020, 12.04

A great deal has been written about Charles Darwin and Karl Marx. Here are the first publications containing two letters by Darwin relevant to that convoluted story. The 1931 publication initiated the long-standing myth that Darwin had declined to have Marx's Das Kapital dedicated to him.

Darwin, 1897. [Letter to Karl Marx and recollection of Darwin by Aveling]. In E. B. Aveling, Charles Darwin and Karl Marx: a comparison. Text PDF F2565

Darwin, 1931. [Letter purported to be to Karl Marx but in fact to E. B. Aveling.] Pod Znamenem Marxizma [Под зна́менем маркси́зма]. [In Russian]. Text PDF F2566

2020, 11.29

Some more of Darwin's scientific reading notes have been transcribed and published for the first time.

[1844]. [Abstract of W. Scrope, The art of deer-stalking, 1839]. Text & image CUL-DAR71.70-73

[1847]. [Abstract of Prichard, Researches into the physical history of mankind, 1836]. Text & image CUL-DAR71.139-142

[On shells and plant migration]. Text & image CUL-DAR205.2.53

2020, 11.23

Today we are delighted to launch an extraordinary collection of scans (all transcribed here) of rare and important Darwin manuscripts from a private collection in the USA including notes on ants for the Origin of species, draft leaves of the Origin of species, Descent of man and Expression of the emotions. There is also the letter in which Darwin nervously presents Adam Sedgwick a copy of the Origin of species, a letter to T.H. Huxley about pigeons in preparation for his Royal Institution lecture, and a letter to Asa Gray on Variation. There is also the original receipt from Darwin's publisher for Descent of man- for £630.

Darwin, [c. 1858]. [Reading notes on Huber's Recherches sur les Moeurs des Fourmis Indigènes [Researches on the Habits of Indigenous Ants] (1810)]. Text & image PC-USA-OriginAnts

Darwin, 1858. [Draft leaf of Origin of species]. Text & image PC-USA-OriginMS270

Darwin, 1858-59. [Draft leaf of Origin of species]. Text & image PC-USA-OriginMS324

Darwin, 1859.11.11. [Letter to Adam Sedgwick on sending Origin of species]. Text & image PC-USA-SedgwickOrigin

Darwin, [1859].12.24. [Letter to T. H. Huxley on a manuscript on the evolution of pigeons]. Text & image PC-USA-HuxleyPigeons

Darwin, 1870. [Draft leaf of Descent of man]. Text & image PC-USA-DescentMS10

Darwin, 1871. [Receipt for Murray's payment for Descent of man]. Text & image PC-USA-DescentReceipt

Darwin, 1871. [Draft leaf of Expression]. Text & image CUL-DAR185.143

Darwin, 1871. [Draft leaf of Expression]. Text & image CUL-DAR185.144

Darwin, 1868.02.09. [Letter to Asa Gray on Variation]. Text & image PC-USA-GrayVariation


For previous entries see the History of Darwin Online page.


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